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# Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol.

4, 2014 4

## Neutrosophic Closed Set and Neutrosophic Continuous

Functions
A. A. Salama1, Florentin Smarandache2 and Valeri Kromov3
1
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Sciences, Port Said University, 23 December Street, Port Said 42522, Egypt.
Email:drsalama44@gmail.com
2
Department of Mathematics, University of New Mexico Gallup, NM, USA. Email: smarand@unm.edu
3Okayama University of Science, Okayama, Japan.

Abstract
In this paper, we introduce and study the concept of "neutrosophic closed set "and "neutrosophic continuous function". Possible ap-
plication to GIS topology rules are touched upon.

Keywords: Neutrosophic Closed Set, Neutrosophic Set; Neutrosophic Topology; Neutrosophic Continuous Function.

1 INTRODUCTION
In this case the pair X , is called a neutrosophic
The idea of "neutrosophic set" was first given by topological space ( NTS for short) and any neutrosophic
set in is known as neuterosophic open set ( NOS for
Smarandache [11, 12]. Neutrosophic operations have been
short) in X . The elements of are called open
investigated by Salama at el. [1-10]. Neutrosophy has laid neutrosophic sets, A neutrosophic set F is closed if and
the foundation for a whole family of new mathematical only if it C (F) is neutrosophic open.
theories, generalizing both their crisp and fuzzy 2.1 Definition [5]
counterparts [9, 13]. Here we shall present the The complement of (C (A) for short) of is called a neutro-
sophic closed set ( for short) in A . NOSA NCS X.
neutrosophic crisp version of these concepts. In this paper,
we introduce and study the concept of "neutrosophic closed set 3 Neutrosophic Closed Set .
3.1 Definition
"and "neutrosophic continuous function".
Let X , be a neutrosophic topological space. A
neutrosophic set A in X , is said to be neutrosophic
2 TERMINOLOGIES
closed (in shortly N-closed).
If Ncl (A) G whenever A G and G is neutrosophic
We recollect some relevant basic preliminaries, and in
open; the complement of neutrosophic closed set is
particular the work of Smarandache in [11, 12], and Neutrosophic open.
Salama at el. [1-10]. 3.1 Proposition
If A and B are neutrosophic closed sets then AB is
2.1 Definition [5] Neutrosophic closed set.
A neutrosophic topology (NT for short) an a non empty
set X is a family of neutrosophic subsets in X satisfy- 3.1 Remark
ing the following axioms The intersection of two neutrosophic closed (N-closed
NT1 ON ,1N , for short) sets need not be neutrosophic closed set.
NT 2 G1 G 2 for any G ,G , 1 2
3.1 Example
NT3 G i G i : i J Let = {a, b, c} and
A.A. Salama, Florentin Smarandache and Valeri Kroumov, Neutrosophic Closed Set and Neutrosophic Continuous Functions
5 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 4, 2014

## A = <(0.5,0.5,0.5) , (0.4,0.5,0.5) , (0.4,0.5,0.5)> 4.1 Definition

B = <(0.3,0.4,0.4) , (0.7,0.5,0.5) , (0.3,0.4,0.4)> i) If B B , B , B is a NS in Y, then the preimage of B
Then = { 0N ,1N , A, B} is a neutrosophic topology on . under f , denoted by f 1 ( B), is a NS in X defined by
Define the two neutrosophic sets A1 and A2 as follows, f 1 ( B) f 1 ( B ), f 1 ( B ), f 1 ( ) .
A1 = <(0.5,0.5,0.5),(0.6,0.5,0.5),(0.6,0.5,0.5)>
A2 = <(0.7,0.6,0.6((0.3,0.5,0.5),(0.7,0.6,0.6)> ii) If A A , A , A is a NS in X, then the image of A
A1 and A2 are neutrosophic closed set but A1 A2 is under f , denoted by f (A), is the a NS in Y defined by
not a neutrosophic closed set. f ( A) f ( A ), f ( A ), f ( A )c ) .
3.2 Proposition
Let X , be a neutrosophic topological space. If B is Here we introduce the properties of images and
neutrosophic closed set and B A Ncl (B), then A is preimages some of which we shall frequently use in the
N-closed. following sections .

## 3.4 Proposition 4.1 Corollary

In a neutrosophic topological space (,), = (the Let A, Ai : i J , be NSs in X, and
family of all neutrosophic closed sets) iff every
neutrosophic subset of (,) is a neutrosophic closed set.

B, B j : j K NS in Y, and f : X Y a
function. Then
Proof. (a) A1 A2 f ( A1) f ( A2 ),
suppose that every neutrosophic set A of (,) is N- B1 B2 f 1( B1) f 1( B2 ),
closed. Let A, since A A and A is N-closed, Ncl (A)
A. But A Ncl (A). Hence, Ncl (A) =A. thus, A . (b) A f 1( f ( A)) and if f is injective, then
Therefore, T . If B then 1-B . and hence A f 1( f ( A) ) .
B, That is, . Therefore = conversely, suppose
that A be a neutrosophic set in (,). Let B be a (c) f 1( f ( B)) B and if f is surjective, then
neutrosophic open set in (,). such that A B. By f 1
( f ( B ) ) B, .
hypothesis, B is neutrosophic N-closed. By definition of
1
neutrosophic closure, Ncl (A) B. Therefore A is N- (d) f 1 ( Bi ) ) f 1 ( Bi ), f ( Bi ) ) f 1( Bi ),
closed. (e) f ( Ai ) f ( Ai ); f ( Ai ) f ( Ai ); and if f is injective,
3.5 Proposition then f ( Ai ) f ( Ai );
Let (,) be a neutrosophic topological space. A (f) f 1(!N ) 1N f 1 (0 N ) 0 N .
neutrosophic set A is neutrosophic open iff B Nnt (A),
whenever B is neutrosophic closed and B A. (g) f (0 N ) 0 N , f (1N ) 1N if f is subjective.
Proof
Let A a neutrosophic open set and B be a N-closed, such Proof
that B A. Now, B A 1A 1B and 1A is a Obvious.
neutrosophic closed set Ncl (1A) 1B. That is,
B=1(1B) 1Ncl (1A). But 1Ncl (1A) = Nint (A). 4.2 Definition
Thus, B Nint (A). Conversely, suppose that A be a Let X , 1 and Y , 2 be two NTSs, and let
neutrosophic set, such that B Nint (A) whenever B is f : X Y be a function. Then f is said to be continuous
neutrosophic closed and B A. Let 1A B 1B A. iff the preimage of each NCS in 2 is a NS in 1 .
Hence by assumption 1B Nint (A). that is, 1Nint (A)
B. But 1Nint (A) =Ncl (1A). Hence Ncl(1A) B. 4.3 Definition
That is 1A is neutrosophic closed set. Therefore, A is Let X , 1 and Y , 2 be two NTSs and let
neutrosophic open set f : X Y be a function. Then f is said to be open iff the
image of each NS in 1 is a NS in 2 .
3.6 Proposition
If Nint (A) B A and if A is neutrosophic open set then 4.1 Example
B is also neutrosophic open set. Let X , o and Y , o be two NTSs
(a) If f : X Y is continuous in the usual sense, then in
this case, f is continuous in the sense of Definition 5.1
4 Neutrosophic Continuous Functions too. Here we consider the NTs on X and Y, respectively,
as follows : 1 G ,0, G
c
: G o and
A.A. Salama, Florentin Smarandache and Valeri Kroumov, Neutrosophic Closed Set and Neutrosophic Continuous Functions
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 4, 2014 6

2 H ,0, Hc

: H o , (F) A map :(,)(,S) is said to be perfectly N-
In this case we have, for each H ,0, H c
2 , continuous if the inverse image of every Neutrosophic
H o , open set in (,S) is both neutrosophic open and
f 1 H ,0, H
c
f 1 ( H ), f 1 (0), f 1 ( H
c
) neutrosophic closed in (,).
1
f H , f (0), ( f ( ) 1 .
c

## (b) If f : X Y is neutrosophic open in the usual

sense, then in this case, f is neutrosophic open 4.3 Proposition
in the sense of Definition 3.2. Let (,) and (,S) be any two neutrosophic topological
Now we obtain some characterizations of spaces. Let : (,) (,S) be generalized neutrosophic
neutrosophic continuity: continuous. Then for every neutrosophic set A in ,
(Ncl(A)) Ncl((A)).
4.1 Proposition
Let f : ( X , 1 ) (Y , 2 ) . 4.4 Proposition
Let (,) and (,S) be any two neutrosophic topological
f is neutrosop continuous iff the preimage of each NS spaces. Let : (,) (,S) be generalized neutrosophic
(neutrosophic closed set) in 2 is a NS in 2 . continuous. Then for every neutrosophic set A in ,
Ncl(1(A)) 1(Ncl(A)).
4.2 Proposition
The following are equivalent to each other: 4.5 Proposition
(a) f : ( X , 1 ) (Y , 2 ) is neutrosophic Let (,) and (,S) be any two neutrosophic topological
continuous . spaces. If A is a Neutrosophic closedset in (,) and if :
(b) f 1 ( NInt( B) NInt( f 1 ( B)) for each CNS B (,) (,S) is neutrosophic continuous and
in Y. neutrosophic-closed then (A) is Neutrosophic closedin
(c) NCl( f 1 ( B)) f 1 ( NCl( B)) for each NCB in (,S).
Y.
Proof.
4.2 Example Let G be a neutrosophic-open in (,S). If (A) G, then
Let Y , 2 be a NTS and f : X Y be a function. In A 1(G) in (,). Since A is neutrosophic closedand

this case 1 f 1 ( H ) : H 2 is a NT on X. Indeed, it 1(G) is neutrosophic open in (,), Ncl(A) 1(G),
(i.e) (Ncl(A)G. Now by assumption, (Ncl(A)) is
is the coarsest NT on X which makes the function
f : X Y continuous. One may call it the initial neutrosophic closed and Ncl((A)) Ncl((Ncl(A))) =
neutrosophic crisp topology with respect to f . (Ncl(A)) G. Hence, (A) is N-closed.

4.5 Proposition
4.4 Definition Let (,) and (,S) be any two neutrosophic topological
Let (,) and (,S) be two neutrosophic topological space, spaces, If : (,) (,S) is neutrosophic continuous
then then it is N-continuous.
(a) A map : (,) (,S) is called N-continuous (in The converse of proposition 4.5 need not be true. See
short N-continuous) if the inverse image of every closed Example 4.3.
set in (,S) is Neutrosophic closedin (,).
(b) A map :(,) (,S) is called neutrosophic-gc 4.3 Example
irresolute if the inverse image of every Neutrosophic Let =a,b,c and =a,b,c. Define neutrosophic sets A
closedset in (,S) is Neutrosophic closedin (,). and B as follows A = 0.4,0.4,0. 5 , 0.2,0.4,0. 3 , (0.4,0.4,0 .5)
Equivalently if the inverse image of every Neutrosophic B = 0.4,0.5,0.6 , 0.3,0.2,0. 3 , 0.4,0.5,0. 6
open set in (,S) is Neutrosophic open in (,). Then the family = 0N, 1N, A is a neutrosophic topology
(c) A map :(,) (,S) is said to be strongly on and S = 0N, 1N, B is a neutrosophic topology on
neutrosophic continuous if 1(A) is both neutrosophic . Thus (,) and (,S) are neutrosophic topological
open and neutrosophic closed in (,) for each spaces. Define : (,) (,S) as (a) = b , (b) = a, (c)
neutrosophic set A in (,S). = c. Clearly f is N-continuous. Now is not neutrosophic
(d) A map : (,) (,S) is said to be perfectly continuous, since 1(B) for B S.
neutrosophic continuous if 1 (A) is both neutrosophic
open and neutrosophic closed in (,) for each
neutrosophic open set A in (,S). 4.4 Example
(e) A map :(,)(,S) is said to be strongly N- Let = a,b,c. Define the neutrosophic sets A and B as
continuous if the inverse image of every Neutrosophic follows.
open set in (,S) is neutrosophic open in (,). A = 0.4,0.5,0.4 , 0.5,0.5,0. 5 , 0.4,0.5,0.4
A.A. Salama, Florentin Smarandache and Valeri Kroumov, Neutrosophic Closed Set and Neutrosophic Continuous Functions
7 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 4, 2014

## B = 0.7,0.6,0.5 , 0.3,0.4,0. 5 , 0.3,0.4,0. 5 4.8 Proposition

and C = 0.5,0.5,0.5 , 0.4,0.5,0. 5 , 0.5,0.5,0. 5 Let (,) and (,S) be any neutrosophic topological
= 0N, 1N, A ,B spaces. If : (,) (,S) is strongly neutrosophic
and S = 0N, 1N, C are neutrosophic topologies on . continuous then is strongly N-continuous.
Thus (,) and (,S) are neutrosophic topological spaces. The converse of proposition 3.23 is not true. See
Define : (,) (,S) as follows (a) = b, (b) = b, (c) Example 4.7
= c. Clearly is N-continuous. Since 4.7 Example
D = 0.6,0.6,0.7 , (0.4,0.4,0 .3) , (0.6,0.6,0 .7) Let = a,b,c and Define the neutrosophic sets A and B
is neutrosophic open in (,S), 1(D) is not neutrosophic as follows.
open in (,). A = (0.9,0.9,0 .9) , (0.1,0.1,0 .1) , (0.9,0.9,0 .9)
4.6 Proposition B = (0.99,0.99 ,0.99) , (0.01,0,0) , (0.99,0.99 ,0.99)
Let (,) and (,S) be any two neutrosophic topological and C = (0.9,0.9,0 .9) , (0.1,0.1,0 .05) , (0.9,0.9,0 .9)
space. If : (,) (,S) is strongly N-continuous then = 0N, 1N, A ,B and S = 0N, 1N, C are neutrosophic
is neutrosophic continuous. topologies on . Thus (,) and (,S) are neutrosophic
The converse of Proposition 3.19 is not true. See topological spaces. Also define : (,) (,S) as
Example 3.3 follows: (a) = a, (b) = (c) = b. Clearly is strongly N-
continuous. But is not strongly neutrosophic continuous.
4.5 Example Since
Let =a,b,c. Define the neutrosophic sets A and B D = (0.9,0.9,0.9) , (0.1,0.1,0 ) , (0.9,0.9,0 .9)
as follows. be a neutrosophic set in (,S), 1(D) is neutrosophic open
A = (0.9,0.9,0 .9) , (0.1,0.1,0 .1) , (0.9,0.9,0 .9) and not neutrosophic closed in (,).
B = (0.9,0.9,0 .9) , (0.1,0.1,0 ) , (0.9,0.1,0 .8)
and C = (0.9,0.9,0 .9) , (0.1,0,0.1 ) , (0.9,0.9,0 .9) 4.9 Proposition
= 0N, 1N, A ,B and S = 0N, 1N, C are neutrosophic Let (,),(,S) and (,R) be any three neutrosophic
topologies on . Thus (,) and (,S) are neutrosophic topological spaces. Suppose : (,) (,S), g : (,S)
topological spaces. Also define :(,) (,S) as follows (,R) be maps. Assume is neutrosophic gc-irresolute
(a) = a, (b) = c, (c) = b. Clearly is neutrosophic and g is N-continuous then g is N-continuous.
continuous. But is not strongly N-continuous. Since
D = 0.9,0.9,0.99 , (0.05,0,0. 01) , (0.9,0.9,0 .99) 4.10 Proposition
Is an Neutrosophic open set in (,S), 1(D) is not Let (,), (,S) and (,R) be any three neutrosophic
neutrosophic open in (,). topological spaces. Let : (,) (,S), g : (,S)
(,R) be map, such that is strongly N-continuous and g
4.7 Proposition is N-continuous. Then the composition g is
Let (,) and (, S) be any two neutrosophic topological neutrosophic continuous.
spaces. If : (,) (,S) is perfectly N-continuous then
is strongly N-continuous. 4.5 Definition
The converse of Proposition 4.7 is not true. See A neutrosophic topological space (,) is said to be
Example 4.6 neutrosophic 1/2 if every Neutrosophic closed set in (,)
is neutrosophic closed in (,).
4.6 Example 4.11 Proposition
Let = a,b,c. Define the neutrosophic sets A and B as Let (,),(,S) and (,R) be any neutrosophic
follows. topological spaces. Let : (,) (,S) and g : (,S)
A = (0.9,0.9,0 .9) , (0.1,0.1,0 .1) , (0.9,0.9,0 .9) (,R) be mapping and (,S) be neutrosophic 1/2 if
B = (0.99,0.99 ,0.99) , (0.01,0,0) , (0.99,0.99 ,0.99) and g are N-continuous then the composition g is N-
And C = (0.9,0.9,0 .9) , (0.1,0.1,0 .05) , (0.9,0.9,0 .9) continuous.
= 0N, 1N, A ,B and S = 0N ,1N, C are neutrosophic The proposition 4.11 is not valid if (,S) is not
topologies space on . Thus (,) and (,S) are neutrosophic 1/2.
neutrosophic topological spaces. Also define : (,)
(,S) as follows (a) = a, (b) = (c) = b. Clearly is 4.8 Example
strongly N-continuous. But is not perfectly N Let = a,b,c. Define the neutrosophic sets A,B and
continuous. Since D = (0.9,0.9,0.9) , (0.1,0.1,0 ) , (0.9,0.9,0 .9) C as follows.
Is an Neutrosophic open set in (,S), 1(D) is A = (0.4,0.4,0 .6) , (0.4,0.4,0 .3)
neutrosophic open and not neutrosophic closed in (,). B = (0.4,0.5,0 .6) , (0.3,0.4,0 .3)
and C = (0.4,0.6,0 .5) , (0.5,0.3,0 .4)

A.A. Salama, Florentin Smarandache and Valeri Kroumov, Neutrosophic Closed Set and Neutrosophic Continuous Functions
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 4, 2014 8

Then the family = 0N, 1N, A, S = 0N, 1N, B and R = Rehoboth, NM, (1999).
0N, 1N, C are neutrosophic topologies on . Thus [13] L.A. Zadeh, Fuzzy Sets, Inform and Control 8, (1965)
(,),(,S) and (,R) are neutrosophic topological spaces. 338-353.
Also define : (,) (,S) as (a) = b, (b) = a, (c) =
c and g : (,S) (,R) as g(a) = b, g(b) = c, g(c) = b.
Received: June 29, 2014. Accepted: July 6, 2014.
Clearly and g are N-continuous function. But g is not
N-continuous. For 1 C is neutrosophic closed in (,R).
1(g1(1C)) is not N closed in (,). g is not N-
continuous.

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A.A. Salama, Florentin Smarandache and Valeri Kroumov, Neutrosophic Closed Set and Neutrosophic Continuous Functions