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Health – state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not
merely the absence of disease or infirmity. (WHO, 1947)
Wellness – state of well-being. It means engaging in attitudes and behaviors that
enhance quality of life and maximize personal potential. (Anspaugh et al, 1991)
Well Being- is a subjective perception of balance, harmony, and vitality
Models of Health Illness:
a. Health-Illness Continuum – degree of client wellness that exists at any
point in time, ranging from an optimal wellness condition, with available
energy at its maximum, to death which represents total energy
- describes the interaction of the environment with well being
and illness.

Premature High
Death Wellness Model Level
Signs Awareness Wellness
Symptoms Education Growth

Neutral Point
(No discernible illness or wellness)

Illness – Wellness Continuum

Precursor of Illness:
a. Heredity
b. Behavioral Factors
c. Environmental Factors
b. High-Level Wellness Model (Halbert Dunn) – it is oriented toward
maximizing the health potential of an individual. This model requires
the individual to maintain a continuum of balance and purposeful
direction within the environment.
- This concept connotes ability to perform ADL or to function

Health axis and environmental axis intersect forming four quadrants

1.high-level wellness in favourable environment
ex. Person who implement healthy lifestyle and has complete resources to
support his lifestyle
2.emergent-high level wellness in unfavourable environment
ex. Personwho has knowledge to implement healthy lifestyle but does not
implement adequate self-care because of some family responsibility
3.protected poor health in favourableenvironment
ex. Ill person whose needs are met by the health care system
4.poor health in an unfavourableenvironment
ex. Young child who is starving in a drought stricken count

c. Agent-Host-Environment Model (Leavell) – the level of health of an

individual or group depends on the dynamic relationship of the agent,
host and environment.
- It is also called ecologic agent, used in predicting illness rather
than promoting wellness
- It hs three (3) interactive elements
1. Agent – any internal or external factor that cause disease or illness
2. Host – the persons or persons who may be susceptible to a particular
illness or disease
3. Environment – consists of all factors outside the host.

- Each factor constantly interacts with each other, when in balance

health is maintained, when not in balance, disease occurs.

d. Health-Belief Model – addresses the relationship between a person’s

belief and behaviors. It provides a way of understanding and predicting
how clients will behave in relation to their health and how they will
comply with health care therapies.
e. Health Promotion Model – “a complimentary counterpart models of
health protection.” Directed at increasing a client’s level of well being.
- describes the multi-dimensional nature of persons as they interact
within the environment to pursue health.
- Main Focus:
o Individual Perception (clients cognitive perceptual factors)
o Modifying Factors (demographic and social factors
o Participation in Health – promoting bahaviors (likelihood of
f. Smith’s models of health and illness – discussess four models of health
i. clinical model
a. narrowest interpretation; medically-oriented model
1. health is seen as freedom from disease
2. illness is seen as the presence of disease
ii. role performance model
a. ability to perform work, that is fulfill societal roles, essential to the
model; assumption of the model is that a person’s most important
role is their work role
1. health is seen as the ability to fulfill societal roles
2. illness is seen as the inability to fulfill societal roles
iii. adaptive model
a. ability to adapt to the environment and interact with it to maximum
advantage essential to the model
1. health is seen as adaptation
2. illness is seen as a failure of adaptation, or maladaptation
iv. eudaemonistic model
a. most comprehensive, holistic, view of health; ability to become self-
actualized essential to the model
1. health is actualization or realization of one’s potential
2. illness is seen as the failure to actualize or realize one’s

Illness – a highly personal state in which the person feels unhealthy or ill. Illness
may or may not be related to a disease.
Stages of Illness
a. Symptom Experience
b. Assumption of Sick Role
c. Medical Care Contact
d. Dependent Patient Role
e. Recovery/Rehabilitation

Disease – term that can be described as an alteration in body functions resulting

in a reduction of capacities or a shortening of the normal life span.
Etiology – causation of disease
Risk Factors- is any situation, habit, social or environmental condition,
physiological or psychological condition, developmental or intellectual condition
or spiritual or other variable that increases the vulnerability of an individual or
group to an illness or accident.
Risk Factors of a Disease:
-Genetic or Physiological Factor -Lifestyle

According to Duration or Onset:

Acute Illness – characterized by severe symptoms of relatively short
Chronic Illness – lasts for an extended period of time, usually 6 months or
longer, and often for the person’s life.
Remission – when symptoms disappear
Exacerbation – symptoms reappear

Leavell and Clark’s Three Levels of Prevention:

a. Primary Prevention
-health promotion
-specific protection
b. Secondary Prevention
-early diagnosis/detection/screening
-prompt treatment to limit disability
c. Tertiary Prevention

Activities to Promote Health and Prevent Illness:

• Have a regular(yearly) physical examination
• Women: Regular Pap Smear, Monthly BSE
• Men: Regular testicular examination
• Annual dental examination and prophylaxis
• Regular eye exam (every 1-2 years)
• Exercise regularly at least 3x a week for 30 mins
• Do not smoke, avoid second hand smoke
• Avoid alcohol and recreational drugs
• Reduce fat and increase fiber in diet
• Sleep regularly 7-8 hours/ night
• Eat breakfast
• Eat regular meals with few snacks
• Maintain ideal body weight

Methods of Organizing Client Care

1. Case Method
 Assignment of clients to a nurse for a specific period of time
 One nurse is assigned to give comprehensive total care to a single
client while on duty.
2. Functional Method
 Assignment of selected functions or tasks for a particular period of
time on several patients.
3. Team Nursing
 Accommodating several categories of nursing personnel in meeting
the comprehensive, individualized needs of patients. Usually the
professional nurse provides the leadership to the group of
caregivers in planning the care of patients.
4. Primary Nursing
 Nursing care directed by a nurse on a 24-hour basis.