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Popular Electronics


For Home Safety: A Toxic Gas Alarm

For Realistic Music: An Audio Peak Extende r
For Better Circuits: VMOS Power Devices

Nerv Ways to Use 8080 Microprocessors

Tested in this Issue:

o Beogram 8000 Turntable
Ti Apple II Plus Personal Computer
140 4278
Reddy Chirra improves his vision with
an Apple.
Reddy is an optical engineer who's
used to working for big companies and using big
But when he started his own consulting
business, he soon learned how costly mainframe
time can be. So he bought himself a 48K Apple II
Personal Computer.
And, like thousands of other engineers
and scientists, quickly learned the pleasures of
cutting down on shared time and having his
own tamper-proof data base.
His Apple can handle
formulas with up to 80 vari-
ables and test parameters on
250 different optical glasses.
He can even use BASIC, FORTRAN,
Pascal and Assembly languages.
And Apple's HI-RES graphics come in
handy for design.
Reddy looked at other microcomputers, but
chose Apple for its in-depth documentation,
reliability and expandability.
You can get up to 64K RAM in an Apple II.
Up to 128K RAM in our new Apple III. And
there's a whole family of compatible peripherals,
including an IEEE-488 bus for laboratory
instrument control.
Visit your authorized Apple dealer to find
out how far an Apple can go with scientific/
technical applications.
It'll cange the way you see things.

The personal computer.'apple

For the authorized dealer nearest you, call (800) 538 -9696. In California, call 1800) 662 -9238. Or write: Apple Computer Inc., 10260 Bandley Dr., Cupertino, CA 95014-



Project Popular Electronics

Your Feature Articles

Stereo DESIGNING WITH THE 8080 PROCESSOR Randy Carlstrom

Part l The Basic System


How it can be used to simplify circuits and reduce cost
Tips on materials, tools, and techniques
Permits easy machine -language input to an 1802 -based system
1110116. Construction Articles
Extends compressed peaks in recorded music.
Sutton 75
he S(:-2... stylus
Cam SY11M:m
Detects low concentrations of dangerous air pollutants
SINGLE-LED ANALOG METER /David Leithauser 81
Complete LED changes "color" with input voltage.

Equipment Reviews
Video Accessories from the Camera Store
COMPUTER BITS /Carl Warren 45
High -End Systems (for Low-End Buyers).
COMPUTER SOURCES Leslie Solomon 47
and Maintain HOBBY SCENE 'John J. McVeigh
Its Sound
The Billion Transistor Chip?
Experimenting with an Air Pressure Switch.

DX LISTENING /Glenn Hauser 96
Strikes Disrupt International Broadcasting
PROJECT OF THE MONTH /Forrest M. Mims 104
Precision CMOS Clock Generator

EDITORIAL /Art Salsberg 4
For a free copy of our Guide to COVER PHOTO BY FRED BURRELL Copyright m 1981
Record Care write to Discwasher COPYRIGHT c 1981 BY ZIFF.DAVIS PUBLISHING COMPANY. All rights reserved. Popular Electronics (ISSN 00324185) Septem.
ber 1981, Volume 19, Number 9. Published monthly by Zif.Davie Publishing Co.. at One Park Ave., New York. NV 10016. Richard
P. Friese. President; Selwyn Taubman, Treasurer. Bertram A. Abrams, Secretary. One year subscription rate for U.S. and Posses-

sions, $15.00; Canada, 520 00. all other countries. 523.00 (cash orders only. payable n U.S. currency). Second Class Postage
Paid at New York, N.Y. 10016 and at additional mailing offices. Authorized as second class mail by the Post Office Dept.. Ottawa.
Canada. and for payment of postage in cash POPULAR ELECTRONICS including ELECTRONICS WORLD. Trade Mark Registered.
Indexed in the Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature. ZiM -Davie also publishes Boating. Car and Driver. Cycle. Flying, Popular
1407 North Providence Road. Photography, Skiing. Stereo Review. Electronic Experimenter's Handbook, and Tape Recording & Buying Guide Forme 3579 and
Columbia. MO 65201 USA all Subscription Correspondence: POPULAR ELECTRONICS. Crculehon Dept. P.O. Boa 2774. Boulder. CO 80302 Please allow
at least eight weeks for change of address. enclosing. if possible, an address label front a recent issue Permissions. Material in
A DIVISION OF JENSEN an ESMARK Company this publication may not be reproduced in any form without permission. Requests for permission should be directed to John Bab
cock. Rights and Permissions. Zitt-Dews Publishing Co One Perk Ave.. New York, NY 10016.


"My computer helped me write
The Final Encyclopedia. I wouldn't trust
anything less than Scotch Brand Diskettes
to make a long story short:'
Gordon R. Dickson,
Science Fiction Author,
Minneapolis, Minnesota
Gordon Dickson: a small business-
man whose product is his own
imagination. He's written more than
40 novels and 150 short stories;
his newest work is The Final
Encyclopedia. He uses his personal
computer and word processing
software to maximize his production.
All his words -his product -
are stored on diskettes. He calls up
sentences and paragraphs on
demand, and gets more rewrite out
of the time available. So he depends
on Scotch diskettes to save himself
production time.
Dependable Scotch media can
work just as hard for you. Each
Scotch diskette is tested before it
leaves our factory, and certified
error -free. So you can expect it to
perform exactly right.
Scotch 8" and 51/4" diskettes are
compatible with computer /diskette
systems like TRS -80, Apple, PET,
Wang and many others. Get them
from your local 3M distributor. For
the one nearest you, call toll -free:
800/328 -1300. (In Minnesota, call
collect: 612/736- 9625.) Ask for the
Data Recording Products Division.
In Canada, contact 3M Canada,
Inc., Ontario.
If it's worth remembering,
it's worth Scotch
Data Recording Products.

C art by Michael Whea :n. c rtesy olAce Publishing Co.

3M Hears You...

3M 3


". . an essential outcome of con-

tion. Much of the equipment bought then professor at the Massachusetts Institute
temporary education is computer litera- now gathers dust in storerooms. We of Technology, proposes that a child en-
cy."- Mathematics Teacher, May '78. cannot allow this to happen again, of tering school be issued a microcomput-
More than three years after the above course. Nonetheless, to prepare stu- er for school and home use. Nice
statement was published, the outcome dents today for the computerized socie- thought, but in an age where even pen-
is not as positive as one might wish, ty they will face in the future will doubt- cils are at a premium, this is unlikely to
though some progress has been made lessly require governmental assistance. happen. He also observes that comput-
toward the goal. Attitudinally, few Along these lines, there have been er teaching to date has been unimagina-
people today seriously question the bills in Congress to establish a national tive and simply mimics traditionally defi-
need for computer literacy in the upcom- commission to study information tech- cient teaching methods. He points out a
ing generation of adults in the U.S. And nology, another to amend Title Ill of the more innovative method used by the MIT
more and more computers are being pur- Elementary and Secondary Education Children's Learning Lab. Here a child is
chased by educational institutions for Act of 1965 to establish a National Cen- taught a computer language, LOGO,
student -related activities as well as for ter for Personal Computers in Education, with which he interacts to solve a math
nonteaching purposes. But only 15 per- and a bill to be reintroduced for federal problem or learn a new word.
cent of all U.S. public schools use com- funds to establish an information clear- So the problems of adding a fourth
puters for the foregoing activities, ac- ing house to encourage computer use in "R" to pre -college education are not
cording to a recent survey by the Nation- school systems. without challenge. But if we don't em-
al Institute of Education. Other countries are addressing the bark on developing a computer-literate
Before great strides can be made to educational challenge to prepare stu- population in earnest, our economic po-
develop computer literacy through dents for a computerized society. sition will deteriorate as time passes.
school programs, there must be satis- France has a government- funded five - Furthermore, academically disadvan-
factory answers to a series of questions. year plan started in 1978 to have a taged students will fall behind in the new
Where does the money come from? For microcomputer in each of its 7,200 sec- industrial revolution that we're in right
equipment. For software and related ondary schools to train teachers and now because more affluent students will
computer material. For development of students in the use of one. Japan, too, surely own their own micro just as they
effective curricula. For teacher training. has embarked on a funded program for own hi -fi stereo components.
We know that government funding for developing computer- assisted instruc-
educational material is harder to come tion, though programming in Kanji -Kana
by than in the past. Certainly, a bad is much more complicated than with our
taste remains from the halcyon days of alphabetic language.
easy federal and state money for educa- Interestingly, Seymour Papert, a math

Editorial and Executive Offices Ziff -Davis

Popular Electronics One Park Avenue
New York, Nov York I(X)16
Richard P. Friese
Albert S. Traina
( ompanr
President, Consumer
JOE MISICS 212 725 -35(X)
PuhA,her Magazine Division
Furman Hebb Executive Vice President
trhrn,tl Uve, tar iac Mcsics Phillip T. Heffernan Senior Vice
212 725 -3568 Sidney Holtz Presidents
HAROLD A. RODGERS Edward D. Muhlfeld
1 ri.rnv tdrt,v New York Office Philip Sine
LESLIE SOLOMON Advertising Manager: Robert Bavier Vice Presidents
hn,rl td,rr Richard Govatski (725 -7460)
Baird Davis
JOHN R. RIGGS Edgar Vs Hopper
lfur uen,e hdrr.,r Eastern Advertising Manager
George Morrissey
EDWARD I. BUXBAUM Bonnie B. Kaiser (725 -3580)
4r, Dire, h, Richard B. Eicher (725 -3578) Selwyn Taubman Treasurer
Bertram A. Abrams Secretary
JOHN J. McVEIGH Midwestern Office
1et hn,,uI Lehrar
Suite 1400. 180 1 Michigan Ave..
DAVID M. WEBEI Editorial correspondence: POPLLAR ELECTRONICS, Park
Chicago. II. 60601 312 346- 26(X))

f,at dre,
Sales_ Ted Welch

Ave_ New Nark. \Y 10016. Editorial ountributions must be accom-

panied by return postage and will be handled with reasonable care:
I, frni ul /Ninrnu r Western Representative
however. publisher assumes no responsibility for return or safety of
manuscripts, art work, or models submitted.
CARMEN ROBLES Norman S. Schindler & Associates, Inc.
Pn.darnn I i/liar 7050Owensmouth Ave., #209
The publisher has no knowledge of any proprietary rights which
JEFF NEWMAN Canoga Park, CA 91303 (21 3 999 -1414) will be violated by the making or using of any items disclosed in this
P,l tarrUl Sales: Norm Schindler. Jon Marshall issue

onirih utrnt h &t,tr,
Carl Warren, Stan Prentiss
Glenn Hausar, Julian Hirsch, Forrest Mims
t ,<,an,r qnrunr
Representation In Japan
James Yagi
Oji Palace Aoyama
6 -25, Minami Aoyama. 6 Choute, Minato-Ku
Tokyo, Japan (407 -1930/6821, 582 -2851)
Member Audi Bureau
of Crcuiatro,ls
thermocouple, the D 8tk delivers fully-
"No one else We've got great news for people
who've born holding out for a high compersated readings in C from
gives you quality, high performance DMM at a -20 C to + I265`C, for checking
as many moderate price: Fluke's new n_ne- heating and refrigeration systems.
Peak hold feature captures
functions in function model D 804 is now available
at select eectronics supply stores. transients: A short-tern memory in
a handheld With a suggested U.S. price of only the D804 captures and holds the peak
$249 and -eatures you won't find in any reading of a motor starting current.
DMM. other handheld DMM, the D804 is an And more: 0.1% basic dc accuracy,
exceptional value. Here's why. conductance, 26 measurement ranges,
Now you can Logic level and continuity battery, safetydesigned test leads and a
move up to testing: A real time-saver for one year parts and labor warranty. A
troubleshooting passive circuits in pcb's, full line of accessories is also available
Fluke:' cables, relay panels and the like. The to extend the measurement capabilities
D804 has a switch -selectable audible of your DMM.
tone and visual symbols to indicate Ask your dealer abcut the
continuity ur logic levels. powerfu:, versatile D804 and the rest of
Direct temperature readings in Fluke's new Series D line of low-cost.
C: Used with any K-type digital multi_neters.

* ,
.owa mow

*Suggested U.S. list price

For technical data circle no.
If your dealer doesn't carry Series D
Multimeters yet, call this number. We'll be FLUKE
i iP il o III `I
Pick a strong partner 6. Utility Software
A computer purchase is the beginning of a long term
Expand the performance range of your computer with
a broad selection of utility tools, including the best of
partnership between you and the people you buy from.
Your ongoing need for software and accessories re- Digital Research and the complete line of innovative
quires a partner who will stand by you with a growing Softstuff products.
line of products. And nowhere will you find a more com-
plete line of hardware, software and accessories than 7. Disk Systems
at your Heathkit Electronic Center. Here are twelve The 8 -inch Heath /Zenith 47
strong reasons to make Heath /Zenith your partner. Dual Disk System adds over 2
megabytes of storage to your
1. The All -In -One Computer 89 Computer. Diskettes are
The heart of the Heath /Zenith line is the stand -alone standard IBM 3740 format, double- sided,
89 Computer. It's a complete system with built -in 51/4 -inch double- density.
floppy disk drive, professional keyboard and keypad, The 51/4 -inch 87 Dual Disk System adds
smart video terminal, two Z80 microprocessors, and 200K bytes of storage to your 89. Both
two RS -232C serial I/O ports. It comes with 16K RAM, disk systems feature read /write protec-
expandable to 64K. tion and easy plug -in adaptability.

2. Peripherals 8. Self -Study Courses

These include the popular Heath /Zenith Learn at your own pace
19 Smart Video Terminal, loaded with with Programming
professional features. And the 14 Line Courses that teach you
Printer, priced as low as $495. Other to write and run your own
printer brands are on display, programs in Assembly,
including high- BASIC, Pascal or
speed, typewriter -00 COBOL.
quality printers. A course on Computer Concepts
for Small Business gives you
3. Software the understanding to eval-
uate the ways a computer
Word processing, includes reliable, easy -to -use can benefit your business.
Zenith Electronic Typing and powerful, full- featured
Personal Computing is a
complete introduction to
Small Business Programs, feature General Ledger and the fundamentals for the
Inventory Control. novice. Every Heathkit/
HUG, Heath Users' Group, offers members a library of Zenith course is pro-
over 500 low -cost programs for home, work or play. fessionally designed
for easy, step -by-
4. Programming Languages step learning.
For your own custom programs,
Microsoft languages are
available in BASIC (compiler
and interpreter), FORTRAN
and COBOL.

5. Operating Systems
Three versatile systems give you the capability to per-
form your specific tasks.
CP /M by Digital Research makes your system com-
patible with thousands of popular CP /M programs.
UCSD P- System with Pascal is a complete program
development and execution environment.
HDOS, Heath Disk Operating System gives you a All Heath /Zenith
sophisticated, flexible environment for program Computer Products
construction, storage and editing. are available completely
assembled and tested for
commercial use. Or in easy -
to- build, money- saving kits.
9. Expansion Options Visit Your Heathkit Electronic Center*
where HeathlZenith Products are displayed, sold and serviced.
Communicate with the outside world through a Three -
28100 Chagrin Blvd.
2727 W. Indian School Rd. 5960 Lamar Ave.
Expand RAM to 64K with easy -to- install expansion 602 -279 -6247 913- 362-4486 216- 292 -7553
330 E. Ball Rd. 12401 Shelbyville Rd. 2500 Morse Rd.
714- 776 -9420 502 -245 -7811 614 -475 -7200

10. Accessories CAMPBELL, CA KENNER, LA

1900 Veterans
48 S. Byrne Rd.
2350 S. Bascom Ave.
Your Heath kit Electronic Center has the 408 -377 -8920 Memorial Hwy. 419 -537 -1887

latest in modems, black- and -white and EL CERRITO, CA

504 -467 -6321 WOODLAWN, OH
1C133 Springfield Pike
color video monitors, computer furniture 6000 Potrero Ave.
1713 E. Joppa Rd. 513- 771 -8850
415 -236 -8870
and a full line of supplies, accessories, books 301- 661 -4446 OKLAHOMA CITY, OK
LA MESA, CA 2727 Northwest
and parts. 8363 Center Dr ROCKVILLE, MD
714 -461 -0110
5542 Nicholson Lane
405-848 -7593
301 -881 -5420
11. Service LOS ANGELES, CA
2309 S. Flower St.
630 Lancaster Pike
242 Andover St.
213- 749 -0261 (Rt. 30)
No one stands by you like Heath /Zenith. 617 -531 -9330
215 -647 -5555
We help you get your system up and 1555 N. Orange Grove Ave.
165 Worcester Ave.
running smoothly. Service is avail- 714- 623 -3543
617 -237 -1510
6318 Roosevelt Blvd.
215- 288 -0180
able from trained technicians, REDWOOD CITY, CA DETROIT, MI
2001 Middlefield Rd. PITTSBURGH, PA
over the phone or at one of 56 415- 365 -8155
18645 W. Eight Mile Rd. 3482 Wm Penn Hwy.
313- 535 -6480
Heathkit Electronic Centers. SACRAMENTO, CA
412 -824 -3564
1860 Fulton Ave. 18149 E. Eight Mile Rd.
916- 486 -1575 558 Greenwich Ave.
313 -772 -0416
401 - 738 -5150
Your money buys you more because 22504 Ventura Blvd. 101 Shady Oak Rd. 2715 Ross Ave.
213- 883 -0531 612 -938 -6371
Heath /Zenith prices are among the industry's most DENVER, CO
214- 826 -4053
competitive. Make your own comparison and find out 5940 W. 38th Ave. 1645 White Bear Ave. 1704 W. Loop N.
how much you can save. 303 -422 -3408 612 -778 -1211 713 -869 -5263
Complete, integrated computer hardware and soft- 395 W. Main St. (Rt. 44) 3794 McKelvey Rd. 7111 Blanco Road
ware, designed to serve you and to grow with you 203 -678 -0323 314 -291 -1850 512- 341 -8876
that's what to look for in a strong partner. And HIALEAH, FL
4705 W. 16th Ave.
9207 Maple St.
58 East 7200 South
with Heath /Zenith you get it all under 305 -823 -2280 402 -391 -2071 801 -566 -4626
7173 W. Broward Blvd. 1013 State Hwy. 35 6201 Richmond Hwy.
305- 791 -7300 201 -775 -1231 703- 765 -5515
Heathkit Electronic 4019 W. Hillsborough Ave
813- 886-2541
35 -07 Broadway (Rt. 4)
201 -791 -6935
1055 Independence Blvd.
804 -460 -0997
5285 Roswell Rd 3476 Sheridan Dr. 505 8th Ave. N.
Pick the store nearest you 404- 252 -4341 716 -835 -3090 206 -682 -2172
from the list at right. And CHICAGO, IL JERICHO, L.I. NY TUKWILA, WA
stop in today for a demon- 3462 -66 W. Devon Ave. 15 Jericho Turnpike 15439 53rd Ave. S.
312- 583 -3920 516- 334 -8181 206 -246 -5358
89 Computer System. If you 224 Ogden Ave. 937 Jefferson Rd. 5215 W. Fond du Lac
312 -852 -1304 716 -424 -2560 414- 873 -8250
can't get to a store, send
INDIANAPOLIS, IN N. WHITE PLAINS, NY `Units of Veritechnology
$1.00 for the latest Heathkit 2112 E. 62nd St. 7 Reservoir Rd. Electronics Corporation in
Catalog and the new Zenith 317- 257 -4321 914 -761 -7690 the U.S.
Data Systems Catalog of Prices and specifications subject to change without nonce.
assembled commercial
computers. Write to
Heath Co., Dept. 010-814
Benton Harbor, MI 49022.

Your strong partner

fl"" %' LIVING ROOM,
ir-; .

iv` ',p (

14 _yt s E o: ,



4 Motorcycle I$eadIght Precautions

Anyone planning to build the "Head-
light Modulator for Cycle Safety" (June
1981) should be aware of the following
restrictions and precautions:
(1) In some states (including Mary-
land), a headlight modulator is illegal
except on emergency vehicles. Check
the requirements with your state's motor
vehicle authorities.
(2) The U.S. Dept. of Transportation
and other agencies have conducted tests
whose results indicate that the modula-
tor may confuse others rather than iden-
tify the motorcycle.
(3) On all recent -model motorcycles
the headlights are turned "on" automat-
ically when the starter is activated. Ad-
AND THE CROWN FM TWO ditional aids to cycle conspicuity are
bright headgear and clothing and reflec-
KNOWS HOW TO HANDLE I. tive items either worn or on the bike.
-R. J. Salehar, Automotive Safety En-
gineer, Maryland Dept. of Transporta-
tion, Glen Burnie, MD.

Technicolor VCR
In the article "A Buyer's Guide: Vid-
eo Cassette Recorders" (July 1981), it
As more FM stations crowd into liant reproduction. Si N 80dB for clean should have been stated that Techni-
your listening room, your music enjoy-
ment may be spoiled by confusing
combinations of signals caused by
output. Stereo separation 60dB @ 1 KHz
for listening excitement.
But specs are only the beginning. The
color does have a tuner (Model 51 12) to
go with its video cassette recorder
whose model number, incidentally, is
212. -Dave Gassner. Technicolor, Inc.,
RF intermodulation. Crown FM TWO really "listens" better. Costa Mesa, CA.
The Crown FM TWO has a new cas- You can experience that for yourself at
code J -FET front -end that keeps every your Crown dealer, or ask for a home
signal at its assigned frequency, for trial (available at most dealers). Judge
clear, undisturbed listening no matter Testing Stress
carefully how much more real each sta-
how many FM stations may be on your I read with interest your comments in
tion sounds with the FM TWO.
antenna. the "Entertainment Electronics" col-
Complete information on the FM umn in your June issue concerning the
The FM TWO puts more of the latest TWO, on Crown and on other Crown alleged findings by Dr. Diamond that
turer technology into an attractive, slim - components for home audio systems is digital recordings are "stressful." I
line package. Automatic alignment, in the Crown Information Package. thought you might be interested in the
pse -count digital detection, touch - Send us the coupon and $5 and we'll results of a clinical test wherein another
button tuning and six- station memory send you the complete package of color- one of Dr. Diamond's assertions, namely
wil all enhance the sonic quality of your ful, fact -filled brochures, reprints of that rock music is harmful to health,
system. reviews, technical articles by Crown was tested. The outcome of the test
THD lower than .05 % for bright, bril- people, price and dealer listings. showed that Dr. Diamond's assertions
are based solely on the dubious use of
"BK" muscle testing and are erroneous.
Dr. Greenhill gave an excellent re-
CROWN INTERNATIONAL, Dept. FM view of the poor validity of the "BK"
1718 W. Mishawaka Road. Elkhart. Indiana 46517 testing approach when he explained its
Here's my $5 (outside U.S. and Canada. $8). Send my effects on the basis of expectation, sug-

Crown Information Package. with money -back guarantee. gestion, and just plain poor testing con-
trols. The only likely harm that will
Name come to an individual who listens to dig-
ital recordings is that he may enjoy it so
much he misses dinner! -Dr. L.G. Mor-
The Crown Information Package is also available gan, Morgan Chiropractic Clinic, Nam-
City_ State Zip
free from your dealer. If you need a list of Crown _
pa, ID.
deales. use the Reader Service Card number
or call 219.294 -5571. Phone. POPULAR ELECTRONICS
CIRCLE NO 18 ON FRFF iNFni;MPnnw r+on
illegitimate child
Rip -off or spin -off, you've never heard sound like you'll hear from
the headphones you can get for only $5 pictured below. But there's a catch.

It was spawned by Sony. And, it's an sounds better than a theater sized loud ation for often played tapes.
entirely new technology. No more speaker system. MAXELL 'TAPE' IS BETTER
cheap paper speakers and heavy mag- Sony fathered the technology for Yes, honestly, if you own a $1000 cas-
nets. Sound is reproduced with such these headphones and obviously has no sette deck like a Nakamichi, the fre-
clarity and power that it will send shiv- connection to DAK, but the techno- quency responses of Maxell UDXL or
ers up and down your spine. logical heritage will become vividly ap- TDK SA are slightly superior and you
Sony's MDR -3 headphones sell for parent when you compare the sound of just might be able to hear a difference.
about $50, and they've been worth it. these marvelous headphones side by DAK ML has a frequency response
Now you can have DAK's for only $5. side. DAK's come with a full one year that is flat from 40- 14,500hz 3db.
We challenge you to take them to your limited warranty. Virtually all cassette recorders priced
favorite Hi Fi store and compare them THE CATCH under $600 are flat 3db from 40hz to
to Sony's. But there are 2 things you Thing two. Frankly we are losing our about 12,500hz, so we have over
ought to know. shirts on the headphones, but we're 2000hz to spare, and you'll probably
Thing One. If you can hear a differ- taking a gamble because we want you to never notice the difference.
ence, any difference at all, not only can try our audio cassettes. No apology. We feel that we have
you return them and get your money In order to get the $50 value pair of equaled or exceeded the mechanical
back, but we'll also give you a free gift featherweight headphones for only $5, reliability of virtually all cassettes and
for your trouble. we want you to try 10 DAK High offer one of the best frequency respon-
YOU'VE BEEN THERE BEFORE Energy, Normal Bias 90 minute casset- ses in the industry.
You may already be familiar with the tes for only $2.19 each. TRY DAK ML90 CASSETTES
sound produced by these headphones. If DAK's price is less than half the price RISK FREE
you've ever sat in the very front row of the competition, and each cassette Try these high energy cassettes and the
during a symphony concert, or right in comes with a deluxe index insert card, featherweight headphones in your own
the middle of a live jazz band, you a box and a one year guarantee. home for 30 days. If you aren't 100%
know the spine tingling thrill of the full You're very valuable to us in the form satisfied for any reason, return only 9 of
rich sound that envelops you. of future business. DAK has excited the 10 cassettes and the headphones for
If you sit even 10 rows back, you lose over 80,000 of you valuable customers a courteous refund. The 10th cassette is
the feeling. You still listen to the music, with special bonuses like the head- a gift from DAK for your time.
but you can't touch or taste the sound. phones. We find most of you keep buy- To order your 10 DAK ML 90 minute
It's only when you sit right up front ing once you try our cassettes and our high energy cassettes at $2.19 each and
that the sound is alive with electricity. prices; and that's a gamble worth taking. get the headphones for only $5 with
It's the same sound you get with Sony's NOT A BAD CATCH your credit card, call the DAK to!I free
MDR -3s and DAK's $5 stereophones. DAK manufactures a cassette that you number below, or send your check for
ILLEGITIMATE CHILD can really forget about. Great sound, only $21.90 for the tapes, plus $5 for
Not recognized by law as a lawful offspring. and no problems. the headphones, and $3 for postage and
The technology is new. Up until the We make mostly industrial cassettes handling for each group. Order No 9186
Sony featherweight headphones were for high speed duplication. We've devel- (CA residents please add 6% sales tax).
introduced, most headphones were sim- oped special jam proof cassette. It
a Why not order an extra group of 10
ply uncomfortable miniature speaker uses a spring tension liner within the DAK ML90 cassettes. We will add one
systems that you wore on your ears. cassette that guides the tape as it winds. free ML90 cassette to each additional
The Sony breakthrough was made pos- We coat these liners with a new chem- group you buy and of course you can
sible by changing the cheap paper speak- ical called Molysulfide which drastically get a headphone for $5 with each group.
er cones to mylar diaphragms, and by reduces friction within the cassette.
using the powerful rare earth magnet Hi Frequency Protection! As tape
Samarium to move the diaphragms. moves within the cassette friction causes DA K
The mylar diaphragms are much more the build up of static electricity. Static INDUSTRIES
accurate than paper and have a drastical- electricity is drastically reduced by the INCORPORATED
ly improved dynamic range. The result low friction of the Molysulfide and so Call TOLL -FREE (800) 423 -2636
is a headphone that weighs less than 2 is its tendency to erase very high fre- In California Call (213) 984 -1559
ounces and yet produces 20- 20,000hz quencies. A very important consider- 10845 Vanowen St., North Hollywood, CA 91605
Subwoofer Kit From Heath

The AS -1320 has an 8 -ohm, 15 -inch, long -throw driver with 2-

inch, four -layer voice coil in a vented enclosure. A 6 -inch tuned
vent is loaded into the floor. Frequency response is rated as 22 to
500 Hz 3 dB, while overall frequency range is claimed to be
Additional information on new products 15 to 750 Hz. Amplifier power of at least 30 watts is necessary
covered in this section is available from the to ensure adequate listening levels without clipping. The AS-
manufacturers. Either circle the item's code 1320 requires either the Heathkit ASA- 1320 -1 Passive Cross-
number on the Free Information Card over ($45), or the Heathkit AD -1702 Electronic Crossover
or write to the manufacturer at the ($195). Subwoofer measures 64.5" H x 21.5" W x 17" D. A
address given. removable panel allows for future expansion to a full -range sys-
tem. $300.

Hand -Held Computer

a 9 -volt battery or an optional ac adapter. ters that respond to the signal after it has
C-+2F' 1.2'45r'. :__ a1,
With a maximum specified range of 50 been equalized for recording. An electron-
ic tape- motion sensor stops the transport
OCICO0I=1oBOOM if a cassette jams or spills. Bias/equaliza-
0IIElts7. inIDOD0OOOt3ti! tion settings are provided for ferric, fer -
0 0 O1131:3tE3 0OOC9 richrome, chrome, and metal tape types;
omoO00 and a fifth setting will sense the bias /eq
0 CIt0000 CIO OOO automatically for precoded tapes. $300.
Casio's FX -702P hand -held computer has
an alphanumeric keyboard, and uses BA-
SIC as its programming language. It has a
memory capacity of 1,680 steps (26 vari- Linear Tracking Cartridge
ables). The unit can interface with a
printer, and is capable of accepting a miles, the receiver is said to be effective
ROM package to expand programming anywhere in the United States. $24.95.
capacity. It can also transfer programs CIRCLE NO. 91 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
directly to a cassette recorder. $249.95.

Audio Cassette Deck

Weather Radio Receiver
Radio Shack has announced a new three - Shure has introduced a version of its V -15
channel weather broadcast receiver. Mod- Type IV cartridge designed to fit the
el 12 -152 allows instant station selection Technics SL- Series linear -tracking turn-
with a three -position switch. Each posi- tables. The V15 LT has a hyperelliptical
tion is crystal -tuned to one of the three vhf The Model 814 cassette deck from Dual stylus and can be used with other linear -
FM stations used by the NOAA: 162.550, features a Direct Lock and Load system tracking or single -pivot tonearms via an
162.475, or 162.400 MHz. A telescoping that eliminates the usual door between adapter. Using a cantilever bearing inde-
antenna is attached. Power is provided by user and cassette. Also featured are me- pendently optimized for low and high fre-
quencies, the unit provides a frequency
response that extends from 10 to 25,000
Hz, with a channel balance of 2 dB.
Output voltage is 4.0 mV per channel for
Portable TV with Built-in VCR 5 cm /s recorded velocity at kHz; op-

timum load per channel is 47 kit (70 k12

maximum) in parallel with 200 to 300 pF
Called "Video Showcase," the unit meas-
capacitance. Inductance is 500 mH; dc
ures 18" x 13" x 81/2 ", weighs about 20 lb,
resistance, 1380 O. Net weight, 6 g. $130.
and has a 7.7" color picture tube. The
VCR uses 1/4" video tape in two -ounce
cassettes that play /record for 45 minutes.
Tapes can be recorded either with a Tech-
nicolor video camera (in the 1/4" format)
or with a standard -format camera via an
adapter. The VCR has a memory counter,
slow-motion, freeze- frame, and sound - Pulse/Function
dubbing. Another adapter permits tapes Generator
in any format to be recorded on or from
the Technicolor cassette. Operates from Model 524 from Exact Electronics com-
ac or car /boat battery systems. $1725 bines a pulse generator with a function
Technicolor Inc. has unveiled a television with vhf /uhf tuner; $1595 less tuner. generator in one enclosure. The function
receiver that is integrated with a VCR. CIRCLE NO. 89 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD generator offers sine, square, and triangle
waves with variable symmetry, trigger

The Bone Fone was a big success
at $69.95. Can you imagine the
success at $49.95?
This photograph appeared in millions of pages
of print promoting the Bone Fone at $69.95.
Will its new price cause a sellout?

It was a hit. The Bone Fone was one of our certain extent dangerous because they block even just plain relax and listen to good music.
best -selling products when we introduced it in out the sounds around you -some of which Then decide within 30 days if you want to
the fall of 1979. could be warning you of danger. keep it. If you do, you'll own one of the finest
And like all successful products, it soon PERFECTLY SAFE ideas in AM /FM stereo radios since the radio
made its way into retail stores too. Over With the Bone Fone, not only can you hear became portable. If not, no problem. Return
100,000 of the unusual stereo radios were beautiful music, but you can hear a car turning your unit and we'll send you a prompt and
sold and worn by joggers, sports spectators or a corner or a person shouting. Earphones
courteous refund plus your $3.00 for postage
just plain music lovers. But then the story of the isolate you from the world around you. and handling.
Bone Fone took an unusual twist. But to Soon the earphone cassette players started
Your unit comes complete with straps for
understand the twist, you first have to under- to multiply like rabbits. Prices started to drop, wearing while you jog or run, complete instruc-
stand the Bone Fone. plunging all the way to $69.95 and putting tions and a 90 -day limited warranty. Service
UNDERSTANDING THE THING tremendous pressure on the relatively new should never be required but if it is, Bone Fone
and JS &A maintain their own service organi-
The Bone Fone is an AM /FM radio that Bone Fone stereo.
zation. JS &A is America's premiere electron-
drapes around your neck like a scarf. Special But the death blow really came when the
ics mail order company and a champion
speakers, located near your ears, not only play super small headphones went into major
against the bureaucratic forces of the FTC.
the music but they also vibrate. The vibrations production and manufacturers in Hong Kong
are picked up by your bones. The sound started producing a headphone AM /FM radio To order, simply send your check for $49.95
sensation will amaze you and continues to to sell for only $49.95. Now the pressure was plus $3.00 for postage and handling per ship-
amaze the thousands who wear it today. really on Bone Fone. Sales slowed and the ment (Illinois residents add 6% sa'es tax).
A lady in Helena, Montana who bought the competition was being felt. Where to now?
That's right -no matter how many Bore Fones
unit for her son told us, "It's made a significant you order, the cost for postage and handling is
BIG PROBLEMS APPEAR only $3.00. So order enough of them while our
contribution to my sanity. No more rock n' roll Bone Fone Corporation couldn't afford to
blasting through the house. The sound goes drop its price. The Bone Fone is built like an supply of units lasts. (We have plenty, so don't
where my son goes." worry.) We'll send your Bone Fones complete
expensive AM /FM stereo receiver. It also has with batteries, instructions and 90 -day limited
A jogger in Rowlett, Texas wrote us, "Amaz- an inner sleeve to protect its electronics from
ing separation, fantastic stereo response moisture and a blue Lycra outer sleeve to give
helps my jogging tremendously. wasn't really it its distinctive appearance. Bone Fone Cor-
Thanks to the efficiencies of mail order and
expecting this type of quality through a poration was stuck. They couldn't lower their Bone Fone's problems, JS &A is once again
magazine ad at this price." offering a great product at a great new value.
price, and the public was not buying the Bone Order your genuine Bone Fone stereo at no
One of the most unexpected letters came Fone at $69.95. Enter JS &A.
from a man in Belle Center, Ohio. "You don't obligation, today.
JS &A made a large purchase directly from
have to be young and jog to enjoy Bone Fone. Bone Fone Corporation and can still sell the
You see, I'm 73 years old. just sit and listen." product to the consumer at the lowest possible

STORY TAKES TWIST price while still making a small but reasonable
What made the Bone Fone particularly profit.
appealing was both its portability and the fact In fact, the important role that mail order
that it did not disturb those nearby. Even more companies can indeed play is clear from this
important (and here's where our story takes example. JS&A took most of the current inven-
the twist), it didn't require headphones. tory of Bone Fones, and we're ready to offer
With today's super lightweight headphones, them at the low price of $49.95. THAT
you might think, "So what. Headphones are TRY IT FOR 30 DAYS
not a disadvantage." Bone Fone felt that Order a Bone Fone stereo by sending in
headphones were indeed a disadvantage. your check or charging it on your credit card Dept.PE One JS &A Plaza
After awhile, headphones feel uncomfort- account. When you receive it, try it out. Put it Northbrook, III. 60062 (312) 564 -7000
able to the wearer. It's difficult to jog or do any over your shoulders. See how light it feels and Call TOLL -FREE 800 228 -5000
strenuous outside activity with headphones. how incredible the music sounds. Attach it to In Nebraska Call 800 323-6400
And finally and most importantly, they are to a your body with its strap. Jog, walk your dog, or JS &A Group, Inc.,1981
new products
and gate operation, and output levels up to
30 V P -P. Operating from 0.001 Hz to 20
MHz attenuated in 80 -dB steps, the fre-
quency /period dial has 10 -turn and 3- Portable FM Stereo Radio
decade single -turn modes. Also included
are variable dc offset, voltage -controlled Weighing less than 1 lb, the Model 7-
1000 is General Electric's entry into the
portable FM stereo market (it also plays
AM). Features include vernier tuning, left
and right channel controls, a LED FM
stereo indicator, and built -in afc. The
headphone cord serves as the antenna, and
there is an additional headphone jack. A
ferrite magnet with a rated impedance of
32 ohms drives the headphone speakers.
Headphone weight is 2 oz. The 7 -1000
operates on 3 AA batteries, or on ac with
an optional 4.5 -V converter. Dimensions
are 41/2 "H X 31/8 "W X 11/4 "D. $74.95.
frequency input, and sync output. A sepa-
rate pulse -generator section provides sin- CIRCLE NO. 97 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD

gle, double, and delayed pulses over a fre-

quency range from 0.001 Hz to 50 MHz. and spikes from power lines, heavy ma- microprocessors. Applications include ac-
The period can be adjusted from 20 ns to chinery, and lightning. Called the Super cess control, process control, and "speech -
1000 s. Pulse width and delay are adjust- Isolator (Model 150 -3), the unit offers 3 to- touch" assistance for the profoundly
able from IO ns to IO ms. Simultaneous dual -balanced pi- filtered ac sockets. Each deaf and deaf /blind. $389. Address: Co-
outputs from five connectors give TEL, socket individually handles up to kW.
1 as well as pulse output
from the main amplifier. Pulse baseline is
Total capacity is 1875 W. $94.95. Ad-
1 vox Co., Box 2342, Santa Maria, CA
dress: Electronic Specialists, Inc., 171 S.
set from zero to 15 V, with 80 dB of Main St., Natick, MA 01760.
attenuation provided in 10 -dB steps. Pulse CIRCLE NO. 96 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD Sonic Localizer
rise and fall times are rated: 2 ns at the
ECL outputs, 7 ns at the TTL outputs, 15 ns
or less at the main putput. $1195.
Voice Recognition
Video Pollution Control

A signal processor said to improve stereo

imaging has been introduced by Phase
Linear. The Model 180 Dimensional
The Covox Model I voice controller is said Sonic Localizer (DSL) is designed for ei-
to be capable of recognizing the spoken ther headphones or loudspeakers, connect-
phrases, "di ', "dah ", and long "dah" ing to a preamp or receiver via the tape -
when voiced in Morse, Binary, or RTTY monitor loop. The DSL can also operate
code. The system, it is claimed, can pick on a mono signal, producing a synthetic
out a human voice in extraneous noise ten stereo effect. Without the time -delay cir-
times louder than the voice itself. Not a cuit, THD at 0.5 -V output (20 to 20,000
complete speech recognizer, the Model I Hz) is 0.009%; IM is 0.004 %. Other spec-
Electronics Specialists has announced a can be programmed to recognize 16 ifications: S /N, 83 dB up to 0.5 -V output;
device said to eliminate the video flashes Morse -encoded words in its stand -alone input level, 150 mV rms; input imped-
and picture jitter associated with noise mode, or can interface with one or more ance, 20 kS2; maximum output voltage, IO
V rms into 10 kO. $149.95.

4 1/2-Digit Hand -Held DIM

Lexan -Shell
Data Precision's new Model 945 is a por- and 700 V ac in 5 ranges, both with a reso-
table 41/2-digit LCD multimeter. It meas- lution of IO AV. Resistance, in 6 ranges, is Audio Cassettes
ures dc and ac voltages up to 1000 V dc measured from 200 S1, with 10 -MS2 resolu-
tion, to 20 MU. Five ranges of do and ac The Loranger Manufacturing Co. has en-
current are measured from 10 nA to 2 A. tered the consumer audio cassette tape
Basic resistance -measuring accuracy is market with chrome and ferric -oxide for-
said to be 0.08 %; the claim for dc meas- mulations packaged in Lexan shells. Mar-
urement is 0.015% basic accuracy, while keted under the name, Loran, cost is re-
ac is said to be accurate to 0.5 %. The ported to be $1 to $2 higher than current
Model 945 offers a constant -current top -of- the -line cassettes. Frequency re-
source for resistance measurements, per- sponse for the high -bias tape is given as
mitting a direct display of voltage drop -11.5 dB at 15.5 Hz and a 0 -dB record-
across a load. Powered by a 9 -volt battery, ing level. Without Dolby, dynamic range
the unit weighs 13 oz. $265. is 62 dB (S /N 56 dB); with a sensitivity of


Fresh Air
Surround your body or your work place with
ion -controlled fresh air in America's first
bipolar electrostatic home precipitator.

The unit measures only 2" x 4 "x 7" and its

black appearance will fit into most decor.

can be found in polluted environments, air balanced amount of negative ions to create a
conditioned office buildings and in automo- controlled ion environment. One emitter
There's a danger. And this invisible menace biles. Many scientists believe that positive produces negative ions and the other controls
will affect nearly everybody reading this ad. ions make you feel moody, depressed, irrita- and shapes those ions to create an ion bubble.
The danger is pollution - but not the ordinary ble and restless. A negative ion generator The end result is a unit which leaves just the
kind. In fact, ten years ago, we didn't have this cancels out the positive ions and fills the air right amount of negative ions in a large room,
new kind of pollution. Let us explain. with negative ions. attracts the pollution particles and deposits
Ten years ago, cars didn't have catalytic AN EXPERIMENT them on a washable collector plate while keep-
converters. Today, these catalytic converters When you blow smoke into an inverted glass ing your floors and walls free of dirt. You're
"grind up" the car exhaust into particles so bowl and put it over an ion generator, the actually placed in a fresh air bubble while you
small they form micron soot, and micron soot smoke immediately vanishes. Or if you place work, sleep or relax and with no uncomfortable
is so fine, it can be easily absorbed into your the ion generator in an odor -filled room, the electrostatic charge.
lungs. Even the EPA has stated, "Because it is room soon smells fresh. I urge you to try the JS&A ion generator in
so fine, such soot particles stay longer and It was these experiments that really con- your home or office for 30 days. Put one on
cause more damage in the respiratory tract." vinced the public that the JS &A ion generator your desk or in any smoke -filled room. Notice
Ten years ago, homes were able to was a valuable new home appliance. Soon the the refreshing difference in your work environ-
"breathe" or exchange air between the out- market was flooded with competitive ion gen- ment. Take it home and plug it in next to your
doors and indoors four or five times a day. erators. Many were not as efficient as JS &A's bed. Chances are, you'll want to buy another
Today, with our well -insulated energy-consci- first model. Some emitted very few ions and one before our 30 -day trial period ends.
ous buildings our homes literally create and one actually emitted dangerous levels of SATISFACTION GUARANTEED
trap pollution that we breathe unwittingly. ozone. JS &A conducted independent labor- But if you are not pleased with your unit for
OTHER PROBLEMS atory tests and publicized the results which any reason whatsoever, please return it within
There are other problems too. Add the daily showed that JS &A's unit was indeed the best. 30 days and we'll send you a prompt and
soot, dust, smoke and other impurities in the courteous refund including your $4.00 post-
air and you've created pollution problems age and handling. JS &A is America's premiere
even worse than they were ten years ago -so electronics company -a substantial organi-
bad in fact that environmental groups are zation that guarantees your satisfaction.
especially concerned over this new "time To order, send your check for $89.95 plus
bomb" lurking in our environment. $4.00 postage and handling (Illinois residents
But American ingenuity hasn't been sitting please add 6% sales tax) or credit card buyers
still. A rash of small devices containing char- may call our toll -free service line below.
coal filters with fans and selling for around $30 We'll send you the JS&A ion generator
have literally flooded the market. The problem complete with instructions and a 90-day limit-
is that these devices only remove particles 5 ed warranty. Then plug it in and leave it run all
microns or larger. Today's micron soot is one day and night. The cost to run the unit is only a
micron or smaller. Cigarette smoke for exam- few cents per day.
ple is 2 to 3 microns or smaller. You can easily remove and wash or simply The era of the ion generator as a standard
70,000 UNITS SOLD replace the ion filter after it collects the soot. household appliance is here. Order the
Extra filters are only $1.00 each and should be newest and best unit available at no obligation,
In 1978, JS&A introduced the negative ion replaced or washed once every two months. today.
generator in a national advertising campaign
and sold over 70,000 units. It was a device that That's the history. But like any new tech-
cleaned the air by electrostatically removing nology, there's sure to be improvements. The
particles even smaller than one micron. Hos- first ion generator produced negatively
pital burn centers soon began using com- charged ions which attached themselves to
mercial versions of the negative ion generator. the pollutants and then fell to the ground. You PRODUCTS
ended up with clean, fresh air but also dirty
Removing sub micron particles from the air
rugs and walls. THAT
was very important, but there was also a sur-
prising second benefit. The unit added neg- In winter, the units created electrostatic THINK
atively charged ions to the air. discharges which can be uncomfortable when Dept. PE One JS &A Plaza
We've all felt the effects of negative ions touching a door knob or someone else. Northbrook, Ill. 60062 (312) 564 -7000
after a thunderstorm. When you take a deep CONTROLLED ION ENVIRONMENT Call TOLL -FREE 800 228 -5000
breath, the air smells good and you feel good. So American scientists created an ion In Nebraska Call 800 323 -6400
The opposite is true of positive ions which generator using a bipolar emitter which emits a JS &A Group, Inc.,1981


HR -6700 VHS Reca4er..........5799
MAGNAVOX 3210 VHS Secase, 1625
.0 -4200 VHS Rec._.11%
VHS Recader.........A99
VHS RecaaW....1$95
5*5561C3 SAMOS.......
/10NEER 3X
SA.10 ]..._ ...::::::::::::::::14.90
7100 .......................266.90
... ............._............22490
PANASONIC 9V-1700 VHS Rec... 51040 SONY 37V%6X4 5 .............._......_.....2490 By Ivan Berger
Quasar VR-S01S VHS Recorder...,$595
RCA VET-250 VHS RecordeI......... 1750 TECHNICS 51303 .......................109.90
RCA VET-650 VHS 0ecaae,.........51050 TECHNICS 516202........... 109.90
Video Accessories from the Camera Store

SANYO VCR -5000 Nato Recaaer.1725 _...:.:::12490

TECHNICS SUD-303...... ............
SONY 515400 Beta Recorder...... $775 PIONEER -50. ...................16990
SONY 515500 Beta Recaaer ......19025 SONY 00X50 I Trace 1..........3]5.90
ZENITH VR-9000 Belo Reca0er.....1695 DUAL BORS$ I Cart IncIrNIN 1......f 1]0
l'O)Q117J TIMID 11J001=1111 TECHNICS 65M-205 .............1120
AKAI VPS-7150 VHS VUHer.......11295
JVC OR-2200 VHS wrtuner ............$975
C 15555 .. 3235
ACAMERA is a camera is a cam- work on video cameras. There are at-
PANASONIC PV-3100 VHS Rec ....$795
PANASONIC PH-635P TuHelVrmer. 1295
CR -110
194.90 era. And, therefore, many of the tachments for straight and fancy color
PANASONIC PV -3200 VHS w/Tuner.1475 FISHER 139.96
SONY SL -3000 Beta Recarawr....... 1650
SONY R- 3000 1unerdmer ................$229
KOMI MAILERS accessories sold at camera stores are as filtering, for fancy optical effects, for
KOSS M-60 Doi V'e 1165/PAP
VIDEO CAMERAS Mode, 20.....
55551995E ACH
1_ ...99 90IEACH
useful for video as for photography. closeups, and to change your lens's focal
HITACHI OCK400 Auto FOCUS.......1975
JVC GX -6e comers ....................fe99
PIONEER RPM- 500....
111010 O11PKO0I
109 901E ACH
Take tripods. There are some special length.
PANASONIC PK-800 Camae:v..- .9175
SONY HVCM200 Camera .....1965
SONY MDR-7.49 90
KOSS 139.24.90 video models (for example, those com- In video, filters are mainly for special
105H11A IK-1650AF Auto FOCUS...349
PoP H _
5555 555 120.00
bined with video equipment carts); but,
effects. Most cameras have some kind of
MAGNAVOX V1411000 SOSer0Hc..1599
PIONEER VP -1000 losera'sS.......... 6599
RCA SFT -100 CID Dolo Plover....... 1399
SHURE M01ED. 621
... ..........61.95
V.15 IV. 99.90 for the most part, any good photo (or, color balance control, which should at
EMPIRE 20002 ...........................
better, movie) tripod will provide stead- least eliminate the need for conversion
KV-1207 112 Screen ................. 6349
KV -1515 15 Screen ..................6395
AIWA TP430 CaC5lo,00/Dec .....159.90
AIWA C54.1 CasIFMIStere5Dec ..199.90 ier video pictures. What makes a tripod filters to match day or indoor light. To
KLO SOLO Cos/FM/Stereo.. ..... 14.90
good? A lot of factors, some of them

XV 1913 19 5c1een I ............... 645


KV- 19460$ 119- Remote .............6569

IV-266501 26 Remote .............1975
MURA HI 5TfPPER FMIStereV ....59.90
get weird colors for special effects, you
CVStereo 11990
0112 COIIFM/Stereo. ..174.00 mutually contradictory. As a case in might be able to use the same controls
....:...:. 5:::::555
.:.::.::.::::::::::... point, heavy tripods are more stable, but (it depends on the camera). But you'd be
light ones are easier to carry. For video better off with filters, since they give
or movie use, the tripod should have a deeper hues and a wider choice of colors,
FT-C2 (9I95
"pan" head, with separate pan (rotate) and spare you recalibration of the cam-
RE 2100 ...
174.90 C12 ((Grgtp DSproy ....I4.90
and tilt adjustments and a handle that era settings when you want things to
KPJ502 (Eamon Cae).
KP-e000 .............. ... ...
FFC1A (Dolby 6 Me1p ?ape)
FI-C13 (D1gal tunrp)..._.....__.
14.90 extends far enough back to be accessible look normal again.
KPX9500 (Reg Amp)... 176.90
11-614 (w/Fast Forward)... 79 95
when your camera is mounted. (Don't Filters made for color photography
KF 5100 ..

209.90 11.5506
((((AUIO R9v /DOCv'
/6 Auto Rev)
.. 169.95
use a tripod with a ball -joint head.) It's primarily give the effect of changing the
,575 ..
..... .......4.90
... 4.90
P49565 (EKSCIro
(5103/ 18995
T79 95 easier to adjust camera height if your color of the light. Though you won't
309 95
KP 500
KP77G rte,Amol
PE-959A (Dec a 9995 tripod has an adjustable center "eleva- usually need indoor /day conversion fil-
KPX-600 (Reg Mimi 118 90 BLAUPUNHT tor" section than if you have to adjust all
19.707G .............. .. ........
14.90 CRM010.......... 259.00 ters, you may want to try "FL -D" or
AD30..... ..... ...94.90
CR- 3001....
259.90 three legs; but use the legs to get as close "FL -B" filters to reduce the excess
APSO ..... ....... ..161.90 CR.5001
GA41 2D
.. ..
....... ..
as possible to the desired height, so you green of fluorescent light, mild color-
011 AT4mS
.. _ ._.4.90 MITSUBISHI
11 69 1
0%-723 Pace,e
. . .4 124.90
1 9.90
can minimize elevator extension. That warming filters to take the "chill" off a
0X-79 Rece,vt...
1X-09 .........
1514 .......
......... .. .133.90 /PAR
MITSUIISHI RX -73 Receiver...
MITSUIISHI C2747 (Reg Amp,
124.90 way, the camera has a steadier support.
]390 /Pelf, 324.90
1513 ...
86 90 /PA.
Make sure, also, that the tripod can
15107... 39.90/PAIR MITSUBISHI 5G-10 ( 4 ) .............._..2990
MITSUBISHI 5640C Cod. 14501.4.90 stand high enough to put the camera's
JENSEN p Rl1 010 MITSUBISHI 566914 T,o. (691.........69.90
finder at your eye -level; bending over for
R402 .1]4.90
R-406 ve .... .199.90 SONY
R610 Deceiver
4510 Recever
........ 25990 X090 PREAMF FM1AM
CASSETTE a long while is tough on your back.
(Most cameras with electronic viewfind-
0.512 (Auto Mrverse: .. 24.90 XMI POWER AAM 140 WATTS 1 )
11031 6.0
J-1201 6.0 Coo.
ha. u
83.4 /Part
62 90/PAIR CONCORD ers let you aim the finder up, so you can
11120 400 ira. A.......... 4 90/PAIR 1100401 RECEIVER* look comfortably down into it when it's
4.90 /PAIR 11I7.-112 RECEIVER
0110 eh Cao.
II Hen_ 40.90/PAIR
43 90/PAIR
X00.120 DKSII
at a low angle.)
1141 5. Cao.
110(1 649 *9015tes .. n__._
There are small tripods, too, for low -
angle use or for use on table -tops and
the like. Most of these are a bit flimsy,
FOX XK Ra-K7r DeNctoc ............. .9950
FOX Vixen.-
902E150ER Ihre
I5upernell... 5............24.90
but Leica makes a good (and expensive)
FOX 5474407- .229.90
N 221051E8 111..... ......................,...

,E1181015uperhetl ._........5555......14.%
one, with heavy, cast legs that rotate
CALL FOR MODEL NO. PRICE 000115 around the central camera mounting
.:.: ....
_. .. ..
screw to nest flat for carrying. A similar
AVOID .FOOD model, sold in Japan by Stitz, is avail-
grand Master
FUJI 1 9
II a
I or
0 C90....2.99
FUJI. JVC. MAXELL. PANASONIC, able under some other brand names
here. Bolex makes a weirdly jointed
1 1 1

SCOTCH wghlvra0 COO J PO x.1.99

823 .............._.._..10.95
SCOTCH Mosley II COO (2 Pk
ALL BETA 1750 55,55
ALL VHS 1120 (Except HG
.....14 95
MATTEL IntelliviStOn GOme..........229.50
camera stand that looks like a praying
SONY EHI COO. ...................
SONY LSO C90......._ ......... ....1.39
ATARI V1 ORO Gome CC 2600......9495 mantis when unfolded for use; it can be
IDI 9005 Dampen 1,601 ..
........ ........................... 1.61
11100.50 folded to fit a broad variety of situa-
AMMO 1120.13.95 APNEA L-500.9.95
5555 2.45
FUJI 1120.......53.95
SCOTCH T-120 (52 50 Pebore
FUJI L-500.9 95
tions, and to give a broad enough base to
MA.C60 I Nielal ..................0.29

- -
MAXELL UDAL p W %l II. 660


support most home video cameras.

Camera stores sometimes carry

I or
.....2.69II- 690.......3.29 WE
MAXELL WORE -110...........3
MAXEL toss Dam01 HF 46
shoulder pods or "gunstocks" (most of
which look nothing like guns) that can
be adjusted to fit most still, cine or video
NOW TO 06016 IY MAIL F51 porno, ara courteous shipment (5,1 mane,
er111'ea check, %let's check. MosterChon /VISA ( Cuae


fe001a21 -eleo or [800J221-8330
mber.e.plrotO, da,eOnd signature) DO NOT SEND CAM Personal on cl Busmess
checks must clear Om bank berne processing Shlpong no vouron55 charge
4%ol tolol Cram( with a 53.95 minimum charge NOV. Yak Sate residents must add


12121 7324600
od, cameras. Since personal fit and comfort
are factors here, it pays either to bring
your video camera to the store for a fit-
ting or to buy the shoulder pod on a
money -back guarantee basis.
Medium -duty tripods such as
the Slik M4 10 provide a steady
SEND FOR FREE 260 PAGE AUDIOMDEO CATALOG kibase for your camera. (The
23 PARK ROW, NEW YORK, N.Y. 10038
Filters. Most of the attachments made head shown here is actually
to fit in front of film camera lenses also for a 35 -mm camera.)
The new Bone Fone appealed to all ages, but not at $39.95.

Colossal Failure The Bone Fone was a great success,

but its little brother laid a big bomb.
It really flopped. And it was such a flop that could take from 0.2 watts to 0.5 watts -all sound of the crowd. A strap firmly secures the
we were totally unprepared for it. Here's what powered by a 6 -volt battery system instead of NUTS to your body so you can jog or do any
happened. the traditional 3 -volt system. Indeed, the unit physical exercise while the unit stays secure.
The story actually started out with a product was built like something the military would If the sleeve gets dirty, don't worry. Just
called the Bone Fone, an AM /FM stereo radio design and all put together by one of the best throw it in the washing machine and wash it
that draped around your neck like a scarf. The factories in Hong Kong. like a towel. Don't forget, of course, to first
Bone Fone played stereo music that you Even our purchasing department went ba- remove the radio.
actually felt through your bones as well as nanas and ordered 30,000 of the monsters NUTS comes with a 90 -day limited warranty
through your ears. The beautiful effect was without testing to see if the product would sell. but it's built like a battleship so nothing should
hard to describe. Well, if you're sensing that we're about to tell ever go wrong. But ah, if it does, simply send it
JS &A's earlier advertisements sold the you about a mistake, a gross miscalculation, to our service -by -mail facility and we'll quickly
Bone Fone quite well. Soon over 100,000 of or even a major disaster, you're right. When repair it and have it back pronto.
them were draped around the necks of music we tested the product to see if it would sell, we JS &A is famous for its space -age products
lovers all over the nation and JS &A had a hit. found out it couldn't. Consumers were buying since 1971 and its FTC battle since 1979.
But wait. Our luck was soon to run out. the stereo Bone Fone at $69.95 ten to one over We're a responsible company that built our
The AM /FM stereo Bone Fone sold for the $39.95 NUTS. reputation on providing service to our custom-
$69.95 so it would seem logical that a less The ad agency was shocked, the product ers and fighting off federal bureaucrats.
expensive unit at $39.95 that played only AM designers and engineers were perplexed, and To order, simply send your check for $19.95
stations would be a natural winner too. After our purchasing agent was worried. We ended plus $3.00 per order for postage and handling
all, the two speakers on the less expensive up with 29,940 in stock. (Illinois residents add 6% sales tax) to the
Bone Fone were sure to make any AM station What do you do when everybody goofs? address below or, credit card buyers may call
sound almost like stereo. Logical, yes, but Simple. You lower the price. But from exper- our toll -free order service below. We'll send
then some very confident people went a little ience we know that even at $29.95 we're not you your unit complete with instructions and a
overboard. going to sell out even if we triple our sales. The 90 -day limited warranty backed by JS &A's
Our ad manager went overboard with a bril- price had to be dramatic. A real shock. The service -by -mail center. (Four AA cell batteries
liant name for the product- NUTS -the radio price had to be so low that a sell -out would be not included.)
for music nuts, sports nuts, news nuts or any- assured. "O.K., $24.95," said our executive If you've ever had a great opportunity to buy
body just nuts enough to wear the thing. vice president. But she was vetoed. "$19.95," a truly great bargain, it's now. But like we said,
And our product designers went overboard announced our president. And so it was. once we're sold out, that's it. Only 29,940 left.
too. Instead of a basic AM radio, they built a If you realized the value that NUTS repre- Order yours at no obligation, today.
unit that was vastly superior to any pocket sents at $19.95, you'd buy all you could for
radio, in fact equal or better than many AM /FM gifts this Christmas even though it's months o PRODUCTS
radios. There was an integrated circuit, and a away. But we're sorry, there's a limit: 144 per THAT
pair of large 3" speakers with big magnets that person or 967 per family. You see, we're
could really blast out with solid AM music. anxious to dump the little buggers.
Remember, the AM unit was not stereo but it The NUTS comes with a terry cloth sleeve
Dept. PE One JS &A Plaza
seemed that way with its two large speakers. that fits over the unit to make it comfortable to
Northbrook, III. 60062 (312) 564 -7000
wear for jogging or just plain walking. Take Call TOLL -FREE 800 228-5000
The sound was so good that even the
engineers went overboard adding a tone con- NUTS with you to a sporting event and hear In Nebraska Call 800 323-6400
trol and boosting the power the speakers the play by play while still experiencing the JS &A Group, Inc.,1981
What's new with NRI's
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Up -to -the- minute experi- 3939 Wisconsin Ave.
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field effect transistors, 1.11
We'll give you tomorrow.

grey day, and bluish, "cooling" filters to through glass, and so on. They also opening reduces depth of field, letting
make a sunny day look overcast or add deepen the blue in the part of the sky you throw distracting backgrounds out
moonlight effects to daylight shots. Fil- 90 from the sun. Although expensive, of focus.
ters made for black- and -white photogra- polarizers can often save the day.
phy are generally of deep, solid colors They're most useful with electronic - Lenses. Some really creative special
such as red, blue, yellow, green and finder cameras, which let you check effects can be achieved with new lens -
orange. Using them on a color camera their effects, and a bit less so with attachment systems from companies
will usually give bizarre effects, which through- the -lens finders, which show like Cokin (distributed by Minolta),
may, at times, be just what you want. their effects somewhat less clearly. Acme, Ambico, Tiffen and Spiratone
Polarizing and neutral- density filters Neutral- density filters are used when though they become tiresome if over-
are the only ones made for both black - the light is too bright for even the small- used. These systems are based on hold-
and -white and color film. Polarizers can est lens opening and lowest camera -sen- ers that attach to your lens, plus a vari-
be used to take the detail- reducing glare sitivity setting, and to let you use a wider ety of square filters and accessories for
off shiny, nonmetallic objects, to shoot lens opening in bright light. A wider many purposes. Available filters in-
clude: mist, fog and diffusion filters,
color filters with clear centers, and fil-
ters that are half colored and half clear.
(You could use the colored half to
change the color of the sky while leaving
THE FUTURE OF the land unaffected, for example.)
There are also filter -like attachments
that create parallel or concentric multi-
I5 TODAY WITH DOWNLINKI ple images and "vignetters" that frame
your picture in a circle, heart, or other
shape. Cokin, at least, has holders for
Why wait Lntil 1985 just to get three channels of satellite reception when lenses with front filter threads up to 82
Downlink's D -2X receiver can give yo sixty channels of brilliantly clear. mm, Spiratone to 77 mm.
unedited movies. sporting events, world news and special programming Closeup lenses, which attach like fil-
from the many satellites over the North American continent... Now. ters, can be used to focus on objects
The D -2X's modular format and state -of- the -art circuitry allow for sharp. closer than your lens's normal near -
colorful reception of the entire satellite bandwidth (from 3.7-4.2 gHz). focusing limit, or into the gap that fre-
So you can get all sixty channels plus the new channels that will be quently exists between the far limit of a
available in the future. lens's macro- focusing range (if it has
one) and the near limit of its normal
Made from he finest microwave components, the Downlink D -2X receiver focus range. These come in a variety of
eatures dual- conversion design, permitting multiple receiver installations strengths, and can be stacked, so an as-
and phase -lock loop processing which brings living color to your TV. sortment of + 1, +2 and +3 lenses can
The complete and easy -to- install Downlink System including the be used in any combination up to +6.
D -2X receiver, low -noise amplifier. Skyview antenna and cable
You'll probably not need more than
can beyours for 53.595.00. So live the future of television about a + 1, though, especially if your
now... with Downlink. camera has a macro range. There are
also split -field closeup lenses that allow
For the name of the Downlink dealer nearest you call toll-free you to focus very closely on one half of
800- 641 -4645. ext. 214. In Missouri, call 800 -492 -4892. your image and all the way to infinity on
the other half.
Here and there you'll run across wide -
angle and telephoto converters designed
to fit in front of your camera lens.
They're not easy to find, though, espe-
cially in sizes to match large video
zooms (JVC sells some that may fit
competing cameras). Telephoto convert-
ers to fit behind the lens are common in
still photography, but I know of none to
fit the "C" mounts used by most video
cameras. If you own a still camera with
interchangeable lenses, you can get ad-
apters to fit those lenses onto your C-
mount video camera, for really long tele-
photo shots. (Video lenses rarely get
much longer than 75 mm or so, while
still camera lenses from 135 to 250 mm
are common, and lenses up to 2000 mm
are available.) Be sure to use a tripod,
with any extreme telephoto lens. Tele-
photos magnify everything, including
camera shake.
One of my favorite accessories is not
For more inforwation. contact: for cameras but for portable VCRs. If
Downlink, In. you walk about with a portable hanging
30 Park Street from your shoulder, Spiratone's "Post-
Putnam, Connecticut 062i4) man's Pad" ($6.95) will make that
(203) 928 -7731 weight more tolerable than anything
else I've tried. Unlike most shoulder
pads, its thick, firm, and tapered to
CIRCLE NO. 73 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD match the slope of average shoulders. O

THE Bang & Olufsen Beogram 8000 turn-

table is a refined version of that company's
well -known and basically similar 4030-series
record players. Like them, it features a servo -
driven, low -mass, radial- tracking tonearm
integrated with a low -mass, high -quality
magnetic cartridge, completely automatic
operation, and foolproof stylus protection.
The B &O Model 8000 differs from its pre-
decessors in that it has a novel direct -drive
NO. 1 INA SERIES audio
GUARDING motor (the 4000-series used belt drive)
YOUR and a microprocessor control system. It
measures about 19t /4 "W X 143/4 "D X
3 /2 "H with its hinged clear plastic cover

MILITARY lowered and weighs about 20 pounds. It
is finished in brushed aluminum and
black, with rosewood grain trim. Sug-
(All pushbuttons)

EXPERIENCE gested retail price is $995.

General Description. The direct -
TURN: Runs motor while depressed without
initiating arm cycle. For use with record
cleaning brushes, etc.
drive motor of the B &O Model 8000 is PAUSE: Raises arm for temporary interrup-
EXTRA INCOME described by the manufacturer as a
"magnetic drive servo-controlled dc mo-
tion of play. After 10 seconds, arm returns
to its rest and motor stops but lifting posi-
tor," with no elaboration. Examination tion is held in memory for 30 minutes and
If you have experience in any of the motor, with the aluminum, platter arm returns there automatically when PLAY
branch of the Armed Forces, you have removed, reveals that the flanged rim of is pressed.
the chance to earn good extra income a smaller inner "platter" (the actual ro- PLAY: Initiates automatic play cycle. Record
while you hold one of the most impor- tor) fits into a narrow gap between two size and speed are set automatically.
tant jobs in America. In an Army large magnetic coil structures. There is STOP: Terminates playing and shuts off the
National Guard unit close to home. no evidence of the complex windings unit.
Take income. In the Army National used on many direct -drive motors. 33,45: Selects turntable speed for nonstan-
Guard, the work you've put into military Its appearance suggests that this is an dard records.
service can really go to work for you. eddy- current motor, not unlike the re- +,- Varies speed in discrete incre-
For instance, if you left as an E -4 with volving disc in a conventional home

ments. (Actual speed is shown on a four -

three years experience, you can earn watt -hour meter. Turning with the plat- digit numerical display.)
over S1500 a year. As an E -5 with 6 ter is an optical tachometer disc that <, > Fast arm movement (slew)
years experience, over S 1700. And, if supplies a feedback frequency to the ser- controls. Arm lifts and moves slowly on
you have a critical skill you may also vo control circuits, where it is compared light touch. More pressure speeds up slew
qualify for a cash bonus. To see exactly to a frequency derived from a quartz speed.
how far your rank and experience can crystal oscillator. The microprocessor Other Features: 7 -pin DIN socket in rear
take you, check out the chart below. establishes the necessary frequency divi- for interface with Model 8000 receiver (for
PER YEAR (Including) sion ratios for varying the turntable remote switching and control of record
Annual Training
E -3
speeds within 3% of the nominal 331/1 player). Stylus force sliding adjustment on
'2+ years S1375.68 and 45 rpm. arm tube, calibrated from 0 to 2 grams at
3 +years 1427.34 The aluminum platter is a light disc intervals of 0.1 gram.
E -4 with (about t/s" thick), and the total rotating
as 1519.92 mass is about 13/4 pounds. Instead of the
4 +years 1630.17 usual rubber mat, the top of the platter
E -5 with
4 +years 1687.11 has an array of 24 radial black plastic
6 +years 1789.80 "spokes" that support the record above record is present and what size it is. If no
Plus, a part -time job in the Army the metal surface. They also serve an record is present, the spoke pattern in-
National Guard fits in well with your important role in the automatic opera- terrupts the light reflected to the sensor,
current lifestyle. Because all it takes is tion of the record player. causing the arm to move to the center
two days a month of your time, along The tonearm consists of two straight until a smaller diameter record (if pres-
with 15 days annual training. And, in parallel tubes of square cross section ent) is found, or to eventually return to
the Guard, you're serving close to home, about 6 inches long. The one closest to its rest and shut off the unit. The pickup
helping the people in your community the turntable center has a downward - cannot descend to an empty platter.
and state when natural disasters or facing light and photocell in its tip. As When the sensor reaches the edge of a
emergencies occur. the arm moves over the rotating turn- record and the reflected light pattern is
Extra income that's important to table, the light reflected from the sur- interrupted, it continues to move inward
you, in a job that's important to your face tells the control system whether a by an amount equal to the spacing be-
community. It's just one reason to Guard
your military experience in the Army
National Guard.
To learn about other reasons- from
benefits to new skills- contact your local
Guard recruiter, or call toll -free
800- 638 -7600.
*In Hawaii: 737 -5255; Puerto Rico: 723 -4450; Virgin
Islands (St. Croix): 773 -6438; Maryland: 728 -3388; in
Alaska, consult local phone directors.

The Guard is
America at its best.


Frequency response and channel separation
of both channels using the CBS STR -1 A0 test record.
When you're ready
to "face" the music
we have a tip
for reduced

Whether you are seeking to reproduce the full

dynamic range in the grooves of today's new
superdiscs, or simply to obtain maximum listening
pleasure from treasured "oldies" in your record col-
lection, you need a phono cartridge that will deliver
optimum trackability with minimum distortion.
Because the phono cartridge is the only
point of direct contact between the record and your
entire stereo system, its role is critical to faithful
sound re- creation. That's why upgrading your
phono cartridge is the single most significant (and
The HE Family: generally least costly) improvement you can make
Hy perelliptical- Equipped to your stereo system.
To that end Shure now offers the Hyperellip-
tical Stylus Tip configuration -first introduced on
the critically acclaimed V15 Type IV -in a full line of
cartridges with a broad range of prices.
The Hyperelliptical Stylus Tip has been
called the most significant advance in decades in
tip geometry. It has a narrower and more uniform
elongated contact area that results in significantly
reduced intermodulation and harmonic distortion.
Look over the list at left to see which Shure
HE cartridge best matches your tracking force
V15 LT V15 Type 111 -HE M97HE requirements.
1,4 grams 34 -1'4 grams 34 -1' 2 grams Shure has been the top -selling cartridge
manufacturer for the past 23 years. For full details
on this remarkable line of cartridges write for .L667.

with attached headshell) 1'4 grams
34 -1' 2 grams
Go with the leader- Shure.

Shure Brothers Inc., 222 Hartrey Ave., Evanston, IL 60204

M95HE M75HE Type 2 M75HE -J Type 2
In Canada: A. C. Simmonds & Sons Limited
grams '4 -1' 2 grams 1.4-2' 2 grams
Manufacturers of high fidelity components. microphones.
sound systems and related circuitry


tween the arm tubes (about 1 inch). position.) Another feature of the Model put was about 2.9 millivolts at a 3.54
Then it stops and lowers the second arm 8000 is its ability to repeat a record if cm /s velocity. At the rated -gram 1
(containing the cartridge) to the record. the PLAY button is touched while it is force, the cartridge tracked our high -
The platter always starts at 33I/3 rpm, playing (it finishes the play before re- velocity test records easily, including the
but if no record has been found outside peating, however). 70- micrometer level of the German Hi-
of a 10 -inch diameter, it automatically Fi #2 test record. The vertical angle of
changes to 45 rpm. Either speed can be Laboratory Measurements. The the stylus was 24 degrees.
selected at any time by the pushbuttons, B &O MMC2OCL cartridge (also avail- In subjective tracking tests with the
however. After the record has been able separately with a mounting adapter Shure "Audio Obstacle Course" re-
played, the arm returns to its rest posi- for conventional arms) had a frequency cords, the MMC2OCL was able to play
tion and the motor shuts off. Each time response flat within +0, -3 dB from 40 the entire ERA III record. With the
the pickup enters or leaves its rest, the to 20,000 Hz with the CBS STR 100 ERA IV record, we heard the beginning
stylus is cleaned of lint by a soft brush. test record, and within +0, -3 dB from of mistracking on the highest level of
The cartridge supplied with the Mod- 1 to 30 kHz with the JVC 1005 test most of the bands. This is a very severe
el 8000 is the B &O MMC2OCL, the record (it was down 5 dB at 40 kHz on test, and the cartridge should have no
top-of- the -line model. It is a moving - the latter). The response curve had a difficulty coping with the levels on al-
iron cartridge with a single-crystal sap- broad, shallow dip between 3 and 15 most any commercial record.
phire cantilever and a diamond stylus kHz. Channel separation was 20 to 25 Turntable rumble was very low, read-
having an extended line -contact shape dB over most of the audio range and ing -38 dB in an unweighted measure-
for improved tracing of high- frequency about 15 dB at 50 kHz. The frequency ment and -61 dB with ARLL weight-
groove modulation. It is designed to response and crosstalk curves were near- ing. The rumble spectrum was mostly at
track at gram.
1 ly identical for both channels. 5 and 14 Hz, with smaller peaks at 40
Like any other tangential -arm record These measurements were made with and 60 Hz. Flutter was 0.05% wrms,
player, the 8000 is free of skating forces a cartridge load of 47,000 ohms and 70 and 0.06% weighted peak (nearly as
and the need for compensation. As a picofarads (plus the capacitance of the low as can be measured using test re-
result, its pickup goes straight up and integral signal cables). Increasing the cords). Its spectrum had peaks at 3, 10,
down when the cueing mechanism is load capacitance to 440 picofarads had and 14 Hz, dropping off at higher fre-
used, and returns to the same groove little effect on the frequency response (it quencies.
from which it was raised. The micropro- actually improved by about dB in the 1 The turntable speeds were as exact as
cessor of the Model 8000 "remembers" high-frequency range up to 20,000 Hz). we could measure at the indicated nomi-
the position on the record from which The low effective mass of the arm and nal values, and could be varied over
the cartridge was raised by the PAUSE cartridge resulted in a relatively high about 3.3% in steps of either 0.05 or
control and, up to 30 minutes later, can resonance frequency of 12 to 13 Hz, 0.07 rpm, depending on the speed. The
return it to the same spot. (The pickup with an amplitude of about 6 dB, falling automatic cycle times were shorter than
remains over the record for only about off to 3 dB at 20 Hz and becoming negli- on most automatic record players, with
10 seconds before returning to its rest gible at higher frequencies. Signal out- 4 seconds required to start playing after
the PLAY button was touched, and 6 sec-
onds for the shutdown after play. In the
fast (slew) mode, a 12 -inch record was
covered in 4 seconds. The pause (lift, or
cueing) action was perfect, with abso-
lutely no lateral shift during the process,
even when we waited for the memory
system to take control. Although lift and
descent were so rapid as to seem instan-
taneous, they were gentle and smooth.
In checking the suspension, we found
a single transmission response at 30 Hz.
The isolation of the Model 8000 was
better than any turntable we have meas-
ured. Its margin of superiority was 10 to
20 dB over the better units, and 30 to 40
dB better than average.

User Comment. This is a deluxe re-

cord player for people who want to listen
to records for enjoyment. Hardware -
oriented hobbyists who want to change
cartridges as new models become avail-
able will find the unit frustrating. Its
totally integrated design makes such ex-
perimentation impossible. The turntable
itself is one of the finest we have used;
the arm and cartridge rank with the best
on any objective basis; and the ergonom-
ics of the entire record player are (in our
Quality, Service and Availability view) a resounding success. In addition,
this turntable is unmatched in immunity
You can count on all three from Wabash Tape
to acoustic feedback.
Corporation. Our toll -free number will put you instantly in
touch with your local Wabash Distributor ... and the
After using the Model 8000 for an
extended period, we frankly do not have
finest diskettes money can buy! a single complaint about its perform-
ance. Even its high price seems quite
reasonable, considering what it does and
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\4 %Plumb
Weller, Wiss
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No matter how well your video particles and a unique binding
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Popular Electronics Tests M1111=..A

The Sampo Mode! IS/9

19" Color T V Receiver
THE Sampo Model 9519 is a 19" transistor, shunted across the power images aren't exceptionally sharp.
color receiver with two 5" black driver and regulator, that will shut down Brightness and contrast, however, are
and white monitors nested alongside. the low- voltage supply if too much cur- adequate.
Packaged in a mahogany veneer wood rent is drawn. These minisets can be used with a
cabinet 253/4 "W X 1911/16 "D X 22 "H, Both auxiliary 5 -inch monitors have monochrome surveillance camera and
ithas sensor touch tuning and a 4 -inch similar power supplies and (because of will reproduce a fairly accurate picture.
oval speaker. The unit can be used with their dual receiver /monitor functions) A well -lighted and easily defined scene
an infrared remote control, which has are isolated from the ac line. These me- should be highly visible, but a dimly out-
volume up /down, channel select, sound dium- resolution monochrome sets are lined area will produce a much poorer
muting, and power on /off. Suggested constructed of discrete transistors, three image. The VC -1001 camera recom-
retail price is $995. i -f stages, dual i -f/r -f agc adjustments, mended by Sampo for use with the 9519
and varactor tuner elements with volt- retails for $250 and has focus control
General Description. The block dia- age U/V switching and broadband dc only. Battery packs are $75.
gram (Fig. 1) o the main set shows a tuning. There are no audio outputs pro- Baseband inputs to the monitors may
conventional 4 -IC receiver with all lumi- vided (Fig. 2). range between and 3+ volts. with neg-

nance, power, outputs and sync func- In contrast to the main color set, ative -going sync. The monitors can be
tions performed by 28 discrete transis- which has 12- channel tuning, only two operated on baseband, independent of
tors and a bridge -rectifier diode power channels can be selected manually on the main unit.
supply. The four ICs furnish i -f amplifi- the two monitor /receivers; or they can The tuning system is unusual. The
cation, agc, automatic fine tuning (aft), be used to receive a single direct -video touch of a finger induces a signal that
FM detection, plus chroma processing input from a camera, video cassette or (after its negative portion is clipped)
and demodulation. A single SCR re- disc, or other baseband producer. Sur- forward biases an npn transistor. This,
moves dc operating potential from the prisingly, the auxiliary receivers process in turn, lights a sensor lamp and delivers
120 -V supply, should high voltage rise a full 4 -MHz bandpass versus 3 MHz a negative pulse to one end of the appro-
beyond normal levels. The main dc sup- for the large screen color set. But, be- priate tuning potentiometer. Each indi-
ply has a 4- transistor power regulator cause there are no focus controls on the vidual tuning potentiometer is coupled
containing the usual sensor and feed- small sets and owing to limitations on to the 16 -line inverter -buffer of Sensor
back loop. It also offers an additional tube resolution, the black and white Touch I902, and manual bandswitch el-
ements for vhf and uhf selection. With troller. When the set is turned off (but Figure 5 is taken from a multiburst
its division ratio preset, the potentiome- still connected to house current), a through r -f to the picture tube from the
ter delivers the appropriate voltage to memory function maintains volume lev- No. monitor, and at the camera input

the U/V tuners via an emitter follower. el. Receiver tuning, however, always with baseband at monitor No. 2. Moni-
With remote control, however, the reverts to Ch. (channel 2).
1 tor No. requires some i -f alignment to

scan /select voltages are generated by push the 3.58 -MHz multiburst down,
the infrared transmitter. The optically Analysis. Multiburst in Fig. 3 shows but the response is basically good. Cam-
encoded signal is sensed by a photodiode sloping low- to high- frequency outputs era input shows horizontal sync and
in the IR receiver whose output is of up to 4 MHz at the single -diode video blanking as well as some well- defined
shaped and then routed to a remote -con- demodulator, but barely 3 MHz at the video modulation.
trol encoder- decoder. This circuit per- picture tube. In Fig. 4, 3.08- to -4.08-
forms the channel select and maintains MHz chroma is apparent, and there is a Comments. The idea of a multi -
the channel voltage in memory. very passable response in the lower screen set with surveillance capability
Remote -control sound is handled swept chroma waveform at the picture could appeal to homeowners and busi-
somewhat differently. Audio inputs tube. The vector, however, is somewhat nessmen who are concerned about secu-
combine through a volume step counter, jittery, and yellow- oranges are squeezed rity. However, a focus potentiometer for
a muting gate, and a separate volume toward reds for easy fleshtones. The the two black- and -white monitors would
control via an AND -switch within the chroma pattern is not as distinct and be a welcome addition to obtain more
processor. The output voltage is dc-con- symmetrical as it should be, including distinct viewing.
trolled, resulting in a low that is inverted the jitter, which doesn't show in the final The touch -tuning response is slow,
and routed to the base of the sound con- picture on the screen. unless you generate a lot of static elec-


MC1364 CA3065E


Fig. 1. Simplified block diagram of the main color chassis.

Functions are performed by four ICs and 28 discrete transistors.





Fig. 2. Simplified block diagram of the chassis for one monitor, using
all discrete transistors. The two 5-inch monochrome channels are identical.

Now the stars are within your reach
Movie Stars
Concert Stars)(
Sports Stars

lour favorite stars are comrng off the satellites right now in For complete details and prices on the Heathkit Ea-th Station
one of thegreatest selectiors of family and adult entertainment and 400 other electronic kits for home, work or play, send today
ever offered. And now there's a new satellite receiver system for the la:est free Heathkit Catalog or visit you- nearby Heathkit
tha: puts it all within your reach at a price that's within reach. Elec -ronic Center.'
The new Heathkit Earth Station
I- includes a 3 -meter Sate'lite Antenna with a single -axis Send for free catalog
adjustable mount that lets you direct your antenna to receive Write to Heath Co.. Dept. 010 -E16.
signals from the entire satelite arc. It's a heavy -duty, commer- Benton Harbor. Ml 49022
cia- quality antenna, made by Scientific -Atlanta and designed for
long, reliable performance. Visit your F-eathkit Store
Special Low -Noise Ampldier and Down -Converter converts I- ecthkit products
signals to 500 MHz band for transmission on ordinary TV cable. 1C are displayed, sold
The Receiver features electronically- synthesized tuning for and serviced Et 56
staole, drift -free reception, and 24 channel selections for a broad Heathkit Electronic
variety of programming. It euen includes a special Zenith Space Centers in the U.S. See
Command Remote Control so you can change programs without your telephone white
leaving your easy chair. pages for locations.
Special Earth Foundation Kit anchors your antenna firmly to
withstand winds of up to 100 mph.
1, 0111, Centel., ,u ,1, of Ventechnology Eledrorics Cerporahor
Unique Site Survey Kit I I. , ;1.0 w 0;1

'ou can trust Heath to do it right. The first step in establishing view ng of some satellite TV channels may require tit?, customer to oAain
your station is the purchase of a special Site Survey Kit that uerrnssior from o- make payments to the programming mpany.The custimer
s reEponsible for compliance with all local, state and federalgovernmental laws
inc udes everything you need to determine a clear line -of -sight
to the satellites. So you know your location is correct before you
and gulations. including but not limited to construction placemert and use. For
use only it Continental U.S. This device has not been approved by the Federal
buy the Station. Communications Commission. It is not, and may not be, oier.d forsale or lease.
Easy-to- follow, step-by -step assembly Dr surd or eased, anti the approval of the FCC has been obtained.
Like all Heathkit products. tI-e Satellite Earth Station includes
a dearly written manual that guides you every step of the way
through assembly and installation. And over -the -phone
assistance is always available
ONE YEAR! r-4110

veatade Fig. 3

Fig. 4

Fig. 3. Multiburst tests on main -screen

receiver showing 3 MHz at chathode ray tube.
Fig. 4. Swept chroma at video detector
a.riu.:vt\74'2114 \Z;lna Li.`:*;;us
and CRT with vector shape at center.

DOUBLE GUARANTEE Fig. 5. Multiburst and baseband at the

two 5-inch black -and-white monitors
TRANSMITS which have a lull 4 -MHz bandpass.
Fig. 5

Parameter Measurement
Tuner/ receiver sensitivity vhf (Ch. 8): -6
(min. signal for snow -free picture): uhf (Ch. 30): -4dBmV
Voltage regulation Low voltage: 120 -V supply -93.7%
(line varied from 105 to 130 V): 24 -V supply -93.9%
High voltage: 26 -kV supply-90.1%
Luminance bandpass at CRT: 3 MHz
Luminance bandpass at 4 MHz
video detector:
S/N at CRT: 40 dB
Horizontal overscan: 15%
Agc signal range: 63 dB
Convergence: 99.9%
Barreling and pincushion effects: None
CB interference at 60 ft on
Chs. 2, 4, 5: None
Audio bandpass (3 dB down): 130 Hz to 4.1 kHz
Power requirement (3 screens): 123 W
(19" screen only): 107 W

Note. Instruments used in these meaaurements are Tektronix / Talequipment D66, D67A oscilloscopes; Sadelco FS-
3D-VU f/s meter, Data Precision 245, 1350, 1750 multimeters; B8K Precision 1248, 1250 color bar generators:
AN AMERICAN MADE PRODUCT \ Sencore VA48 (modified), CG 169 color bar generator and PR 57 power supply; Winegard DX -300 amplifier; and
Tektronix, Canon, and Polaroid cameras
Call your local CB Dealer
tricity. Wearing crepe -soled shoes, slide rails. For example, it has an almost
Pages you'll have to wait a number of seconds completely unpluggable chassis. The
between channel changes for a new main 19 -inch color receiver's perform-
Fora FREE demo! charge to build up. The infrared tuning ance is about average among high -end
is wholly satisfactory. import models. All in all, its conserva-
1979 American Antenna Elgin, Illinois
Servicing the monochrome sets could
be difficult because they are recessed
within the cabinet, and not mounted on
tive design provides a good picture.
Stan Prentiss
test equipment

Popular Electronics Tests

The Sencore SC60 Widebander
Dual Trace Oscilloscope
THE Sencore SC60 Widebander 60- realize that 60- to 100 -MHz scopes are General Description. Unlike most
MHz Dual Trace Oscilloscope op- becoming a necessity when designing or scopes, the SC60 has two independent
erates from dc to 60 MHz and is specifi- servicing modern, state-of- the-art elec- tilt stands, one at the front and the other
cally designed for observation of narrow, tronic equipment. at the rear of the enclosure. This permits
fast -rising pulses found in digital cir- Because of the 6 -ns risetime of the the use of the front tilt stand as normal,
cuits, as well as for conventional signal vertical amplifiers, this new scope is able and when the rear tilt stand is snapped
observation and measurement from au- to display waveforms up to 100 MHz. out, the scope rides about 3" above the
dio to r -f. This new scope is aimed at The input level to each channel can be work surface. Both tilt stands have skid -
engineers and service technicians who from 5 mV to 1.6 kV peak-to -peak. The proof pads. The rear of the enclosure
vector function, provided for color -video supports four ac line -cord wrappers, a
servicing, operates to 5 MHz. snap- fastened probe storage compart-
Optional accessories include the ment, a dc output jack to provide 10 -to-
WBA52 Wideband Amplifier that pro- 15 -volt dc at 100 mA to power optional
vides 30 dB of gain between 1 and 100 accessories, the Z-axis BNC input con-
CCAESBRATIOS MHz; the DBA220 20 dB Audio Ampli- nector, and the ac line fuse.
CVRTIPICATE fier that provides 20 dB of gain between On the front panel are the CRT and
P{AONICSCOMPANY, 30 Hz and 20 kHz; and the PL207 RF its Controls-INTENSITY (with POWER ON
Pickup Loop ( "Snoop Loop ") that pro- OFF switch), FOCUS, and HORIZ POS di-
vides inductively coupled r-f signals for rectly below. Under these controls are
high- frequency measurement and obser- the PWR ON indicator, the ASTIGMATISM
vation. The SC60 comes with a pair of and TRACE ROTATION recessed controls,
39G 149 X10 Low Capacity probes, a and the 1V PP CAL feedthrough. Five dis-
66K28 Vector Graticule Film, and a play pushbuttons for BEAM FIND, CHAN
48" black test lead. A, CHAN B, A &B, and VECTOR modes are
The SC60 measures 9.5 "H x 12 "W x arranged over the CRT bezel. Access to
17 "D and weighs 25 pounds. Power re- all controls is easy, without disturbing
quirement is 105 to 130 volts, 50/60 Hz, another control. A simplified instruction
at 35 watts. It can be converted to 210 to pull -out card is accessed by pulling it
250 volts, 50/60 Hz. Suggested retail from its compartment on the underside
price is $1895. of the enclosure.


test equipment

CRT Internal trigger sensitivity: ac coupled is 0.5 div of deflec-

Display area: 8 x 10 cm (rectangular) tion between 10 Hz and 20 MHz;
Phosphor: P31 (blue) 1 division of deflection from 20
Accelerating potential: 6 kV to 60 MHz; 3 divisions of deflec-
Graticule: built in, 0, 10, 90 and 100k markings tion at 100 MHz.
Beam finder External trigger sensitivity: 100 mV to 40 MHz; triggerable
Vertical Amplifier (A and B) to 100 MHz.
Bandwidth: dc-60 MHz, 3 dB, -6 dB at 80 MHz, -12 dB External trigger max input: 500 V (peak ac + dc)
at 100 MHz; ac mode is from 10 Hz to 60 MHz, Video trigger sensitivity: division of deflection

3 dB Vector (X -Y Mode)
Risetime: 6 nanoseconds Bandwidth: dc to 5 MHz 3 dB
Sensitivity: 5 mV /div to 20 V /div in 12 steps, -2 -5 1 Phase shift: 3 degrees, dc to 5 MHz
sequence with variable vernier; 0.05 V /div to 200 input: channel A is Y axis, B is X axis
V /div using 39G149 X10 Low Capacitance Sensitivity: same as vertical channels
Probe Z Axis
Accuracy: 4/o from 20 to 30 C Beam blanking: 5 V positive
6% from 0 to 40 C Beam intensification: 5 V negative
100/0 for A +B, or B -A displays input: dc coupled
input Impedance: 10 megohms/ 15 pF using 39G149 probe Frequency range: dc to 5 MHz
1 megohm /50 pF direct input Max. Input voltage: 50 V (dc plus peak ac)
Max. Input voltage: 2 kV peak -to -peak (dc + peak ac) using Output
the 39G149 probe; 500 V (dc + peak Calibration signal: V p -p, 2 -kHz square wave

ac) using direct input. Derates with fre- Physical

quency. Weight: 25 pounds
Display modes: A,inverted A, B, A & B, A + B, B - A, Height: 9.5 in.
vector. Width: 12 in.
Horizontal Deflection Depth: 17 in.
Sweep rate: 100 ms/div to 0.1 As / div, -2 -5 sequence, 19
1 Power Requirements
steps, with variable vernier; special pushbut- Normal: 105 to 130 V, 50/60 Hz; 35 W; field adjustable to
tons select 2 cycles vertical or horizontal of 210 to 250 V, 50/60 Hz.
NTSC composite video. Supplied Accessories: two 39G149 X10 Low Capacity Test
Accuracy: 4/o typical Probes; one 66K28 Vector Graticule
X10 magnification: Sweep becomes 10 ms /div to 10 ns /div; Film; one 48" black test lead.
accuracy is 5 %, except on .1, .2, and Optional Accessories: DBA220 X10 Low Level AC Amplifier to
.5 As/ div where it is 8% increase audio sensitivity by 20 dB;
Triggering WBA52 Wideband Amplifier to raise I-
Source: channel A, B, ac line, external to -100-MHz signals by 30 dB; and PL207
Mode: normal, auto, video r -f Pickup Loop for indirect high- frequen-
Polarity: +, - cy measurement.

There are three controls for each ver- The trigger LEVEL control can be set The manual accompanying the SC60
tical channel -the Ac /DC /GND input se- to allow triggering on either the positive- is excellent, and profusely illustrated.
lector; a 23- position (arranged -2 -5) 1 or negative -going slope of the displayed Besides a complete discussion of the
VOLTS /DIVISION selector switch with a waveform, while the trigger POLARITY scope, there is a lengthy section covering
coaxial vernier, and a VERTICAL POSI- determines whether the trace starts on applications and maintenance.
TION control. Each channel also pro- the positive or negative transition of the
vides a recessed control for Dc BAL. The input signal. The TIME -BASE -FREQ selec- Comments. The manufacturer's
channel -A position control can be pulled tor switch has 19 positions (in a -2 -5 1 specifications for the SC60 are shown in
ou_ to invert the channel -A signal only. sequence), from 100 ms /division to .1 the table. The SC60 was checked by the
Because of this, channel A is also pro- s /division. The 20th position of this Lockheed Instrumentation Measure-
vided with a recessed INVERT CAL con- switch, VIDEO PRESET, enables the inter- ment Laboratory (Plainfield, NJ)
trol. Both vertical channels are provided nal sync separators -there are two, one against standards traceable to the Na-
with a BNC input connector and a ba- for the horizontal and one for vertical tional Bureau of Standards. The Lab is-
nana -type ground connector. sync. sued a certificate testifying that the
The trigger SOURCE can be selected Some older scopes use the 60 -Hz pow- SC60 met or exceeded its claimed speci-
from CHAN A, CHAN B, AC LINE, or from er -line frequency for viewing video fications in all respects.
the EXT input, which is also provided waveforms. With chroma signals, the The SC60 was used on a test bench
with a BNC input connector. The trig- sync will be unsteady since chroma ver- for a few weeks and was found to be
ger MODE can be selected from NORM, tical sync is 59.94 Hz for interlaced sig- excellent. The clarity of the control
which shows a trace only when the trig- nals, and 60.02 Hz for noninterlaced identifications and the wide spacing be-
gering circuits are fully locked to the signals. When the X10 expansion switch tween controls made this instrument
input signal, from AUTO, which displays (mounted coaxially with the HORIZ POS very easy to use. The traces were bright
a trace whether the triggering circuits control) is operated, sweep speed be- and sharp, even when displaying fast -
are locked or not, from EXT, which al- comes 10 ms /div to 10 ns /div. Depress- risetime, low- frequency signals. Sweep
lows external triggering, and from VID- ing the VECTOR pushbutton allows X -Y sync was excellent, even at extremes of
EO. which uses sync separators to lock to operation with channel A providing the frequency and amplitude. Of particular
video sync pulses. The latter mode works vertical, and channel B the horizontal value for TV servicing were the two sync
in conjunction with the VIDEO HORIZ and signal. The vector CRT film overlay is separators that allow stable viewing of
VIDEO VERT pushbuttons to display two easily applied to the CRT graticule almost any video signal. -Les Solomon
or more horizontal lines or video fields. window. CIRCLE NO. 104 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD

In a world where sound
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AD 1

Sound thinking has moved us even further ahead.

BSR (USA) Ltd., Blauvelt, N.Y. 10913, BSR (Canada) Ltd., Rexdale Ontario
Sowed Shaper is a registered trademark of Audio Dynamics Corporation. IC indicates flaw Sound Shaper'' series.
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If you talked to some of our Associate Degree
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lot of them shopped around for 5 MHz Triggered- Sweep, Applied Science Degree in Electronics
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send me my FREE CIE school catalog

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Training PE44
dbx has been silent too long.
db=, Inc.


No Noise Reduction
50 -

40 .r

- Dolby C



10,E -
100 500 1K
20 200 2K 20K

Frequency (Hz)

Noise from biased Chromium Dioxide cassette tape, comparing Dolby and dbx noise reduction systems.
One third octave analysis. Tape noise level referenced to 200 nWb /m = 110dB SPL.

For years Dolby* has been try- Simply this. When you push There's more to this story, too. Listen to the new tape decks
ing to reduce tape noise. the Dolby C button, tape noise With the dbx tape noise reduc- with dbx. Or hear what a dbx
First came Dolby B. Then decreases. When you push the tion system, you're also equipped Model 222 or 224 can do for your
Dolby HX. Now there's Dolby C. dbx button, tape noise disappears. to play the widely acclaimed existing system.
At dbx, we think it's time to set
the record straight. You see,
we've never tried to reduce tape
(You can perform this test your-
self using any blank cassette tape.)
The dbx system reduces tape
Dynamic Range Records -
dbx Discs, the world's only Full

the first discs that eliminate

At dbx, we've been silent too
The fact is, Dolby just reduces
noise. We've never had to. noise so effectively, that it's be- record surface noise. noise.
Because from the beginning, neath the noise floor of even the In addition, when digital play- dbx eliminates it.
dbx has done what Dolby keeps quietest living rooms. Unlike back technology finally arrives,
trying to do: eliminate tape noise. Dolby C, dbx is effective in more dbx is the only system that will
Just compare Dolby's latest than just the mid -range. It oper- faithfully reproduce that sound
attempt with dbx. ates across the entire frequency on tape. You'll even be able to
Where Dolby C reaches a max- spectrum. There's no low -fre- hear the sound of digital in your
imum noise reduction of 20 dB, quency noise. No high- frequency car, because we've developed a
dbx reaches 50 dB. In a CCIR- noise. No noise, period. dbx decoding system for car
weighted noise measurement No wonder Technics, Onkyo, stereo.
analysis, Dolby C manages only Yamaha, TEAC and others have So before you rush out to buy
18 dB, while dbx achieves 55 dB. designed their newest generation a tape deck with Dolby C, we
What do these numbers actu-
ally mean?
dbx' is a registered trademark
'Dolby* Is a registered trademarkof dbx. Inc.
of Dolby Laboratories.
of tape decks with dbx.

have a suggestion.
dbx, Incorporated, 71 Chapel Street, Newton, Mass. 02195 U.S.A.
Tel. (617) 964 3210. Telex 92 -2522. Distributed throughout Canada by BSR (Canada) Ltd., Rexdale, Ontario.



Popular Electronics, Tests

Tliepple II Plus
Personal Computer System
ALTHOUGH it is not a new entry plesoft Extended BASIC, Auto-Start In addition to the above, Personal Soft-
to the world of personal comput- ROM, disassembler, and reference ware has made available: VisiCalc, Visi-
ers, the Apple II Plus is by far one of the manuals -of
which there are many -is dex, Visitrend /Visiplot, and Visiterm.
most flexible and powerful machines priced at $1330. However, locating a Agent Computer Services provided the
available. Based on the 6502 micropro- 16K system may be difficult, as Apple Buffered Modem program for testing
cessor and an 8 -bit bidirectional bus has elected to provide only 48K systems the viability of communications, and
with eight so- called peripheral slots, the (which cost $1530) to distributors. This Vista provided the Model -150 40 -char-
system can accommodate a wide range has caused retailers some consternation, acter keyboard buffer.
of applications. Essentially, the Apple II but, in our opinion, an extra 32K bytes of
Plus is an upgraded version of the Apple RAM for $200 represents a good buy. General Description. The Apple II
III, containing built -in Applesoft and The configuration that we used for Plus consists of a molded, high- impact
with the Integer BASIC dropped. our evaluation consisted of: plastic case that houses the 6502 CPU, a
As designed, the Apple II Plus can high-efficiency switching power supply
operate with either a conventional TV Apple II Plus with 48K RAM and all Stan - with sufficient shielding to avoid EMI
receiver or a video monitor. When used dare features $1,530 and RFI difficulties, a 52 -key typewrit-
with the former, the system needs an r -f Disks II, a 18- sector 5.26 -inch single- er -style full- stroke keyboard, cassette
modulator that meets FCC require- density floppy with interface and recorder input and ouput jacks, and vid-
ments. Performance is good either way, DOS 3.3 845 eo display output jack. The system back -
but the monitor is the best choice when Second disk drive 525 plane contains eight peripheral slots.
color of very high quality is required. 12 -inch monochrome Sanyo monitor 320 The system keyboard sports 2 -key
The computer's enclosure is compact Silentype printer with Apple Il rollover and four special -function keys:
enough to be easily portable, and has a interface 835 CTRL (control), Esc (escape), RESET
pleasing color. Other accessories, such Language System with Apple Pascal 495 (used to restart the system), and REPT
as the video monitor, disks and printers, SSM Microcomputer Products AIO (repeat -provides automatic repetition
are outboard to the main unit. A carry - serial and parallel Apple of a depressed key). The coding is up-
ing case, with pockets for cables, is pro- interface 195 per-case ASCII. Lower case is omitted,
vided for the main -frame section. Microsoft RAMcard 195 but can be added by plugging in a
A basic Apple II Plus system with Z -80 Softcard 349 PROM with a new character set.
16K bytes of RAM, ROM- resident Ap- $4,919 (Continued on page 40)
(Continued from page 39) all that are generally used -seem to be without timing out, which could be a mi-
The standard display is memory more than sufficient. However, you can nor problem.
mapped into system RAM and provides add additional controllers and have as Rumors have circulated concerning
three display modes: text, low -resolution many as six drives. One interesting ap- the Apple's susceptibility to heat, espe-
graphics, and high -resolution graphics. proach is to add an 8 -inch controller and cially after it has run for long intervals
In the text mode, the display is 960 use both the 5.25 -inch and 8 -inch drives of time. But try as we might, running it
characters (25 lines X 40 columns), in tandem. Adding the larger drives for extended periods and deliberately re-
with each character generated in a 5 X7 means that power for them must be tak- stricting its ventilation, we could induce
dot matrix. Upper-case characters, 64 in en from external power plugs. no heat -related malfunctions, even with
all, are generated in either a normal, Like the disk system, the Silentype the air around the main circuit board at
inverse, or flashing mode. thermal printer works in conjunction 110 F. We conclude, therefore, that
The hallmark of the system is its so- with a bus -oriented controller card. This whatever problems the system had in
phisticated graphics. In the low- resolu- fits into slot -1, and provides operating this area have been solved.
tion mode, 1920 blocks are available (40 power as well as all the necessary con- Evaluating the system further, we
X 48 array) in a total of 16 colors. In trol signals. The Silentype handles both took a program that would link to other
the high- resolution mode, 53,760 dot lo- alphanumerics and graphics. The graph- files, read and hold tax tables, and up-
cations (280 X 192 array) are available, ics are presented in a raster format that date other files. The purpose was to de-
and up to six colors (black, white, red, blue, permits the printing of complete dot -by- termine whether or not the data would
green, and violet) can be displayed. dot pictures. always be accurate as it transferred be-
Because it is memory mapped, exact Unfortunately, to get multiple copies tween files and out to a printer. We set
locations on screen can be pin -pointed from the printer, you must do a multiple an arbitrary limit of 500 items.
by software to create some exciting and printing. This can be overcome by using The whole process took about I hour
spectacular displays. To enhance this an SSM AIO serial /parallel card and and 30 minutes to generate, and another
capability, the screen memory is divided adding either a dot -matrix or daisy- hour and 15 minutes to perform the
into two areas, or pages. This primary/ wheel impact printer. This assumes, of swaps and sorts. In our test, no data was
secondary page configuration lets you course, that you have an open slot for lost.
flip pages in and out to create anima- the interface. Going further, we tried a program
tion. Moreover, by employing the soft Even though the Apple is designed that would generate graphics on the
switches of the operating monitor, you around the 6502 and is meant to use screen, using the database already gen-
can invoke a variety of graphics modes software developed for that CPU, the erated. That data was handled with ac-
and mixed modes (graphics and text). In addition of a Z -80 microprocessor -via curacy, but not with dispatch. (Howev-
addition, the system includes a loud- a Microsoft Softcard-greatly extends er, it must be remembered this is a flop-
speaker and joystick controllers. its capabilities. This, moreover, is done py -based system and speed is not one of
Numerous well -written manuals are without degrading the functioning of the its prime virtues.)
supplied with the system. For example, 6502. The Softcard provides all the fea- Our next test used Personal Soft-
to get you going, there is the 200 -page tures one would expect from a Z -80, ware's Visidex, which is designed to take
Apple II Reference Manual. This man- including support of the CP /M operat- information in any format and return it
ual provides information on the basic ing system. However, operation is more either on the screen or printer, sorted or
working of the system (including sche- complex than it may seem. The Z -80 unsorted. This program relies on the
matics) and supplies such data as impor- provides computing power, while the channel speed of the disk system to dis-
tant screen addresses and a listing of the 6502 handles all I/O including opera- play information quickly. Access to a
ROM monitor. Other manuals ex- tion of the screen display under Z -80 disk record is almost instantaneous. Fur-
plain-in similar detail -Applesoft BA- supervision. This arrangement is both thermore, the software package is time-
SIC, and PASCAL, as well as the use of speedy and efficient. oriented so that records can be related
the DOS. either to system time (date and clock
Our sample system used the language Evaluation. The Apple II, almost re- time) or actual time, assuming that you
card that bundled PASCAL. Recently, gardless of configuration, is easy to use. have a real -time clock.
Apple has unbundled the PASCAL por- Because of the very carefully written, Next, we tested to see if quickly rais-
tion, offering the upgrade in memory concise manuals, setting up a system ing and lowering line voltages would
separately. This is probably for compati- like the one we used is straightforward, damage the rather large database we
bility with the Microsoft RAMcard, and takes only about 30 minutes. maintain under Visidex. It did not. Op-
which was designed to work with exist- Although not CP /M compatible, the eration was unaffected by line voltages
ing Apple software and PASCAL. disk operating system (DOS3.3) handles from 75% to 130% of nominal.
The Plus II comes equipped with in- simple jobs extremely well. For exam- One annoying shortcoming was the
teger ROM -based BASIC and disk - ple, initializing a disk is done by format- lack of upper /lower case character set.
extended Applesoft BASIC. The integer ting it via a utility, then writing a Hello Even though correctable through pur-
version doesn't support floating -point program under BASIC. This we found chase of an ROM for about $65 this
arithmetic and is like an expanded tiny intriguing, as it meant we could be very omission seems out of place in an other-
BASIC. The extended version, however, inventive in our sign -on messages. Fur- wise sophisticated system. Furthermore,
offers complete BASIC capabilities, in- thermore, for turnkey -type operation, the location of the arrowed keys is a
cluding a full set of graphics primitives, our sign -on could be a unique program problem since it is easy to hit one when
and peripheral controller calls such as that interfaces to a larger program or your goal is the RETURN key. Even worse
PDL for paddle. (This function returns
the current value from 0 to 255 of the
other programs
-a menu system, if you is the location of the RESET key directly
above RETURN. We would have also
game control specified as the argument. When the system is first turned on, liked to see some special- function keys,
Unfortunately, we didn't have game the unit begins looking for a disk to load. either fixed or user -definable.
controls, but are reasonably sure that This is a function of the Auto -Start Although the backplane design offers
everything works as advertised.) ROM and can be quite disconcerting at flexibility by memory- mapping devices
The disk subsystem we used, a con- first, especially if you were planning to into the system, it does assume that the
troller, and two drives, derives power go into ROMBASIC. To suppress disk operator has intimate knowledge of the
right from the bus, thus reducing the operation, simply hold down the RESET machine. What would have been nice is
number of wires hanging from the back key while powering up. Should you pow- a utility program under DOS that would
of the enclosure. The only cable connec- er up and want to stop the disk, depress- check each slot for a device and deter-
tions run from the controller card to the ing RESET, will drop you into the ROM - mine if it could be properly interfaced.
drives. resident language and stop the drives. If Should the installed card not be of Ap-
In a system of this size, two drives- RESET is not used, the drives will run ple origin or directly supported by Ap-
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With LED
495 Indicator
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New Low For Video Games, NEW! 299
Price! 990 III R/C Vehicles and
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Was $13.95 in 1981 Catalog Microcomputers
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under 250 ns. Ideal for computer 0.5A C 125 VAC. PC pins on single, removable 1" -long control ects or customizing your vehicle. LIED in
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Designed to accept 3 or 5- MOC3010. Ideal for a solid -state AC
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NEW 1982 CATALOG Radle Ilhaek


ple, its attributes could then be re- do believe, however, that it fits well into schools that use it for teaching every-
quested and held in a system map file. environments requiring rapid data col- thing from computer science to manu-
Application programs could use this file lection and into graphic arts. In fact, the facturing skills. -Carl Warren
by simply calling the device. machine has found a home in numerous CIRCLE NO. 102 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
As described, we encountered no
problems with heat or, for that matter,
bus loading. But we noticed that it does
become a tight fit when you start adding
cards to the backplane; such is the price
of ready portability. And speaking of
portability, a card -restraint cage would
be a nice touch, even at a slight cost.

Comments. The Apple is one of the

most widely supported machines on the
personal computer market today, with
over 300 companies providing hardware,
software or both. Additionally, numer-
ous manufacturers see the machine as a
low -cost entry to the high -end graphics
Interestingly, though this may be
strictly our perception, the audio aspect
of the machine has not caught on. But
this may be changing. According to
some observers, sophisticated voice -out-
put devices will make the machine
downright conversational.
As far as we are concerned, the Apple
II Plus gets high marks and has no seri-
ous shortcomings anywhere. But as ca-
pable as this machine is, we aren't con-
vinced that it is ideal for business. We

The MX-100.
Not just better. Bigger.
The new Epson MX -100 is a printer that must be seen
to be believed.
For starters, we built in absolutely unmatched cor-
respondence quality printing and a high resolution
bit -image graphics capability. Then we added the
ability to print up to 233 columns of information on
15.5" wide paper to give you the most incredible
spread sheets you're ever likely to see. Finally, we
topped it all off with both a satin -smooth friction feed
platen and fully adjustable, removable tractors. And
the list of standard features goes on and on and on.
Needless to say, the specs on this machine and
especially at under $1000 are practically unbelieva-
ble. But there's something about the MX -100 that goes
far beyond just the specs. Mere words fail us. But
when you see an MX -100, you'll know what we mean.
It's not only better ... it's bigger.

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THIS LIW LW PRICE /////,,,,,,71/ltlt 111111tiA\\\\,\,,.

8 CHANNEL SCOPE The /tibia Model DM -7, 8 Digit High Frequency Counter is easy to
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Convert your single channel scope Into a 4 or 8 channel instrument. rust connect
-- Crystal
Convenient benchtop size (7 "x10"x3 ")
LED display
3 ppm 251 controlled 0.1 or 1.0 sec. gate times

the signals you want to view. Simple, easy, fast -

the DM -12.8 channel scope multiplexer to your scope, clip the 8 input probes to
can handle logic level TTL
durable attractive case

trols and selectable sampling rate -

signals front DC to 3MHz. Features separate spacing and trace amplitude con-
all to insure easy clear scope display. COMPLETELY

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mill miff to use! CRT 13080831(5 -inch, round shape)
MC- munir RUM -II1ni- Display area 8nf Odiv (1 div = 9.5mm)
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More than 4div at t5MHz

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Maximum full screen amplitude 1.6 Volts adlusta-
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Maximum input voltage

Direct 1M Ohm, approx. 30pF
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-- ble.
Trace amplitude and spacing controls.
Display mode Single -trace
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8 color coded input cable. 24- long with insulated
n'y operation OC -500 kHz. 200mVrdiv
Phase difference DC- 10kHz 3

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External 9 VDC power supply included (Model
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Trigger sensitivity
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LOW COST CAPACITANCE Frequency Internal External Special zero balance control nulls out Input cable resistance to in-
sure accurate readings. Your DVM has to be set to 2V range during
20Hz- -2MHz
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Resistance range 10 milliOhms

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Zero Calibration control
Battery powered (push to read
Connect this high quality low cost Capacitance Meter Module, DM-
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Waveform 1kHz -10% Typ, Square wave
Voltage 0.5V n 3%

Power requirements 100V (120120240V)
50/60Hz, 40W
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Dimensione Approx. 275(W) x 19018) x 400(D)mm "5Hz to 100MHz", DM -11
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Bn3 for SI00, Elf 11, Apple, TRS -80 Level
From $99.95 kit

By Carl Warren
Now- teach your computer to
talk, dramatically increasing
High -End Systems (for Low -End Buyers) the interaction between you
and your machine.
That's right: the ELECTRIC MOUTH actually lets
TWO prestigious companies, Xerox than $3,000) to medium ($10,000) price your computer talk! Installed and on -line in just
minutes, its ready for spoken -language use in office,
and Hewlett- Packard, have added range. business, industrial and commercial applications.
The principal significance of these de-
their names in the very- small -business
computer field. Both manufacturers velopments is that the professional sys- rity devices -
in games, special projects, R&D, education, secu-
there's no end to the ELECTRIC
MOUTH's usefulness. Look at these features:
have introduced powerful word- and terns approach has entered the world of Supplied with 143 words /letters/ phonemes/
data- processing microcomputer systems small systems. For example, the Xerox numbers, capable of producing hundreds of words
featuring the versatile industry- recog- 820 sports a full -screen display (80 X and phrases.
,t Expandable on -board up to thousands of words
nized standard operating system, 24) with reverse video and full -screen and phrases (just add additional speech ROMs as
CP/M. Both systems are in the low (less mapping, a detachable full- function they become available).
* Four models, which plug directly into S100, Apple,
Elf 11 and TRS-80 Level II computers.
at Get it to talk by using either Basic or machine
language (very easy to use. complete instructions
with examples included).
,r Uses National Semiconductor's "Digitalker"
Includes on-board audio amplifier and speaker,
with provisions for external speakers and
* Adds a new dimension and excitement to pro-
gramming: lets you modify existing programs and
games to add spoken announcements of results.
warnings, etc.
Installs in just minutes.
Principle of Operation: The ELECTRIC MOUTH
stores words in their digital equivalents in ROMs.
When words, phrases, and phonemes are desired,
they are simply called for by your program and then
synthesized into speech. The ELECTRIC MOUTH
system requires none of your valuable memory
space except for a few addresses if used in memory
mapped mode. In most cases, output ports (user
selectable) are used.
Spoken Material Included
eighteen dollar inches numher
Iwo nineteen cancel down is of second
se d
three hventy raw egos) it off set e
four thidy mnl kilo spore f
five frail, 400hena one fee, eft out speed g
fitly r
six mhena tone
sven sixty 20ms silence fuel parenthesis stastart
easel. h e
eight mY 40ms silence gallon mil percent slop j

nine elghlY Barns silent go please than k

ten finery 160ms silence gram plus the I

eleven hundred 320ms silence great markr prlim ling

twelve thousand cacti greater meter pound try
thinren million check have m pulses up
fourteen xero comma high milli rate voll p
fifteen again control higher minus re weight q
sixteen ampere
pe danger hour minute ready
seventeen and degree in near right h

"'Elf II" and "The Electric Mouth" are reg. trademarks of

Netronics R&D Ltd. "Apple" is a reg. trademark of Apple
Computer Inc. "TR 9-80 Level II" is a reg. trademark of Tandy
Continental U.S.A. Credit Card Buyers Outside Connecticut
CALL TOLL FREE 800 -243 -7428
To Order From Connecticut Or For Technical Assistance, Etc.,

Call (203) 354 -9375

333 Litchfield Road, New Milford, CT 06776
Please send the items checked below:
SI00 "Electrlc Mouth" kit $99.95
I1 "Electric Mouth" kit
Elf $99.95
Apple "Electric Mouth" kit SI 19.95
TRS80 Level II "Electric Mouth" kit SI19.95
Add $20.00 for wired & tested units. All plus $3.00 postage & in-
surance. Conn res. add sales tax.
Total Enclosed S
Personal Check Cashier's Check/Money Order
VIsa Master Charge (Bank No

Acct No
Signature Exp Date
The Hewlett- Packard HP -125 microcomputer system supports %Stale Zt
two RS -232C serial ports and employs two Z-80A microprocessors.
keyboard, a choice of 5.25 -in. or 8 -in. The IBM product is believed to be the Sources close to the computer giant say
floppy disks, and a full range of CP /M- system that has been under development that agreements are in the making for
compatible software. Some very sophis- at the General Systems Division in Boca the use of MBASIC, SuperCalc, dBase
ticated communications features are Raton, FL. The unit reportedly is built II, and a variety of other popular soft-
provided, too. Specifically, the 820 sup- around Intel's 8088 microprocessor and ware products, including those of Per-
ports the 872/873 Communication will use the operating system designed sonal Software, but neither IBM nor the
Server, which provides for Ethernet by Microsoft. This operating system is suppliers would comment.
compatibility for future expansion of the supposed to be like the CP/M system, From the miniworld, you can proba-
machine. Because it is generally agreed and many believe that it may be CP/M bly expect to see low -end (less than
that software is the primary ingredient 86, rather than the Unix -like Microsoft $1,000) entrants from both Digital
in the success of any computer, Xerox is version. The system supposedly will sup- Equipment and Data General. Whether
offering a version of Micropro's Word- port up to 256K bytes of RAM and or not these machines will be CP/M
Star wordprocessing system, Sorcim's employ dual- tandem double- density compatible is anyone's guess; right now
Supercalc electronic worksheet, and (96 -tpi) floppy drives. no one will say.
other CP /M- compatible packages. To support the lowest end of the per-
The 820 is priced at $2,995 for CRT, sonal computer spectrum, observers Computer Networks. Due to typo-
keyboard, 64K bytes of memory, and speculate that IBM will offer a stripped - graphical errors three numbers shown in
two 5.25 -in single- density floppy disks. down version for less than $1,000 when the June, 1981 column are in error.
Adding the optional 40 -cps daisywheel the larger unit is introduced. Interest- These are 503- 641 -5510, 503- 641 -9029
printer (Diablo Model 630) brings the ingly, both IBM systems are based on its and 817 -776 -1325. Please do not call
price to $5,895. 3101 terminal with add -ons. these numbers as they are private resi-
Although Xerox chose not to bundle Whatever the fate of IBM's entries dences. We apologize for the error. Also,
any software into the basic package, it is into this market, software incompatibili- the listing of 915 -584 -5393 is no longer
offered at standard prices. For example, ties will apparently not be a problem. available. p
the word -processing package carries a
$500 price tag regardless of disk size, 8-
or 5.25- in. CP /M is an extra $200.
Hewlett-Packard's HP-125 CP /M
system is $6,960. This is a Z -80 -based
system with dual 5.25 -in. disk drives,
two RS -232C communication ports and
an integrated 80 -cps thermal printer.
Unlike Xerox, Hewlett- Packard in-
cludes CP /M in the base price, but you
should expect to pay extra for additional
software. Among the software options
offered by HP are: VisiCalc/ 125, $200;
Word/ 125, $500 (a version of Word-
Star); Graphics/ 125, $200 (a version of
Personal Software's Visitrend /Visiplot
package, designed for creating graphs
and doing trend analysis); BASIC 80,
$325; Link/ 125, $150; and a CP /M
utility package, $125.
HP, like Xerox, has allowed for com-
munications applications and future
growth. Hardware and software provi-
sions have been made to permit the 125
to operate in the company's HP -3000
EDP network or other large mainframe
The HP -125 employs dual Z -80A mi-
croprocessors and sports a full 64K
bytes of RAM memory. One processor
serves the computation requirements of
the system, while the other handles the
screen /terminal chores.
Xerox and HP have paid close atten-
tion to the human engineering needs of
the intended user. The 820 and 125 use
easy -to -understand menus to guide you
in the use of the system(s). Moreover,
specific functions such as screen scroll-
ing are assigned individual keys.
Enter IBM. There are more introduc-
tions forthcoming, but from more tradi-
tional computer manufacturers. The
long- awaited IBM entry is imminent,
but it will not be based on the S -100 bus,
nor will it be greeted with open arms as
some "experts" have predicted. As evi-
denced by the 5110 and 5120, IBM (its
position as undisputed leader in new
high technology notwithstanding) is un-
able to offer the level of support re- The Xerox 820 information system includes a Z-80 microprocessor,
quired by the small- system user. 64K bytes of RAM, detachable keyboard, and is CP!M compatible.
2716, 2758, or TMS 2716. It has power - the CDP1802 CPU, with up to 2K of
on reset, manual reset and it supports RAM and 8K of ROM. It has a flexible

MPUTER the 8085 interrupt structure. The power

supply is on board and only an external
I/O circuit. Power requirements are 4 to
6 volts dc at 10 mA. Features include

soUIs transformer is required. It also has a RS -232 or current -loop, parallel I /O,
wire -wrap area. $185. CPU-1A (512 multiplexed I/O that can handle 10 di-
bytes RAM, 44 I/O lines, two timers) is gits and 80 keys, and a ROM monitor. A
$220. Address: Pragmatic Designs Inc., bus interface is provided. Price ranges
950 Benicia Ave., Sunnyvale, CA 94086 from $175 to $300 depending on op-
By Leslie Solomon tions. Address: Technical Micro Sys-
(Tel: 408 -736- 8670).
Senior Technical Editor tems, Inc., 366 Cloverdale, Ann Arbor,
6800 Trainer. "Trainer 1" is a two - MI 48105 (Tel: 313- 994 -0784).
board computer using a 6808 CPU with
11/4K RAM, provisions for 4K PROM Printers. The Sprinter -20 prints 20
and onboard I /O. It has an 8 -digit dis- characters wide, optionally sideways or
Hardware play, hex keypad, Tbug 2K monitor, and upside down lines, at a normal print
hardware trace. Optional equipment in- speed of 1.5 ips. Up to 5 different char-
cludes KC cassette I /O, parallel I /O, acter sizes can be selected via ASCII
serial (RS232/20 mA) port, crystal - control codes or 140 X n dot matrix in
controlled baud rate generator, and ex- graphics mode. It measures 7.5" W X
3.5" Floppy Disk. The Sony 3.5 -inch pansion cards. Starts at $349. Address: 5" D X 3" H ($175). The Sprinter -40
"Micro Floppydisk Drive" features Omnibyte Corp., 245 W. Roosevelt Rd prints 40 characters wide, at a selectable
437.5K bytes double- density, single -side (1 -5), West Chicago, IL 60185 (Tel: print speed of 2,3, or 4 ips. Wraparound
unformatted and 322.5K bytes format- 312-231 -6880). facility permits printing of lines greater
ted. The transfer rate is 500K bits /s, than 40 characters. In graphics mode, it
Apple Parallel I /O. The APIO al- has 280 X n dot matrix. It measures
lows 8 -bit parallel access to Apple II 10.5" W X 7.5" D X 4" H ($295).
and Apple II Plus systems. The board Interface is parallel, 7 -bit ASCII plus
provides 16 bidirectional data lines, and Strobe, Busy and Acknowledge. Serial
four handshaking lines for two 8 -bit bi- RS -232 to 9600 baud, 1 or 2 stop bits.
directional interface ports. The direction Address: Alphacom, Inc., 2323 So. Bas-
of the data lines is under software con- corn Ave., Campbell, CA 95008 (Tel:
trol. On -board PROM operates a print- 408-249 -2152).
er and makes the board independent of
Apple slots. $109 assembled, $79 kit. Apple Light Pen. The LPS II light
Address: SSM Microcomputer Products pen allows high- resolution (280 X 192)
Inc., 2190 Paragon Drive, San Jose, CA graphics on an Apple II. It is compatible
95131 (Tel: 408 -946- 7400). with all languages, and usable in every
latency is 50 ms, and access time track-
to-track is 15 ms. The drive is 2 "H X Tiny BASIC Module. The K -8073
4 "W X 5.1 "D and weighs 1.7 pounds. uses the INS8073 CPU with Tiny BA-
A special hard -cover diskette is used. SIC, and includes an RS -232 I/O port,
Power dissipation is 7.5 watts contin- cassette port, 8K EPROM, with one
uous, 3.3 watts standby. $400. Diskettes slot, 1K RAM, with internal expansion
are $5 each. Address: Sony Data Prod- to 8K, STD Bus, Asynchronous Rec/
ucts Div., 15 Essex Rd., Paramus, NJ Trans remote controller for single -wire
07652 (Tel: 201 -368 -5000). data control and retrieval of 8 -bit words
from 128 remote slave stations. It has
Computer Percussion. The Rhythm PPI with 24 bi- directional I/O lines,
Box is a computer peripheral that syn- and a real -time clock. Unit is on a 4.5"
thesizes the sounds of seven different X 6.5" card and requires 5 volts. $388.
percussion instruments including bass Address: Transwave Corp., RD 1, Box
drum, wood block, snare drum, short 489, Vanderbilt, PA 15486 (Tel: 412-
cymbals, long cymbals, hand clap, and 628- 6303).
tom -toms. It is programmed in Level II
BASIC or assembly language using a Color Printer Interface. The
single OUT instruction. It comes with CPRINT module allows a Centronics -
two interface options; Model RBX -T type parallel port for the TRS -80 Color screen mode. It provides 60-Hz coordi-
($149) for the TRS -80 Model I Level II Computer. Firmware allows all LLIST nate generation, and can be installed on
and the RBX -S ($179) for other com- and PRINT # -2 outputs, a screen-print the Apple motherboard so no slots are
puters, and connects to any standard function can be initiated at any time, required. $285. Address: Gibson Labs.,
9600 -baud serial port with RS232 or 20- line width can be set, graphics in the Building 10, 406 Orange Blossom, Ir-
mA provisions. Address: Newtech Com- LPVII can be accessed, page length can vine, CA 92714 (Tel: 714 -559- 8727).
puter Systems, Inc., 230 Clinton St., be set, and blank lines inserted between
Brooklyn, NY 11201 (Tel: 212 -625- pages. The CPRINT module is a fully Ham TRS -80. The " Terminall" con-
6220). buffered 8 -bit I/O port that can inter- verts any TRS -80 into a flexible ama-
face with any Model I /III which plug teur radio terminal. It contains the nec-
Single -Board Computer. The CPU - into the printer port. It is compatible essary interface, audio demodulation,
1 is an 8085 -based system similar to the with all versions of the Color Computer AFSK tone generator and transmitter
Intel 80/04. It operates at 3 MHz, and and requires no extra memory. $49.95 keying hardware. Plug it into the receiv-
includes 256 bytes of RAM, 22 I/O Address: Micro -Labs, Inc., 902 Pine - er headphone jack and copy Morse code,
lines, serial I/O port, programmable crest, Richardson, TX 75080. (Tel: 214- with code speed displayed on status line,
counter /timer, and two sockets for 235- 0915). Baudot, or ASCII. ASCII capability
EPROM, expandable on board to 512 provides upper- and lower -case, control
bytes of RAM, 44 I/O lines, and two CMOS Computer. The BASYS/ is 1 codes, even /odd /no parity, 6/7/8 data
clock timers. The EPROM can be 2708, an all CMOS computer designed around bits, 75/110 baud. Software is on cas-
sette or diskette and all you have to do is demo and fast /normal modes ($39.95). move sentences or paragraphs to differ-
enter your callsign and time to initiate "The Best of Muse" includes five games ent locations ($24.95). The "Color As-
the program. Text can be typed while with two three -dimensional maze puz- sembler" is a 6809 type that supports all
receiving or transmitting. Terminal! T1 zles, "Tank War," "Music Box," and six mnemonics and addressing modes along
requires Model I with 16K RAM and mini games. $64.75. Both require an with standard assembler options and di-
Level II BASIC. Terminal) T3 requires Apple with disk. Address: MUSE, 330 rectives. It is a two -pass assembler
Model III with 16K RAM and Model N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21201 ($29.95). The Power Pack plugs into the
III BASIC. Address: Macrotronics, (Tel: 301 -659- 7212). interface slot and provides up to 6K ad-
Inc., 1125 N. Golden State Blvd., Tur- ditonal RAM and a 2K monitor. A diag-
lock, CA 95380 (Tel: 209 -667 -2888 or nostic cassette is included ($159). Ad-
634 -8888). Medical Software. Medirec is a total
dress: Computerware, Box 668, 1512
medical history and report preparation
program for office forms, patient and Encinitas Blvd., Encinitas, CA 92024
family history, symptoms, diagnosis, (Tel: 714 -436- 3512).
and treatments. It can prepare referral
requests, patient history summaries, and
New Language. HI is a general -pur-
pose microlanguage that fits in 3K bytes
Software referral reports. The diskette records
and features an incremental compiler
550 visits (per diskette). Individual re-
using selective threaded -code techniques
cords can be recalled, linked and printed
either whole or in parts. It also contains to produce portable ROM -able code.
Talking Dump. Data declarations allow character, byte,
Designed for 6800/ a full complement of office routines. It
6809 SS -50 systems (and soon available and integer types using upper- and low-
requires a 48K Apple, an 80- column
for Radio Shack Color Computer), er -case symbolic names of unlimited
printer, and two disk drives. A Corvus
NEWTALK is a completely relocatable system is also available. $199.95. Ad-
length. It has fast integer math sup-
utility that does a byte -by -byte memory ported with decimal, hex, octal, or bina-
dress: Charles Mann & Associates, Mi-
dump of a selected memory area and cro Software Div., 7594 San Remo ry- bases; 14 statements allow multiple
prints the output on screen as well as statements per line; II control struc-
Trail, Yucca Valley, CA 92284 (Tel: tures allow input and timed input condi-
speaking it out through a loudspeaker. 714- 365- 9718).
$35 on disk or cassette. Address: Star - tionals, single, double or multiple
Kits, Box 209, Mt. Kisco, NY 10549. branch conditionals, pre- and post -loop
Color Computer Utilities. The testing, and machine -language calls.
"Color Editor" designed for the Radio Five assignment modes provide implied
Apple Games. "Three Mile Island" Shack Color Computer allows both up- assignment, multiple assignment, multi-
is a quick -response machine language per- and lower -case features and will ple equivalence, automatic dynamic
game that simulates TMI in action. It print via the RS232 port. It has change type conversion, pointer referencing, in-
features six full -color displays and auto/ and search commands, and can copy or dexed arrays, bidimensional files, string

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The Computer Book Club .. Please accept my Membership in The Computer Book Club
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truncation, string length and random alog if desired. It also allows printing on TRSDOS diskette. Address: Bluebird
number operators, and array assign- the user list. It works on both multi- and Computer Software, 2267 23rd St.,
ments in load and unload forms. Com- single -disk systems, and comes on either Wyandotte, MI 48192 (Tel: 313 -285-
plete Z80 listing is $24. Address: Sys - 5" or 8" diskettes. $35 plus $1.50 han- 4455).
temed, Box 18, Mountain City, TN dling. Address: Elliam Associates,
37683 (Tel: 615- 727 -6000). 24000 Bessemer St., Woodland Hills, TRS -80 Cross Assembler. These
CA 91367. TRS -80- compatible assembler /editors
CP /M Utilities. "Unprotect" provides cover the Intel 8048 (ASMB -48), the
the original source code for any program TRS-80 Users Group. The Comput- RCA 1802/1804 (ASMB-18), National
that is saved in a protected format. An er Information Exchange is a nonprofit COP400 (ASMB -CP4), Zilog Z -8
8" diskette and CP /M 2.0 or later are national TRS -80 user group that is in- (ASMB-Z8), Fairchild /Mostek 3870
required ($70). "Undelete" restores a troducing inexpensive new software for (ASMB -F8), and the AMI S2000
file just as it was before the kill or erase the TRS -80, besides allowing members (ASMB -20). Each assembler shares a
command, unless the directory entry has to purchase hardware items on a group common operational structure. With
been overwritten. It allows a sector -by- basis. For further information contact minor exceptions, the assemblers fea-
sector inspection with selective restora- Computer Information Exchange, Inc., ture instruction mnemonics and syntax
tion of "lost" data ($45). Address: Sys - Box 159, San Luis Rey, CA 92068 (Tel: as defined by the processor manufactur-
temation Inc., Box 75, Richton Park, IL 714 -757- 4849). er. Source files can be saved on tape or
60471 (Tel: 312 -481 -2420). disk, and programs must be off- loaded
Information Management. INF080 to target processor. Each development
ZX8O Group. Licensed hams using is an automatic information filing and system is $75 on cassette or MOD II dis-
the Sinclair ZX80 or Microace now management system for the TRS -80 kette and requires a TRS -80 Model I or
have a user net on single sideband. Con- Model I and Model III. It creates a vir- Model III with 32K RAM. Address:
tact Marty Irons, K2MI, 46 Magic Cir- tual dictionary of information that can Allen Ashley, 395 Sierra Madre Villa,
cle Drive, Goshen, NY 10924. be quickly located. It supports contin- Pasadena, CA 91107 (Tel: 213-793-
uously variable record input length and 5748).
CP /M Unerase Utility. The UN- automatically extends disk files. The
ERA program can be used to recover cross -referencing has an infinitely long Invaders for Color Comput-
one or more ERAsed programs in a CP/ data base, spanning any number of dis- er. Color Invaders is an arcade game in
M system. When entered, the program kettes. Two global commands locate color and with sound with 8 levels of
will recatalog the file back on the disk general or specific information over any play for the TRS -80 Color Computer. It
directory. It can also work its way number of diskettes. It is supplied in ob- requires 16K and Power Pack. $19.95:
through the directory and display each ject code directly executable from Address: Computerware, Box 668, En-
ERAsed file and allow the user to recat- TRSDOS. $100 on data diskette, $115 cinitas, CA 92024 (Tel: 714 -436- 35112).



Ideal for small businesses, schools, colleges. homes, etc
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Everyone's talking about the your maximum heart rate. This is

importance of exercise. But how can you your "training zone:' The Genesis
tell if it's doing your heart any good? computer tells you how many minutes
One way is to monitor your pulse you've exercised at the right pulse rate
rate. But if you've ever tried to use a and warns you if you're not working seconds
hard enough. ago? Instead, Genesis picks up every
pulse meter, you know this is easier said single beat of your heart and makes
than done. No pulse meter on the market The other reason has to do with
has been able to give you accurate life itself. The Genesis computer will the computations instantly.
readings conveniently while you give an audible warning if you're Program your pub
exercise. pushing your heart dangerously. While Imagine having a direct line to
The crystal breakthrough you exercise -or during a stressful day at your heart. That's exactly what the
The trouble with most pulse the office. If your doctor has warned you Genesis Exercise Computer gives you.
about your heart rate, you know right It's an important tool for the serious
meters is that they use an older, exerciser, the cardiac patient, or anyone
temperamental monitoring process. away if things are getting out of hand.
through your Medical chip who wants to monitor the key indicator
They read blood density of health, fitness, and longevity.
skin with a projection of infrared light. A medically designed micro-
processor chip ins'de the Genesis Just program the Genesis Com-
The slightest movement, light, or pres- puter to tell you exactly what you need to
sure can throw them off completely. Exercise Computer makes it smarter
than any other know about your pulse rate. It's as
The Genesis Exercise Computer simple as a digital watch, if not simpler.
overcomes this problem for the first pulse meter.
This is why it Want an idea of how exact it is? In a
time. It uses a patented crystal which recent comparison with clinical EKG
picks up the actual sound waves of your does much more
pulse. Much more precise, and than units costing equipment, it was rated at 94% accuracy
movement or light don't interfere. 2 -3 times as much.
that even amazes doctors. Pretty incred-
It's the first truly accurate pulse Genesis takes ible for a device you wear on your wrist.
meter you can conveniently wear your pulse; lets Only $159.95, 30 days free.
while you exercise. you program your Units on the market costing $350
Readings on the run exercise zone to $800 don't do nearly as much as the
Strap the compact, 3 -ounce simply and Sensor slips aroundfinger, Genesis Exercise Computer. Plus they're
your quickly; measures picks up even' heartbeat awkward to use, and less accurate.
Genesis Exercise Computer to while you're exercising. Which makes the low price of
wrist. Program it easily with your your cardiac re-
minimum, maximum, and resting pulse covery time, another key to fitness; paces Genesis even more amazing. It's only
you with a built -in metronome, if you $159.95. Plus $2.50 postage and handling.
rates. And go.
Not only will Genesis give you an like; and even tells time, in hours and Better yet, you can try it for 30
minutes. days absolutely free. If you're not
on-the -mark pulse reading at any
second. It'll tell you if you're over or Reading your pulse properly isn't satisfied, mail it back for a refund, no
under your preset maximum or as simple as it might seem, because questions asked. Genesis is factory
everyone's pulse is erratic. Your heart warranteed for one year.
minimum. Send your check for $159.95 plus
90% of other pulse monitors force might have 5 fast beats, followed by 2
slow ones, 1 fast one, 4 slow ones, and $2.50 delivery. Credit card holders: use
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Why is this important? Two Other less expensive devices "hold" an
reasons. The first has to do with exercise. average of beats over a period of time
(such as 20 seconds), which often gives
To strengthen your heart, doctors 4357 Chase Ave.
recommend 20 -30 minutes of distortedly high or low readings. Who Los Angeles, CA 90066
continuous exercise at 70% to 85% of wants to know what their pulse was 20 In California Call (213) 822-7236
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I. J

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Par] ThoBoscSyste..
With the widely used 8080 as a
model, the basic features of a central
processing system are explored

IN ADDITION to its obvious appli- each design programmable only via its Elements that are variable must be
cation as the central processing unit own set of instructions. The unit that stored in RAM (random- access memo-
(CPU) of a computer system, the micro- will be covered in detail in this series is ry), which can be written, erased, and
processor has found its way into a vari- the 8080. Since this CPU is the grand- rewritten by the CPU.
ety of products ranging from kitchen father of a growing family of processors, To affect or control devices that inter-
equipment to sophisticated laboratory including the Z80, 8048, and 8085, all act with the outside world, the processor
data -acquisition systems. The key to this with a common internal programming must deliver signals to them. It does this
widespread utility is flexibility, which in language, most of the information will by means of an I/O (input /output) port.
turn comes from the microprocessor's apply to the entire family as well. In- As the name implies, an I/O port can
unique ability to alter its internal logic structions not used by the 8080 will not, also deliver signals to the CPU from de-
in response to an external program. however, be covered. vices that sense external parameters.
Since the response to inputs from the Electrical signals representing data,
program is extremely rapid-on the or- The Basic System. Like many pro- instructions, and addresses (the loca-
der of a few microseconds -the proces- cessors and logic elements, the 8080 re- tions of particular items in memory)
sor can change its electrical configura- quires a small number of support ICs in pass between the CPU, memory devices,
tion practically instantaneously, usually order to function. An 8080 along with its and I/O ports via a set of dedicated lines
fast enough to convince a human corre- support chips is called a CPU module. known collectively as buses. A typical
spondent that it is performing several The program that determines the in- bus (Fig. 1) also supplies dc operating
activities simultaneously. ternal states taken on by the CPU is power to the elements of the system.
Given the speed and flexibility of mi- supplied to it in the form of electrical
croprocessors, and the fact that they are signals. To generate these signals as re- Bus System. There are many ver-
available at very reasonable prices, it is quired and in the proper order, the pro- sions of the bus system currently used,
often economical to use a single proces- gram must be stored in some form of with the S -100 and SS50 being two of
sor rather than a great many simpler "memory" device. These devices repre- the most common. Although different
chips to synthesize logic functions, act sent the binary digits (1, 0) by means of mechanically, they all contain three ma-
as a controller, or the like. To accom- "on-off" switching devices or analogous jor elements: the address bus, the data
plish this, however, it is necessary to un- circuit elements. The binary code in bus, and the control bus. (Figure does

derstand the architecture of the proces- which program instructions are ex- not show the power supply lines and
sor, its needs in terms of support circuit- pressed is called machine language. common ground usually carried on the
ry, how to program it, and how to inter- Each microprocessor (or microprocessor bus system.)
face it with the "outside world." Devel- family) has its own machine language. In most systems, there are 16 lines in
opment of the necessary understanding Binary instructions or data that are the address bus, thus enabling 216 or
is the goal of this multipart series. not subject to change can be stored per- 65,536 (64K) unique addresses. In an 8-
Microprocessors vary in design, with manently in ROM (read -only memory). bit system, there are 8 lines on the data
8080 microprocessor
bus, allowing 28 or 256 data combina- ternal to the microprocessor) and the means of its address. A memory word
tions. The control bus carries all system number of data lines. A typical RAM may represent the encoded form of an
synchronization signals including the arrangement is shown in Fig. 2. A mem- instruction, or may be data to be pro-
"clock" that keeps all CPU module ory word of eight bits is often referred to cessed by the CPU.
events in step. as a byte. Each byte represents one of 28 The CPU has control of memory in
or 256 unique values (0-255). As the the sense that it can read data and
Memory. A computer memory is 8080 microprocessor uses this memory instructions from memory and write
formed from a large array of semicon- structure, it is considered a byte - data back into memory. Only when the
ductor elements, each capable of storing oriented device. CPU receives a direct memory access
a single binary 1 or 0, organized into Each memory location contains one (DMA) signal via the control bus does it
groups of bits (short for "binary digits ") word of memory bits, and is identified relinquish control of memory. DMA al-
often called words. The number of bits by a unique number, or address, as- lows a high -speed device such as a mag-
in each word is determined by the size of signed to it. The CPU gains access to the netic disk to gain access to memory and
the CPU registers (storage locations in- contents of any memory location by control it. As noted earlier, memory that
can be read and written or altered is
termed read /write memory, or random -
access memory (RAM). Memory that
can be read, but not altered by writing,
is termed read -only memory (ROM).
DRIVERS Input /Output. To the 8080, the out-
side world may consist of up to 256
input and 256 output devices. These are
usually referred to as peripherals, and
CPU DATA OUT may include keyboards, printers, dis-
plays, etc. Each peripheral communi-
LOGIC cates with the CPU by exchange of data
bytes sent via its associated I/O port
CONTROL CONTROL BUS and the data bus (Fig. 3). Each periph-
DRIVERS eral is assigned an addresss from 0 to
AND CLOCK 255, much as each memory location is
assigned an address. The portion of the
I/O system that actually conditions
I/O data for input and output is known as
the interface and generally there is one
interface for each peripheral. The use of
a port for input or output is done under
program control.
REAL -WORLD Communication between the comput-
OTO er and a peripheral is done in one of two
Fig. 1 A typical bus system contains three major elements: formats -serial or parallel. In parallel
address bus, data bus, and control bus. data transfer, all eight bits of the data
byte are handled simultaneously. This
permits rapid movement of data. In
r-1 BUS
serial transfer, data is handled bit-by -bit
instead of a byte at a time. This is slow-
AI l er, but has the advantage of using sim-
ple hardware (for example, a two -con-
A2 ductor cable or a telephone circuit in-
1024 X I BITS
stead of a multiconductor bus). When
A3 r
two computers exchange data via, say,
A4 r an intercom line, the parallel data from
buses of both computers is converted to
serial form and transmitted bit -by -bit
down the cable. The IC that performs
the conversion from parallel to bit -serial
form (and vice versa) belongs to a fami-
AS ly of components known as UARTs
(Universal Asynchronous Receiver-
A6 [ Transmitter). If used, the UART is part
of the computer's I/O interface since it
is used for conditioning data for input
and output.
There are two basic types of serial
A9 r communication-RS232 and what is
called the 20 -mA current loop. Basical-
ly, RS232 is a voltage circuit where a
Fig. 2. Arrangement of a 2102 random -access memory. logic 0 is a positive voltage, and a logic 1

Eight of these are needed for 1024 by 8 bits. is a negative voltage. The newest version
of this voltage interface is RS422- signals the CPU through a program in- Simply, a three -state device can be
which uses balanced transmission lines terrupt. When the CPU acknowledges thought of as an electronic switch con-
and differential current sensing to elimi- the interrupt, it completes the current nected between each bus line and its
nate noise. The other commonly used instruction being executed in the main associated logic. When the switch is
serial port is the 20 -mA current loop in program and then automatically closed, the associated logic can accept or
which a flow of 20 mA in the series cir- branches to a routine that will output deliver signals to the bus. But, when the
cuit produces a logic while an absence
1 the next data byte. After the byte is out- switch is open, the bus does not "see"
of current denotes a logic 0. Both of put to the printer, the CPU returns to the logic -in effect, the logic does not
these serial ports are controlled by a where it left off in the main program. exist for the bus.
baud rate generator that "clocks" the The 8080 is capable of handling up to
operational speed of the port. Most pe- eight interrupts from eight I/O devices Programming. A program for a com-
ripherals use either the RS232 or 20- using a special instruction of its instruc- puter or processor consists of a sequence
mA loops for communication. tion set. Data input is similarly handled. of operational instructions stored in
Program Interrupt I/O improves the memory. Each instruction enables a sin-
efficiency of CPU operation while data Three -State Logic. There can be gle elementary operation such as the
is being transferred to or from a periph- many peripherals connected to, and movement of a data byte, an arithmetic
eral that is many times slower than the communicating along, the same bus or logical operation on a data byte, or a
CPU itself. Consider a computer pro- lines. Thus, unless some form of "traffic change in instruction execution se-
cessing large amounts of data, portions control" is used, confusion can reign. quence. The set of all instructions corn -
of which are to be output to a printer. Keeping order is the purpose of the mon to a given CPU is referred to as its
When the peripheral is ready for data, it three -state devices, shown in Fig. 4. instruction set. The size of the instruc-
tion set is a measure of the CPU's capa-
bilities. Another such measure is the
length of the binary words the CPU can
ADDRESS ADDRESS work with. Generally speaking, the larg-
er the instruction set, or word size, the
L more powerful the CPU. The 8080 (an
8 -bit CPU with 72 instructions) is thus
more powerful than the 4040 (a 4 -bit
CPU with 60 instructions). Some micro-
BUS 232
processor instruction sets may approach
200 instructions in length.
DATA UART A program is stored in memory
BUS (RAM or ROM) as a sequence of bytes
BAUD TO that represent the instructions. The
memory address of the next instruction
to be executed is held in an internal reg-
ister of the CPU called the Program
Counter. Early in the execution phase of
k CONTROL each instruction, the program counter is
SIGNALS automatically advanced to the address
Fig. 3. Each peripheral communicates with the CPU
of the next sequential instruction in
through an associated I/O port and data bus. memory. Thus, program execution pro-
ceeds sequentially (i.e. memory location
213 is executed after location 212 is exe-
cuted, etc.) unless a transfer -of- control,
THREE -STATE or BRANCH instruction (8080 JUMP,
CALL, or RETURN) is executed, which
causes the program counter to be set to a
specified memory address. Program ex-
ecution would then continue sequential-
ly from this new memory location. The
JUMP instruction specifies the address to
be jumped to, which can be anywhere in
Fig. 4. A three -state device
memory. During execution of a JUMP,
PERIPHERAL is an electronic switch
e connected between each
the CPU replaces the contents of the
bus line and associated logic. Program Counter with the address con-
tained in the JUMP instruction.
Subroutines. A special type of jump
occurs when the stored program CALLS,
or accesses, a subroutine (a program
N within a program). Usually, a subrou-
tine is a set of instructions that must be
executed repeatedly in the course of run-
PERIPHERAL B ning the main program. Algorithms that
IS ONLY ONE calculate mathematical functions and
THE BUS routines to input or output data to a
peripheral device are often programmed
as subroutines. The subroutine type of
8080 microprocessor
EAST/ jump requires the CPU to store the con- depending upon the results of certain in-
WEST tents of the program counter at the time
the jump occurs (when the CALL instruc-
structions as they are executed. Two
flags of the 8080 are: The "Zero Flag,"
MEGA SALES CO tion is executed). This enables the pro- which is set if the accumulator is 0 (ac-
cessor to resume execution of the main tually 00000000 binary), and the "Car-
SPECIAL OF THE MONTH! program after the last instruction of the ry Flag," which may be set when an
subroutine has been executed. arithmetic instruction causes the accu-
EPSON MX -80 The processor has a special method of mulator to overflow (i.e., carry or bor-
PRINTER handling subroutines to insure an or- row from an addition or subtraction). In
IEEE $55. TRS80 $35,
derly return to the main program. When
the CPU receives a CALL instruction
most microprocessors there are other
flags besides these. The 8080 has a total
APPLE INTERFACE + from memory, it advances the Program of five.
CABLE $90. RS. 232 $70
Counter to the address of the next se- Most processors have instructions
quential instruction, and saves the available that will store the accumulator
Counter's contents in a special memory and other general -purpose registers and
area known as the Stack. The latter flags on the Stack temporarily. Like-
holds the memory address of the instruc- wise, there are instructions available to
tion to be executed after the subroutine reload the general -purpose registers and
is completed. The processor then loads flags with data contained on the top of
ATARI 800 32K jAisongu, the address specified in the CALL in-
struction into its Program Counter.
the Stack. This allows the contents of
$769 the registers and flags to be saved so
i E 21=11 \ Consequently, the next instruction that that they may be used in another activi-
is to be executed will be the first step of ty, as for example, a subroutine. Just
RADIO SHACK the subroutine. before returning to the main program
48111""+ 16K Level II Model 3
Normally the last step of any subrou-
$834 from a subroutine, the subroutine will
tine is a RETURN instruction. When the restore the registers and flags it used
NEC 5510 SPIN WRITER $2495
INTERTEC SUPERBRAIN processor executes the RETURN instruc- (assuming, of course, that the same reg-
64K RAM $2799 tion, it replaces the current contents of isters and flags were saved on the Stack
OKIDATA MICROLINE - 83 $ 769 the Program Counter with the address prior to using them in the subroutine).
OKIDATA MICROLINE - 80 $ 399 contained on the "top" (last entry) of Let's go over one last concept of a
APPLE DISK the Stack. Since this address was the CPU's instruction set, which gives the
w/3.3 DOS Controller $ 545 one originally saved by the CALL instruc- computer its "decision- making" power.
APPLE DISK w/o Controller $ 435 tion, the processor will resume execution
BASE II Printer $ 599 This is a special set of transfer-of-con -
of the calling (main) program at the trol instructions that transfer program
DIABLO 630 $2 0 9 9
point immediately following the original execution to another portion of memory
w/Tractor Option $ 245
CALL instruction. Note that this opera- if the condition specified in the instruc-
HAZELTINE 1420 $ 799
NORTHSTAR HORIZON 32K OD $ 2975 tion is very similar to executing a JUMP tion is met. An example is the 8080
ATARI 400 16K $ 349 instruction, the difference being that the instruction JUMP -IF-ZERO.
RADIO SHACK 64K Model 2 $ 3245 JUMP address is contained in the Stack If the processor encounters a condi-
ANADEX DP - 9500 $ 1295 area rather than in the JUMP instruction tional transfer -of- control (or "condition-
NEC MONITOR $ 229 itself. al branch ") instruction, it checks to see
TELEVIDEO 912C $ 669 A subroutine may CALL another sub- if the specified condition is met. The
TELEVIDEO 920C $ 729 routine. This is called "nesting subrou- "condition" is always related to one of
TELEVIDEO 950 $ 959 tines." If the microprocessor being used the flags. In the case of JUMP -IF-ZERO,
ATARI 825 Printer $ 619 has a Stack for storing RETURN ad- program execution is transferred to the
ATARI 850 Interface $ 139 dresses, the maximum depth of nesting JUMP address contained in the instruc-
Or both together $ 749
ATARI 810 Disk $ 449 subroutines is determined solely by the tion in the same manner as the uncondi-
depth of the Stack itself. So if the Stack tional JUMP if the Zero Flag is set. If the
TWO WAREHOUSE LOCATIONS has space for saving five return ad- Zero Flag is not set (cleared), program
dresses, then five levels of subroutines execution assumes its sequential flow
TO ENSURE FAST DELIVERY! can be accommodated. and executes the instruction immediate-
Microprocessors have different meth- ly following the JUMP -IF-ZERO. A proces-

EAST COAST ods of maintaining their Stack. Some

store the RETURN addresses within regis-
sor usually has a set of "Compare" in-
structions, that set and /or clear flags
1- 800 -556 -7586 ters in the processor, but this limits the depending upon the result of comparison
12 Meeting Street
levels of subroutine nesting. Others, of two data words (the 8080 can com-
Cumberland, RI 02864 such as the 8080, use a reserved area of pare two registers, or a register and the
1- 401 -722 -1027 RAM for the Stack and maintain a contents of a memory location). A con-
Stack Pointer (an internal register of ditional branch instruction will often
WEST COAST the CPU) which contains the address of
the most recent Stack entry; i.e., the
follow a Compare instruction, so that
the proper execution path may be cho-
1- 800 -235 -3581 Stack Pointer always "points" to the top sen (the decision) based on the results of
3353 Old Conejo Road of the Stack. This type of Stack may be the flags from the Compare. It is in this
Newbury Park, CA 91320 looked upon as a last -in-first -out manner that the CPU makes its "logical
ni1- 805 -499 -3678 (LIFO) memory, and allows virtually decisions." The 8080 also has various
CA. 1-800-322-1 873 unlimited subroutine nesting. conditional calls and conditional returns
Flags. The CPU has a set of flags, or in addition to the conditional JUMPS in
MEGA SALES CO internal flip -flops that are set or cleared its instruction set.
(i.e., set to a logic 1 or 0, respectively) (To be continued next month)
An up-and-coming rival to bipolar devices,
VMOS offers advantages in
circuit simplicity' and improved performance


VMOS power FETs are being de- tradeoffs to challenge the circuit design- per transistor are required to prevent the
signed into more and more elec- er. For one, the gate saturation voltage devices from sharing the load current
tronic equipment, promising better per- of the VMOSFET runs somewhat high- unequally should their temperatures dif-
formance, using less support circuitry, er than that of an equivalent bipolar de- fer. With the negative temperature coef-
and permitting savings in cost. So far, vice. Second, the relatively high gate ca- ficient, VMOS devices are free of this
they have replaced bipolar power tran- pacitance (500 -800 pF) means that the "current- hogging " tendency and require
sistors in some switching power supplies input will tend to draw appreciable cur- no power resistors. Another bonus of
and audio amplifiers, with applications rent at the higher audio frequencies and VMOS is that very high input imped-
in power switching and power conver- beyond. ance, makes the high drive currents that
sions soon to come. Finally, there is the matter of cost. bipolar power transistors would require
Compared with its bipolar counter- VMOS devices cost more, but, accord- unnecessary_ As a result of this, driver
part, a VMOS power FET has numer- ing to designers, the reductions in sup- circuits that have lower power ratings
ous advantages: its input impedance is port circuitry that they allow can make and thus are )less expensive to fabricate
higher, its bandwidth wider, and its in- them in the Hong run, a better bargain can be used.
herent linearity greater. In addition, its than bipolar. Switching power supplies also benefit
temperature coefficient of gain is nega- from VMOS. Whle many bipolar pow-
tive. That is, with a fixed level of drive at Typical Applications. er transistors-especially the rugged
its gate, a VMOSFET conducts less and Power Supplies. When the series -pass ones -have a bandwidth of 2 or 3 MHz,
less current as it gets hotter. stage consists of several bipolar devices VMOS devices can operate to 30 MHz
Of course, VMOS devices offer a few in parallel, at least two power resistors and above. Because the VMOS devices
V1VIOS power FET


Fig I Cross section of a conventional MOSFET. Fig 2. A double -diffused epitaxial planar trans/al

switch faster, less energy is dissipated in applications for the VMOS power FET inexpensive low -power transistors. If
them, and that improves efficiency. The was in the final amplifier stage of a CMOS logic is used, however, it may be
higher switching frequencies made pos- radio transmitter. The ease with which necessary to buffer the CMOS signals
sible-up to 500 kHz as opposed to 100 the devices can be connected in parallel (which are low current) to the higher
kHz with bipolars -allow the use of to obtain greater output power, the re- current requirements of the driver tran-
smaller power transformers and output duced drive power required, and the sistors. With VMOS, no buffering is re-
filter capacitors. wide frequency range make VMOS a quired; in fact, one CMOS output can
Audio Amplifiers are improved by natural for transmitter (r -f) applica- drive 100 or more VMOSFETs to the
VMOS technology and several commer- tions. At least one VMOS manufacturer point of saturation!
cial products using these devices are claims the devices can tolerate infinite VMOS can be used to advantage in
available. Here the VMOS devices re- VSWR without destruction! (This cor- controlling motors and solenoids, which
place the bipolar power transistors in the responds to a situation where the user pose difficulties because of the voltage
output stage. Because of the high - attempts to transmit without the anten- transients when the current through an
impedance VMOS inputs, less drive na load connected.) Usually this sub- inductive load is interrupted. With con-
power is required by the output stage. jects the output r -f stage to excessive ventional bipolar transistors, it is neces-
That means that the driver stage can use power dissipation. Freedom from second sary to use very high -voltage devices or
lower -cost, lower- powered components. breakdown makes VMOS devices better special networks to suppress the tran-
Having a more linear operating char- able to tolerate such abuse. sients. Neither solution is cheap, and
acteristic, VMOS devices produce in- VMOS is also making inroads in dou- suppression networks reduce perfor-
herently less distortion. They are also ble- balanced mixer circuits, normally a mance in high- frequency applications.
free of the tendency of bipolar devices to low -power receiver application. Because Since VMOS devices are free from sec-
"stick" to the power supply rails, and of their approximately square -law trans- ond breakdown, and can withstand back
they come out of saturation faster with fer characteristics, VMOS devices de- emf better, lower voltage FETs can be
no extra drive current required. The re- liver more of the desired mixer products used and suppression networks simpli-
sult is a "cleaner" power amplifier. An- and fewer troublesome high -order prod- fied. In some low -power circuits, the tra-
other advantage of VMOS devices in ucts, providing more overload margin. ditional diode across the motor or
audio amplifiers, is the freedom from Power -switching applications for solenoid can be removed.
"second breakdown," basically a situa- VMOS include control of displays, sole- For the area of power control in which
tion in which momentary overvoltage or noids, and motors. Conventional designs SCRs and relays are presently used,
overcurrent will cause the device to heat use transistors in most low -power appli- VMOS shows promise. Even now, de-
up, draw more current, and then heat up cations and change to SCRs and relays vices to handle high -voltages and high
some more, until it breaks down. for high power. A good example of a currents are under development. The fu-
R -F Amplifier circuits such as those VMOS power switching application lies ture will tell whether VMOS will substi-
found in transmitters are likely places in display control. At the present time, tute for SCRs and relays, but 450 -volt
for VMOS technology. One of the first most display interfacing is done with devices are already being advertised.


Fig 5 A simple lamp dimmer circuit Fig. 6 An automatic battery charger

Anatomy of a VMOSFET. Although tional power transistors, but it has some is so large, saturation resistance can be
it would appear that a VMOS power key differences. As shown in Fig. 3, four made very low. This means the com-
FET would just be a conventional MOS- vertical layers are used, with a V- shaped pleted VMOS power FET can be inex-
FET on a larger scale, this is not the channel etched in the material (which pensive (small die) and hand.e high
case. Such a device could be built, but it gives the VMOS its name) as the gate power (large drain surface). Another
would be costly and inefficient. Figure 1 connection. A layer of silicon dioxide benefit is that each V groove creates two
shows a cross section of a conventional (Si02) insulates the conductive gate channels, one on each side of the groove,
MOSFET "die," stripped of all nones- channel from the semiconductor materi- so current density can be doubled. In
sentials. Several things prevent this FET als, and gives the device its high- imped- other words, the VMOS devices can
from being used effectively for power ance characteristics. The source connec- have high sensitivity, with shorter length
handling, among them the fact that the tion rests over the n and p materials, and channels, than conventional MOSFETs.
current flow is horizontal through the provides the remaining power connec- For example, the standard MOSFET
substrate of the device. This is due to the tion. These are the basics of the fabrica- needs at least a 5- micrometer channel.
horizontal positions of the drain and tion of the VMOS device. In practice, VMOS devices, on the other hand, re-
source connections, and the relatively many "V" channels and source connec- quire only about 1.5 micrometers for
great distance between their electrical tions are paralleled on the die to produce good results, and shorter V grooves
connections. Both of these cause high re- the high current capability. mean less stray capacitance and im-
sistance -and loss. In use, the drain and gate are biased proved high -frequency performance.
As a result of the characteristics of positive with respect to the source. The The 2N6657 VMOS power FET, for
the semiconductor material, current insulated gate produces an electric field, example, switches ampere on or off in

densities are lower when current flows which allows the n-type material next to 4 nanoseconds. That's 10 to 200 times
horizontally, and power dissipation is in- it to permit electrons to travel through faster than a bipolar power transistor!
creased. A conventional bipolar power the layers from the source to the drain. Finally, the VMOS power FET has
transistor die is shown in Fig. 2. Note Increasing the field intensity of the gate built -in, high -voltage capabilities. This
that the emitter and collector are in a (raising its voltage) increases its in- is because of the n -epi (taxial) layer,
vertical plane. Because of this arrange- fluence on the n-type material, causing a which absorbs the depletion region from
ment, current densities are higher, and greater current flow. Conversely, reduc- the pn junction above it, thus actng as a
more current can flow between these ing the gate field intensity reduces the highly effective insulator when the de-
two points. Since the collector is also the source -to -drain current flow. vice is turned off. Also, in VMOS con-
substrate, the die can be thermally There are many advantages inherent struction, the SiO2 layer under the V
bonded to a heat sink for cooling. This is in this type of construction. Since the groove need withstand only 25% of the
why TO -3 power transistors have the substrate forms the drain connection, gate -drain voltage. (In a conventional
collector connected to the metal case. there is one less connection on the top of MOSFET, the oxide must withstand the
The VMOS power FET is a variation the die. As a result, the die can be made entire gate -drain voltage.) Although the
on :he vertical theme used by conven- smaller. Also, since the drain connection point of the V groove can create high

SEP4EkIBER 1981 63
VMOS power FET
electrostatic fields which can break trolling low -power dc motors. Freedom allows the op amp to provide more volt-
down the oxide layer, work is in progress from second breakdown, means less age to the VMOS power FET, insuring
to solve this problem. One solution is to chance of damage from back emf or mo- it will deliver maximum output current.
flatten the point of the V. This should mentary high current. Of course, the If desired, this project can be built as a
ultimately make available high -voltage maximum ratings of the VMOS device battery charger or, with the filter capac-
devices on a large scale. must be observed! itor increased in value, as an adjustable
Automatic Battery Charger. The cir- high- current power supply.
Some Simple Circuits. Now that cuit shown in Fig. 6 provides up to 12.5
you have a basic familiarity with VMOS A at 14 V. As the battery charges and "Flyback" DC -DC Converter. With a
devices, let's look at how they can be its voltage rises, the circuit automati- +7 -to -18 -volt input, this circuit (Fig. 7)
used in some simple circuits. VMOS de- cally reduces the charging current. can produce regulated -5 volts. The
vices are now fairly easy to obtain. The When the battery is fully charged, the current output is limited, but should be
VN66AF used in many of these circuits charger cuts off. Thus, a lead -acid stor- enough for an op amp or two. The cir-
is available nationally through Radio age battery can be maintained fully cuit consists of a CMOS oscillator driv-
Shack stores. Basically, the circuits run charged at all times. ing a VMOS switch. A full supply volt-
the gamut from simple gadgets where age square wave appears across the 33-
the VMOS power FET simply replaces ohm resistor forming the VMOS load,
a conventional power transistor, to a and the negative, or "flyback" transi-
high performance r -f switch where only tion, is rectified, filtered, and zener reg-
VMOS will work properly. In all of the ulated to -5 volts. Since the oscillator
circuits, simplicity is apparent, particu- FOR MORE INFORMATION operates at a high frequency, the filter
larly in the drivers for the VMOS de- capacitor can have a small value, yet do
vices. This is one of the benefits of high - ON
a good job. The circuit can be assembled
impedance inputs. YMOS TECHNOLOGY
in little space and work with battery -
Audio Alarm. A circuit that can be The following publications are available powered op -amp projects.
used as a burglar alarm, keyboard beep- from Siliconix, Inc., 2201 Laurelwood Rd., VMOS R -F Switch. The circuit of
er, timer alert, or audio tone generator is Santa Clara, CA 95054: Fig. 8 can switch r -f signals in 50 nano-
shown in Fig. 4. The CMOS gate is seconds, far faster than any relay (20 to
wired as an oscillator, whose pitch is Docu- 50 ms typical). Other advantages in-
variable by changing the 200 -k1 resis- ment clude 60 -dB isolation with a 10 -MHz,
tor, or the 0.001 -AF capacitor. The number 20 -volt peak -to -peak input, and -dB in-

VMOS power FET is wired as a simple sertion loss. These are impressive fea-
switch that drives the speaker directly. AN79-1 A 500 KHz Switching Inverter for
12 V Systems tures for such a simple circuit.
Note a zener diode connected across the AN79-3 Dynamic Input Characteristics of Basically, the VMOS power FETs are
gate and source of the VMOS device. a VMOS Power Switch wired as a "T" switch. When the V -con-
This component is internal to the AN79 -4 Driving VMOS Power FETs trol input is 0 volt, the two 2N6660
VMOS, and protects the input against AN79.5 Using the VN64GA High Current, FETs are biased on, because 10 volts
overvoltage. A zener is built into most High Power VMOS Power FET appear between their source and gate.
VMOS devices to make them less sensi- AN79 -6 Using VMOS Transistors to In- The left 2N6660 turns off both power
tive to static, so fewer handling precau- terface from IC Logic to High VMOS devices by pulling their gates to
Power Loads
tions are necessary.
AN79-7 Applications of the VN10KM
-10 volts. At the same time, the
The circuit can be built on a small sources of both VMOS devices are
piece of perf board and cemented to the AN80-1 A Key to the Advance of Switch- pulled low by the right 2N6660. Thus,
rear of the speaker. If desired, the sup- ing Power Supplies both VMOS devices are turned off, and
ply voltage can be raised to 12 V for AN80-2: Meet the VMOS FET Model the junction between them is grounded
higher output power. If you want to AN80-3 Ultralinear Broadband Amplifier to reduce leakage through the switch.
tinker with the design, you can wire the
two unused gates in the CD -4011 for
AN8O-4 Enjoy VHF Power Amplifier De-
Making the V- control input - 10 volts
turns off the two 2N6660s and the
another lower- frequency oscillator. Con- AN80.5 An Alternative Power Amplifier
VMOS devices are allowed to turn on
nect the output of this oscillator to the Design
because of the 470-ohm pull -up resistor.
"strobe" input of the first oscillator. The input r -f signal passes through the
This produces a two -tone "boop- beep" VMOS devices to the output. This sim-
sound similar to some police sirens. ple circuit can be used for many applica-
Lamp Dimmer. The problem in dim- tions where high r -f frequencies are
ming conventional incandescent lamps is Basically, the battery charger is a
. used. A good example would be in a low -
that more power can be dissipated in the full -wave rectifier consisting of a pair of power transceiver, or to switch several
controller than in the lamp! The circuit 1N249 silicon diodes, filter capacitor receivers to one antenna. Build it on a
of Fig. 5 solves this problem using a C2, and the VMOS series -pass element. piece of "ground plane" perf board or
VMOS and pulse -width modulation. The VMOS device is driven by a simple board covered on one side with copper
Control R2 changes the duty cycle, or op-amp error amplifier, that compares a sheet. This will insure maximum attenu-
"on time," of the CMOS oscillator. As a portion of the output voltage, via the 5- ation when the switch is "off."
result, the on time for the VMOS switch k1 potentiometer, with a constant -volt- From this and the other circuits
varies along with lamp intensity. Since age reference source. The reference con- shown above, it is easily seen that
the VMOS power FET isn't on contin- sists of a CR390, a 390 -A current VMOS power FETs are not exotic, diffi-
uously, it dissipates less power, reducing source, and the 1N4100 zener diode. cult -to -use devices. On the contrary,
heat -sink requirements. This circuit can The power for the op amp and reference they not only offer performance advan-
be constructed on perf board, and is derived from a separate source, which tages over bipolar devices in many appli-
adapted to many different applications. produces a slightly higher operating cations, they are often considerably eas-
For example, it should work well con- voltage than the main dc source. This ier to use.
Now in one convenient, workbench guide.. .


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How to use resistors in place of expensive
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How to make a time -saving graph for de- Address
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How you can make a simple instrument that City State Zip
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IN ELECTRONICS, the basic goal
of soldering is to electrically and me-
chanically join two circuit components.
For this connection to be reliable, the
solder must adhere to or "wet" the mat-
ing surfaces of the components being
joined. The wetting of solder to a base
metal is similar to the action of water
spilled on a smooth surface: if the sur-

scc ssrU_
face is clean and free of dirt, wax and
oils, the water will wet and spread even-
ly over it; if the surface is waxed, the
water balls up.
Most manufacturers of electronic

SOLDERING components do a good job of making

their products of easily solderable mate-
rial or providing a clean solderable coat-
ing. Copper, copper -clad steel, or nickel -
steel are some of the common base
metals used in the leads of resistors, ca-
Helpful tips pacitors, integrated circuits, etc., and
they may be coated with silver, tin, tin -
on materials, tools, lead, or gold to improve solderability.
Greases, oils, dirt, and oxides are the
and techniques principal sources of contamination that
prevent good solder wetting despite the
original surface. Also, aging deterio-
rates the surface and inhibits solder wet-
ting by the formation of oxide films.
BY JOHN D. BORNEMAN Solder Alloys and Fluxes. Techni-
cally, soldering is the joining of two
parts with a metal alloy having a melt-
ing point below 800 F. Various solder
alloys include combinations of tin, lead,
antimony, silver, indium, and bismuth;
however, the most common combination
is tin and lead. Tin -lead solders range
from pure tin to pure lead and include
all proportions in between. For plumb-
ing, alloys of 10% tin and 90% lead (10/


90 solder) are commonly used. In elec- 700- form the replaceable tip. Usually, sol-
trical soldering, the alloy mix is usually LIQUID dering guns come with high wattages, in
60% tin and 40% lead (60/40). 600- PHASE most cases too high for use with pc foil
Characteristics of alloys of tin and 500- patterns. Such guns also generate a high
lead are plotted against temperature in magnetic field around the tip that can
Fig.l This graph, referred to as a phase a- 400-
. ASTY de -gauss any magnetically sensitive de-
diagram, allows one to see that only a 300- vices close to it. Using a gun may pro-
63/37 alloy has a eutectic point -that duce too high a heat on the foil pattern
200- SOLID
is, a single melting point. All other al- PHASE so that the cement that secures the cop-
loys start melting at one temperature, I00- per foil pattern to the substrate is weak-
move through a "pasty" or semisolid I I I I IL ened and the foil separates from the
stage, and then become liquid at a high- 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

printed circuit board.
er temperature. Any physical movement The "iron" is often called a "pencil
of the components being soldered while iron" because it resembles a thick pencil
the solder is in the "pasty" range will Fig.1. Melting point, including pasty that is held in the fingers. These tools
result in a "cold" joint. Such a joint phase, of alloys of tin and copper. feature interchangeable (usually screw -
appears grainy and dull, and is mechani- on) tips having various shapes -each for
cally weaker, thus less reliable. There- its own purpose. Their wattages are
fore, 63/37 or 60/40 solder is commonly flowing properties than the popular usually low enough to be safely used on
used in electronics since they do not mildly activated fluxes (RMA), and pc boards. The latest version of the pen-
remain long in a "pasty" phase. Howev- they are noncorrosive. cil iron is the low- wattage self-contained
er, a 50/50 alloy can be used if proper rechargeable type that can be used re-
care is taken. Equipment. The tools required to mote from the ac line.
An often -ignored aspect of soldering solder electrical connections are: a good Soldering irons are specified primari-
is the flux. The word flux comes from soldering iron and a supply of replace- ly by wattage as shown in the table.
the Latin root "fluere" meaning "to able tips, long -nose pliers for holding Wattage represents the amount of heat
flow." Soldering flux, which is usually parts or bending leads (or as a heat sink capacity available at the iron tip. Irons
included in the solder as a central core, for temperature- sensitive components), of all wattages usually run at about the
or separately in liquid or paste form, and desoldering braid (or a suction de- same tip temperature, but a lower -wat-
helps the solder alloy flow around the soldering tool). tage iron will cool faster during solder-
connection. Flux also cleans the compo- There are basically two types of sol- ing. The recommended wattages given
nent leads of oxides and films, and al- dering instruments -the "gun" and the in the table are to be used as general
lows the solder to wet their surfaces. "iron," although most people use these guidelines only. Slight variations may
Chemically, flux is either acid or ro- descriptions interchangeably. In es- give perfectly good performance, de-
sin based. Always use rosin flux in elec- sence, a soldering "gun" is a pistol - pending on the particular soldering situ-
tronic soldering since the acid may shaped device consisting of a transform- ation. A higher -wattage iron is more
cause corrosion. "Activated" rosin or er forming the bulk of the "gun," with likely to damage heat -sensitive compo-
"RA" flux produces better cleaning and the secondary winding extending out to nents. If static- sensitive components are
to be soldered, i.e. many MOS devices,
be sure the iron has a grounded plug.
Soldering irons can produce static volt-
age spikes that will destroy many inte-
COPPER SOLDERING grated circuit components, so a
FOIL IRON TIP grounded tip is a wise safety measure.
Tips are usually selected by prefer-
ence. Each type and shape has its place
and purpose, but the commonly used
pointed, conical type is the most versa-
tile and convenient.
Desoldering equipment is always use-
ful even for experienced solderers. Both
COMPONENT braid and suction devices are effective
and, again, operator preference is the
best guide. If you elect to use a suction
CLIP EXCESS desoldering tool, pay close attention to
CLEAN, SHINY the distance and velocity that the "pis-
JOINT ton" requires. It is very easy to get a
black eye, or have glasses damaged,
when using those devices.

Soldering Techniques. The best

technique can be outlined simply. First,
make sure that the tip of the iron is at
operating temperature, and is clean.
Then touch the heated tip to the connec-
Fig. 2 Steps in soldering Place heated iron to junction of parts to be soldered (lop left) tion. preferrably on the part having the
Bring flux -cored solder to the joint after it is hot enough to melt solder (top right) larger mass (Fig. 2). The solder should
When a smooth- contoured fillet has formed, remove the solder and allow to cool without moving. not be brought to the joint until the
The world of
gee -wizardry
Type of Soldering Recommended
Iron Wattage
Light duty: single joints, repair, touch- 25 to 30
up, delicate parts such as ICs or fine
wires. Mass of parts in connection is
Medium duty: multiple joints; many in 60 to 100
succession. Mass of parts is interme-
diate (for example, i/4 -watt resistors
or conventional disc capacitors).
Heavy duty: Mass is large, as in wires over 100
soldered to steel case or wires to
screw heads for ground points.

metals being joined have become hot method is possible. Using long -nose
enough to melt it. How long this takes is pliers, hold the part to the circuit board.
quickly learned after a few trials. The
flux -cored solder is then brought to the
Apply flux to the pieces being soldered
and take up the soldering iron. Touch
joint and placed at the junction of the the iron to a length of solder, creating a 32 -pages of test instruments from the -
latest digital multimeters to the famous
two parts. When the solder has melted ball on the tip. Touch the tip to the con- EICO scopes. Security systems. Auto-
and flowed into a smooth- contoured fil- nection and hold it there until the fillet motive and hobbyist products. Kits and
let, remove the solder. Keep the tip on is formed. This will create a good joint assembled. EICO quality. EICO value.
and free your hands to hold the parts. For FREE catalog, check reader service
the joint for a few seconds, then remove card or send 501 for first class mail.
it. Do not disturb the newly made con- To Get Good Solder Wetting. Clean
the parts well with isopropyl alcohol to 108 New South Road
nection until it has had time to solidify.
A good solder joint will be shiny (Fig. remove greases and oils, and use a 10% E/GO Hicksville, N.Y. 11801
3). Disturbing the joint before it has so- solution of hydrochloric acid (HCI) to
lidified may produce a "cold" joint. remove the oxides. Fine steel wool may
be used on foil patterns to remove oxide
Problem Solving. films. These chemicals should be avail-
To Avoid Cold Joints. Even when you able from any drugstore, but remember
know that the parts should not be moved to ask about any handling precautions
while the solder joint is cooling, it is before using them. Note that extra liq-
sometimes difficult to find enough uid flux can also help in soldering con-
hands to hold a soldering iron, solder, taminated parts. Wik
circuit board, and the part being at- To Make Solder Flow. Be sure the sol-
tached. In this case, a small vise or a sur-
geon's hemostat may be used to hold the
dering iron is providing enough heat,
with the iron tip on tight and the proper appkz computer
(ompl.fo Mkroprocnfori pmpha.if lainmilf
board and parts. If you are using rosin wattage being used. Also be sure enough APPLE II PLUS
Imo, d
Disk 1300K DOS 3.3
flux in liquid or paste form, another flux has reached the component leads 48K 51215 00 w /controller .. $575.00
LANGSYS SOROC 10135 795.00
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Leedek 100 Mon 139 00 Color Monitor call us
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80 Column Board .299.00

Texas Instruments
Invest. Anal $ 42.00 TI -59 $175.00
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according to manufacturer's specification. Send money
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per unit. We ship UPS. Subject to availability. Written
warranty for specific products can be obtained free upon
request. Above prices are for mail order and prepaid only
Fig. 3. Photo of two soldered joints. The one at left is Prices and specifications subject to change without notice.
Send mail orders..
shiny indicating a good joint. At right, is a "cold" solder joint. i?ai'% , Sac.TEL
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Shelf Conscious? soldering
Now you can organize your copies of Popular Electronics
Now your magazines can be a handsome addition to your decor, well organized, and easy to
these durable library -quality cases or binders. They're made of luxury-look leatherette over
find, thanks to
high -quality
and that it is not necessary to add extra
binders board. And both styles are custom-designed
for this or any magazine you save, with
liquid or past flux. Do not keep the iron
size, color, and imprint selected by the Popular Electronics, P.O. Box 5120, Phil., PA 19141 on the joint or continue adding solder if
publisher. FREE transfer foil included Please send: O Cases Binders WANT. a connection is not made after two trials.
for marking dates and volumes. Popular Electronics:
Magazine binders (Other):
This will only damage the components
hold a year's issues on individual ENCLOSED IS S Add 81.00 per order for postage G
or the circuit board.
snap -in rods, combining them into handling. Outside USA add $2.50 per unit ordered. Send U.S. funds only.
one volume. $7.95 each; 3 for $22.50;
To Solder ICs and Other Small Com-
CHARGE(Min. $10): VISA American Express MasterCard
6 for $42.95. Mixed titles OK for ponents. Use only a low- wattage iron
quantity prices. Card I Exp Date
Open -back cases Signature
and sharp tip to avoid excess heat. Also,
store your issues for Print Name
use 0.031 -inch diameter solder to help
individual reference. control the amount of solder deposited.
$6.95 each; 3 for $19.75; Address
6 for $37.50. Mixed titles City/State/Zip Provide a heat sink by using long -nose
OK for quantity prices. Residents of PA add applicable sales tax.
pliers to grasp the lead between the
V Charge Orders Only: Phone 24 Hrs. TOLL FREE 800.431 -2731 NY State Only 800- 942 -1940. component package and the portion to
be soldered.
After completely soldering a pc
board, an inspection of the soldered

Just in case.
joints is suggested. A toenail clipper can
be used to trim any lead ends so they
don't protrude too far from the solder.
To help in the inspection, a bright spot-
light and low -power lens can be used to
In case you have a short production run. In case examine each joint. A sharp tool can
you need good- looking prototypes. In case you need more clear away dross, solder bridges, or any-
flexibility or instant availability. thing that looks suspicious between sold-
A more realistic price. Or all the above. er pads, and a toothbrush can be used to
Because you never know when you'll need the right case at the clean the solder joint. To make sure that
right price, right away, keep us in mind. Or better yet, all joints are checked, a drop of red nail
send for our catalog... just in case polish can be placed on each after in-
spection. A minute spent checking a
board can save an hour of trouble-
shooting later on.
Another problem can arise when a
plastic capacitor appears to be "sol-
dered" in place, but is not making an
electrical connection. This often hap-
pens when a small "sleeve" of noncon-
ducting plastic extends from the capaci-
tor body slightly down each lead. The
solder will hold the plastic to the pad,
but an electrical connection may not re-
DMC Case, 6.75x7.5x3.25rror Benchtopper Case, 3x 10x 7" or 4 x 10 x sult. Use long -nose pliers to break away
5.5 x 6 x 3rr; each includes hardware 7rr; each includes hardware and metal the unwanted plastic.
and aluminum baseplate front and rear panels Since your fingers may be dirty or
oily, handle parts and circuit boards as
little as possible. If there is any question
1111111111111111111 ; of oily spots on a part, clean it using iso-
propyl alcohol or fine steel wool. If you
use steel wool, use lint -free cloth to re-
Probe Case, move all vestiges of the wool from the
5x1x0.7r'; parts or board.

Portable Case, 1.75 x
tip and cable
To Summarize:
(1) Use clean new parts and circuit
5.63 x 7.75x'; Handheld Case, 3 x 6 x 1.5'r;
includes hardware, rubber feet, red includes hardware and
(2) Use 60/40 or 50/50 tin -lead alloy
trans parent front panel red transparent front panel solder with an activated rosin core. Liq-
uid or paste rosin flux may be used to
Smarter tools for testing and design. improve wetting when necessary.
(3) Use the proper wattage soldering
GLOBAL SPECIALTIES iron based on the amount of soldering to
be done and the type of components be-
CORPORATION ing soldered.
70 Fulton Terr., New Haven. CT 06509 (203) 624 -3103, TWX 710- 465 -1227
OTHER OFFICES: San Francisco (415) 648-0611. TWX 910- 372 -7992 Europe: Phone Saffron -Walden 0799-21682. TLX 817477
Canada- Len Finkler Ltd.. Downsview, Ontario
(4) Use the proper soldering se-
quence -tip to parts, solder to parts
solder away from parts -tip away from
Call toll -free for details 1-800-243-6077
During business hours parts.
Specifications subject to change without notice. Copyright 1980 Global Specialties Corporation. (5) Use patience.
(6) Practice.
Increases system gain when passing peaks
that may have been limited during
the original recording process


LIVE music can easily have a dy- The Peak Unlimiter described in result in an annoying "swishing "sound
namic range exceeding that of this article "stretches out" what's left that we would like to avoid.
current analog recording and play- of the original peaks to enhance dy- The Peak Unlimiter makes inde-
back systems. To "fit" onto an analog namic range. It is low in cost and easy pendent gain control work in its favor.
tape or disc, this dynamic range must to build and use. Since we're interested in processing
be reduced. Generally, this is accom- short -term peaks with a modest
plished by manipulating the system Peak Unlimiting VS. Expan- change in gain, attack and release
gain as the signal passes through, sion. Peak unlimiting differs from times can be optimized. Audible sig-
making the loud passages softer and expansion in that it need not change nal degradation is thereby minimized.
the soft passages louder. Compression the system gain as radically to accom-
is moderate application of this tech- plish what it does. This means that About the Circuit. The Peak Un-
nique throughout the dynamic range. attack and release times can generally limiter, shown schematically in Fig. 2,
Peak limiting cuts gain radically if be faster than in a linear expander is designed around two quad BiFET
the signal exceeds a determined level. without causing audible side effects operational amplifiers. The first, ICI,
Although this approach works, it such as "pumping and breathing." As performs the actual signal processing,
sacrifices some of the realism in the shown in Figures I A and 1B, linear and the other, IC2, forms the heart of
reproduction of the program material. expansion may use as much as 20 dB a gain- change indicator that is com-
But not all of the 30 or so dB of of gain change, while peak unlimiting mon to both audio channels. The sig-
dynamic range subtracted by the uses 7.5 dB. nal- processing stages of both channels
compression and limiting process is ir- Another advantage of peak unlim- are identical, so further reference will
retrievably lost. It can be restored by iting is that it allows the processor to be made only to the left channel.
electrical processing complementary control each channel independently. Potentiometers RIA and R2 couple
to what was done in recording. Most Were such an arrangement used in a a portion of the input signal to capaci-
often, the exact nature of the original linear expander, the stereo image of tor CI, which passes ac but blocks any
processing is unknown, making the the program material would suffer dc level. The signal is applied to the
complementary nature of the restora- greatly. Common gain control avoids noninverting inputs of ICI A and
tive action a hit -and -miss proposition. this, but causes another problem. The ICI B by means of R4 and R8. Diode
Expansion (the inverse of compres- effect of synchronized gain change is DI rectifies the output of ICI A, and
sion) that is not correct is often unsat- quite noticeable in music that favors capacitor C2 filters the pulsating dc
isfactory, but the ear is more tolerant one channel, especially with low -fre- into a smooth level. This dc level is
of errors in peak unlimiting. quency material. To the ear, this may applied to the gate of FET QI via R9

peak unlimiter
D5) and D4 (and D6) have been spec-
ified for their dynamic characteris-
tics. Silicon diode D4 has a higher
conduction threshold than D3. This
makes possible the desired visual indi-
cation of gain changes, because the
red section of LED! will be firing at
lower levels than the green section,
which is forward biased only during
relatively large changes in gain.
The power supply, shown schemati-
cally in Fig. 3, is of fairly conventional
design. Transformer TI has a fuse -
protected primary and a grounded
I I T I T r I 7 I r I
secondary center tap. The outputs of
.004 .005 006 .007 008 009 01 02 .03 .04 .05
.06 .07 .88 .09 full -wave bridge rectifier D7 through
A DIO are filtered by C8 and C/0. Reg-
ulators IC3 and IC4 generate stable
+ 15- and - 15 -volt outputs for the
rest of the circuit. Capacitors C9 and
+8- Cl/ improve the transient response of
+7- the IC regulators and ensure low ef-
+5- fective power-supply impedances.
?+2- Construction. Printed- circuit as-
W+, sembly techniques are recommended
0- in building the Peak Unlimiter.
,-,- A
-2- full -size etching -and drilling -guide
O_4- for a suitable pc board appears in Fig.
4, and the complementary compo-
nent- placement guide appears in Fig.
-8- 5. Alternative construction techniques
such as point -to-point or wrapped -
-5 -3 -2 -1 +7 +2 +3 +4 +5 wire assembly can be employed, but
care should be taken to avoid ground
loops and circuit instability. The use
of IC sockets or Molex Soldercons is
Fig. 1. Peak unlimiting (A) shows a 7.5-dB change, while
highly recommended. To ensure close
linear expansion (B) shows a 20-dB variation. tracking between channels, match Q/
and Q2 for their actual values of key
when switch S/ is in its open position. Diodes D3 and D4 rectify and feed the parameters-IDSS, VG, and gm.
The time constant associated with this output of 1C2A to the inverting and Observe the polarities and pin bas -
rectifier /filter network has been chos- noninverting inputs of differential dc ings of electrolytic and tantalum ca-
en for optimum project performance. amplifier IC2B. Similarly, the output pacitors and of semiconductors. Note
Diode DI, a 1N82 germanium type, of IC2C (the voltage follower in the particularly that the pin basings of
was carefully chosen for the required right-channel portion of the circuit) is regulators IC3 and IC4 differ. The
dynamic characteristics. Substitution rectified and applied to the inputs of use of a radiation (hum) shield for TI
of another diode type may degrade IC2B by means of D5 and D6. Trico- is recommended. One can be fash-
performance. lor emitter LEDI, which consists of a ioned by cutting a piece of sheet tin to
The drain of QI is connected to the red LED and a green LED connected fit and wrapping it around the body of
inverting input and feedback resistor back to back and housed in a single the transformer. Trimmer potentiom-
of ICI B. Its source is grounded. The package is driven by the output of eters R2 and RII are not mounted on
channel (drain -to- source) resistance IC2B via current limiter R23. the pc board: they can be soldered
of the FET depends on the dc level The indicator circuit alerts the user directly to the lugs of dual potentiom-
applied between its gate and source, to changes in gain. If the differential eter RI. Use shielded cable for con-
which in turn depends on the ampli- dc input voltage is negative, the red nections between the input jacks and
tude of the input signal. A large in- section of LEDI becomes forward the dual potentiometer, between the
put- signal amplitude results in a large biased. In operation, faint red flickers trimmer potentiometers and the cir-
gate -to- source control voltage and, indicate that gain changes of approxi- cuit board, and between the pc board
hence, less channel resistance and mately 1.9 dB are taking place. If the and the output jacks. Finally, house
greater gain. When S/ is closed, the differential dc input voltage is posi- the project in a metal enclosure.
channel resistance of QI and the gain tive, the green emitter in LEDI be-
of stage IC /B are constant. No peak comes forward biased. When this hap- Initial Adjustment. Patch the
unlimiting occurs when the switch is pens and the LED flashes green, a Peak Unlimiter into your stereo sys-
closed. gain change of approximately 7.5 dB tem at some line -level point, such as a
The output of ICI B is routed to is taking place. tape- monitor loop, or between the
jack J3 by coupling capacitor C3 and As is the case with D1 (and D2), preamplifier outputs and the power -
to the input of voltage follower IC2A. the diodes selected for use as D3 (and amplifier inputs. The only prelimina-

LEFT R6 01
INPUT 22K 2N3819

R21 R23
1N82 A
RIO 10K 33011
+ IN34
R2 C2
250 4.7Y
1 t IC2A

R3 C3
RI5 02 .-D-

IK I5K C7 1K
R14 05 D6 25pF
IK IN34 IN914
D2 R19
RII - CS/}'
250 4.7 p F
N /

R12 C6


Fig. 2. Schematic showing both channels

of the Peak Unlimiter circuit and LED indicator.

C1,C4 -1 -F, 35 -V tantalum capacitor 1C4- LM32OT -15 15-volt regulator - T1-35 -V, 65 -mA, center -tapped trans-
former (Triad F -227X or equivalent)
C2,C5- 4.7 -F, 25 -V, radial -lead aluminum J1,J2,J3,J4 -RCA phono jack
electrolytic LED1- Tricolor light- emitting diode (Radio Misc.- Suitable enclosure, printed- circuit
C3,C6- 10 -F, 16 -V, axial -lead aluminum Shack 276 -035 or equivalent) or perforated board, standoffs, IC sock-
electrolytic Q1,Q2- 2N3819 n- channel FET (see text) ets or Molex Soldercons, LED mounting
C7- 25 -AF, 25 -V, axial -lead aluminum The following, unless otherwise specified, collar, terminal strips, line cord, shielded
electrolytic are 1/4-watt, 5/o tolerance, carbon -com- cable, hookup wire, control knob, suit-
C8,C9,C 10,C 1-
1000 -14F, radial -lead alu-
1 position fixed resistors. able hardware, solder, etc.
minum electrolytic R1- 100 -kt2, linear -taper dual potentio- Note -The following is available from XEN,
D1,D2 -1N82 germanium signal diode meter Box 2, Scranton, PA 18504: a complete
(see text) R2,R 1 1-
250 -kS2, linear -taper trimmer po- kit of parts (not including enclosure), No.
tentiometer X -1980, for $59.00 post -paid in the Unit-
D3,D5 -1N34 germanium signal diode
R3,R 12 -100 kt2 ed States. Also available separately are
(see text)
D4,D6 -1N914 silicon switching diode R4,R5, R7, R8, R10, R13, R14, R16, R17, 01 and Q2, No. XMP -3819, for $5.00 a
(see text) R19, R20, R22 k4 -1 matched pair; etched and drilled printed -
D7,D8,D9,D 10 -1
N4002 rectifier -22
R6,R 15 kt2 circuit board, No. X -1980 -PCB, for
R9,R18 -15 $11.00; both postpaid in the U.S. Penn-
F1-1/4-ampere fast -blow fuse kS2

IC1,IC2- TL074CN or TL084CN quad Bi- R21 -10 kt2 sylvania residents, add state sales tax.
FET operational amplifier R23 -330 S2 Allow four to six weeks for delivery. Add
5 1 -Dpst miniature toggle switch 2 weeks for personal check to clear.
1C3- LM34OT -15 + 15 -volt regulator

ry adjustments that must be made are probe of the oscilloscope to JI. Adjust With the stereo preamplifier still pro-
of trimmer potentiometers R2 and the generator's output -level control viding a monaural drive signal, adjust
RI I. Close switch SI so that the peak for a -volt p -p signal at J1. The out-
RI for an output null. If an oscillo-
unlimiting is defeated. Place the put frequency of the generator is not scope is being used, connect its
MODE switch of the preamplifier in its critical, but should be approximately probe(s) to the project outputs and set
MONO position, rotate the control 1000 Hz. Then shift the scope probe the scope to read differential voltage.
knob of the preamplifier's BALANCE to J3 and adjust R2 for a -volt p -p 1 Then adjust Rl I for an output null.
potentiometer to its fully left position, output level. Note that both channels of the project
and adjust the control knob of the pro- Next, connect a pair of stereo head- must be driven by the same signal to
ject's front -panel LEVEL control (R /) phones using clip leads to the "hot" make valid adjustments of the trim-
so that the wipers of the dual potenti- sides of output jacks J3 and J4. Do mer potentiometers.
ometer are at the midpoint of their not make any connection to the com- Now disconnect the clip leads or
travel. Adjust trimmer potentiometer mon (shell) lead of the headphones. scope probe(s) and install the cover.
R2 so that the signal level at jack J3 (Continued overheat)
equals that at JI. This can be done IN IC3
LM340T-15 2
aurally, by monitoring the loudspeak-

er output while alternately routing the

Fig.3. Power C9
drive signal through and around the
supply provides
Peak Unlimiter. regulated bi-
A more precise adjustment can be
made if you have access to a signal
generator and an oscilloscope. Con-
polar 15 volts
for op-amp power.
nect the signal generator to a line -lev- N
3 IC4
LM320T -15
el input of the preamplifier and the

peak unlimiter

Fig. 4. Etching and drilling guide for pc board.

Using the Peak Unlimiter. Route

audio signals through the project, and
monitor the loudspeaker outputs and
OH SIB indicator LEDI. The author recom-
-05 }
mends that LEVEL control R1 be ad-
justed so that, with SI in its open posi-
D2 1

C7 R22

tion, LEDI glows red most of the time

RIO (except in the absence of input sig-
CB C4 nals) and flashes green on the loudest

R14 1+
signal peaks. This recommendation is

somewhat arbitrary, however, and

I 5 I6
- cI
R13 RI] D
R 1
your ears should be the final judge.
-D9- Opening and closing SI will allow you
TI to make quick comparision between
C C the processed and unprocessed signal.
-D?- + You might find that the nature of the
-R6- I
program material dictates which set-

D ting gives the most pleasing results.
I4# An apparent improvement in the

program material's signal -to -noise ra-
I+ tio will be realized because of a mask-
ing effect introduced by the Peak Un-
limiter. Keep in mind that signal
peaks are accentuated by several dB,
-C2- -R9- 1

so some catition should be observed, at
least at first. If the audio system does
not have sufficient headroom, ampli-
fier clipping and damage to the loud-
Fig. 5. Component -placement guide for pc board. speakers may occur. O

Detects oxygen -hungry gases such as
carbon monoxide and methane. . . sounds a warning .

before dangerous concentrations are reached


VIHEN a lethal fire starts, respond to ionized gases generated by Circuit Operation. As shown in
flame and smoke are not the fire unless the fire is smoldering in an Fig. 1, transformer TI, fullwave recti-
only killers. Colorless, odorless carbon enclosed area lacking oxygen. This fier RECTI, resistor R2, and filter
monoxide gas (CO) has been known project has the advantage of being capacitor CI make up the line -pow-
to kill or incapacitate people -often self -powered, thus providing portable ered power supply for 5 -volt regulator
far from the fire itself. One factor that protection both at home and in hotels ICI. Resistor R1, in conjunction with
makes CO such a stealthy, insidious or motels when you travel. rectfier DI, maintains the charge on
assassin is its ability to elude conven- The alarm is based on an inexpen- the rechargeable cells in BI, while
tional smoke detectors. These devices sive semiconductor sensor whose elec- diode D2 allows BI to power the cir-
are similarly insensitive to dangerous trical resistance changes when its ac- cuit in stand -by mode when the line
hydrocarbon gases like methane tive surface is exposed to gases such as power is interrupted. Under these
(CH4), a toxic compound that is the carbon monoxide, methane, butane, conditions, DI is reverse biased and
chief component of natural gas. and alcohol vapors that have a strong battery power flows through forward -
The Gas Alarm described here has affinity for oxygen. (These are known biased diode D2 to power the circuit.
been designed to sound its warning be- as reducing gases.) The sensor ele- The regulated output from IC1 main-
fore dangerous levels of poisonous ment is enclosed in a small capsule tains a fixed heater voltage for gas
gases accumulate. The Gas Alarm and protected by a stainless steel sensor TGS1 to provide uniform sensi-
should be considered complementary mesh, while a low -power heater acti- tivity. The combination of R3 and
to, and not a replacement for conven- vates the sensor element and purifies LEDI forms a power -on indicator.
tional smoke detectors, as it will not it after exposure to gas. When gas is present at TGS1, the

gas alarm

on perf board or multi -lug terminal

strips using point -to -point wiring.
Mount the socket for sensor on top of
the cabinet for maximum exposure to
surrounding air, and mount the alarm
on the side or back of the cabinet for
The newest in home best audio output. The six rechargea-
computers, fine stereo ble cells forming BI can be mounted in
components, color TV, readily available battery holders.
HAM radio, precision Adjustment. (1) Plug the Gas
test equipment, Alarm into a 117 -volt ac outlet; (2)
innovative electronics rotate CAL control R4 fully CCW for
for the home -all in minimum resistance between the
SCR gate and ground; (3) apply pow-
easy -to- build, er and allow the sensor to stabilize for
money-saving kits. 1 -2 minutes, then rotate the CAL con-

trol clockwise till the alarm sounds;

Send today (4) rotate CAL control CCW till the
alarm stops. The alarm is now ready
for your for operation. Test the system by rub-
bing a drop of alcohol between your
fingers, near the sensor. When the
FREE Photo of the author's prototype. alarm sounds, repeat steps two

Heathkit resistance of its sensor element drops,

raising the voltage applied across cali-
through four.
The rechargeable batteries are
trickle charged when the alarm is
Catalog bration potentiometer R4. The rotor
of R4 is connected to the gate of
plugged into an ac outlet, and will be
fully charged after approximately 24

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the circuit.
Al- Piezoelectric buzzer (Radio Shack
273-060 or similar) SCR 1- 200 -V, 6 -A SCR (Radio Shack
BI- Battery (six rechargeable 1.5 -V cells) 276 -1067 or similar)
CI- 220 -F, 16 -V electrolytic TGS1 -Gas sensor (See note)
DI, D2- 200 -V, -A silicon diode
1 T1 -12 -V, -A transformer (Radio Shack

IC 1 -5 -V
regulator (Radio Shack 276- 273-1505 or similar)
1770 or similar) Misc. -6" x 4" x 21/2" enclosure with cov-
LED -Red. LED (optional)
1 er, pert board or terminal strips, etc.
R1- 100-S2, /2 -W resistor1 Note -The following is available from C &
If coupon write
is missing, R2 -15 -t1 -W resistor1 R Electronics, Box 217, Holmdel, NJ
Heath Co., Dept. 010 -812 R3- 270-52, /2 -W resistor (optional)
1 07733: Pretested gas sensor, with sock-
Benton Harbor, MI 49022 R4 -50 -k S2 linear potentiometer et, $10.95 plus $1 postage /handling. NJ
RECT1 -50-V, -A full -wave rectifier
1 residents, add 50/o tax. Allow 2 to 3
S -Spst switch
1 weeks for delivery.
Send to: Heath Co., Dept. 010 -812
Benton Harbor, MI 49022. SCRI, and when voltage at that point hours. To ensure that the batteries are
reaches approximately 0.3 V, SCRI working properly, unplug the alarm
Send my free Heathkit Catalog now.
Iam not currently receiving your turns on, supplying power to alarm and, after allowing it to stabilize with
catalog. AI. The piezoelectric alarm specified the batteries, repeat the alcohol test
for Al interrupts current flow periodi- described above. The fully charged
Name cally, so SCRI does not latch perma- AA -size batteries should operate the
nently on. Switch SI allows for faster sensor for over an hour during a power
Address battery charging while the gas sensor failure. For longer standby operation
is turned off. use C- or D -size rechargeables. These
will operate the alarm longer, but also
City State
Construction. The project will eas- require longer charging time. When
ily fit in a 6" x 4" x 21h" metal cabi- the alarm is not in use, open SI to pro-
CL -724A Zip net, and all components except the tect batteries from discharging
alarm and gas sensor can be mounted through ICI. 0
Complete LED changes "color" with input voltage


THERE are many ways that an LED Analog Meter. The schematic dual -color LED connected like a feed-
electronic measuring circuit can diagram of the circuit for the meter is back element in conjunction with cur-
display information. Numerical data shown in Fig. 1. rent- limiting resistor R7. When the
can be displayed on LED or LCD output of ICI C is positive, the output
readouts, analog meters, or similar Circuit Operation. Op amp IC1 A of ICID is at ground. Thus, current
devices, while on /off indications can generates a ramp waveform at point will flow from the output of ICI C,
be made via a low -cost discrete LED A that drives amplifier ICI B via R4 through R7, and the forward- biased
or lamp. Another possibility is to show (R5 acting as the gain -determining LED to the virtual ground of ICID.
a changing variable as a series of color feedback resistor) with the amplified This causes that LED to glow. Since
variations, taking advantage of a new ramp voltage applied to the noninvert- the other LED in the package is re-
low -cost, multicolor LED. ing input ( +) of comparator IC1C. verse- biased, it remains dark. When
This new device consists of a pair of The input voltage (referenced to the output of ICI C goes to ground,
LEDs, one emitting red light and the ground) applied to the inverting (-
) the output of ICID goes high, and
other green, oppositely polarized and input is compared with the instanta- current flows the opposite way, caus-
enclosed in a common plastic housing neous ramp voltage applied to the ing the now forward- biased LED to
with two electrical leads. Applying noninverting input (also referenced to glow while the other goes dark.
current in one direction causes only ground). If the input voltage is higher Thus, contingent on the level of the
the forward- biased LED to glow, than the ramp voltage, the output of input signal, the single LED can as-
while the reverse -biased LED remains ICI C is near ground, and when the sume either of two distinct colors, or a
dark. If the current polarity is rapidly input voltage is lower than the instan- combination of the two colors when
alternated, then the composite LED taneous ramp voltage, the output of the input voltage is centered on the
will glow yellow or greenish red, de- ICIC is near the level of the positive ramp voltage.
pending on the duty cycles of the cur- supply voltage. The builder can decide which of the
rents in the two directions. This is the The output of IC1 C is connected to two colors within the LED can repre-
operating principle behind the Single the inverting input of ICID with the sent the high or low inputs, and ar-



C1- 0.01 -F disc ceramic capacitor
D1, D2- PTC205, -V diode (see text)

ICI -Quad op amp (Radio Shack 276-

R4 R5 1714 or similar, see text)
330K IM
LED1- Two -color LED (Radio Shack 276-
10K R1, R2, R3- 10 -kt2, 1/2 -W resistor
R4, R6- 330 -kf2, t /2-W resistor
R5- -Mt2, 1/2 -W resistor

R7 -See text
R8, R9- 3.3 -ktT2, 1i2 -W resistor

Note: A pc board (RW -205) is available for

$5.25, plus $1.25 postage and handling
from Danocinths Inc., Box 261, West-
land, Ml 48185. Michigan residents
330K please add 4% sales tax.

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the complete

V+ circuit for the LED Analog Meter.

R8 R9
3.3K 3.3K

analog meter
range the LED polarity accordingly. 0.025. For example, with a 9 -volt sup-
(It is suggested that red be used for ply, R7 is 9/0.025 or 360 ohms (the
higher values.) Protection diodes DI nearest standard value can be used).
and D2 are included to ensure that the Operating power can be any value be-
input voltage level does not go above tween 5 and 35 volts dc. If desired,
the power supply positive voltage or discrete op amps may be used for the
18 New Modules: below -1V with respect to ground. If four stages.
Compact versatile 1113 desired, one or more conventional
preamps and mixers 1N914 or similar silicon diodes can be Applications. The Single LED
for every audio application! used in place of the -volt diodes spec-
1 Analog Meter can be used any place
These modules are complete in cases and include latest ified. Each silicon diode drop is about an approximate measurement is to be
design clip -on edge connectors. Save you time and
money and give excellent performance. All modules ful- 0.6 volt, so two in series can provide a made. For example, a thermistor can
ly compatible with each other and with ILP power limit of about 1.2 volts. Since a single - be used to convert temperature to a
amplifiers and power supplies. Typical performance of
all types include frequency response 15 Hz - 50 KHz,
ended power supply is used, the net- voltage level that is applied to the
distortion typically less than 0.005% (at 1 KHz), and work of R8 and R9 is used to bias the input. The LED is then arranged so
signal /noise ratio better than 80 db. Modules HY6 to noninverting inputs of the three oper-
HY13 measure 1 x 3/. x 134". HY66 to HY77 measure
that a rise in temperature causes the
3l/: x x 13 ". Complete connection data provided. All ational amplifiers red portion to glow, while lower tem-
modules operate from *15V to 30V maximum. HY67 peratures keep the green LED lit. The
can only be used with PSU30 power supply unit. For
easy mounting we recommend B6 mounting board (for
Construction. The circuit can be thermistor can be thermally coupled
modules HY6 - HY13) $3.75; and B66 (for HY66 - HY77) assembled on a small pc board such as to the output stages of an audio power
@ $4.75. These modules are so reliable they carry a
5-year replacement warranty!
HY6 Mono PreAmp. Mic/Mag. cartridge/
Tuner /Tape /Aux + Volume /Bass /Treble.
10 mA. $25.95
HY7 Mono Mixer. To mix eight signals into one.
10 mA. $19.95
HY8 Stereo Mixer. Two channels, each mixing five
signals into one. 10 mA $24.95
HY9 Stereo Preamp. Two channels mag. car -
tridge/Mic + Volume. 10 mA. $26.95
HY11 Mono Mixer. To mix five signals into one +
Bass/Treble controls. 10 mA $28.95
HY12 Mono Preamp. To mix two signals Into one +
Bass/Midrange/Treble. 10 mA $26.95
HY13 Mono VU Meter. Programmable gain. LED
overload driver (meter not included). 10 mA $23.95
HY68 Stereo Preamp. Mic/Mag. cartridge/
Tape /Tuner /Aux + Volume /Bass /Treble /Balance.
20 mA. $48.95
HY67 Stereo Headphone Amplifier. Will drive head-
phones in the range of 4 ohm - 2K ohm. 80 mA $49.95
HY68 Stereo Mixer. Two channels, each mixing 10
signals Into one. 20 mA $31.95
HY69 Mono Preamp. Two input channels of mag.
cartridge /Mic + Mixing /Volume/Treble /Bass.
20 mA. $41.95
HY71 Dual Stereo Preamp. Four channels of mag.
cartridge /Mic. + Volume. 20 mA. $42.95
HY73 Guitar Preamp. Two Guitar (Bass /Lead) and
Mic + separate Volume/Bass /Treble + Mix. R6 Fig. 2. Full-size etch-
20 mA. $48.95 ing and drilling guide
HY74 Stereo Mixer. Two channels, each mixing five CI (above) and component -
signals Into one + Treble/Bass. 20 mA $45.95 placement guide (left)
HY75 Stereo Preamp. Two channels, each mixing R2
two signals into one + Bass /Mid- range /Treble. R8 D2 for the project's print-
20 mA. RI ed- circuit board.
HY77 Stereo VU Meter Driver. Programmable
gain /LED overload driver. 20 mA.
Power Amp

- R7- v-


j IN
PRICE $29.95 DI
The kind of reliability and performance you have been R4
waiting for in a 12V automotive power amplifier! Use as R9 INPUT
power booster or drive direct from tape-deck/preamp
out. Like all ILP modules, the C15 power booster Is en-
capsulated with integral heatsink, and guaranteed for 5
years. Features include: automatic switch on; selec-
table input level facility (700 mV or 3V rms); screw - that shown in Fig. 2. Observe the po- amplifier to keep an eye on heat -sink
terminal connections; two hole-mount; compact size (4 x larity of input protective diodes. A
2 x 2"). Output power continuous (typical) 15 watts rms
temperature. Or, it can be used for an
into 4 ohms, freq. response 15 Hz to 30 KHz ( 3db), THD socket may be used for the IC. The automotive temperature gauge. The
0.1% at 10 watts. Use two for stereo applications. polarity of LEDI is optional. circuit can be used to monitor a high
GLaDSTO/lEBuffalo,NY, 14203. The value of current -limiting resis- voltage if a suitable voltage divider is
ELECTRONICS (716) 849-0735 tor R7 is determined by dividing the used, or monitor a very low voltage if
Mall Orders: Check (Certified), or Money
Orders. No C.O.D.'s. Please add 5% shipping
power supply operating voltage by a dc amplifier is used at the input. 0
In Canada: Gladstone Electronics, Toronto, (416) 787-1448
State-of-the-art performance

HOB1 BulltIn heatsinks

Encapsulated circuitry
No external parts required

9INC By John McVeigh, Technical Editor

Flveyear warranty
120 and 240 watt amplifiers utilizing the latest
technological advance in audio ... the MOSFET. They
provide faster slew rate and complete absence of
crossover distortion. They are immune to thermal
runaway, increasing long term reliability and eliminating

Checking Diodes nect the probes of a dc voltmeter across -

the need for complicated protection circuitry
- 100 KHz ( -3 db). THD

Frequency response 15 Hz
Q. I recently acquired a selection of the diode as shown. If the diode is made (Typical at 1 KHz) 0.005 %. IM (60 Hi and 7 KHz
sinewave, 4:1 ratio) .006 %. SIN Ratio (DIN standard)
diodes, and I want to build the AD *ZAP
Commercial Killer that was presented in
of germanium, the meter will indicate a
voltage drop of approximately 200 mV
- 100 db. Slew rate
20 V /uS. Rise time -3
uS. Input

the February 1981 issue. The AD*ZAP across the device. If the device under
pedance -4 ohms to infinity. Damping factor -
500 MV /100k ohm. Output Im-
test is made of silicon, the measured MOS120 60 watt MOSFET Amplifier (8ohms) s 79.95
receiver employs 1N270 germanium MOS200 120 watt MOSFET Amplifier (8ohms) $129.95
diodes. I know that at least one of my voltage will be approximately 600 mV. MOS400 240 watt MOSFET Amplifier (4 ohm). $199.50
diodes is a 1N270, but I don't know Diode action can be verified by re-
Built -In
which. Can you tell me how I can find versing the way the diode is connected to BIPOLAR
out? -Matt Berent, Baton Rouge, LA the circuit. If the voltage reading is 9 POWER
volts, the diode is behaving as an open 'Five -year
circuit-as it should under reverse-bias AMPLIFIER
A. The simple circuit shown will enable conditions. Note that the circuit will MODULES
you to distinguish a germanium from a only indicate whether a diode is made of PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS:
silicon diode. Connect the device to be
tested to the circuit as shown so that the
silicon or germanium and whether its
junction displays diode action (a simple
Frequency response

(Typical at 1 KHz)
-- - -
15 Hz

100 db. Slew rate

50 KHz ( -3 db). THD
0.1%. IM Distortion -
0.006 %. S/N
15V /uS. Rise time -5
Input sensitivity /Impedance: 500 My /100 Kohms. Damp-
ing factor -
400. Power rated into 8 ohms (except
HY400 rated into 4 ohms).
HY30 (15 watts RMS) $25.95
IOK $29.95
HY 80 30 watts RMS)
DIODE HY120 (60 watts RMS) 59.95

9V UNDER DC HY200 (120 watts) 79.95

HY400 (240 watts RMS) 99.95
TEST VOLTMETER FP480 "Bridges" 2 HY400s for 480 watts RMS 20.00
CIRCUIT PROTECTION. Similar in size, features and per -
formance tb bipolar modules.
HD120 (60 watts RMS) s 89.95
HD200 (120 watts RMS) 89.95
diode will be forward- biased. If you good /bad test). However, in the HD400 (240 watts RMS) 124.95
have a lot of diodes to test, build a little AD*ZAP receiver circuit, the exact ger-
test jig that employs binding posts or manium diode is not critical. Satisfacto- Rack -
Fahnestock clips. This will simplify con- ry performance should be obtained with Mount
necting the diodes to the circuit. When any of the common germanium signal Cabinet
the device to be checked is in place, con- diodes (1N34, 1N58, 1N270, etc.).
Attractive, rugged, professional 19" rack -mount cabinet
for easy assembly of your ILP amplifier system.
Amplifier modules (2 of) mount on pre -cUt back panel.
RFI bles are woefully deficient in this re- Power supply unit mounts inside chassis. Complete
Q. In the past, I have built such projects spect). Cable shields should be commit- assembly and wiring Is a breeze, taking about one hour!
as special -effects units for electronic ted to ground at at least one end, but Specify which amplifier you will be using: HY120,
musical instruments, and have had trou- beware of ground loops in high -gain cir- HY200, HY400, MOS120, MOS200 or MOS400.

ble with interfering radio-frequency sig- cuits. Keep signal- carrying cables as Power Supply Units
nals. Can you give me some tips on how short as possible. Circuit boards with all components plus TOROIDAL
Inside the project enclosure, use short transformers (except PSU30 and 36). Toroidals are half
to cut down on this ever -present men- the size and weight of conventional transformers; and
ace?- Dennis Halsey lead lengths, some of which might have are quieter and more efficient.
to be shielded. Power-supply buses PSU50 (t
25V) for 1 or 2 HY50 $39.95
A. Radio -frequency interference (RFI) should be heavily bypassed and should PSU80 (t
35V) for HY120
1 51.00
to audio devices is the result of signal be decoupled with resistors or r-f chokes. PSU70 (t
35V) for 1 or 2 HY120 64.00

rectification. A signal lead or some other Chokes or ferrite beads at high -gain in- PSU75 (t
45V) for 1 or 2 MOS120 64.00
PSU90 (t
45V) for 1 HY200 85.50
conductor acts as an antenna and pre- puts will block the passage of r; -f, and PSU95 (t
45V) for 1 MOS200 72.00
sents r -f to a semiconductor or some oth- bypass capacitors of suitable values will PSU180(t45V) for 1 HY400 or 2 HY2 00 89.50
er device which rectifies the signal. shunt r -f to ground. Capacitor values PSU185 (t
55V) for 1 or 2 MOS200 95.00

(Even a poor solder joint can act as a should be chosen so that their reactances PSU38 (t
20V) for 1or 2 HY30 33.60
PSU30 (t
15V) for combinations of HY6 /HY66 series to
rectifier.) Once the r -f signal has been are low at radio frequencies but high at a maximum of 100 mA or one HY67 22.95
rectified, any audio - frequency varia-
tions in its envelope can be athplified
along with the desired audio signal. To
cure RFI, the offending r -f signal must
audio frequencies and so that they do
not disturb the desired response of the
circuit in which they are installed.
An article that appeared in the May
Electronics Phone Orders (716) 849 -0735
Gladstone Electronics
be prevented from reaching the point at 1977 issue of Stereo Review describes 901 Fuhrmann Blvd., Buffalo, NY, 14203
which rectification takes place. RFI prevention in audio equipment in Name
There are several tactics that can be some detail. Reprints of the article are City State Zip
employed to achieve this result. The sen- available for $2.00 each (minimum or- Charge to ( ) Visa ( ) Mastercard

sitive audio circuit should be housed in a der $6.00) from Stereo Review Re- Card # Expiry
) money order for s
metallic enclosure. Signal cables should prints, Box 278, Pratt Station, Brooklyn, Enclosed ( ) check (

Please send
have effective shields (many audio ca- NY 11205.

THE simple display and operating 0000 F8 01 B1 B2 B3 B8
system described in this article al- 0006 F8 C9 A1 F8 EA A2
000C F8 81 A3
lows any 1802 user to input machine -
language programs, and as a bonus, pro- 000F F8 02 B6 F8 00 A6
vide a display readout with any Elf using 0015 F8 00 56
an 1861 video chip. 0018 16 96 FB 04 clear display buffer
The program requires 1K bytes of 001C 3A 15
RAM; /2K for display buffer storage,

and /2K for program and subroutines

001E F8 00 134 F8 25 A4
0024 D4 R4 is "main" pgm. ctr.
that do not alter themselves. The I/O
commands are compatible with an ex- MAIN PROGRAM:
panded Elf using an 1861 TV chip. An 0025 E2 69 TV on
EF3 flag is required, and this can be sup- 0027 37 27 3F 29 ENTER high byte
plied by grounding that input through a 0026 6C BE memory location displayed
toggle switch. 002D 37 2D 3F 2F - ENTER low byte
0031 6C AE in RE
0033 37
The Program. Load the program 0035 8E
FF 07 AE 33 3F
shown in the Listing starting at M0000. 0038 FF
9E 01 BE RE has top of display
Flip the RUN switch on and enter any 003F F8
02 66 F8 00 A6 R6 is display buffer pointer
two -byte address. The video display will 0045 16 display loop:
be a column of eight 4 -digit addresses 0046 7A
9E 03 9E 7B D3 R3 is pgm. ctr. for digit
with their corresponding data bytes. Set 004C 7A
8E D3 8E 7B D3 configuration subroutine
EF3 to logic 0, insert 00 via the INPUT
0052 16
0053 OE 7A D3 4E 7B D3 one display line
toggle switches and note that when the 0059 86 FB 3A 45
CO loop for eight lines
INPUT switch is turned on, the display 005E F8 8B A3 F8 10 D3 display filled
scrolls upward through memory. En-
tering 01 on the switches will produce a 0064 3F 64 3E 77 ENTER opcode or EF =3
down scroll, and 02 will single -step up 0068 F8 8B A3 F8 8D A6 EF3 =1, put flag and change
for each operation of the INPUT switch. 006E F8 11 D3 2E 6C 5E byte
To jump the display anywhere in memo- 0074 1E 30 33 inc display and loop for more
ry, enter 03 and the two -byte address. 0077 F8 8B A3 F8 8D A6
Note that the input address is dis- 007D F8 12 D3
played at the bottom of the CRT screen. 0080 6C FB 00 3A 87 opcode 00
This is the "active" position, and all op- 0085 30 35 shift display up
erations are performed from this point.
Address an empty memory location 0087 6C F8 01 3A 90 opcode 01
(keep in mind that M0200 -M03FF is 008C 2E 2E 30 35 shift display down
display buffer storage), and make 0090 FB
6C 02 3A 97 opcode 02
EF3= 1. Now with each operation of the 0095 30 33 single step display
INPUT switch, the byte on the toggle
switches will be sequentially input into 0097 6C FB 03 3A 9E opcode 03
memory. A pointer reminds you that 009C 30 27 change display address
memory is being changed. When fin-
009E 6C FB 04 3A B3 opcode 04 (TV off)
ished, return EF3 to logic 0.
00A3 61 run program at
To execute a program from any point 00A4 2E 9E 8E AO

BO ENTER high address

in memory, set the display to the begin- 00A9 37 A9
ning address of the program to be run OOAB DO ENTER low address
and enter 04. The 1861 is disabled by an 00AC 00 00 00 00
04 command, and the machine is run- 0060 00 00 00 RO is pgm. ctr.
ning outside the operating program. To
0083 6C FB 05 3A 64 opcode 05 (TV off)
return, flip the RUN switch off/on and 0088 F8 01 BA F8 EB AA move block of memory
enter an address. The program you are
Permits easy machine- language input
to an 1802-based system

006E 61 22 EA 37 Cl creating may "eat" the operating pro-

00C3 3F C3 37 C5 ENTER beginning add. of data gram space, so keep the operating pro-
0007 6C B9 to be moved (high byte)
gram on cassette.
00C9 3F C9 37 CB ENTER (low byte)
To move a block of memory, address
00CF 3F CF 37 D1 ENTER last add. of data to the first memory position to be changed
0003 6C 1A byte)
be moved (high and enter 05. Note that the display
0005 3F D5 37 07 ENTER (low byte) blanks. Enter the two -byte beginning
00D9 6C
2E address of the data to be moved, and
00DB 49
5E 1E 89 F3 3A DB then the two -byte ending address. The
00E2 2A 99 F3 lA 3A DB display will return when the transfer is
00E8 49 5E 30 25 return for display
complete. Enter a two -byte address to
get back in the operating program.
0100 35 2B 2F 39 27 31 41 51 The program uses two subroutines.
0108 43 45 56 49 3D 4D 20 24 The TV interrupt routine (MOIC7) is a
0110 58 60 66 65 00 00 00 00 standard 512 -byte display for the 1861
0118 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 chip. The digit maker routine (M0180)
0120 FO 80 CO 80 FO 80 CO 80 provides functions useful in any display
0128 80 AO 20 60 20 20 70
requiring hex digits, and has two entry
0130 10 FO 80 FO 10 FO 90 90
0138 90 FO 10 70 10 FO 80 80
points. If entered at M0181, it will dis-
0140 80 FO 80 FO 90 FO 90 FO play a digit corresponding to the high or
0148 10 FO 50 70 50 FO 50 50 low half byte present in the D register.
0150 50 FO 10 20 40 40 FO 90 The main program sets buffer pointer
0158 FO 90 90 2F 25 25 A5 EF R6 to the position of the upper left cor-
0160 F8 7C 3E 7C F8 00 00 00 ner of the digit in the display, and sets
0168 00 00 AA 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00
the Q line to specify whether the high or
0170 00 00
0178 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 the low digit is to be displayed. Before a
D3 is executed, R6, D, and Q must be
SUBROUTINE: DIGIT MAKER set and the subroutine leaves R6 point-
0180 D4 ing to the next digit position in the dis-
0181 39 87 O state identifies hi /lodigit play. The main program uses the sub-
0183 FE FE FE FE routine at M003F -FD to create the dis-
0187 F6 F6 F6 F6
play. The routine may also be entered at
018B A8 08 A8 enter here for single digit
F8 05 A7 R5 counts 5 lines per digit
MO18B to produce a symbol or digit of
0191 48 56 your own design. Following the opera-
0193 86 FC 08 A6 36 9D tions for the pointer at M0068 -71 will
0199 96 FC 01 B6 reveal how this works, and space is pro-
019D 27 87 3A 91 vided in the configuration table at
O1A1 86 FF 27 A6 33 AB M0170-7F.
01A7 96 FF 01 B6
This program does not alter itself and
0180 32 B6 FB 80 3A CO
could be put into ROM. There are, how-
0186 86 FC 30 A6 3B CO ever, three bytes of storage at MO1 E8-
01BC 96 FC 01 B6 EA which would need to be moved. Put-
01C0 96 FB 04 3A 80 ting them at the bottom of the display
buffer MO3xx will add a line of dancing
SUBROUTINE: TV INTERRUPT dots and dashes to the display. Registers
01C7 72 70
01C9 C4 22 78 22 52
R2 and RA point to this storage.
010E F8 02 BO F8 00 AO The ability to scan memory and to
0104 C4 C4 E2 80 move stacks makes machine language
01D8 E2 20 AO E2 easier to edit and debug. Keep your loop
01DC 3C D7 addresses and X designators straight
010E 80 E2 20 AO 2F and you can say almost anything to the
01E3 34 DE 30 C7
1802. . in its own language.
. O

sensible you -do -it experience
with solid -state circuits. Bipolar
By Forrest M. Mims
transistors, field -effect
transistors, linear integrated
circuits, TTL digital circuits and
CMOS integrated circuits are The Billion Transistor Chip?
covered. More than 100 basic
and advanced circuits. Each
circuit is complete, fully
explained, and most include
suggested procedures for
experimentation. All use YOU have probably read about Remarkable adva aces have been
low-cost, readily available ENIAC, the pioneering electronic made in computer technology since the
components. Circuits can be digital computer built during World power -hungry ENIAC first began mak-
constructed quickly on a War II. This enormous machine, which ing the lights flicker around the Univer-
solderless breadboard. Available filled a room the size of a small house, sity of Pennsylvania, but the basic oper-
from your local electronic used 18,000 vacuum tubes, 70,000 resis- ating principles of digital computers
distributor. tors, 10,000 capacitors and 7,500 relays have not changed much. They still pro-
If you're a student, technician, and switches. ENIAC weighed 30 tons cess inst-uictions and data in much the
experimenter, radio amateur, and consumed 140,000 watts of power. same way they did back in the early
teacher or computer enthusiast, ENIAC was first operated in Novem- 1950's. However, the components and
order these invaluable ber 1945, about the time the average peripherals of today's computers have
solid -state circuit training reader of POPULAR ELECTRONICS was changed dramatically.
programs today. born! The Army's Ballistic Research Consider those 18,000 tubes in the old
Lab. used the machine from 1946 until ENIAC: they were the reason ENIAC
VISIT SAMS AT it was disassembled in October 1955. consumed so much power. There was
1516 & 1518.
BI POtgR uit Files
r g0$
F, & lmE10R. En rroirst&

r - SAMS
Mail to: Howard W. Sams & Co., Inc., 4300 West
1 62nd St., P.O. Box 7092, Indianapolis, IN 46206. I

IVolume I- Bipolar Transistor, Fet,

Quantity I

& Linear IC Circuits No. 21753 $ 7.95

I Volume II -TTL & CMOS l
Circuits No. 21754 $ 7.95
I Two Volume Set No. 21752 $14.50
Amount of order $

Add local sales tax where applicable

Shipping & handling costs $ 2.00
Total amount of order $
Payment Enclosed Check Money Order
VISA MasterCard Interbank No
Account No Expiration Date

Name (print)
City State Zip
I Call toll -free for the name of your I
1- 800 -428 -3696
local Sams Book outlet or to order by phone. Offer Fig. 1. Photomicrograph of Hewlett- Packard's new CPIs
Lgood in U.S.A. only. Offer expires 1/31/82. AD120I
JJ containing 450,000 transistors on a single chip.
solid-state developments
even a prediction by one skeptic that the achievement, it may soon be eclipsed by
mean time between tube failures would
be so brief the computer would operate
technologies which offer similar compo-
nent densities, consuming less power. CONVERTERS
in short spurts between lengthy delays to That's because Hewlett- Packard se-
find and replace burned -out tubes. lected the familiar nMOS process for GOOD STUFF!
Solid -state switching circuits long ago the new chips. Consequently the CPU 30 CHANNEL CABLE TV CONVERTER'
reduced the power appetite of computers chip consumes a hefty seven watts. Oth- 95
band Cab, cnanrc
to manageable levels. And, they contin- er companies in Japan and the United for vl igonyour

ue to make possible an amazing degree

of miniaturization. Incredible as they
States are thinking in terms of CMOS
processes which permit much higher HOT NEW IMPORT! REMOTE CONTROL
TV set'
No 346AE047
are, today's crop of single-chip micro- component densities than conventional 30 CHANNEL CABLE TV CONVERTER!

computers are but a hint of what's to CMOS while preserving low power-con- 95 Includes remote TV
come in the future.
A 450,000-Transistor Microcom-
sumption advantage of CMOS.
Bell Laboratories, a relative newcom-
er in microprocessor technology, has re-

on off switch and
fine tuning con's
No. 346V275

puter. One of the latest marvels of cently developed a 32 -bit CMOS micro- THE ULTIMATE CABLE TV CONVERTER'
miniaturization is the silicon chip whose processor which incorporates 100,000 Sel TV
end tee`a' 00
transistors on a single chip. While this

photomicrograph appears as Fig. 1. This it de,

chip, which measures only one-quarter chip has a fourth the components of the No.346Z4006

inch on a side, contains 450,000 transis- Hewlett- Packard CPU, it consumes VIDCOR 2000 CONVERTER ELIMINATES PROBLEMS
tors and functions as the central process- only 500 milliwatts. WHEN VIDEOTAPING FROM CABLE TV
II-dopes your
ur VCR's
Another big advantage to CMOS is 95

ing unit of what may be the most power- len fo programme, Re

ful 32 -bit microcomputer yet developed. that differential amplifiers are easily poi Enables videotap ng

cattle program well


Scientists at Hewlett -Packard's Desk- made. This simplifies the inclusion of No. 346V960
watching another q

top Computer Division (3404 East Har- such on -chip functions as analog- to -dig- UNUSUAL FACTORY SURPLUS
mony Road, Fort Collins, CO 80525) ital and digital -to-analog conversion. MID -BAND -

developed the new CPU chip along with 95

a series of compatible VLSI (very large What Next? In the mid- 1960's, Dr.
scale integration) devices containing up Gordon Moore of Intel predicted that
ocenute. No 346V A342
346VA3B9 Detailed ,rhemne & sprit- sheer 51.501
to 600,000 transistors per chip. The lat- the number of components integrated FACTORY SURPLUS UHF TUNERS
ter devices include an I/O processor, onto a single chip would double each
memory controller, 128K -byte RAM year. Figure 2 confirms this prediction 95 Brand new production
All solid state. Ideal
m for espe5

and 528k -byte ROM. Interconnecting and shows that chips containing mil- 53.95
work building, cable TV
converters, etc. No. 34650099
these chips provides a complete 32 -bit lions of transistors may possibly be on
microcomputer. the horizon. MINIATURE FM WIRELESS MICROPHONE
As significant as the number of tran- "Moore's law," as it came to be Hides m the palm of VOW
sistors per chip is the achievement of known, cannot hold forever since it hand Reception on any star,

interconnections only 1.5 micrometers

wide and 1 micrometer apart. To place
would eventually require devices smaller
than their constituent atoms. But look at
dard FM radio or receiver.
Np. 346V482
these tiny dimensions in perspective, a what is already happening in the big QUARTER -MILE WIRELESS MICROPHONE
micrometer is twice the wavelength of push to make advanced CMOS chips.
green light. Honeywell has just announced a 95

The ultranarrow interconnection method of forming CMOS chips of sub- 549.95 raneeeeresinn ose&
No. 346VA093
VU mete

paths cause current densities too high micrometer geometry. The firm predicts
for the conductors used in ordinary inte- its new process will permit 250,000 com- FACTORY SURPLUS VHF / UHF
grated circuits. Therefore, the Hewlett - ponents to be integrated onto a single Admiral No NC 31431.
Packard scientists used tungsten metal- chip. BRAND NEW, hical fOr .

lization on their chip. Much to the chagrin of the U.S. com- TV FRONT en.d .
panies that pioneered integrated circuit- Nb 3460C308

Other VLSI Developments. Hew- ry, Japanese firms are making major DUMPING! NORELCO ENDLESS LOOP CASSETTES'
lett- Packard's new microcomputer was strides in the development of high- densi- Impossible to find at any

announced at the International Solid - ty CMOS. Nippon, for example, makes 95 price,
3 minutas - No 346V605
State Circuits Conference (ISSCC) ear- a CMOS version of the popular 8048 $4.49 6 minutes - No 346V606

lier this year. While it is a remarkable microcomputer. Toshiba and Hitachi IN STOCK THE MURA -

0 1

No 346V274


a IO
o ia..
5 346VA565 Matching Fenda
95 sot 5



346VA395 as above. 10 amps -554 95 549.95 ..


1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

Fig. 2. Maximum number of components per chip

'flame Visa & Mastercard OK ISOrrV. no C.O. D.'t. Add 15
from 1960 to the present and projected to the year 2000. otUPS o Handley IEcoe,a refuntledl N.Y State residents add 7"a sales tea
Dealar& 3 non 9 ned invited Our telephone order desk never closes
Cm 1 518 561 8700.
solid-state developments
have both developed 4K CMOS memo- to his calculations, the size of compo- dinarily difficult tasks as speech recog-
ries with ultrafast 18-nanosecond access nents can be reduced to 0.25 microme- nition and signature analysis. In the lat-
tomes. Advanced Japanese research on ter. Assuming problems in interconnect- ter category might be chips which will
these and related topics was much in ing vast numbers of such ultrasmall enable precise aircraft or missile identi-
evidence at the ISSCC. components can be solved, correspond- fication by detailed processing of radar
The new generation of high- density ing increases in chip size provide a good returns.
ICs will be known as ultra- large -scale potential for at least 10,000,000 and Another important application for
integration (ULSI). Some of the proba- possibly 100,000,000 transistors per ULSI will be solid -state memories hav-
ble specifications of futuristic ULSI chip. As yet unperfected design tech- ing the same capacity as some of today's
chips were outlined for the ISSCC in a niques and undiscovered technologies disk memories. Of course, access times
talk by James D. Meindl of Stanford may permit billion- transistor chips. will be much faster and physical size
University. much smaller.
Dr. Meindl predicted we will have Applications for ULSI. The develop- Still another major application for
chips with from ten million to a billion ment of practical ULSI will substantial- ULSI will be entire systems on a single
transistors by the year 2000! According ly improve the outlook for such extraor- chip. For example, a large mainframe
computer might be scaled down to a sin-
gle ULSI chip. The chip might include
all interfacing circuits, several hundred -
thousand bits of RAM, several CPUs,
Universal breadboarding elements onboard analog-to- digital conversion,
with 840 solderless plug -in tie points. and other major functions.
Combines distribution system with These are exciting days indeed for
1 "x.1" matrix. Compatible with all DIPs solid -state electronics. I'll keep a close
and discretes with lead diameters up to watch on ULSI events and keep you
.032 ". Needs no special patch cords. abreast of important developments. In
the meantime, if you happen to work for
a laboratory or company involved in de-
veloping LSI and ULSI chips, please
ask your public relations department to
put my name on their mailing list.

Your breadboarding is a super -snap Integrated photodetectors with on -chip

with a solderless A P Super-Strip. interfacing made by AEG- Telefunken.

Now Photodtoctor ICs. AEG -

Build a circuit almost as fast as many as nine 14 -pin DIPs. Telefunken's Semiconductor Division
as you dream it up. Pull it Instant -mount backing has announced two highly sensitive inte-
apart and do another -
everything's as good as new.
and quick -removal screws
make stacking and racking
grated photodetectors with on -chip in-
terfacing. The U 123P consists of a pho-
Our versatile Super -Strip a snap, too.
todetector, preamplifier, and opera-
mini- breadboards ive you tional amplifier monolithically inte-
Where to buy? Phone (toll- grated on a single chip. It exhibits a 15-
the same top-quality con- free) 800 -321 -9668 for the dB signal -to-noise ratio when its detec-
tacts you get in our full - name of your local A P dis- tor is illuminated by a signal having a
scale ACE All- Circuit Evalua- tributor. And ask for our power level of only 150 nanowatts.
tors. Not so "mini," either. complete A P catalog, The The U123P requires a single -ended
You can build circuits with Faster and Easier Book. power supply delivering from 4 to 12
volts. Its op -amp output stage provides
an open-loop gain of 94 dB. The output
A P PRODUCTS INCORPORATED of the preamplifier and the input of the
9450 Pineneedle Drive op amp are brought out to separate pins
P.O. Box 603 to increase the chip's versatility.
Mentor, Ohio 44060 AEG -Telefunken's second photode-
[216] 354-2101 tector IC is designated the U102P. It is
TWX: 810-425 -2250 similar to the U123P, except that the
In Europe, contact A P PRODUCTS GmbH op -amp output stage has been replaced
Baeumlesweg 21 D-7031 Weil 1 W. Germany with a Schmitt trigger. The U 102P is
supplied in a hermetic 8 -lead metal can.
For additional information, write AEG -
Telefunken Corporation, Route 22, Orr
Drive, Somerville, NJ 08876.
PLUG 11 o the
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How to Use
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reste.. Echo -Voice Interlace -2 Speaker

.. ins Nogononics 350E Ptiono
Issue Aurhe Cannel Spectrum
Analyzes No*AZel


RNCR By Forrest M. Mims
Experimenting with an Air Pressure Switch

RECENTLY, I learned that an ultrasensitive air pres- 10. Venturi tube sensor.
sure switch is available from Edmund Scientific (101 1 IPressurization sensor for inflatable structures.

East Gloucester Pike, Barrington, NJ 08007). I immediately These applications in turn suggest others. For example, the
ordered one and have been impressed with its capabilities. high -wind detector idea could be used as a fixed-point air-
The switch, a Honeywell Model PSF 100A, is actuated speed indicator for a model rocket, aircraft, bicycle, or auto-
(closed) by an air pressure of only 0.02 pounds per square mobile. In each case, the input ports of the sensor require con-
inch (psi). This is equivalent to the pressure of about 0.5 inch striction to permit the switch to operate at higher air pres-
of water or a gentle puff of air from a distance of a few sures. Or a higher threshold sensor switch can be used. Hon-
inches. eywell's PSF 100A -3, for example, has a switching threshold
You might be able to purchase the PSF 100A directly from of 0.1 psi.
Honeywell. Otherwise, you can buy one from Edmund (Cat.
No. 41,623) for $7.00, plus $1.30 for postage and handling. Buffer Circuits for a Pressure Sensor. As long as the
The PSF 100A has two differential control ports-one for current to be switched is less than 10 mA, the PSF IOOA
low -and the other for high -pressure operation. If one port is needs no buffering. This means the switch can directly
at atmospheric pressure (i.e., open), the other will trigger the actuate LEDs and some solid-state warning devices and alert -
switch on pressure (high port) or vacuum (low port). If both ers. For many applications, however, the rated current capac-
ports are connected to external gas sources, the switch will ity of the PSF 100A is insufficient.
close when the, pressure difference between the two sources Figure shows how to connect a low- current, inexpensive

exceeds 0.02 psi. relay to the PSF 100A to increase its switching capability
Fairchild assigns a life of 1,000,000 on -off operations to the from 10 mA to a full ampere (at 125 volts). Since the relay
PSF 100A. Contact resistance of closed switch is 0.5 ohm. coil current can safely exceed the 10-mA maximum rating of
The major drawback of the switch is its current rating of the PSF 100A's contacts, it is necessary to limit the current
only 10 milliamperes dc. This means that, in many applica- flow with an external resistor (Rs). Figure gives the values
tions, external buffering is required. We will look at several of RS for power supplies of both 6 and 9 volts which will allow
buffering methods, as well as some practical applications for the relay to pull in without exceeding the 10-mA rating.
the PSF IOOA shortly. First, let's review some of the applica- I arrived at these values by actual measurements, and you
tions listed in the Edmund data sheet: may wish to verify my results. Though the relay coil is speci-
I .Replacement of vane -type flow switches. fied to have a resistance of 500 ohms, the unit I used actually
2. High -wind detector.
3. Proximity sensor.
4. Counting sensor.
5. Clean -air system pressure -drop detector. +V
6. Edge sensor.
7. Fan or cooling system failure sensor.
8. Fixed -point temperature detector (in a closed system
dependent upon the contraction and expansion of a fixed vol-
ume of gas).
9. Respiration rate sensor.

V+ ks IF(MA)
Fig. 2. An air pressure switch can be used
b 2.70 8. Z,
to trigger an SCR as shown here.

R/R 6 330 7.2.

PRESSU4t E measured 480 ohms. At 6 volts, this relay pulled in at 5.5 mA
g `i7o 8.8 and dropped out when the current fell below 4.5 mA. There-
fore, the currents given in Fig. I provide ample margin for
q 680 7.3 proper operation of the relay.
Nora IF MUST Nor
Figure 2 shows how the PSF IOOA can be used to trigger an
EXCEED /0,.4 SCR. The pressure switch is simply inserted in the SCR's
-o K1
gate circuit. Resistor RG should provide ample SCR gate cur-
(RFD/0 SHRCk rent while limiting the current through the switch.
.Z7S-oO5) Incidentally, remember that a triggered, dc- powered SCR
stays on even after the gate signal is removed. Only when the
forward current falls below what is termed the minimum
required holding current does the SCR turn off. This occurs,
Fig. 1 Using a relay to increase current capacity. of course, when the load is temporarily disconnected. It also
occurs on the negative transition of an ac voltage.
Optoisolating the PSF 100A will electrically isolate the
experimenter's corner FOR ONLY $129.95 Learn Computing
sensor from the circuit being controlled. Figure 3 shows how
From The Ground Up
Build a Computer kit that grows
the PSF 100A is connected to the LED portion of a LED -pho- with you, and can expand to 64k
totransistor optoisolator (also called an optocoupler). RAM, Microsoft BASIC, 11 xt Edi-
Current -limiting resistor Rs must be selected to limit the tor /Assembler, Nord Processor,
current through the LED, and therefore the PSF 100A, to less Floppy Disks and more.
than 10 mA. The appropriate series resistance can be found
with the simple formula: Rs = (VF- VI_EO) /IF, where V F is EXPLORER /85 1.
4. Flug in Level
cepts Microsoft, BASIC or
Plug in Netrooic.'s Hex Editor/Assembler in ROM
E here: ac-

Here s the low cost way to learn the fundamentals of com- 5. Add two S106 horns
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required) play. Intel /80R5 User Manual. )level A Hex
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postpaid. ... Source Listing, and AP -IS -amp. power supply ... (Reg.
$279.95) SPECIAL $219.95 plus $6 P&L
When you reach the point in learning that re- Special Microsoft BASIC ras (Save$103.00)- You get
quires more memory. we offer two choices: either add ak Levels A (Terminal Version). B. D (41c RAM). E. 8k
of a memory directly on the motherboard, or add 18k to Microsoft in ROM. Intel 8955 User Manual. level A Moni-
nikof memory by means of a single S100 card. our famous tor Source Listing and AP -1. 5-amp. power supply ...
(Reg. $43070) SPECIAL$329.95 plus S7 P&I.5
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plus $2 P&L': O 16k 5190 "LAWS ":... 1199.95 plus S2 levels B and D ne SISO Memore)...$69.15 plu $2 &1
P&l -O 32k 5100 "LAWS "...1149.95 lu92P&1':D 48k
S100 "JAWS" $249.95 plus $2 P&I': O 89k S100
Starter B" Disk System - Includes level m B floppy disk
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An important "building block:' it activate
the ek ROM/EPROM spaceonthe motherboard. Now just
S100 connectors: just add your own power supplies.
cabinets and hardware ... O (Reg. $1085.00) SPECIAL
$999.95 plus $13 Pel.' .O 32k Starter System. $1045.96
plug in our 8k Microsoft BASIC or your own custom

plus 113 P&I. 48k Starter System. $1095.95 plus 113

P81. O 64k Starter System. $1145.95 plu $13 P&1..
(level E
Microsoft BASI
96.95 plus 504 P&L '
It's the language that allows you to
talk English to your computed it is available three ways:
Add to any of above Explorer steel cabinet. AP-I five
amp. power supply. Level C with Iwo 5100 connectors.
disk drive cabinet and power supply. two rub -D connec-
Bk cassette version of Microsoft BASIC requires level
tors for connecting your printer and terminal .. (Reg.
B and 12k of RAM minimum, we suggest a 16k SISO
$225.95) SPECIAL $199.95 plus $13 P811
Complete 44K Slates. Wired B Tested ... $1850.00
O Bk ROM version oflMicrosoft require Level B
ASIC: (req.
plus S20 P&L
B Level E and 4k RAM: lust plug into your level E sockets
15h suggest either the 4k Level DRAM expansion or a 18k
Special! Complete Business Software Pak (Save
$625.001- Includes CP/M 2.2 Microsoft BASIC. General
5100 " LAWS. ") .. 949,95 plus $2 P&I.
Ledger. Accounts Receivable. Accounts Payable. Payroll
Disk version of Microsoft BASIC (require level B.
GA/0 ! = 32k of RAM. floppy disk controller. 8" floppy disk drive)
...$325 postpaid.
Package .. (Reg. $1325) SPECIAL $49995 postpaid.

Fig. 3. The air pressure switch can be isolated

The editor /assembler
software rod (a program) designed to simplify the task
P81 stands for "onstage b innmmce. "For Grnodinn or-
ders. double this amount.

of writing programs. As your programs became longer Continental Credit Card Buyers Outside Connecticut:
from the controlled circuit by an opotoisolator. and more complex. the asselnhler can save you many
hours of programming time. This software includes an
editor program that enters the programs you write. makes
changes. and saves the programs o cassettes. The assem-
Application Circuits. Having explored the operation of
bler performs the clerical task of translating symbolic
code into the computer- readable object code. The editor/ Call Toll Free:
assembler program is available either in cassette or a
the PSF 100A and seen how its contacts can be buffered, we ROM version. 300- 243 -7428
can now use the switch in practical applications. I've designed -
Editor /Assembler (Cassette version: requires Level
"B" and 8k (min.) of RAM we suggest 18k "LAWS"
see above)... 549.95 plus $2 P&1.
- To Order From Connecticut,
three circuits with biomedical applications in mind. Remem- or For Technical Assistance,
ber that these circuits are merely representative of the ways
Editor /Assembler (ROM version. supplied on an S100
card: require Level B and 9k RAM (min.(
either Level D or 16k "LAWS')
we suggest
$49.95 plus $2 PhI. Call (203) 354-9375
the PSF 100A can be applied. You can use the same tech- 9" FLOPPY DISK -A
remarkable "building block."

niques for applications of your own.

Puff /Sip Multi-Channel Controller. Several years ago I
Add our 8" floppy disk when you need faster operation.

them io
'ent program storage. perhaps a business ap
an access to he literally thousands of programs

/85 disk system
it accepts
CP /M is reg. trademark of

(Clip and mail enlire

Digital Research

read about an electric wheelchair that could be controlled by


n Floppy Disk Drive ... $449.95 plus S12 P&I. Total Enclosed (Conn. Residents add sales tax):
puffing or sipping on one or more tubes connected to air pres- Floppy Controller Card $199.95 lus S2 P&I.
Disk Drive Cabinet & Power Supply

149..95 plan
Paid by:

sure switches. The same method was used to turn on lights


$3 PSI.' Personal Check Cashier's Check/Money Order

Drive Cable (set up for two drives) 125.00 plus
and appliances. $1.50 P &1.


CP /M 2.2 Disk Operating System: include Text
Figure 4 shows one way to implement a "puff /sip" control- Editor/Assembler. dynamic debugger, and other features
Acct. No. Exp Date
ler. The circuit provides up to five channels of on -off control. that give your Explorer /85 access to thousands of existing
CP/M -based programs ... 9150.00 postpaid.
More channels can be added by expanding the basic circuit. NEED A POWER SUPPLY? Consider our AP -1 It can
supply all the power you need for a fully expanded Es- Signature
The CMOS decade counter (IC2) is a 4017 with self -con- plorer /85 (note: disk drive have their own power supply).
Plus the AP -1 fits neatly into the attractive Explorer steel
tained -of-10 output decoding. In operation, a clock formed
1 cabinet (see below).
AP -1 Power Supply kit (BV Q9 5 amps) in deluxe steel
Print Name

by two NAND gates in ICI repeatedly cycles IC2 through cabinet $9996 plus $2 P&1.
. .

each of its ten outputs. The five control channels, only one of NEED A TERMINAL? We
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which is shown in Fig. 4, are provided by adjacent pairs of pensive

eypad /Display kit that dis- City
decoded outputs from IC2. plays the information on a
calculator -type screen. The
Channel 1 is controlled by pins 3 and 2 of IC2. At the other choice is our ASCII Stale Zip

beginning of a count cycle, pin 3 -the lowest order decoded

Keyboard/Computer Terminal
kit. that can he used with either

output from IC2 -goes high while all other outputs remain ETRONICS Research &DevelopmentLtd
low. This turns on Channel l's ON LED, notifying the opera-
tor that the device or appliance controlled by Channel can 1 p 333 Litchfield Road, New Milford, CT 06776

experimenter's corner
+9v ro r/c
/O,t S wR *
Fig. 4. A "puff-sip" /3
/6 SCR
single- switch,
multi-channel CHANNEL/

controller circuit. RS
ICz /4-
yo/7 OFF ON

CLOC,t +9V
IC/ /41
/ S 'f 14
//M //St R3
Mo// Mo// /K iR6
R/ R.2
/M /00k /o 8
3 4 /2. 30 3D
(P/N5 8, 9, /.t, /3 7
103 =5/066


be turned on by puffing or sipping on the plastic tube connect- can be increased at the expense of slowing down the control
ed to the circuit's single PSF lOOA air switch. Depending cycle.
upon the value of CI, the operator has up to a second to oper- Whether or not the air switch is closed when Channel l's
ate the air switch. If more time is required, the value of CI ON LED is glowing, the clock eventually advances 1C2 to
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This system is not a kit and requires no additional devices or
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gww g
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Dealer inquiries invited

decoded output two (pin 2). This turns on Channel 1's OFF
LED and notifies the operator that the device or appliance
controlled by Channel 1 can be turned off by puffing or sip-
ping on the air switch's tube. Again, whether or not the switch
is closed, !C2 continues to advance through the decoded out-
puts as the clock supplies pulses. If the switch is not closed,
the controlled device or appliance remains either on or off.
The four transmission gates in a single 4066 analog switch
(IC3) provide the necessary control logic for a single channel.
If the air switch is closed when Channel l's ON LED is glow-
ing, !C3A closes, firing the SCR and pulling in the relay.
If the air switch is closed when Channel l's OFF LED is
glowing, IC3B closes. This, in t