Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 55

Air-Sea Interaction

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Overview
The atmosphere and the ocean are one
independent system.
Earth has seasons because of the tilt on its axis.
There are three major wind belts in each
hemisphere.
The coriolis effect influences atmosphere and
ocean behavior.
Oceanic climate patterns are related to solar
energy distribution.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Earths Seasons
Earths axis of rotation is tilted 23.5 with
respect to ecliptic.
Ecliptic plane traced by Earths solar orbit
Seasonal changes and Earths rotation
cause unequal solar heating of Earths
surface.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Seasons
Tilt responsible for
seasons
Vernal (spring)
equinox
Summer solstice
Autumnal equinox
Winter solstice

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Solar Energy on Earth
Declination angular distance of Sun from
equatorial plane
Varies between 23.5 North and 23.5 South
latitudes
Tropics
Arctic Circle 66.5 North latitude
Antarctic Circle 66.5 South latitude

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Distribution of Solar Energy
Concentrated solar
radiation at low
latitudes
High angle of
incidence
Solar radiation more
diffuse at high
latitudes
Low angle of incidence

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Distribution of Solar Energy
Atmosphere absorbs radiation
Thickness varies with latitude
Albedo: 0100%
Reflectivity of a surface
Average for Earth is 30%
Angle of sun on sea surface

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Sun Elevation and Solar
Absorption

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Oceanic Heat Flow
High latitudesmore heat lost than gained
Ice has high albedo
Low solar ray incidence
Low latitudesmore heat gained than lost

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Heat Gained and Lost

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Physical Properties of the Atmosphere

Composition
Mostly nitrogen (N2)
and Oxygen (O2)
Other gases
significant for heat
trapping properties

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Temperature Variation in the
Atmosphere
Troposphere lowest
layer of atmosphere
Where all weather
occurs
Temperature
decreases with altitude

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Density Variations in the Atmosphere

Convection cell
rising and sinking air
Warm air rises
Less dense
Cool air sinks
More dense
Moist air rises
Less dense
Dry air sinks
More dense

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Atmospheric Pressure
Thick column of air at sea level
High surface pressure equal to 1 atmosphere
(14.7 pounds per square inch)
Thin column of air means lower surface
pressure
Cool, dense air sinks
Higher surface pressure
Warm, moist air rises
Lower surface pressure
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Movement of the Atmosphere
Air always flows from high to low pressure.
Wind moving air

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Movements in the Air
Example: a non-
rotating Earth
Air rises at equator
(low pressure)
Air sinks at poles
(high pressure)
Air flows from high to
low pressure
One convection cell
or circulation cell

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


The Coriolis Effect
Deflects path of moving object from
viewers perspective
To right in Northern Hemisphere
To left in Southern Hemisphere
Due to Earths rotation

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


The Coriolis Effect
Zero at equator
Greatest at poles
Change in Earths rotating velocity with
latitude
0 km/hour at poles
More than 1600 km/hour (1000 miles/hour)
at equator
Greatest effect on objects that move long
distances across latitudes
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Coriolis Effect

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Global Atmospheric Circulation
Circulation Cells one in each
hemisphere
Hadley Cell: 030 degrees latitude
Ferrel Cell: 3060 degrees latitude
Polar Cell: 6090 degrees latitude

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Global Atmospheric Circulation
High pressure zones descending air
Subtropical highs 30 degrees latitude
Polar highs 90 degrees latitude
Clear skies
Low pressure zones rising air
Equatorial low equator
Subpolar lows 60 degrees latitude
Overcast skies with lots of precipitation
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Three-Cell Model of Atmospheric
Circulation

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Global Wind Belts
Trade winds From subtropical highs to
equator
Northeast trades in Northern Hemisphere
Southeast trades in Southern Hemisphere
Prevailing westerlies from 3060 degrees
latitude
Polar easterlies 6090 degrees latitude

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Global Wind Belts
Boundaries between wind belts
Doldrums or Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
at equator
Horse latitudes 30 degrees
Polar fronts 60 degrees latitude

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Idealized Three-Cell Model
More complex in reality due to
Seasonal changes
Distribution of continents and ocean
Differences in heat capacity between continents
and ocean
Monsoon winds

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


January Atmospheric Pressures and
Winds

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


See you next week

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Weather vs. Climate
Weather conditions of atmosphere at
particular time and place
Climate long-term average of weather
Ocean influences Earths weather and
climate patterns.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Winds
Cyclonic flow
Counterclockwise
around a low in Northern
Hemisphere
Clockwise around a low
in Southern Hemisphere
Anticyclonic flow
Clockwise around a low
in Northern Hemisphere
Counterclockwise
around a low in Southern
Hemisphere

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Sea and Land Breezes
Differential solar
heating is due to
different heat
capacities of land
and water.
Sea breeze
From ocean to land
Land breeze
From land to ocean

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Diurnal Sea Surface Temperature (DSST) variations
The diurnal cycle of DSST (Genteman etal, 03)

T0 T0

T1 Local time

Coastal Diurnal Processes

Warm &
Land
Sea Breeze dry air
Sea breeze
Land
Sea Anti-sea breeze bring
31 warm and dry
air back to the sea (Stull, 1988)
Wind vector map Case , 30 May 2005

The weakest wind case


among all cases
Strongest DSST signal case
and cover a wide area
Local time
Nighttime SST map Averaged wind map DSST map

Warm Very High DSST


tongue

Tsushima
warm current

32
Very high DSST amplitudes in Case 30 May 2005

Why are the observed


DSSTs in Area 1 of Case
2 (green dots) largely
overestimated?

Wind direction (0)


3:00 7:00
900
00
-900 10:00 14:00

Wind speed (m/s)

The GPV wind/direction/speed capture


33
the appearance of sea breeze (SB)
Local Time
Sea breeze and DSST variation in Case 30 may 2005
Air temperature (AT) at 14.00 SST at 14.00
ATland >> ATsea
Near-coast sea
AT >> SST
Offshore sea
AT<< SST

High AT in the coastal seas may be caused


by the anti-sea breeze

The band width of high (AT-SST) is about


10-20km

The band width is consistent with the land


observations (Stall, 1988; Asai, 1997) and the
34(e.g., Niino, 1987)
linear theory of sea breeze
Summary of possible heating mechanism in case may 2005

(a) (b)

Land air temperature

Inshore air temperature

Easterly wind

Sea breeze
AT >>SST

SST >>AT Japan Sea Matsumae Peninsula

Schematics of heating mechanisms in Area 1of Case 2


(a) Offshore warming due to high solar radiation(SR) under weak wind condition.
The SR heats the ocean, then the ocean heats the atmosphere.
(b) Coastal processes induced by warm/dry anti-sea breeze blowing from land
toward coastal sea surface. 35
SR/Sesible heat flux heat the ocean, but latent heat flux cools the ocean
Fronts
Fronts boundaries
between air masses
Warm front
Cold front
Storms typically
develop at fronts.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Tropical Cyclones (Hurricanes)
Large rotating masses of low pressure
Strong winds, torrential rain
Classified by maximum sustained wind
speed
Typhoons
Cyclones

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Hurricane Origins
Low pressure cell
Winds feed water vapor latent heat of
condensation
Air rises, low pressure deepens
Storm develops
Winds less than 61 km/hour (38 miles/hour)
tropical depression
Winds 61120 km/hour (3874 miles/hour)
tropical storm
Winds above 120 km/hour (74 miles/hour)
tropical cyclone or hurricane
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Hurricane Intensity

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Hurricanes
About 100 worldwide per year
Require
Ocean water warmer than 25C (77F)
Warm, moist air
The Coriolis Effect

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Historical Storm Tracks

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Hurricane Anatomy and
Movement

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Hurricane Destruction
High winds
Intense rainfall
Storm surge increase in
shoreline sea level

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Storm Destruction
Historically
destructive storms
Galveston, TX, 1900
Andrew, 1992
Mitch, 1998
Katrina, 2005
Ike, 2008
Haiyan, 2013

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Oceans Climate Patterns
Open oceans climate regions are parallel
to latitude lines.
These regions may be modified by surface
ocean currents.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Oceans Climate Patterns

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Oceans Climate Zones
Equatorial
Rising air
Weak winds
Doldrums
Tropical
North and south of equatorial zone
Extend to Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn
Strong winds, little precipitation, rough seas
Subtropical
High pressure, descending air
Weak winds, sluggish currents
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Oceans Climate Zones
Temperate
Strong westerly winds
Severe storms common
Subpolar
Extensive precipitation
Summer sea ice
Polar
High pressure
Sea ice most of the year
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Sea Ice Formation
Needle like crystals
Become slush
Slush becomes
pancake ice
Pancakes coalesce to
ice floes
Rate of formation
depends on
temperature
Self-perpetuating
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Sea Ice

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Iceberg Formation
Icebergs break off of glaciers.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Shelf Ice
Antarctica glaciers
cover continent
Edges break off

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Wind Power
Uneven solar heating
of Earth generates
winds
Turbines harness
wind energy
Offshore wind farms
generate electricity

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Global Ocean Wind Energy

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


See you next week

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.