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CHAPTER 2 QUADRATIC EXPRESSIONS & EQUATIONS PART I

Quadratic Expressions
Quadratic Equations

QUADRATIC EXPRESSIONS
1. A quadratic expression is written in the form

ax2 + bx + c , where x is an unknown and a, b, c are constants


such that a 0

Example
i. x2 + 3x 1 iii. 8 x2
ii. 4x2 7x iv. 10p2 + p 2

2. Has only one unknown and the highest power of the unknown is 2.

EXERCISE
Level 1:
Determine which are the following are quadratic expressions:
3
a. 7 + 2x x2 c. + 4x 1
2

1
b. 5x2 + 3 d. 2x3 5x +

Level 1:
Form quadratic expression by multiplying two linear expressions:
a. (3x 2) (x + 4)

b. (2x + 5) (2x 5)

c. (4x 1)2
d. (5 + p) (2 + 3p)

Level 2:
A B

x cm
F
4 cm

D 2x cm E 5 cm C

In the diagram, ABCD is a rectangle. E lies on CD and F lies on BC. Express the area of the
shaded region in terms of x.

Level 2

Diagram shows a cuboid. BG is 2cm shorter than AB and BC is 3cm longer than AB.
Express the total surface area of the cuboid in terms of x.
Level 3

In the diagram, BCE and AED are straight lines.


a. Find the length of EC in cm.
b. Express the area of ABE in terms of x.

Level 3
The perimeter of a rectangular plot of land (4x 10) cm. Given its length is (x 7) cm,
express area in terms of x.
3. Factorisation of quadratic expressions

Expansion - when two linear expressions are multiplied.

Factorisation - when a quadratic expression is written as a product of two


linear expressions.

To factorise quadratic expressions ax2 + c, take out the highest common


factor of a and c

To factorise quadratic expressions ax2 + bx, take out the highest common
factor of a and b

To factorise quadratic expressions px2 q, where p and q are perfect squares,


write p = a2 and q = b2 and px2 q = (ax + b) (ax b).

In the form x2 + bx + c = (x + p) (x + q), b = p + q and c = pq.

In the form ax2 + bx + c = (mx + p) (nx +q), b = mq + np and c = pq.

EXERCISE
Level 1:
Factorise the following completely.
a. 6x2 + 8 g. 6e 2e2

b. 9 + 6p2 h. 20r2 8r

c. 12x2 + 18 i. 25x2 4

d. 5 + 5k2 j. 1 36p2

e. 2x2 + 10x k. 4m2 n2

f. 7p + 21p2 l. 9e2 49f2


Level 2:
a. x2 + 7x + 10 f. 2x2 + 7x + 6

b. x2 8x + 12 g. 2x2 13x + 15

c. x2 + 5x 6 h. 6x2 + 5x 6

d. x2 3x 18 i. 8 + 2x x2

e. 16 8x + x
Level 2
Factorise
a. 8x2 12x c. (2x 1) (x + 3) 9

b. 3x (x 7) + 2(7 x)

Level 3:
Factorise the following completely
a. 2x2 + 16x + 24 d. -18x2 33x + 30

b. 12x2 12x + 3 e. c2 25p2

c. 4 36k2 f. (3x + 5)2 16