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Chapter I


Background information identifies and describes the history and nature of a well-

defined research problem with reference to the existing literature. The background

information should indicate the root of the problem being studied, appropriate context of

the problem in relation to theory, research, and/or practice, its scope, and the extent to

which previous studies have successfully investigated the problem, noting, in particular,

where gaps exist that your study attempts to address.


Electronic medical record system is an electronic record of health-related

information of an individual, authorized by clinicians and staff within one health care

organization. Whereby, the medical data of every patient will be well organized and

easy to look for when needed. The doctors and medical assistants could easily track the

status of every patient by the use of this system. The loss of important data and any

other information related to the patient can be prevented through this system. In

addition to that, incorporated in this system is the inventory of available medicines for

prescriptions. This medicine inventory system manages the flow of drugs. Generally, as

drugs are issued, stock is reduced, and as drugs are received, stock is increased.
The health center of barangay Lawang Bato can be found at Mulawinan St.,

Lawang Bato, Valenzuela City, beside the 3S Lawang Bato and the Barangay Hall.

Today, they are still recording and storing the medical records of the patients by placing

them in a folder. The folders are organized according to the family number. Each folder

consists of ITR or Individual Treatment Record of each member of the family. Because

of the large number of the folders, the storing and management of patients data is less

effective and less efficient. And so, could result to the loss of patients data that could

not be possibly recovered.

The researchers solution for the problem that the health center facing today is

making a system that they can use to organize and secure the patients data

conveniently. The minimum hardware requirement includes a processor Intel Core i3, a

RAM or random access memory 2GB or more, a hard disk 20 GB or more, a monitor

and a keyboard. On the other hand, minimum software requirement includes an

operating system Windows 8 or higher version, a language Microsoft Visual Basic 2010

and a database MS Access 2010 or higher version.

The objectives of the researchers for making this recording system are to

improve the welfare of the Barangay Health Center, minimize the paper works of the

clinicians and staff within the said health center and to help them organize and secure

the patients data and their medicines inventory.

Statement of the Problem

The researchers sought to find a solution in the bulkiness of the papers being

stored due to the large number of information required for the execution of their service.

Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:

A. What information are needed to the proposed system?

B. Who owns the said information?

C. What is the diagnosis of the doctor to the patient?

D. What are the prescribed medicines of the doctor?

E. What are the available medicines?

Scope and Limitation*

This study covers the records of Barangay Lawang Bato Health Center. The

system is composed of two functionalities which is for the patients medical records and

inventory of the medicines. For the patients medical records, the system includes a

Create New Module, that would allow the user to create a new record for a new patient

and a Search Module that would look for the preexisting record of a patient. For the

medicine inventory, the system is able to maintain a record for the availability of certain

medicines, date of expiry, as well as updating the balance of medicines by adding or

removing stocks of products.

The system is not online based and is not designed to be shared outside the

individual practice and is mainly use for diagnosis and treatment. Only the data existing

from the said health center can be provided. Residents who had never gone for findings

wont have any records from the system.

Theoretical Framework*

The theoretical framework is the structure that can hold or support a theory of a research study.

It introduces and describes the theory that explains why the research problem under study

exists. Theories are formulated to explain, predict, and understand phenomena and, in many

cases, to challenge and extend existing knowledge within the limits of critical bounding


Barangay Lawang Bato Health Center Electronic Medical Record System


disciplinary study of the this theory there are two related
abstract organization of concepts which are; provenance
phenomena, independent of (office of origin must be known
their substance, type, or spatial whenever a record is created)
or temporal scale of existence. and original order (the order and
It investigates both the organization in which records
principles common to all were created and stored by the
complex entities, and the office of origin).
(usually mathematical) models
which can be used to describe


this theory is that every record progresses theory is a consistent and
through three phases; a record is created, is coherent regime of management
used and maintained and is disposition (either by process from the time of the
destruction as record of ephemeral value or by creation of records through to
transfers to national archives as a record of the preservation and use of
enduring value). This can be analogued to records as archives.
human life where a human being is born, Figlives,
dies and some resurrect to eternal life.

Fig. 1.0
1st. Paliwanag

2nd Reaction
Conceptual Framework

The conceptual framework shows the input, process and output of the study. It

illustrates that before arriving into a good output, the researchers should widen their

analysis regarding the operations of the present to the study of problems that are being

encountered by the barangay health center in order to formulate, generate and create

alternative solutions to the problems and to arrive into the designed output.


Planning, Developed
analysis, design, Medical Record
development, and System and
implementation of Medicine Inventory
electronic medical System for
-Date of birth
record system and Barangay Lawang
inventory system Bato Health
for Barangay Center
Lawang Bato
-Mothers name
Health Center.
-Fathers name
Family number
Drug number
Drug names
Expiry date




Fig. 2.0
Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will redound to the benefit of the following:

Barangay Health Workers

The system would greatly help their work to be easier and less time

consuming because more organized data will be provided, safely stored in the

computer, avoiding loss of information due to human error.

Doctors/Public Health Nurses

Through this study, the patients medical history will be more accessible

thus, the treatment to be performed can be easily determined.


They can easily found out what proper medication they can receive

through the use of their well-organized medical history.


The study will help them uncover critical areas in the educational process

and it will also help them cooperate with the society.

Definition of Terms

The following are the definitions of terms used in this research.

Computer. Machine capable of the following the instruction to alter data, programmable

electronic device that can perform calculations and processing information.

Data. Is a collection of an unauthorized facts of figures.

Database. Is a container to store your tables in.

Delete. To remove or erase.

Edit. To change something, usually for the better.

Information. Knowledge given or received of some fact or circumstances.

Input. Refers to information that given to a computer that acts on information to a


Log-in. It is where the system user log in to access to access the database of the


Output. Refers to information to the convention for transmitting data between a

computer and its peripherals

Password. A secret combination of characters a user must type into the computer in

order to start a program or open a file.

Process. Refers to a series of instructions that computer executes in a multitasking of

operating system.

Record. It is the collection of related field with information that usually pertains to only

one subject.
Software. It is a system utility or application program expressed in complete readable


System. It is a group of interrelated components working together toward common goal

by accepting input and producing output in an organized transformation process.

User. The person who uses a computer for word processing, communications, and

other application.

Visual Basic Net. Scripting language or programming language that is used to design

the system.


A survey or review of related literature and studies is very important because

such reviewed literature and studies serve as a foundation of the proposed study. This

is because related literature and studies guide the researcher in pursuing his research

venture. This chapter presents the related literature and studies of both local and

foreign sources. This also includes of the synthesis of the art, gap, bridged study and

the theoretical framework terms are defined conceptually and operationally for clarity.

Local Literature*

According to Dr. Marie Irene Sy, National Project Manager for Community Health

Information Tracking System (CHITS) of the National Telehealth Center (NTHC) in her

presentation during the University of the Philippines National Institutes of Health (UP-

NIH) research forum last 14 June 2012. In a recent study from Quezon City, the paper

record retrieval time was decreased from 2.41 minutes to less than 5 seconds, Dr. Sy

added, The development of CHITS has resulted in increased efficiency of health

workers, allowing them to spend more time for patient care, improved data quality;

streamlined records management; and data-guided decision-making, both operationally

and strategically,

According to J. Marcelo & J. Caero, the management of health information in

the Philippines is at best rudimentary and ministerial because data collectors perform

their work as a matter of compliance without regard for the informations usefulness for

decision making at all levels. Several factors were found to have caused this.
According to Masinag (2005), confused on the enhancement of the manual

keeping and management of stocks to provide easy access on the previous record of

stock and finally to provide security of the stock. The study aimed to provide an

inventory report to passed to the OIC and an adjustment reports for the expired product

or stocks.

According to Reyes (2005), stressed about the conversion of the manual system

into a computerized one to provide faster, easier transaction and generation of reports

with accuracy.

According to Mendoza (2005), paying attention to analyze and identify the

problem being encountered by the staff involved in the system advocates a better way

of dispensation reservation and offers best service to their customers and most of all it

makes them familiar in their current system. The study of the monitored the available

stock and for each product and its status. It almost reserved detailed list of a articles

likes stock.

Foreign Literature

According to Eisenberg (2001), Many costly medical errors, including prescription

errors, could be eliminated with electronic systems.

According to the American Medical Association (2006), there are eleven benefits

of using an EMR system, including potential reduction in medical errors, reduced costs

related to chart filing and transcription, and improved communication with other systems
According to Rogoski, (2005), Physicians are often enthusiastic about the coming

change. In summary, they believe that better information will lead to better treatment. To

quote Michael Dotti, M.D., of North Country Family Practice, An EMR would enable us

to keep better track of data. We could treat patients better because information would

not fall between the cracks.

According to Schoen, C., et al., (2006), countries with wide-spread use of

electronic medical records appear to have lower health care costs and better care.

Many industrialized countries have improved patient care and controlled costs through

the use of EMRs where they are more wide-spread than in the U.S.

According to Thomas M. McHugh (2011), computerized inventory management

systems provide many benefits that are hard to obtain using paper methods or an in-

house spreadsheets.

According to Kimwell (2005), All transactions affecting the inventory balance are

recorded as they occur. The perpetual inventory system acquired its name from the fact

that the inventory records are continuously updated. The acquisition cost, are simply

cost, of products purchased is recorded by debiting merchandise inventory or inventory

Local Studies

According to the study of Edwin Bello and his fellow researchers of

Computerized Monitoring and Inventory of Stock with Warning Level dated March 2005,

many firms have thousands of items of inventory which require some form of control.

The usage calculations and record keeping chores would soon become overwhelming

were it not for the computer and its unique information storage and retrieval capabilities.

According to H. Tolentino, A. Marcelo, P. Marcelo & I. Maramba, Community-

based primary care information systems are one of the building blocks for national

health information systems. In the Philippines, after the devolution of health care to local

governments, we observed "health information system islands" connected to national

vertical programs being implemented in devolved health units. These structures lead to

a huge amount of "information work" in the transformation of health information at the

community level. This paper describes work done to develop and implement the open-

source Community Based Health Information Tracking System (CHITS) Project, which

was implemented to address this information management problem and its outcomes.

Several lessons learned from the field as well as software development strategies are

highlighted in building community level information systems that link to national level

health information systems. "

Based on the research entitled Computerized Sales and Inventory system for

Ronmon Trading (de Alday, Espino, Ragudo), 2010, the replacement of the manual

system with the proposed system provided more efficient and accurate processing of

transaction. The said system is much reliable, eliminated errors and inaccurate

information, and provided valuable reports with integrity.

Computerized school registration system of Saint Paul University (2003) by

Philip V. Napapan. This software accepts new enrollees, payments, and generates

report. The authors of this software uses MS access for database, OBDC for the

connection drivers, and MS excel for the reports.

The MSU Preparatory High School keeps its record manually since it exists for

more than forty years now. The procedures followed are so time consuming especially

in adding, sorting, editing and locating students file. Besides, when the administration

generate reports oftentimes entails access to each student file which requires a lot of

effort and time.

High school enrollment system of Dipolog City (2004-2005) by Vincent J.

Jamero. The high school enrollment system is for curriculum based high school

institution. It includes registration, students and teachers scheduling, student billing and

other high school information management staff.

Foreign Studies

According to Medcurial, Patient records contain a wealth of information. It's just

difficult to appreciate when it's all papers and folders.

Health care experts agree that bringing medical records and prescriptions out of an era

of paper charts into the computer age would make healthcare not only more efficient,

save on time and money, reduce medical errors, but most importantly save patient lives.

According to Garets and Horowits (2008), clinicians should engage in evaluation

of hospital information system technologies because information system will become

repositories of clinical data. Electronic medical records system and other information
systemwill attain commonplace application in hospitals and other health care centers in

the incoming decade.

According to Jantz (2001), the emergence of computers based information

system has change the world a great deal, both large and small system have adopted

the new methodology by used of personal computers, to fulfill the several roles of

productions of information therefore computerizing the documentation of patients record

to enable easier manipulation of input process and output will bring us to this existing

new world of information system. Patients records and disease pattern documentation

from patients and their particular health system in order to function properly. If this

information is not documented perfectly causing some data to get misplaced, the health

system will not be efficient.

According to Scott and Rundall (2005), in a fund-supported study find that the

keys to successful adoption and implementation of Electronic Health Record (EHR)

include participatory selection process, flexibility regarding staff roles and

responsibilities, and decisive leadership at critical stages. Electronic Health Record

(EHR) systems have great potential to improve health care quality.

According to Hanson (2004), an electronic system is important in the field of

medicine because it allows storage and retrieval of a greatly massive amount of

information in a quick and efficient manner, which makes health care more effective.

This which includes ensuring that the system handles amendments, corrections,

authentication, backups, down time, confidentiality, printouts and reports for disclosure


The related literature and related studies discusses the importance and benefits

of having an electronic medical recording system and inventory system which are hard

to obtain with the paper method. The storage and retrieval of data can be made in an

efficient manner by providing faster, easier and more accurate information.

Furthermore, the quality of service being provided can be greatly improved.

Most of the problem being encountered without a computerized system are

inaccuracy of information, high cost, time consuming, loss of data and bulkiness of the

paper works.



Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of

study. It comprises the theoretical analysis of the body of methods and principles

associated with a branch of knowledge. Typically, it encompasses concepts such as

paradigm, theoretical model, phases and quantitative or qualitative techniques.

A methodology does not set out to provide solutions - it is, therefore, not the same as a

method. Instead, a methodology offers the theoretical underpinning for understanding

which method, set of methods, or best practices can be applied to specific case, for

example, to calculate a specific result.

Research Design

Developmental research design was used for this study. As opposed to simple

instructional development, it has been defined as the systematic study of designing,

developing, and evaluating instructional programs, processes, and products that must

meet criteria of internal consistency and effectiveness.

The researchers made interviews and observation for them to find out what system

to be developed in accordance to the problem that the users are facing. The interview

was held at Lawang Bato health center where the primary users are the barangay

health workers in the said clinic.

Through this method the researchers have come up to an idea of creating a system

that would increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the services the health center


Research Locale

The health center of barangay Lawang Bato can be found at Mulawinan St.,

Lawang Bato, Valenzuela City, beside the 3S Lawang Bato and the Barangay Hall. The

health center operates every Monday to Saturday. They accommodate patients for

check-up and provide free medicines depending on the availability in the said health

Data Gathering Tools

The researchers used the interview method in gathering the data needed for the

study. The respondents will answer the given questions whereas the interviewer records

the answer by audio or through writing. This method is appropriate to use since the

needed information need an elaborate explanation and the number of respondents is



The population of the respondents in the research is composed of the Barangay

Health Workers in the said health center.

Sample and Sampling Technique

The researchers used the non-probability sampling, specifically purposive

sampling technique whereas the respondents were chosen based on their knowledge

and information required by the researchers. Only the available Barangay Health

Workers which are on duty during the date and time of the interview were chosen to

participate in this study.

Research Instruments

An interview questionnaire was utilized as the instrument for gathering data

Data Interpretation

1. What are the problems that you encounter in managing a patients data?

Most of the problem that the respondents encounter are the time consuming act

of recording each and every patients, the inaccuracy of the records, too much paper

being stored and the loss of the record of some patients due to the heavy workload.

2. What are the problems that you encounter in organizing the medicine


Based on the data gathered, the problem being encountered by the health

workers in organizing their medicine inventory includes the monitoring of which are the

available medicines in their stock.

3. Do you think a computer system would make your work more effective and


The respondents agreed that a computer system would definitely make their

work more effective and easier. Since we are in an age of computers it would be

reasonable to use a computer system. They think that with a computerized system, their

workload would drastically decrease and frequent loss of records would be prevented.