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Abstract

US6652759 Method of treating waste water and apparatus 2003-11-25


for treating waste water using the method
The present invention provides a method of treating
waste water including nitrogen-containing organic
compounds to convert these compounds into
harmless gases without performing a post-
treatment. The method comprises spraying waste
water in a heated space to gasify the waste water
into waste gas, and oxidizing the waste gas by
contacting it with a catalyst to convert the nitrogen-
containing organic compounds into harmless gases.
An apparatus for treating waste water using the
method is also disclosed.
US6638427 Waste water treatment method being able to 2003-10-28
treat surface active agent, nitrogen, hydrogen
peroxide and phosphor with high efficiency
A waste water treatment equipment treats a fluorine
waste water containing organic matter, nitrogen,
phosphor and hydrogen peroxide by an anaerobic
tank 3 in which a calcium carbonate mineral 9 is
placed and an aerobic tank 15 in which the calcium
carbonate mineral 9 is placed and into which a
biologically treated water is introduced from a
treatment equipment 444 of another system.
Therefore, the fluorine in the waste water can be
treated by the calcium carbonate mineral 9 placed
in the anaerobic tank 3 and the aerobic tank 15 with
the formation of calcium fluoride 11. The organic
matter of the surface active agent and so on in the
waste water can be treated by the microorganism
included in the biologically treated water.
Furthermore, nitrate nitrogen can be treated so as to
be reduced to a nitrogen gas in the anaerobic tank
3, while ammoniacal nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen
can be treated so as to be oxidized in the aerobic
tank 15. That is, the waste water treatment
equipment can highly efficiently treat the surface
active agent, nitrogen, polychlorinated aluminum,
macromolecular coagulant, hydrogen peroxide and
phosphor in the waste water, by which the waste
can be reduced.
US20030178363 Bioreactor carrier, process for producing the 2003-09-25
A1 carrier and method for using the same

There are disclosed a bioreactor carrier


comprising a (A) water swellable thermoplastic
resin, preferably water swellable thermoplastic
polyurethane resin and a (B) specific inorganic
filler which is added thereto at the time of
producing and/or molding said resin, characterized
in that the specific gravity of the carrier on swelling
in water is controlled within the range of 1.02 to
1.35; a process for producing the bioreactor carrier;
and a process for denitrifying treatment of organic
waste water which comprises nitrifying and
denitrifying nitrogen components in the organic
waste water with microbes by the use of the above
bioreactor carrier. The bioreactor carrier has high
physical strength, can be readily produced and
uniformly fluidized in a reactor, and enables
microbial and enzymatic reactions to be effectively
performed.
US6623641 Wastewater treatment process for nitrogen- 2003-09-23
deficient feed in controlled environment
This invention relates to a wastewater treatment
process for treating nitrogen-deficient wastewater.
The process enables the production of a low soluble
nitrogen processed wastewater, and avoids the need
for nitrogen supplementation in the wastewater
treatment process. The process includes providing a
supply of nitrogen-deficient wastewater to a
controlled environment. The conditions in the
controlled environment encourage the proliferation
of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms in particular by
control of the stability of the dissolved oxygen
level. This process may be used alone or in
conjunction with a conventional wastewater
treatment process, relying on non-nitrogen-fixing
microorganisms, without the need for nitrogen
supplementation.
US20030164330 Bioreactor carrier, process for producing the 2003-09-04
A1 carrier and method for using the same

There are disclosed a bioreactor carrier


comprising a (A) water swellable thermoplastic
resin, preferably water swellable thermoplastic
polyurethane resin and a (B) compatible resin with
the resin as the component (A), and as the case may
be, a (C) inorganic filler, characterized in that the
degree of volumetric swelling of said carrier is
controlled within the range of 120 to 3000%, and
that the specific gravity of said carrier on swelling
in water is controlled within the range of 1.02 to
2.12; a process for producing the bioreactor carrier;
and a process for denitrifying treatment of organic
waste water which comprises nitrifying and
denitrifying nitrogen components in the organic
waste water with microbes by using the above
bioreactor carrier. The bioreactor carrier has high
physical strength, can be readily produced and
uniformly fluidized in a reactor, and enables
microbial and enzymatic reactions to be effectively
performed.
US6613222 Apparatus for the treatment of waste water 2003-09-02
A process and apparatus for removing organic
contaminants, nutrients and suspended solids from
waste water. A three-phase cycle is used, consisting
of a mix fill phase, a react fill phase and a react
discharge phase. The process and apparatus
eliminate the need for separate basins for anaerobic
and anoxic conditions, appropriate time periods for
a quiescent environment for solids/liquid separation
and the requirement of mechanical decanter devices
normally required to extract the desired effluent
quality in conventional sequencing batch reactor
systems.
US6610205 Process for nitrifying denitrifying organic waste 2003-08-26
water
There is disclosed a process for nitrifying
denitrifying organic waste water to nitrify and
denitrify the nitrogenous components in the waste
water, which comprises making use of a microbe
carrier composed of an organic thermoplastic high
molecular compound (thermoplastic polyurethane)
in both a nitrifying step and a denitrifying step,
preferably in an alternate and repeated manner,
wherein the compound has, in a state of complete
swelling in water, a water absorption rate in the
range of 50 to 3500%, a compressive yield stress of
at least 1.0 MPa each being defined by a specific
formula, and a particle diameter in the range of 1.0
to 30 mm. The process is capable of efficiently
performing nitrifying and denitrifying steps,
steadily achieving high treatment performances,
contriving compactification of the treatment
facility, and curtailing the treatment time and
treatment cost, while the microbe carrier can
withstand long-term service without any trouble.
US20030141245 Method for the treatment of animal waste and 2003-07-31
A1 products made therefrom

A method of treating animal waste includes


separating the solids by flocculation and dissolved
air flow, followed by screening of the solids to
separate them from the waste water. The resulting
solid portion is used as the basis for manufacturing
value-added products including organic fertilizer,
liquid fertilizer, soil amendments and soilless
media.
US20030136727 Composite semipermeable membrane 2003-07-24
A1
The present invention relates to a composite
semipermeable membrane, which is useful as a
reverse osmosis membrane or a nano-filtration
membrane and comprises a polysulfone porous
support membrane and a polyamide ultrathin layer
formed on one of the surfaces of the porous support
membrane, the composite membrane having the
characteristic that in the infrared absorption
spectrum obtained from the surface of a polyamide
ultrathin layer of the composite semipermeable
membrane, the ratio T (=Aa/As) of absorption
intensity Aa at the absorption peak revealing CO
of polyamide in the region of 1600-1700 cm1 to
absorption intensity As at the absorption peak
revealing polysulfone at a wavenumber around
1586 cm1 is at least 0.05 and not higher than. The
composite semipermeable membrane thus obtained
can attain conversion of sea water into fresh water,
desalination of brackish water, recovery of valuable
matter in aqueous solutions, treatment of waste
water, and particularly removal of impurities (e.g.,
organic substances) from water.
US20030124711A Chemical-resistant bioreactor carrier, processes 2003-07-03
1 for producing the carrier and use of the carrier

The present invention provide: a bioreactor


carrier having a suitable water swelling property, a
suitable degree of volumetric swelling and a
suitable specific gravity as well as exhibiting high
chemical resistance to be suitable for use in the
microbial treatment of organic waste water having a
high chemical content; processes for efficiently
producing the bioreactor carrier; and use of the
bioreactor carrier. More specifically, there are
provided: a chemical-resistant bioreactor carrier
comprising (A) a specific water-swellable
thermoplastic resin and (B) a specific resin
compatible with the water-swellable thermoplastic
resin (A), and as the case may be, (C) an inorganic
filler, characterized in that the degree of volumetric
swelling of the carrier is controlled to within a
range of 120 to 3,000% and that the specific gravity
of the carrier on swelling in water is controlled to
within a range of 0.98 to 2.12; processes for
efficiently producing the chemical-resistant
bioreactor carrier; and a denitrification process for
organic waste water having a high chemical
content, characterized in that the chemical-resistant
bioreactor carrier is used as a microbe
immobilization carrier in the microbial nitrification
and denitrification of nitrogenous components in
the organic waste water.
US6582605 Method of treating industrial waste waters 2003-06-24
A method of treating industrial wastewaters is
provided. Specifically, the wastewater includes one
or more organic contaminant materials and is pre-
treated prior to filtering by the following steps The
pH of the wastewater is adjusted to a pH in the
range of about 2 to 6, and a combination of iron
salts and peroxide are added to the wastewater and
allowed to react for a period of at least about three
minutes. Next, the pH of the wastewater is adjusted
upwards to a value of at least 7 and precipitating or
flocculating agents are added to form an insoluble
contaminant bearing compound. The compound is
then filtered from the wastewater thereby removing
the contaminant materials from the wastewater.
This invention is particularly suited for use with
single pass flow-through filters, and most
particularly suitable for high flow rate single pass
flow-through filters. The method of the present
invention results in minimization of filter clogging
and maintenance of high filtration flow rates, with
reduced need for cleaning cycles using lengthy
treatment by acid based or detergent mixtures.
US20030098247 Waste fluid or waste water treatment method 2003-05-29
A1 and its apparatus

A method for electrochemical oxidation


decomposition of difficult to decompose
compounds like aromatic compounds, organic
chlorine compounds, agricultural chemicals, dioxin,
PCB and water soluble polymers that are contained
in waste fluid, such as print developing waste fluid,
factory waste water and industrial waste water of
things such as landfill soil seeping waste water by
carrying out electrolysis at a high current density to
eliminate and purify difficult to decompose
substances in the waste fluid. Waste fluid
containing difficult to decompose substances is
introduced into an electrolytic chamber with an
anode that is a ferrite electrode, electrolysis is
performed at a high current density of 10 A/dm2 or
higher, hypohalogenous acid and active oxygen are
generated in the waste fluid along with a strong
anode oxidation action being brought about, and the
oxidation decomposition is repeated by re-
circulating the waste fluid through a filter,
electrolyzer and intermediate collecting chamber.
US6569337 Bioreactor carrier, process for producing the 2003-05-27
carrier and method for using the same
There are disclosed a bioreactor carrier comprising
a (A) water swellable thermoplastic resin,
preferably water swellable thermoplastic
polyurethane resin and a (B) specific inorganic
filler which is added thereto at the time of
producing and/or molding said resin, characterized
in that the specific gravity of the carrier on swelling
in water is controlled within the range of 1.02 to
1.35; a process for producing the bioreactor carrier;
and a process for denitrifying treatment of organic
waste water which comprises nitrifying and
denitrifying nitrogen components in the organic
waste water with microbes by the use of the above
bioreactor carrier. The bioreactor carrier has high
physical strength, can be readily produced and
uniformly fluidized in a reactor, and enables
microbial and enzymatic reactions to be effectively
performed.
US6565751 Bioreactor carrier, process for producing the 2003-05-20
carrier and method for using the same
There are disclosed a bioreactor carrier comprising
a (A) water swellable thermoplastic resin,
preferably water swellable thermoplastic
polyurethane resin and a (B) compatible resin with
the resin as the component (A), and as the case may
be, a (C) inorganic filler, characterized in that the
degree of volumetric swelling of said carrier is
controlled within the range of 120 to 3000%, and
that the specific gravity of said carrier on swelling
in water is controlled within the range of 1.02 to
2.12; a process for producing the bioreactor carrier;
and a process for denitrifying treatment of organic
waste water which comprises nitrifying and
denitrifying nitrogen components in the organic
waste water with microbes by using the above
bioreactor carrier. The bioreactor carrier has high
physical strength, can be readily produced and
uniformly fluidized in a reactor, and enables
microbial and enzymatic reactions to be effectively
performed.
US6565744 Waste water cleaning system 2003-05-20
The present invention provides treatment of
wastewater containing oil, organic and inorganic
industrial compounds, urea, and e.t.c. The resulting
products will be purified water, dry fertilizer, pure
carbomide, uncontaminated gas and liquid fuel, and
other products that can be separated from the
concentrate after ultrafiltration. In order to
accomplish those and other objectives the present
invention improves the system for cleaning
wastewater by subjecting the wastewater to a
magnetic field and heating it before the initial
settling process. In addition, before ultrafiltration,
the liquid is treated in an electroflotation device.
The wastewater cleaning system can also be
comprised of a urea separator for separating urea
from other products.
US20030047499 Waste water cleaning system 2003-03-13
A1
The present invention provides treatment of
wastewater containing oil, organic and inorganic
industrial compounds, urea, and e.t.c. The resulting
products will be purified water, dry fertilizer, pure
carbomide, uncontaminated gas and liquid fuel, and
other products that can be separated from the
concentrate after ultrafiltration. In order to
accomplish those and other objectives the present
invention improves the system for cleaning
wastewater by subjecting the wastewater to a
magnetic field and heating it before the initial
settling process. In addition, before ultrafiltration,
the liquid is treated in an electroflotation device.
The wastewater cleaning system can also be
comprised of a urea separator for separating urea
from other products.
US20030038080 Method and system for sustainable treatment of 2003-02-27
A1 municipal and industrial waste water

The present invention relates to a method for


treatment of wastewater. More particularly, the
methods of the present invention are designed for
the biological removal from wastewater of
contamination in the form of insoluble suspended
solids and soluble and insoluble organic and
inorganic material, including nitrogen and
phosphorus nutrients. A wastewater treatment
process is described, which process is a hybrid
continuous flow, cyclic operating, substantially
constant level, activated sludge process with a
symmetric functional cycle. In this functional cycle
each compartment of a reactor is subsequently in a
different functional phases, which functional phases
are continuously separated: phase 1, phase 2, phase
3, phase 4, phase 1, phase 2, phase 3, phase 4,
etc. . . . The symmetric functional cycle allows for
symmetric (equal) influent distribution and
therefore symmetric sludge and oxygen demand
distribution.
US20030010712 Process for biochemical treatment of waste 2003-01-16
A1 water using nano materials

The present invention relates to a process for


biochemical treatment of waste water. The process
uses a nano material such as carbon black to induce
micro to degrade organic pollutants in the waste
water which are generally unable or hard to be
degraded and thereby greatly enhance the effect of
biological cleaning of waste water. The effect is
more prominent for the waste water that is hard to
treat by the conventional biochemical treatment,
high concentration waste water, and highly
poisonous waste water. The process of the present
invention is widely usable in the aerobic, oxygen-
facultative or anaerobic biochemical treatment
systems.
US6500333 System and process for treating waste water 2002-12-31
The present invention is generally directed to a
process and system for treating animal waste. More
particularly, the present invention is directed to a
process and system for treating animal waste
effluent with ozone to decompose the organic
material within and improve the odor of the animal
waste. The process of the present invention also
reduces biochemical oxygen demand, chemical
oxygen demand, total bacterial content and
coliform bacterial count of the animal waste. The
process of this present invention comprises
collecting an animal waste solution, containing a
mixture of water and animal fecal material;
contacting the waste solution with ozone in an
amount sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the
organic material contained within; and feeding the
ozone treated waste solution to a solids separating
device prior to collecting the waste solution in a
biobasin or, alternatively, recycling the ozone
treated waste solution for use as a source of
irrigation or flushwater.
US20020158011A Wastewater treatment apparatus and method 2002-10-31
1 for recycling material for wastewater treatment

A wastewater treatment apparatus for aerobic


treatment of an organic waste water by means of
microbes carried on a carrier, wherein (503) are
heaped up which have a container (504) filled with
carriers (505, 506) having microbes carried thereon,
the tank has an area S of the side for discharging
the wastewater being smaller than an area S of that
for receiving the wastewater, and the plurality of
tanks heaped up are arranged in a manner such that
even when carriers are retrenched sludge does not
accumulate in a tank and can be sent into the tank
directly below it. An organic waste water is
introduced into a plurality of tanks arranged to form
multiple stages, is subjected to an aerobic
treatment, and then is discharged. The apparatus
allows the aerobic treatment of an organic waste
water by means of microbes to be kept satisfactory
even when meshed are clogged by sludge or
carriers are retrenched due to the use for a long
period of time.
US20020148780 Method of enhancing biological activated sludge 2002-10-17
A1 treatment of waste water, and a fuel product
resulting therefrom

Cellulose-based catalytic media is introduced into


the waste water treatment system with a very
simple in-line eductor injection system to enhance
biological treatment, to improve settability of the
biomass, and to produce a biomass fuel. The
cellulose-based catalytic media particles create a
feeding site for the microbes that provides a rich
food consisting of the organic load that has been
absorbed and the naturally occurring glucose and
protein. In addition, the cellulose-based catalytic
media naturally contains a carbohydrate known as
glycocalyx which functions as a flocculent by
causing the smaller suspended solids in the final
clarifier to stick together and form larger, heavier
particles. The larger, heavier solid particles produce
a biomass sludge that settles better and faster. The
settled biosolids, which now contain fractions of
the cellulose-based catalytic media, are then
dewatered and dried to create a biomass fuel.
US6464879 Treatment of phosphatizing waste water 2002-10-15
A process for treating phosphatising bath overflow
and/or wash water after phosphatising,
phosphatising being performed using an acid,
aqueous phosphatising solution which contains
from 3 to 50 g/l of phosphate ions, calculated as
PO.sub.4.sup.3-, from 0.2 to 3 g/l of zinc ions,
optionally further metal ions and accelerator,
characterised in that the accelerator is an organic
molecule or molecular ion having a molecular
weight of at least 80 g/mol, and that the
phosphatising bath overflow and/or the wash water
is subjected to ultrafiltration. The permeate from
ultrafiltration is preferably separated further by
means of nanofiltration or reverse osmosis. The
permeate from the second separation may be
recycled as wash water; the retentate may be
recycled to the phosphatising bath.
US6464874 Waste water treatment method and waste water 2002-10-15
treatment apparatus
In the waste water treatment apparatus, organic
matter-containing fluorine waste water is treated in
a reaction tank into which biological sludge and
calcium-containing chemical sludge are introduced,
thus making it possible to treat organic matters in
the waste water by microorganisms contained in the
biological sludge, and simultaneously to treat
fluorine in the waste water by the calcium-
containing chemical sludge. Therefore, since
organic matters in the waste water and fluorine in
the waste water, which differ in chemical properties
from each other, can be treated with one reaction
tank, it is no longer necessary to provide two
reaction tanks, thus allowing the initial cost to be
reduced. That is, this waste water treatment
apparatus is capable of reducing the quantity of
waste materials and reducing both initial cost and
running cost.
US6454944 Process and apparatus for conversion of 2002-09-24
biodegradable organic materials into product
gas
A method and apparatus for efficiently generating
biogas from feedstocks composed of 10 to 100
percent biodegradable solids including
carbohydrates, starches and/or sugars, for a variety
of uses including the creation of electricity. The
apparatus includes a thermophilic digester and a
mesophilic digester used in series, in
communication with a feedstock supply system.
The digesters may be established as a stand-alone
system or made part of a wastewater treatment
facility. By carefully metering the specialized
feedstocks into and between the digesters,
maximum production of biogas can be achieved.
The biogas may then be burned as part of an
electricity generating process, or stored for later
use.
US20020125180 Process of catalytic electrochemistry waste water 2002-09-12
A1 treatment and the apparatus thereof

A process of catalytic electrochemistry waste water


treatment and the apparatus thereof are provided.
The apparatus includes a waste water tank, a
collecting tank, a treatment tank, at least one
positive electrode plate and at least one negative
electrode plate, at least one catalyst, and an air unit.
By way of filling the catalyst and introducing
current and air into the treatment tank, Hydrogen
Peroxide (H2O2) is produced in the treatment tank,
and which reacts with Ferrous ions dissolved in the
treatment tank, to rapidly generate a certain
quantity of Hydroxyl radicals (OH), so as to
degrade or mineralize the organic compounds in the
waste water to CO2 and H2O.
US6444125 Method of treating waste water for removing 2002-09-03
nitrogen and phosphorus and apparatus
therefor
A method of treating sewage or waste water for
removing nitrogen and phosphorus as well as
organic materials in the sewage or waste water, and
an apparatus therefor are provided. The method
applies intermittent aeration and dynamic flow to
an equipment having at least a pair of reaction
basins with intermittent aeration means, a clarifier
with sludge transfer means, and a filter for passing
liquid without passing solid between the reaction
basins. According to the method, the efficiency of
removing nutrient salts is excellent and stable even
in the treatment of waste water having low content
of influent organisms and low C/N ratio.
US20020117444A Process and apparatus for the treatment of 2002-08-29
1 waste water

A process and apparatus for treating waste water


using a sequencing batch reactor system in
conjunction with a membrane filtration device for
solids/liquid separation provides a highly efficient
method and apparatus for the removal of organic
contaminants, nutrients and suspended solids from
waste water. A three-phase cycle is used, consisting
of a mix fill phase, a react fill phase and a react
discharge phase. In the mix fill phase the reactor
environment is controlled to provide an initial
anaerobic time period for achieving phosphorous
release and denitrification of oxidized nitrogen
present in the reactor from the prior cycle. In the
react fill phase waste water continues to enter the
reactor. The reactor environment is controlled to
provide alternating periods of aeration and mixing
and mixing only to promote completely mixed
aerobic and anoxic conditions. The alternating
periods of aerobic and anoxic conditions promote
the oxidation of organic and nitrogenous waste
products and the biological uptake of phosphorous
followed by the denitrification of oxidized nitrogen.
Finally, in the react discharge phase, waste water
flow into the reactor ceases. The reactor
environment is still controlled to provide
alternating periods of aerobic and anoxic
conditions. The waste water in the reactor is
directed to a membrane device for solids/liquid
separation. The solids/liquid mixture that does not
pass through the membrane is returned to the
reactor. This treatment approach eliminates the
necessity to provide separate anaerobic and anoxic
basins. The combination of the membrane device
with the sequencing batch reactor process
eliminates the necessity to provide appropriate time
periods for a quiescent environment for
solids/liquid separation and the requirement of
mechanical decanter devices normally required to
extract the desired effluent quality in conventional
sequencing batch reactor systems.
US20020100718 Waste water treatment method being able to 2002-08-01
A1 treat surface active agent, nitrogen, hydrogen
peroxide and phosphor with high efficiency and
equipment therefor

A waste water treatment equipment treats a fluorine


waste water containing organic matter, nitrogen,
phosphor and hydrogen peroxide by an anaerobic
tank 3 in which a calcium carbonate mineral 9 is
placed and an aerobic tank 15 in which the calcium
carbonate mineral 9 is placed and into which a
biologically treated water is introduced from a
treatment equipment 444 of another system.
Therefore, the fluorine in the waste water can be
treated by the calcium carbonate mineral 9 placed
in the anaerobic tank 3 and the aerobic tank 15 with
the formation of calcium fluoride 11. The organic
matter of the surface active agent and so on in the
waste water can be treated by the microorganism
included in the biologically treated water.
Furthermore, nitrate nitrogen can be treated so as to
be reduced to a nitrogen gas in the anaerobic tank
3, while ammoniacal nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen
can be treated so as to be oxidized in the aerobic
tank 15. That is, the waste water treatment
equipment can highly efficiently treat the surface
active agent, nitrogen, polychlorinated aluminum,
macromolecular coagulant, hydrogen peroxide and
phosphor in the waste water, by which the waste
can be reduced.
US6423228 Treating fluorine waste water containing organic 2002-07-23
matter, phosphor and hydrogen peroxide
A calcium carbonate mineral is placed in a lower
portion of a second water tank, while sludge
precipitated in a sixth water tank is returned to an
upper portion. A blower and an air diffusion pipe
weakly aerate the lower portion. Thus, an unreacted
chemical sludge zone is formed in the upper portion
of the second water tank. As a result, the second
water tank can execute a primary treatment of
fluorine in a waste water by the calcium carbonate
mineral, a secondary treatment of fluorine and a
primary treatment of phosphor by unreacted
chemicals, treatment of surface active agent by
microorganisms in a return sludge and reduction
treatment of hydrogen peroxide by anaerobic
microorganisms in the return sludge. The unreacted
chemicals are thus reused, so that the amount of
generation of waste can be reduced and
concurrently the treatment can be executed with
energy conservation.
US20020088759 Method of treating industrial waste waters 2002-07-11
A1
A method of treating industrial wastewaters is
provided. Specifically, the wastewater includes one
or more organic contaminant materials and is pre-
treated prior to filtering by the following steps The
pH of the wastewater is adjusted to a pH in the
range of about 2 to 6, and a combination of iron
salts and peroxide are added to the wastewater and
allowed to react for a period of at least about three
minutes. Next, the pH of the wastewater is adjusted
upwards to a value of at least 7 and precipitating or
flocculating agents are added to form an insoluble
contaminant bearing compound. The compound is
then filtered from the wastewater thereby removing
the contaminant materials from the wastewater.
This invention is particularly suited for use with
single pass flowthrough filters, and most
particularly suitable for high flow rate single pass
flow-through filters. The method of the present
invention results in minimization of filter clogging
and maintenance of high filtration flow rates, with
reduced need for cleaning cycles using lengthy
treatment by acid based or detergent mixtures.
US6416652 Method for measuring ammonia in biochemical 2002-07-09
processes
The present invention relates to apparatus and a
method for measuring ammonia in biochemical
processes, and more particularly to apparatus for
real time measuring the amount of ammonia in a
liquid with or without suspended solids.
US20020063086 Apparatus and method for biological treatment 2002-05-30
A1 of environmental contaminants and waste

The invention is directed to an apparatus for


delivering activated microorganisms to an
environment to be treated. The apparatus has a
bioreactor containing microorganisms, a supply of
organic and inorganic nutrients and a controller.
The controller maintains the conditions of the
bioreactor so as to maintain the microorganisms in
the exponential phase of growth. The controller
also doses a portion of the fluid in the bioreactor to
the environment to be treated. The invention also
provides a method for the biological treatment of
wastes and an organic and inorganic composition
used to feed the microorganisms in the bioreactor.
US6383387 Method for treating organic waste water 2002-05-07
A method and apparatus are disclosed for treating
an organic waste water which are capable of
utilizing compact equipment by reducing the
quantity of a sludge to be treated. Organic waste
water (A) is subjected to an aerobic biological
treatment in a biological treatment tank (3). Then,
solution (B) obtained by the treatment in the
biological treatment tank (3) is solid-liquid
separated into treated water (C) and sludge (D) in
precipitation tank (5). A portion of the sludge (D)
separated in the precipitation tank (5) is returned to
the biological treatment tank (3) through a route
(6). A portion (E) of the sludge separated in the
precipitation tank (5) is concentrated by a
concentration device (8). Thereafter, the
concentrated sludge (E) is solubilized by
thermophilic bacteria in a solubilizing tank (10).
US6383378 Apparatus for treating organic waste water 2002-05-07
A method and apparatus are disclosed for treating
an organic waste water which are capable of
utilizing compact equipment by reducing the,
quantity of a sludge to be treated. Organic waste
water (A) is subjected to an aerobic biological
treatment in a biological treatment tank (3). Then,
solution (B) obtained by the treatment in the
biological treatment tank (3) is solid-liquid
separated into treated water (C) and sludge (D) in
precipitation tank (5). A portion of the sludge (D)
separated in the precipitation tank (5) is returned to
the biological treatment tank (3) through a route
(6). A portion (E) of the sludge separated in the
precipitation tank (5)is concentrated by a
concentration device (8). Thereafter, the
concentrated sludge (E) is solubilized by
thermophilic bacteria in a solubilizing tank (10).
US6379548 System for recovering and treating waste water 2002-04-30
This invention provides a compact effluent water
reclamation apparatus which is minimized in the
kinds and amounts of chemicals to be used for the
recovery of water to thereby reduce the amount of
waste and eliminate equipment which necessitates a
large area for installation. The effluent water
reclamation apparatus comprises a reverse osmosis
device and is adapted to treat acid-alkali effluent
water containing organic matter but no fluorine, by
concentrating the acid-alkali effluent water
containing organic matter by reverse osmosis,
evaporating the resulting concentrated water to
dryness and collecting the water permeating
through a reverse osmosis membrane. The
apparatus is characterized in that the apparatus
comprises as arranged upstream from the reverse
osmosis device a neutralizing device for
neutralizing the effluent water to prevent a scale
component from separating out from the effluent
water in the process of reverse osmosis, and a
biological treatment tank for biologically treating
the neutralized effluent water.
US6375837 Waste water treatment method being able to 2002-04-23
treat surface active agent, nitrogen, hydrogen
peroxide and phosphor with high efficiency and
equipment therefor
A waste water treatment equipment treats a fluorine
waste water containing organic matter, nitrogen,
phosphor and hydrogen peroxide by an anaerobic
tank 3 in which a calcium carbonate mineral 9 is
placed and an aerobic tank 15 in which the calcium
carbonate mineral 9 is placed and into which a
biologically treated water is introduced from a
treatment equipment 444 of another system.
Therefore, the fluorine in the waste water can be
treated by the calcium carbonate mineral 9 placed
in the anaerobic tank 3 and the aerobic tank 15 with
the formation of calcium fluoride 11. The organic
matter of the surface active agent and so on in the
waste water can be treated by the microorganism
included in the biologically treated water.
Furthermore, nitrate nitrogen can be treated so as to
be reduced to a nitrogen gas in the anaerobic tank
3, while ammoniacal nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen
can be treated so as to be oxidized in the aerobic
tank 15. That is, the waste water treatment
equipment can highly efficiently treat the surface
active agent, nitrogen, polychlorinated aluminum,
macromolecular coagulant, hydrogen peroxide and
phosphor in the waste water, by which the waste
can be reduced.
US20020005381 Bioreactor carrier, process for producing the 2002-01-17
A1 carrier and method for using the same

There are disclosed a bioreactor carrier comprising


a (A) water swellable thermoplastic resin,
preferably water swellable thermoplastic
polyurethane resin and a (B) compatible resin with
the resin as the component (A), and as the case may
be, a (C) inorganic filler, characterized in that the
degree of volumetric swelling of said carrier is
controlled within the range of 120 to 3000%, and
that the specific gravity of said carrier on swelling
in water is controlled within the range of 1.02 to
2.12; a process for producing the bioreactor carrier;
and a process for denitrifying treatment of organic
waste water which comprises nitrifying and
denitrifying nitrogen components in the organic
waste water with microbes by using the above
bioreactor carrier. The bioreactor carrier has high
physical strength, can be readily produced and
uniformly fluidized in a reactor, and enables
microbial and enzymatic reactions to be effectively
performed.
US20020005380 Bioreactor carrier, process for producing the 2002-01-17
A1 carrier and method for using the same

There are disclosed a bioreactor carrier comprising


a (A) water swellable thermoplastic resin,
preferably water swellable thermoplastic
polyurethane resin and a (B) specific inorganic
filler which is added thereto at the time of
producing and/or molding said resin, characterized
in that the specific gravity of the carrier on swelling
in water is controlled within the range of 1.02 to
1.35; a process for producing the bioreactor carrier;
and a process for denitrifying treatment of organic
waste water which comprises nitrifying and
denitrifying nitrogen components in the organic
waste water with microbes by the use of the above
bioreactor carrier. The bioreactor carrier has high
physical strength, can be readily produced and
uniformly fluidized in a reactor, and enables
microbial and enzymatic reactions to be effectively
performed.
US6338803 Process for treating waste water containing 2002-01-15
hydrofluoric acid and mixed acid etchant waste
A process for treating waste water containing
hydrofluoric acid, mixed acid etchant waste,
dissolved silica, and solid particles is provided.
This process involves adjusting the pH of the waste
water to about 7 or above, filtering the waste water
to remove solid particles, adding an anti-scalant to
the waste water, and feeding the waste water
through a reverse osmosis membrane. The reverse
osmosis membrane separates the waste water into a
permeate stream, which is the product, and a reject
stream. Another aspect of the present invention is a
system for performing this process.
US20020003108 Process and installation for the treatment of 2002-01-10
A1 effluents loaded with organic matter

A process for automatic or semi-automatic


treatment of effluents or waste water, in particular
effluents loaded with organic or biological
materials such as effluents from wine-production,
consisting, in normal operation, of collecting the
effluents to be treated during their production and
transferring them into a suitable storage container,
pretreating the stored effluents by aeration, and if
need be, stirring, clarifying the pretreated effluent
and carrying out a finishing treatment of this
effluent before discharging into the natural
environment or reusing.
US6328893 Method of processing waste water, in particular 2001-12-11
from malt factories and breweries
There is described a method of processing waste
water, in particular from malt factories and
breweries, which in the operational use is
contaminated with microorganisms, salts and
organic compounds. To enable a reuse, it is
proposed to subject the waste water to a reverse
osmosis after a treatment with activated sludge,
before it is recirculated to the operational use.
US20010047960 Process for nitrifying denitrifying organic waste 2001-12-06
A1 water
There is disclosed a process for nitrifying
denitrifying organic waste water to nitrify and
denitrify the nitrogenous components in the waste
water, which comprises making use of a microbe
carrier composed of an organic thermoplastic high
molecular compound (thermoplastic polyurethane)
in both a nitrifying step and a denitrifying step,
preferably in an alternate and repeated manner,
wherein the compound has, in a state of complete
swelling in water, a water absorption rate in the
range of 50 to 3500%, a compressive yield stress of
at least 1.0 MPa each being defined by a specific
formula, and a particle diameter in the range of 1.0
to 30 mm. The process is capable of efficiently
performing nitrifying and denitrifying steps,
steadily achieving high treatment performances,
contriving compactification of the treatment
facility, and curtailing the treatment time and
treatment cost, while the microbe carrier can
withstand long-term service without any trouble.
US20010045391 Method of treating waste water for removing 2001-11-29
A1 nitrogen and phosphorus and apparatus
therefor

A method of treating sewage or waste water for


removing nitrogen and phosphorus as well as
organic materials in the sewage or waste water, and
an apparatus therefor are provided. The method
applies intermittent aeration and dynamic flow to
an equipment having at least a pair of reaction
basins with intermittent aeration means, a clarifier
with sludge transfer means, and a filter for passing
liquid without passing solid between the reaction
basins. According to the method, the efficiency of
removing nutrient salts is excellent and stable even
in the treatment of waste water having low content
of influent organisms and low C/N ratio.
US6322701 Water treatment process 2001-11-27
A process for the treatment of waste waters
containing chemically reducible dissolved organic
and inorganic pollutants and suspended mater in
particulate or colloidal form. The process
comprises of contacting the water with metallic
iron or ferrous ions (Fe.sup.2+), or mixtures
thereof, in the presence of promoter metals, such as
Cu, Pd, Pt, Au, Ag, and Ni, or oxides, sulfides and
other insoluble compounds of these meals, which
catalyze the redox reductions carried out by the iron
or ferrous reagents. The production of ferric ions
(Fe.sup.3+) as a final iron oxidation product allows
for the simultaneous coagulation and precipitation
of suspended colloidal and particulate solids out of
the aqueous phase. In addition to the main
reductive reaction scheme, the system performs a
multitude of secondary reactions involving the
ferrous and ferric ions produced in-situ which
allows for the simultaneous removal of specific
target pollutants, such as phosphate and hydrogen
sulfide. The net effect of a treatment in accordance
to this invention is the decrease in a wide range of
carbonaceous, nitrogenous and other targeted
pollutants present in a waste water stream in a
dissolved, colloidal or particulate form and the
chemical conversion, commonly referred to as
"softening", of non-readily biodegradable
pollutants through a generally complex set of
reactions and physical processes. As a result, the
implementation of the process prior to or in parallel
to conventional biological treatment makes the
latter more feasible, more efficient, more
economical in terms of both capital investment and
operating cost and, also, the anally discharged
water more compatible with environmental
demands.
US20010040135 Method of treating waste water and apparatus 2001-11-15
A1 for treating waste water using the method

The present invention provides a method of treating


waste water including nitrogen-containing organic
compounds to convert harmless gases without post-
treatment. The method comprises steps of spraying
the waste water in a heated space to gasify the
waste water to waste gas, and oxidizing the waste
gas by contacting with a catalyst to convert the
nitrogen-containing organic compound into
harmless gases.
This application also discloses an apparatus for
treating waste water using the method.
US6280631 Use of polymers containing 2001-08-28
vinylamine/vinylformamide for the treatment of
food processing wastewater
The present invention provides a method for
conditioning food processing waste prior to
mechanical dewatering with the use of
environmentally friendly coagulants and
flocculants. The method of the present invention
comprises treating these waste waters with an
effective amount of a vinylamine polymer
including from about 1 to about 100 mole percent
vinylamine and from about 1 to about 99 mole
percent of at least one monomer selected from the
group consisting of amidine, vinylformamide, vinyl
alcohol, vinyl acetate, vinyl pyrrolidinone and the
esters, amides, nitriles and salts of acrylic acid and
methacrytic acid. In an embodiment, the method of
the present invention includes the further step of
adding an effective amount of at least one
flocculant to the food processing waste. The
flocculent effectively agglomerates a portion of the
colloidal organic solids into suspended solids.
US6270678 Method for treating alkaline waste water 2001-08-07
The present invention relates to a method of
treating alkaline waste water originating from
washing spent oil which has undergone an alkaline
treatment with water and which contains organic
material. This method can produce water which can
be discharged into conventional industrial water
treatment facilities or which can be used directly as
a base for preparing fertilizers or for preparing an
agent for preventing ice formation on road surfaces.
US6261456 Waste water treatment method and waste water 2001-07-17
treatment equipment capable of treating waste
water containing fuluorine, nitrogen and organic
matter
Waste water containing fluorine, nitrogen and
organic matter is treated by introducing the waste
water into a water tank filled with calcium
carbonate mineral and anaerobic microorganic
sludge. An upper portion of the water tank is
occupied by the anaerobic microorganic sludge
concurrently with natural precipitation of the
calcium carbonate mineral toward a lower portion
of the water tank. Calcium ions dissolving from the
calcium carbonate mineral precipitated in the lower
portion of the water tank are made to chemically
react with the fluorine in the waste water. At the
same time, the organic matter in the waste water is
treated by utilizing anaerobic microorganisms in
the anaerobic microorganic sludge in the upper
portion of the water tank. The nitrogen in the waste
water is treated to be reduced by reducibility that
the anaerobic microorganisms in the waste water
own. There is thus provided the waste water
treatment method and waste water treatment
equipment capable of treating the waste water
containing fluorine, nitrogen and organic matter at
low cost without necessitating the organic matter
such as methanol as an additional chemical.
US20010007311A Waste water treatment method and waste water 2001-07-12
1 treatment equipment capable of treating
fluorine waste water containing organic matter,
phosphor and hydrogen peroxide

A calcium carbonate mineral is placed in a lower


portion of a second water tank, while sludge
precipitated in a sixth water tank is returned to an
upper portion. A blower and an air diffusion pipe
weakly aerate the lower portion. Thus, an unreacted
chemical sludge zone is formed in the upper portion
of the second water tank. As a result, the second
water tank can execute a primary treatment of
fluorine in a waste water by the calcium carbonate
mineral, a secondary treatment of fluorine and a
primary treatment of phosphor by unreacted
chemicals, treatment of surface active agent by
microorganisms in a return sludge and reduction
treatment of hydrogen peroxide by anaerobic
microorganisms in the return sludge. The unreacted
chemicals are thus reused, so that the amount of
generation of waste can be reduced and
concurrently the treatment can be executed with
energy conservation.
US6254779 Treatment of effluent streams containing 2001-07-03
organic acids
An acidic organics-containing waste water stream
(12) derived from for example plant for the
production of an aromatic carboxylic acid such as
terephthalic acid is treated to allow recovery of
alkali and water for recycle to the production
process. The treatment comprises adjusting the pH
of the waste water stream using an alakaline
medium, oxidising (10) the organics content of the
stream to convert the same to water, carbon dioxide
and (bi)carbonate ions, and supplying the treated
stream to a reverse osmosis membrane (28, 30) to
produce a retentate containing (bi)carbonate ions
and cations derived from the alkaline medium and a
permeate which is substantially free of those
components. The retentate (46) is recycled for use
in adjustment of the pH of the waste water stream
and, if desired, water-consuming facilities which
can tolerate less pure water. The permeate (44) may
also be recycled, with or without further treatment,
for use in water-consuming facilities within and/or
associated with the production plant.
US6228267 Waste water treatment method and equipment 2001-05-08
being able to economically treat both a waste
water and an exhaust gas respectively containing
fluorine and organic matter
This waste water treatment equipment introduces
granular calcium carbonate mineral 13, a calcium
fluoride 14 in a floc form and a microorganism 15,
which are flowing in a lower section 8, into an
upper section 7 and sprinkles the same. Therefore,
in the upper section 7, the granular calcium
carbonate mineral 13 chemically treats fluorine in
an exhaust gas, while the calcium fluoride 14 in the
floc form chemically treats acid components in the
exhaust gas although the effect is little. At the same
time, the microorganism 15 biologically treats the
organic matter in the exhaust gas. Then, the
granular calcium carbonate mineral 13, the calcium
fluoride 14 and the microorganism 15 that have not
been utilized for exhaust gas treatment treat again
the waste water in the lower section 8. With this
arrangement, the waste water containing organic
matter such as fluorine and surfactant and the
exhaust gas containing fluorine and organic matter
can be concurrently treated, and the initial cost and
running cost can be reduced.
US6224769 Method and apparatus for treating organic 2001-05-01
waste water
A method and apparatus are disclosed for treating
an organic waste water which are capable of
utilizing compact equipment by reducing the
quantity of a sludge to be treated. Organic waste
water (A) is subjected to an aerobic biological
treatment in a biological treatment tank (3). Then,
solution (B) obtained by the treatment in the
biological treatment tank (3) is solid-liquid
separated into treated water (C) and sludge (D) in
precipitation tank (5). A portion of the sludge (D)
separated in the precipitation tank (5) is returned to
the biological treatment tank (3) through a route
(6). A portion (E) of the sludge separated in the
precipitation tank (5)is concentrated by a
concentration device (8). Thereafter, the
concentrated sludge (E) is solubilized by
thermophilic bacteria in a solubilizing tank (10).
US6217765 Waste water treatment method and waste water 2001-04-17
treatment equipment capable of treating
fluorine waste water containing organic matter,
phosphor and hydrogen peroxide
A calcium carbonate mineral is placed in a lower
portion of a second water tank, while sludge
precipitated in a sixth water tank is returned to an
upper portion. A blower and an air diffusion pipe
weakly aerate the lower portion. Thus, an unreacted
chemical sludge zone is formed in the upper portion
of the second water tank. As a result, the second
water tank can execute a primary treatment of
fluorine in a waste water by the calcium carbonate
mineral, a secondary treatment of fluorine and a
primary treatment of phosphor by unreacted
chemicals, treatment of surface active agent by
microorganisms in a return sludge and reduction
treatment of hydrogen peroxide by anaerobic
microorganisms in the return sludge. The unreacted
chemicals are thus reused, so that the amount of
generation of waste can be reduced and
concurrently the treatment can be executed with
energy conservation.
US6210580 Waste water treatment apparatus 2001-04-03
Method and apparatus for waste water treating
system including a working tank, waste water
treatment apparatus in the working tank by which
organic waste in the waste water is treated. A
discharge outlet is provided from the working tank.
A waste water holding tank is located upstream of
the working tank. A first transfer pump between the
working tank and the holding tank is provided to
transfer waste water from the holding tank to the
waste water tank. A second transfer pump is
provided to discharge waste water from the
working tank through a discharge outlet. A sensor is
provided to sense the values of physical
characteristics of the waste water in the tanks and
to issue signals indicative of the different values.
The time of operation of at least one of the transfer
pumps by the control computer is varied in
accordance with the value indicated by the signal
issued from the sensor.
US6203705 Process for treating waste water containing 2001-03-20
copper
A process for treating waste water containing
copper and other particles from a chemical
mechanical planarization (CMP) process is
provided. This process includes adjusting the pH of
the waste water to between about 3 and 4, adding a
coagulant or flocculating polymer to the waste
water to generate larger particles, filtering the waste
water through a filtration unit to produce a
permeate and solids, feeding the permeate through
a carbon bed to remove total organic carbon, and
feeding the carbon bed treated permeate through an
ion exchange column to remove copper from the
permeate. This process may further involve
washing sludge collected in a concentration tank
with the treated stream exiting the ion exchange
column. Still further, another aspect of the present
invention is a system for performing the process
described above.
US20010000008 Method and apparatus for treating organic 2001-03-15
A1 waste water

A method and apparatus are disclosed for treating


an organic waste water which are capable of
utilizing compact equipment by reducing the
quantity of a sludge to be treated. Organic waste
water (A) is subjected to an aerobic biological
treatment in a biological treatment tank (3). Then,
solution (B) obtained by the treatment in the
biological treatment tank (3) is solid-liquid
separated into treated water (C) and sludge (D) in
precipitation tank (5). A portion of the sludge (D)
separated in the precipitation tank (5) is returned to
the biological treatment tank (3) through a route
(6). A portion (E) of the sludge separated in the
precipitation tank (5) is concentrated by a
concentration device (8). Thereafter, the
concentrated sludge (E) is solubilized by
thermophilic bacteria in a solubilizing tank (10).
US20010000007 Method and apparatus for treating organic 2001-03-15
A1 waste water

A method and apparatus are disclosed for treating


an organic waste water which are capable of
utilizing compact equipment by reducing the
quantity of a sludge to be treated. Organic waste
water (A) is subjected to an aerobic biological
treatment in a biological treatment tank (3). Then,
solution (B) obtained by the treatment in the
biological treatment tank (3) is solid-liquid
separated into treated water (C) and sludge (D) in
precipitation tank (5). A portion of the sludge (D)
separated in the precipitation tank (5) is returned to
the biological treatment tank (3) through a route
(6). A portion (E) of the sludge separated in the
precipitation tank (5) is concentrated by a
concentration device (8). Thereafter, the
concentrated sludge (E) is solubilized by
thermophilic bacteria in a solubilizing tank (10).
US6174437 Water treatment system 2001-01-16
The water treatment apparatus utilizes membrane
separation technology to separate clean product
water from a contaminated water source. Chemical
pretreatment of the raw feed water, chemical
cleaning of the membrane separator(s), and
chemical treatment of the final recovered product
water required by conventional membrane
separation apparatus are eliminated in the water
treatment apparatus. The water treatment apparatus
may treat raw feed ground water and surface water
sources as well as waste water sources including
those exhibiting oily wastes, high metal levels,
organic wastes from sources such as textile
processing, sewage waste streams, food processing,
and others. The water treatment apparatus also
reduces the problems associated with recirculation
of the waste stream, reduces water wastage, and
provides advantages in power and horsepower
requirements. The water treatment apparatus
comprises an external pressurized raw water
source, a raw water inlet, a raw water filter, a main
drive pump, a valve arrangement, water treatment
means, an inverse flush system having a product
accumulator tank and a inverse flow pump, a pair
of separation tanks, a recirculation pump set,
treated water output storage means, an external fast
flush water supply, and a waste water discharge.
Ducting connects these components and
communicates water therebetween.
US6173508 Sewage organic waste compaction and 2001-01-16
incineration system integrated optionally with a
gas turbine power driver exhaust and/or other
separate heat source
This Document is a Continuation in Part of U.S.
patent application Ser. No. 09/093,029 filed on Jun.
8, 1998, said invention comprising an apparatus for
evaporating water in a mixture of water and solids
derived from the organic output of a waste water
treatment plant. A low cost source of gaseous heat
(as the exhaust from a gas turbine driver in
combination with/or alternatively from a stand
alone combustor) is used for evaporating said water
and safe conditioning said evaporated water vapor
after being combined with a portion of the exhaust
from said gaseous heat source. The solids portion
of said organic output from said waste water
treatment plant is segregated and safe conditioned
separately.This continuation in part filing
supplements said basic reference patent filing by
defining a specific heat exchange surface
configuration for heat exchanger 17 which
minimizes radiation heat losses to atmosphere.
Also, incineration temperature has been reduced to
minimize the cost of heat transfer surface relative to
tube materials employed and high temperature
volumetric requirements. Illustrative temperature
differentials between heat transfer circuits have also
been increased.
- US6159666 Environmentally friendly removal of 2000-12-12
photoresists used in wet etchable polyimide
processes
Normally, a positive photoresist is developed with
an alkaline aqueous solution to form patterns, and
is subsequently stripped with an organic solvent
after the photoresist has served its function. Such
strippers are relatively toxic and damaging to the
environment, and cannot be handled by standard
(community) waste-water treatment facilities.
These strippers cannot be easily neutralized, and
must be disposed of in a highly specialized and
relatively expensive manner. The present invention
provides a method of treating positive and negative
photoresists during their usage as photo masks such
that the photoresists may be removed by less toxic
chemicals which can be readily neutralized and
handled by conventional waste water treatment
facilities.
US6147225 Thiacrown ether compound 2000-11-14
Thiacrown ether and polymeric thiacrown ether
compounds are disclosed. The thiacrown ether ring
structures are substituted and have from 4 to about
10 sulfur atoms on each of the crown rings. The
polymeric thiacrown ether ring structures are
substituted with polymers and have from 4 to about
10 sulfur atoms on each of the crown rings. The
thiacrown compounds of the present invention are
expected to have utility in a wide range of
applications including but not limited to utility as
metal ion chelating, sequestering, and complexing
agents. The thiacrown compounds are also expected
to have utility as corrosion inhibitors for cooling
tower, boiler, and waste water systems,
hydrocarbon process systems and metal surface
treatments systems.
US6136200 Treatment for paint and lacquer waste water 2000-10-24
A composition for the detackification and
clarification of acid and alkaline paint and lacquer
waste waters and paint spray booth wastes,
comprising:

an inorganic-organic and/or organic adduct


alloy polymer composition having the
formula:

A.multidot.B.sup.+ .multidot.D.sup.+
wherein: A=[(SiO.sub.2 /Me.sup.I.sub.2 O).sub.u
Me.sup.II.sub.m Me.sub.m.sup.III(OH).sbsp.p.sup.
(SO.sbsp.4.sup.).sbsp.y (2m+3n)-p-2y].sub.r

where r=1 to 98% bw; u=0 to 10% bw;


[Figure] where: x=0 to 98% bw; Z is a
divalent substituted or unsubstituted
aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, heterocyclic or
aromatic radical
D.sup.+ =(PQAM).sub.w

where

o w=2 to 98% b.w. of polyquaternized


polymer (PQAM)

o Me.sub.m.sup.II is selected from the


divalent cationic group comprising:
Mg, Zn, Ca, and Fe.sup.2+

o m=0 to 5

o Me.sub.n.sup.III is a tri-or more


valent metal selected from the group
comprising: Fe, Al, and Al--Zn
complexes;

o n=1 to 20

Aci is selected from the monovalent anionic group


comprising Cl.sup.-, Br.sup.-, I.sup.-, NO.sub.3 --,
H.sub.2 PO.sub.4 --, CH.sub.3 COO.sup.-,
OH.sup.- or a mixture of two or more of the
foregoing, but preferably Aci is Cl.sup.-, NO.sub.3
--, CH.sub.3 COO.sup.-, or H.sub.2 PO.sub.4 --;

MeI=Na, K, Li, Cs

p=0 to 75

y=0 to 15

The method of manufacturing such compositions is


also disclosed.
US6132985 Methods for the detoxification of nitrile and/or 2000-10-17
amide compounds
The present invention describes methods for the
detoxification of a mixture of nitrile compounds, or
a mixture of nitrile and amide compounds by
conversion of the nitrile compound(s) to the
corresponding amide or acid compounds using a
pure culture of an induced microorganism strain
capable of converting a nitrile moiety to an amide
or acid moiety. If an amide is formed or is present
in the mixture, the amide can be further converted,
using the present methods for detoxification, to the
corresponding acid. The acid can then, if desired,
be further degraded to CO.sub.2, H.sub.2 O and
biomass. The induced pure cultures are able to
detoxify a mixture of nitriles or a mixture of nitrites
and amides which are typically present, in high
concentration(s), in nitrile production waste
streams. The present invention further discloses
methods for removing a nitrile compound from an
amide preparation, such as an acetamide or
acrylamide preparation containing an unwanted
nitrile compound, using an induced pure culture of
an induced microorganism strain capable of
converting a nitrile moiety to an amide or acid
moiety. The pure cultures are able to purify or
reduce the toxicity of the amide preparation thus
improving purity and amide product yield from the
amide preparation. The present invention further
discloses methods for the conversion of a mixture
of amide compounds to the corresponding acid
compounds using a pure culture of an induced
microorganism strain capable of converting an
amide moiety to an acid moiety. This invention also
discloses kits, biofilters and methods for use of the
kits and biofilters for detoxification containing the
useful microorganism strains.
US6132619 Resolution of sludge/emulsion formed by 2000-10-17
acidizing wells
A method for resolving sludge/emulsion formed as
a result of acidization of oil and gas wells
comprising the steps of adding an iron-control
chemical in an amount sufficient to prevent the
formation of insoluble iron compounds, and adding
a water-dispersible emulsion breaker in an amount
sufficient to separate the sludge/emulsion into clean
oil and water. Further treatment of the waste water
with water clarifiers, settling vessels and passing it
through a macroreticular resin results in water that
is at least less than 29 mg/L total oil and grease for
overboard discharges from offshore facilities.
US6129844 Waste water purification process 2000-10-10

The invention relates to a process for cleaning


waste water in which, before the anaerobic
treatment as a first stage, biomass produced in the
second stage, a plant clarifying unit, is added. Thus,
an increase in the organic load in the arriving waste
water is achieved and thus loading sufficient for the
anaerobic methane digestion is achieved. The
lightly loaded waste water exiting from the first
stage is used in the plant clarifying part (second
stage) for irrigation and fertilization. Under the
influence of solar energy, this forms plant biomass
which is metered in before the first stage.Through
the process according to the invention it is possible
to use lightly loaded organic waste water for an
anaerobic methane digestion for cleaning and
simultaneous production of biogas.
US6126828 Method and apparatus for treating organic 2000-10-03
waste water
A method and an apparatus for treating an organic
waste water capable of deodorizing an exhaust gas
diffused into an atmosphere is provided, wherein
heat energy loss is small and the amount of an
organic or inorganic nitrogen compounds in an
effluent from the apparatus is low. In the method of
the present invention, an organic waste water is
nitrified in a nitrification device 8, denitrified in a
denitrification device 9, and subjected to an aerobic
biological treatment in an aeration tank 10, and
then the treated mixture is solid-liquid separated in
a solid-liquid separation device 3. A portion of an
excess sludge separated in solid-liquid separation
device 3 is solubilized at a high temperature in a
solubilization device 6, and the solution after a
solubilization treatment is returned to
denitrification device 9 and a gas exhausted from
solubilization device 6 is charged into nitrification
device 8.
US6125633 Sewage organic waste compaction and 2000-10-03
incineration system integrated with a gas
turbine power driver exhaust gas flow stream
The invention comprising an apparatus for
evaporating water in a mixture of water and solids
derived from the organic output from a waste water
treatment plant. A low cost source of gaseous heat
(as the exhaust from a gas turbine driver and in
combination with an auxiliary combustor) is used
for evaporating the water and safe conditioning the
evaporated water vapor after being combined with
the exhaust from the gaseous heat source. The
solids portion of the organic output from the waste
water treatment plant is segregated and safe
conditioned separately.
US6123840 Organic waste water treating apparatus having 2000-09-26
treating layer and auxiliary layer
A primary treating tank (10) comprises a filling
layer (14) and a foam glass layer (16) below the
filling layer (14). The foam glass layer (16)
contains foam glass grains each of which is larger
in a grain diameter than a wood chip of the filling
layer (14) so that the foam glass layer (16) is
superior in water passing ability to the filling layer
(14). In this arrangement, a space ratio is larger
with a lower layer. This arrangement promotes
smooth downward shifting of primary treated
water. A secondary treating tank (30) also has a
laminating structure including a filling layer (34)
and a form glass layer (36). As air is supplied to the
foam glass layer (36), the filling layer (34) is kept
in a preferable aerobic condition so that preferable
aerobic biological treatment is carried out on the
treated water supplied from the primary treating
tank (10).
US6117324 System and process for treating animal waste 2000-09-12
The present invention is generally directed to a
process and system for treating animal waste. More
particularly, the present invention is directed to a
process and system for treating animal waste
effluent with ozone to decompose the organic
material within and improve the odor of the animal
waste. The process of the present invention also
reduces biochemical oxygen demand, chemical
oxygen demand, total bacterial content and
coliform bacterial count of the animal waste. The
process of this present invention comprises
collecting an animal waste solution, containing a
mixture of water and animal fecal material;
contacting the waste solution with ozone in an
amount sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the
organic material contained within; and feeding the
ozone treated waste solution to a solids separating
device prior to collecting the waste solution in a
biobasin or, alternatively, recycling the ozone
treated waste solution for use as a source of
irrigation or flushwater.
US6101739 Method and apparatus for treating exhaust 2000-08-15
gases of thermal drying processes and
particularly processes for drying sewage sludge
In a method of drying a moist bulk material, such
as sewage sludge, and treating the malodorous
moisture-laden gas resulting from the drying
process, the moisture-laden gas is introduced into
waste water contained in a waste water clarifying
basin of a waste water treatment plant. A system for
carrying out the method includes a drying apparatus
and at least one waste water basin of a waste water
treatment plant, connected so that the moisture-
laden gas emitted from the drying apparatus can be
introduced, for example through an aerator, into the
waste water. Thereby, the gas is cooled,
demoisturized and deodorized, and moisture and
volatile components are condensed and/or
dissolved out of the gas into the waste water. The
waste water is beneficially oxygenated, heated, and
enriched with organic substances.
US6099733 Water treatment system 2000-08-08
The water treatment apparatus utilizes membrane
separation technology to separate clean product
water from a contaminated water source. Chemical
pretreatment of the raw feed water, chemical
cleaning of the membrane separator(s), and
chemical treatment of the final recovered product
water required by conventional membrane
separation apparatus are eliminated in the water
treatment apparatus. The water treatment apparatus
may treat raw feed ground water and surface water
sources as well as waste water sources including
those exhibiting oily wastes, high metal levels,
organic wastes from sources such as textile
processing, sewage waste streams, food processing,
and others. The water treatment apparatus also
reduces the problems associated with recirculation
of the waste stream, reduces water wastage, and
provides advantages in power and horsepower
requirements. The water treatment apparatus
comprises an external pressurized raw water
source, a raw water inlet, a raw water filter, a main
drive pump, a valve arrangement, water treatment
means, an inverse flush system having a product
accumulator tank and a inverse flow pump, a pair
of separation tanks, a recirculation pump set,
treated water output storage means, an external fast
flush water supply, and a waste water discharge.
Ducting connects these components and
communicates water therebetween.
US6083395 Method of treating a waste water containing 2000-07-04
organic solids
A method of continuously treating an organic waste
water which simplifies the overall process, avoids
lengthy solubilizing reactions to reduce the volume
of a solubilizing vessel, and effectively performs
the solubilizing treatment is disclosed. In the
method of continuously treating an organic waste
water containing organic solids, the solubilizing
treatment for the organic sludge is carried out using
heat and under conditions such that a sludge
solubilization enzyme is produced and secreted
from a microorganism to promote solubilization,
and the solubilizing treatment time is determined
based on a hydraulic residence time of a treated
solution in a solubilizing treatment device.
US6077433 Process for simultaneous extraction of dispersed 2000-06-20
and dissolved hydrocarbon contaminants from
water

A new process for simultaneous extraction of


dispersed and dissolved hydrocarbon contaminants
from water. The process is based on the principle of
injecting natural hydrocarbon gas to the water feed
stream under pressure and temperature conditions
which permit the gas to act as a solvent for
dissolved and dispersed hydrocarbon contaminants.
The dispersed particles "swell" and have a reduced
density which markedly improves the efficiency of
the downstream separation by liquid--liquid-
hydrocyclones.
US6071409 Phenolic wastewater treatment with ethers for 2000-06-06
removal and recovery of phenolics
Liquid-liquid extraction is used for the removal of
phenolics from wastewater streams using an ether
extractant which has a high partition coefficient and
a low solubility in water such as methyl tertiary-
butyl ether. The resulting phenolics-ether mixture
may be separated by distillation or by the use of an
aqueous solution of an alkali metal hydroxide to
form a phenate in an aqueous phase and the ether in
an organic phase followed by phase separation. Any
ether dissolved in the wastewater is removed by
distillation or the solubility of the ether in the
wastewater is retarded by adding an aqueous alkali
salt solution. In the distillation embodiment, an
environmentally acceptable wastewater is readily
obtained. In the salt treatment embodiment, the
wastewater is suitable for treatment in the overall
plant complex associated with the phenol/acetone
plant.
US6063279 Waste water treatment method and equipment 2000-05-16
being able to treat hydrogen peroxide,
phosphorus, fluorine and organic-matters with
high efficiency
In a third tank, calcium carbonate mineral is filled
to react with fluorine in treatment water. Then,
generated treatment water containing calcium
fluoride is aerated and stirred so that aerobic
microorganisms are propagated, by which organic
matters are treated. A fourth water tank is to
perform treatment of hydrogen peroxide by
anaerobic microorganisms in return sludge from a
sixth tank, treatment of phosphorus by slaked lime
newly added in a small amount, and secondary
treatment (advanced treatment) of fluorine that has
already been primarily treated in the third tank. In a
fifth tank, flocs are coagulated. In the sixth tank,
the coagulants are settled and separated so as to be
discharged as treated water. Thus, mixed waste
water of hydrogen-peroxide- and phosphorus-
containing fluorine waste water and organic-matter-
containing waste water is treated simultaneously
with low running cost and maintenance cost.
US6060265 Methods for the detoxification of nitrile and/or 2000-05-09
amide compounds
The present invention describes methods for the
detoxification of a mixture of nitrile compounds, or
a mixture of nitrile and amide compounds by
conversion of the nitrile compound(s) to the
corresponding amide or acid compounds using a
pure culture of an induced microorganism strain
capable of converting a nitrile moiety to an amide
or acid moiety. If an amide is formed or is present
in the mixture, the amide can be further converted,
using the present methods for detoxification, to the
corresponding acid. The acid can then, if desired,
be further degraded to CO.sub.2, H.sub.2 O and
biomass. The induced pure cultures are able to
detoxify a mixture of nitriles or a mixture of nitriles
and amides which are typically present, in high
concentration(s), in nitrile production waste
streams. The present invention further discloses
methods for removing a nitrile compound from an
amide preparation, such as an acetamide or
acrylamide preparation containing an unwanted
nitrile compound, using an induced pure culture of
an induced microorganism strain capable of
converting a nitrile moiety to an amide or acid
moiety. The pure cultures are able to purify or
reduce the toxicity of the amide preparation thus
improving purity and amide product yield from the
amide preparation. The present invention further
discloses methods for the conversion of a mixture
of amide compounds to the corresponding acid
compounds using a pure culture of an induced
microorganism strain capable of converting an
amide moiety to an acid moiety. This invention also
discloses kits, biofilters and methods for use of the
kits and biofilters for detoxification containing the
useful microorganism strains.
US6033571 Activated sludge treatment method and 2000-03-07
apparatus
An activated sludge treatment apparatus having an
aeration tank 14 for subjecting an organic waste
water to an aerobic biological treatment, a first
precipitation device 16 for separating a waste water
treated in aeration tank 14 into treated water and a
sludge, a recycle route 18 for returning a portion of
the sludge separated by precipitation device 16 to
aeration tank 14, a solubilizing treatment device 24
for solubilizing, at a high temperature, excess
sludge separated by precipitation device 16, and a
return route 30 for returning a treated solution
solubilized by solubilizing treatment device 24 to
aeration tank 14, is disclosed.
US6017460 Heating and reaction system and method using 2000-01-25
recycle reactor
Systems and methods for heating, reacting, and/or
treating a stream containing oxidizable matter.
Recycle reactor is used alone or in conjunction with
plug-flow reactor. Density differences in the recycle
reactor facilitate flow within the recycle reactor
without substantial external heat exchange.
US6007719 Process for high concentrated waste water 1999-12-28
treatment using membrane separation

The present invention relates to a process for


treatment of high concentrated waste water from
animal husbandry, human excretion and other high
organic waste. This process includes warming,
anaerobic digestion, separation with ultra filtration
(UF)/reversed osmosis (RO) membranes. The
residual solution after RO separation is the raw
material of liquid fertilizer for water culture and
foliar spray.
US6007712 Waste water treatment apparatus 1999-12-28
A waste water treatment apparatus which is
compact, and excellent in durability, has a high
treatment performance and can stably operate for a
long time is provided. In a waste water treatment
apparatus at least comprising a waste water
treatment tank in which a carrier particle
immobilizing a microbe is charged and
decomposing and eliminating an organic matter
and/or an inorganic matter contained in a waste
water, and a membrane module for filtrating a
water to be treated which flows out from said
treatment tank, a non-permeating water not passing
thorough the membrane module is returned and
circulated to said treatment tank. In a waste water
treatment apparatus at least comprising a waste
water treatment tank in which a carrier particle
immobilizing a microbe is charged and
decomposing and eliminating an organic matter
and/or an inorganic matter contained in a waste
water, a carrier immobilizing a microbe is an
acetalized polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel.
US6001243 Heating and reaction system and method using 1999-12-14
recycle reactor
Systems and methods for heating, reacting, and/or
treating a stream containing oxidizable matter.
Recycle reactor is used alone or in conjunction with
plug-flow reactor. Density differences in the recycle
reactor facilitate flow within the recycle reactor
without substantial external heat exchange.
US5980754 Process for recovering components of a float 1999-11-09
material from waste water treatment system
A process for recovering protein, fatty and water
components from a float material produced by a
waste water treatment system, wherein the protein
and fatty components can be further processed for
inclusion in various products, such as animal feed.
The recovered water component can also be further
processed before discharged into a sewer system.
US5977287 Treatment of aqueous systems using a 1999-11-02
chemically modified tannin
There is provided a composition comprising tannin
containing hydroxyl groups which has been (a)
chemically modified by reaction of at least one of
said hydroxyl groups with at least one member
selected from the group consisting of an
esterification agent (e.g. acetic anhydride),
etherification agent (e.g. dichloromethane or
quaternary organic amine such as N-(3-chloro-2-
hydroxypropyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride) to
form the corresponding ester, or ether, through said
hydroxyl group, and (b) derivatized. The
chemically modified tannin is derivatized by
reaction with aldehyhde (e.g. formaldehyde), or
aldehyde and at least one member selected from the
group consisting of ammonia and organic amine
containing at least one primary or secondary
nitrogen (e.g. cyclohexyl amine); said derivatized
tannin being water soluble or dispersable at a pH
below 7 and water insoluble at a pH above 7. The
chemically modified tannins are useful for the
coagulation and/or detackification of solid particles
suspended in the aqueous system, such as paint
particles suspended in the waste water of a paint
spray booth operation. Such tannins also have
utility for demulsifying oil-in-water emulsions.
US5961826 Biological waste water treatment system having 1999-10-05
a sedimentation tank vertically combined with
an aeration tank therein
A waste water treatment system including an
anaerobic tank for treating phosphorous contained
in initial waste water, a pair of anoxic tanks for
treating nitrate in the waste water from the
anaerobic tank, a holding tank for containing
therein the waste water from an anoxic tank, an
aeration tank for treating an organic material
contained in waste water from the holding tank by
microorganisms and pure oxygen and for treating
ammonia by microorganisms to convert the
ammonia into nitrate, with the aeration tank being a
substantial cylindrical body mounted on a concrete
bottom provided with an inclined eccentric slope
for causing the waste water to eccentrically flow
within the aeration tank, having a diffuser for
diffusing compressed air into the waste water in the
aeration tank, and a pure oxygen generator, and
with the anaerobic tank, the pair of anoxic tanks
and the holding tank being mounted around the
aeration tank, a sedimentation tank vertically
combined with the aeration tank and communicated
therewith, with the sedimentation tank having a
clarified water outlet, a reversed funnel-shaped
guider for guiding the waste water to converge flow
lines, a guide baffle mounted inside the reversed
funnel-shaped guider, and an outer guider for
guiding a flow of waste water having passed the
reversed funnel-shaped guider.
US5951866 Cold climate wetland waste water treatment 1999-09-14
system
A wetland bioreactor treatment cell for use in a
waste water treatment process for reducing stated
water quality indicators of the waste water is
provided. The wetland bioreactor treatment cell
comprises a vegetated containment area containing
porous media for receiving an influent comprising
water and organic waste material with the
containment area having a front end and a rear end.
A manifold distributor structure for receiving and
distributing the influent into the containment area is
provided with the manifold distributor structure
being positioned entirely within the front end of the
containment area and the manifold distributor
structure having a port for allowing cleaning or
maintenance of the manifold distributor structure. A
hydraulic upflow structure is positioned nearingly
adjacent and downstream from the manifold
distributor structure with the hydraulic upflow
structure maintaining a substantial amount of
suspended solids in the front end of the
containment area. At least one small hydraulic
upflow structure is positioned between the manifold
distributor structure and the rear end of the
containment area. A hydraulic level control
structure is positioned entirely within the rear end
of the containment area.
US5942107 Apparatus for the treatment of hazardous waste 1999-08-24
water
There is disclosed a portable assembly for treating
hazardous waste water having a plurality of paired
filter units having filter mediums and operated at
high filter rates to minimize solids build up wherein
solids are caused to be smashed and broken by
shear forces and wherein chemicals are sequentially
added to facilitate solids reduction, to oxidize
organic compounds and to precipitate dissolved
solids and wherein the process stream is subjected
to ultraviolet light to reduce organic loading and
downstream ultra filtration units to further reduce
solids followed by reverse osmosis and/or
ionization treatment.
US5895576 Method and apparatus for wastewater treatment 1999-04-20
by chemical reaction of reactive filler and
propagated microorganisms
An apparatus for wastewater treatment is provided
which can efficiently treat wastewater containing
organic matter and, in addition, fluorine, with a
relatively small number of tanks required for such
treatment. The apparatus includes a first tank
adapted to allow wastewater to flow thereinto, the
first tank comprising an upper portion having a
calcium carbonate mineral mass of smaller granule
size and an aeration tube for fluidizing such
calcium carbonate mineral mass while aerating the
same in the wastewater, an intermediate portion and
a lower portion which respectively include a
calcium carbonate mineral mass of medium granule
size and a calcium carbonate mineral mass of larger
granule size, the medium and larger granule size
masses of calcium carbonate mineral constituting
immobilizing carriers for microbial propagation,
and a circulation pump for transferring treated
water resulting from treatment in the upper portion
to the lower portion. In the upper portion, calcium
carbonate mineral is fluidized by aeration so as to
treat the wastewater through chemical reaction and,
in the intermediate portion and lower portion,
organic matter in the wastewater is biologically
treated by microorganisms.
US5885448 Thermophilic aerobic waste treatment process 1999-03-23
A system for thermophilic aerobic destruction of
pathogenic organisms and organic matter within
waste water treatment sludge includes a tank for
maintaining the sludge and an air transfer apparatus
for injecting air into the sludge near the bottom
thereof so as to bubble up through the sludge and
react exothermically with the thermophilic
microorganisms therein so as to kill or destroy the
mesophilic microorganisms within the sludge. The
thermophilic reaction is preferably controlled
within a desired temperature range by control of the
flow of fresh air versus recycled air being injected
into the sludge. The fresh air to recycle air ratio can
be controlled by several different mechanisms so as
to produce the desired temperature range. The air is
also utilized to mix the sludge within the tank. A
pumping apparatus is also provided for transferring
sludge into and out of the tank and for recirculating
the sludge for purposes of auxiliary mixing. The
pump can also be utilized in conjunction with an
eductor for drawing fresh air into the sludge. A
process controller is advantageously useable in
conjunction with the various equipment to control
the overall system.
US5879928 Composition for the treatment for municipal 1999-03-09
and industrial waste-water
A composition for the treatment of municipal and
industrial waste-water. The composition comprises
a yeast fermentation supernatant, preservatives and
a non-ionic surfactant. In a preferred embodiment
of the present invention the composition comprises
a fermentation supernatant from a Saccharomyces
cerevisiae culture, sodium benzoate, imidazolidinyl
urea, diazolidinyl urea and a non-ionic surfactant.
US5863750 Methods for the detoxification of nitrile and/or 1999-01-26
amide compounds
The present invention describes methods for the
detoxification of a mixture of nitrile compounds, or
a mixture of nitrile and amide compounds by
conversion of the nitrile compound(s) to the
corresponding amide or acid compounds using a
pure culture of an induced microorganism strain
capable of converting a nitrile moiety to an amide
or acid moiety. If an amide is formed or is present
in the mixture, the amide can be further converted,
using the present methods for detoxification, to the
corresponding acid. The acid can then, if desired,
be further degraded to CO.sub.2, H.sub.2 O and
biomass. The induced pure cultures are able to
detoxify a mixture of nitrites or a mixture of nitriles
and amides which are typically present, in high
concentration(s), in nitrile production waste
streams. The present invention further discloses
methods for removing a nitrile compound from an
amide preparation, such as an acetamide or
acrylamide preparation containing an unwanted
nitrile compound, using an induced pure culture of
an induced microorganism strain capable of
converting a nitrile moiety to an amide or acid
moiety. The pure cultures are able to purify or
reduce the toxicity of the amide preparation thus
improving purity and amide product yield from the
amide preparation. The present invention further
discloses methods for the conversion of a mixture
of amide compounds to the corresponding acid
compounds using a pure culture of an induced
microorganism strain capable of converting an
amide moiety to an acid moiety. This invention also
discloses kits, biofilters and methods for use of the
kits and biofilters for detoxification containing the
useful microorganism strains.
US5843337 Treatment of aqueous systems using a 1998-12-01
chemically modified tannin
There is provided a composition comprising tannin
containing hydroxyl groups which has been (a)
chemically modified by reaction of at least one of
said hydroxyl groups with at least one member
selected from the group consisting of an
esterification agent (e.g. acetic anhydride),
etherification agent (e.g. dichloromethane or
quaternary organic amine such as N-(3-chloro-2-
hydroxypropyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride) to
form the corresponding ester, or ether, through said
hydroxyl group, and (b) derivatized. The
chemically modified tannin is derivatized by
reaction with aldehyhde (e.g. formaldehyde), or
aldehyde and at least one member selected from the
group consisting of ammonia and organic amine
containing at least one primary or secondary
nitrogen (e.g. cyclohexyl amine); said derivatized
tannin being water soluble or dispersable at a pH
below 7 and water insoluble at a pH above 7.The
above modified tannins are useful for the
coagulation and/or detackification of solid particles
suspended in an aqueous system, such as paint
particles suspended in the waste water of a paint
spray booth operation. Such tannins also have
utility for demulsifying oil-in-water emulsions.
US5830315 Treatment of Aqueous systems using a 1998-11-03
chemically modified tannin
There is provided a composition comprising tannin
containing hydroxyl groups which has been (a)
chemically modified by reaction of at least one of
said hydroxyl groups with at least one member
selected from the group consisting of an
esterification agent (e.g. acetic anhydride),
etherification agent (e.g. dichloromethane or
quaternary organic amine such as N-(3-chloro-2-
hydroxypropyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride) to
form the corresponding ester, or ether, through said
hydroxyl group, and (b) derivatized. The
chemically modified tannin is derivatized by
reaction with aldehyhde (e.g. formaldehyde), or
aldehyde and at least one member selected from the
group consisting of ammonia and organic amine
containing at least one primary or secondary
nitrogen (e.g. cyclohexyl amine); said derivatized
tannin being water soluble or dispersable at a pH
below 7 and water insoluble at a pH above 7. The
above modified tannins are useful for the
coagulation and/or detackification of solid particles
suspended in an aqueous system, such as paint
particles suspended in the waste water of a paint
spray booth operation. Such tannins also have
utility for demulsifying oil-in-water emulsions.
US5823220 Pressure reduction system and method 1998-10-20
Systems and methods for pressure reduction,
including a first conduit with a pressure sensor, a
static restriction device, and second conduit
connected therebetween. Fluid is introduced
through the second conduit as a function of the
pressure sensed by the pressure sensor, thereby
compensating for fluctuations in sensed pressures
due to restriction device degradation and other
factors.
US5811255 Apparatus and method for anaerobic 1998-09-22
respirometry
An apparatus and method for anaerobic and aerobic
respirometry. The apparatus and method provide for
automatically collecting and analyzing the data
required to calibrate mathematical models for
bioprocesses that involve anaerobic respiration,
aerobic respiration and dehalogenation. Dissolved
electron-acceptor concentrations and/or product
concentrations and/or headspace pressures are
automatically monitored during the progress of a
biotransformation occurring in a batch reactor to
produce a data set. The data set is analyzed to
derive intrinsic kinetic parameters and
stoichiometric coefficients. The cultures
biocatalyzing the oxidation-reduction reactions of
interest may be aerobic, denitrifying (e.g., nitrate-
reducing), sulfate reducing and/or methanogenic.
The models thus developed may be used for design
of wastewater treatment or bioremediation
processes.
US5807486 Process for the treatment of hazardous waste 1998-09-15
water
There is disclosed a portable assembly for treating
hazardous waste water having a plurality of paired
filter units having filter mediums and operated at
high filter rates to minimize solids build up wherein
solids are caused to be smashed and broken by
shear forces and wherein chemicals are sequentially
added to facilitate solids reduction, to oxidize
organic compounds and to precipitate dissolved
solids and wherein the process stream is subjected
to ultraviolet light to reduce organic loading and
downstream ultra filtration units to further reduce
solids followed by reverse osmosis and/or
ionization treatment.
US5792650 Method for treating waste water 1998-08-11
The present invention relates to a method of
treatment of waste water which is characterized by
removal of both organic substances and phosphorus
from phosphorus-containing organic waste water
by novel microorganisms that are fortified in
phosphorus-incorporating and/or accumulating
abilities. The method for treatment of waste water
according to the present invention allows to
efficiently remove both organic substances and
phosphorus from organic waste water by
genetically-engineered microorganisms that have
acquired improved abilities in phosphorus
incorporation and/or accumulation by genetic
transformation using one or more vector plasmids
carrying, together with a self-replicative DNA
fragment, one of the DNA fragment combinations
which include at least one member of the group of
(a) a DNA fragment containing a gene involved in
phosphate transport through cell membranes; (b) a
DNA fragment containing a polyphosphate kinase
structure gene; and (c) a DNA fragment containing
a structure gene of an enzyme involved in
intracellular ATP supply, excluding the sole use of
the DNA fragment containing a polyphosphate
kinase structure gene.
US5788838 Ultrapure water production system having 1998-08-04
pretreatment system for performing both
anaerobic and aerobic organism treatments
There is provided an ultrapure water production
system which allows recycled waste water to be
microbially treated and thereby reclaimed without
causing any clogging of treatment system due to
abnormal propagation of microorganisms, and
which allows ultrapure water with 1 ppb or lower
TOC to be obtained. This ultrapure water
production system includes a lower part having an
anaerobic organism treatment part (12), and an
upper part which is placed above the lower part via
a separating wall W.sub.B having an opening (16)
and which has a biological treatment equipment
including an aerobic organism treatment part (1).
Since lower anaerobic microorganisms and upper
aerobic microorganisms consume nutrition sources
for microorganisms, treated water which is difficult
for microorganisms to propagate can be obtained.
Further, not only TOC but also organic nitrogen
compounds are treated by the microorganisms, by
which treated water with low electrical conductivity
can be obtained.
US5785868 Method for selective separation of products at 1998-07-28
hydrothermal conditions
Sodium and borate ions are separated in
supercritical water by addition of dissolved
CO.sub.2 to cause precipitation of carbonates and
the formation of boric acid. Carbonates and boric
acid are then recovered as separate products.
US5770174 Method for controlling reaction temperature 1998-06-23
Oxidation reactions occurring in a plug flow reactor
under conditions approximating supercritical water
conditions are controlled by injecting a process
stream of water and two reactants in non-
stoichiometric proportions into the reactor and
causing the process stream to flow through the
reactor. Water is injected at one or more points
downstream from the inlet to lower the temperature
of the process stream and additional reactant
injected to re-start the reaction. The quench and re-
start process is repeated until substantially all
oxidizable material in the process stream has be
oxidized.
US5755977 Continuous catalytic oxidation process 1998-05-26
A contaminated fluid such as water or a gas stream
containing at least one organic contaminant is
contacted in a continuous process with a particulate
geothite catalyst in a reactor in the presence of
hydrogen peroxide or ozone or both to decompose
the organic contaminants.
US5755974 Method and apparatus for reacting oxidizable 1998-05-26
matter with a salt
Method and apparatus for inhibiting plugging in a
reactor that operates at a temperature and a pressure
that are at least in the vicinity of supercritical
condition for water. One or more salts are
preferably added, in a controlled manner, to a
stream containing a first salt, in order to allow a
eutectic, molten blend with the first salt to be
formed. The blend may have a melting point below
the temperature of the reactor. The stream is
introduced into the reactor and preferably at least a
portion of the blend is in a molten state. Plugging in
the reactor may thus be inhibited or prevented.
US5730878 Contaminated waste-water treatment method 1998-03-24
and device
A waste-water treatment device that includes a
coalescing plate separator (CPS) for receiving
waste-water and for specific gravity separation of
hydrocarbon fluids and particles having a lower
specific gravity than water from the waste-water.
The CPS includes a series of plates having holes
formed in ridges, where the hydrocarbon fluids rise
through the holes to the surface of the waste-water
in the CPS. A skimmer skims off the hydrocarbon
fluids from the surface of the waste-water in the
CPS and stores these fluids in an oil/product
recovery tank. A particle filter receives the waste-
water from the CPS and filters out suspended solids
from the waste-water. A granulated activated
carbon filter receives the waste-water from the
particle filter and removes organic hydrocarbons
from the waste-water.
US5716528 Peroxide water treatment process 1998-02-10
Aromatic organic contaminants in waste water
efficiently removed by oxidizing the contaminants
with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a
catalytic amount of ferrous ions, at an acid pH, to
produce an oxidized water which may be passed
through activated carbon to adsorb residual organic
contaminants; the process is especially useful for
treatment of contaminated water derived from a
wood preservation treatment and containing
polyaromatic hydrocarbons and phenols and/or
chlorinated phenols.
US5709841 Waste stream treatment 1998-01-20
A waste water cleanup process where an aqueous
solution of organoboron compounds is hydrolyzed
to boric acid and the corresponding organic
compound by treatment at a temperature of greater
than 150 C. at a pressure sufficient to prevent
substantial evaporation and at a pH of 5 or greater,
but 9 or less.
US5702615 Method for the treatment of waste water 1997-12-30
A method for the treatment of waste water, which
comprises treating waste water containing at least a
sulfide-type malodorous substance, in the presence
of a transition metal compound and hydrogen
peroxide or a hydrogen peroxide-forming
compound, wherein at least an iron family element
compound and a vanadium family element
compound are used as the transition metal
compound.
US5700368 Treatments to reduce aldol condensation and 1997-12-23
subsequent polymerization in caustic acid gas
scrubbers
The present invention provides a number of agents
that are useful to inhibit aldol condensation in
caustic scrubbers. Preferred agents include, but are
not necessarily limited to benzoic hydrazide,
hydroperoxides, hydrogen peroxide, salts of
hypochlorous acid, nitroalkanes,
monoethanolamine, peroxyesters, and N,N-
dialkylhydroxylamines.
US5662789 Removal of organics from aqueous solutions 1997-09-02
A process is described for electrochemically
"collecting" certain organic compounds from
aqueous solutions in an immobilized and
concentrated manner conducive to subsequent
destruction. The method is applicable for organic
compounds amenable to electrochemical coupling,
e.g. by condensation. The method involves the
electrochemical reaction of the organic compounds
to form substantially water insoluble coupling
products in the form of deposits or films on the
working electrode surface. This method has the
advantage of greatly concentrating and
immobilizing the organic compounds on the surface
of the working electrode. The immobilization of the
organics allows the material to be transferred to a
different environment or allows the environment to
be changed to facilitate destruction of the organics.
This advantage, along with the high "local"
concentration of the organic material on the
electrode's surface, allows various methods of post
treatment or destruction to be carried out, which
would not be possible or would not be as efficient if
carried out directly on the initial dilute waste water.
US5656169 Biodegradation process for de-toxifying liquid 1997-08-12
streams
A biological degradation process is disclosed. The
biological gradation process utilizes a unique
thermophilic aerobic bacterial mixture capable of
converting, biologically or via oxidation, aqueous
and other liquid streams containing substances that
are ordinarily considered toxic to conventional
biological systems. Substances ordinarily
considered toxic to conventional biological
systems, but which nevertheless are converted by
the thermophilic aerobic bacterial mixture, include
aniline; benzothiazole; 5,6-dihydro-2-methyl-N-
phenyl-1,4-oxathiin-3-carboxamide; lindane
(technically known as 1,2,3,4,5,6-
hexachlorocyclohexane); 2-mercaptobenzothiazole;
toluene; and combinations thereof. The unique
thermophilic aerobic bacterial mixture comprises
relative effective amounts of Pseudomonas stutzeri,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas
fluorescens, Pseudomonas mendocina and
Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosoxydans. A
biological degradation process for treating the
liquid stream containing substances ordinarily
considered toxic comprises contacting the stream
with the thermophilic aerobic bacterial mixture, for
an amount of time that is effective for de-toxifying
the stream.
US5656155 Thermophilic aerobic waste treatment system 1997-08-12
A system for thermophilic aerobic destruction of
pathogenic organisms and organic matter within
waste water treatment sludge includes a tank for
maintaining the sludge and an air transfer apparatus
for injecting air into the sludge near the bottom
thereof so as to bubble up through the sludge and
react exothermically with the thermophilic
microorganisms therein so as to kill or destroy the
mesophilic micro- organisms within the sludge. The
thermophilic reaction is preferably controlled
within a desired temperature range by control of the
flow of fresh air versus recycled air being injected
into the sludge. The fresh air to recycle air ratio can
be controlled by several different mechanisms so as
to produce the desired temperature range. The air is
also utilized to mix the sludge within the tank. A
pumping apparatus is also provided for transferring
sludge into and out of the tank and for recirculating
the sludge for purposes of auxiliary mixing. The
pump can also be utilized in conjunction with an
eductor for drawing fresh air into the sludge. A
process controller is advantageously useable in
conjunction with the various equipment to control
the overall system.
US5647977 Method and apparatus for removing 1997-07-15
contaminants from industrial waste water
A system is provided for removing impurities
anticipated to be found in industrial waste water,
which system is particularly well suited for waste
water systems such as those used for laundry or
vehicle washing operations. The system includes
aeration, mixing/flocculating, and contact media
mechanisms to remove suspended solids,
hydrocarbons, organic materials and undesired
dissolved minerals from the treated water.
US5645725 Process and device for the biological treatment 1997-07-08
of organically polluted waste water and organic
waste

A process and a device for biologically treating


an organic waste mixture containing organically
polluted waste water and solid components. The
process and the device involve exposing the
organic waste mixture to a first decomposition
stage where the solid components and the waste
water are separated from one another and where the
solid components are decomposed under
predominantly aerobic conditions. The waste water
is then passed to a second decomposition stage
where the waste water is decomposed under anoxic
conditions. Thereafter, the waste water is passed to
a third decomposition stage where the waste water
is decomposed again under aerobic conditions
thereby creating recirculation water. At least a
portion of the recirculation water is returned from
the third decomposition stage to the first
decomposition stage for continuously recirculating
water through and between respective
decomposition stages.
US5643453 Process for the treatment of liquid effluents by 1997-07-01
activated sludge
Process for the treatment of liquid effluents, such as
waste water, for the purpose of removal of carbon,
nitrogen and phosphorus pollution using an
activated sludge, according to which the effluent,
after having been subjected to mechanical
pretreatments, is brought into contact with the
activated sludge. The effluent/activated sludge
mixture is the subjected to clarification/settling in
order to separate the treated water from the
thickened sludge, the latter then being recycled at
the head of the aeration treatment and the excess
sludge being continuously discharged. An inert
material of inorganic origin is injected into the
activated sludge, this material being immediately
and homogeneously dispersed in the activated
sludge, in order to create a mixed culture
containing both, and in a single bacterial floc, free
heterotrophic species and autotrophic species
partially fixed on the particles of the said material
within the floc. The structure of the latter contains
in the order of 40 to 65% of organic matter, the
remainder being the said inert material, consisting
of one or a number of particles of the said material
surrounded by activated sludge. The extraction of
the excess sludge is carried out continuously and
without separation of the injected material.
US5641360 Process and device for improving the treatment 1997-06-24
of sewage solids
Treatment of sewage solids, sand, rubbish and the
like, especially for the dumping and/or incineration
with a reduced pollutant and moisture content, or
similar disposal with the mechanical separation of
the solids from a solid-liquid mixture, in which, to
obtain the best possible dumping and incineration
properties according to moisture and pollutant
content, there is a vortex device with the aid of
which organic substances adhering to the solids are
dissolved and removed with the liquid, preferably
to a further biological waste water treatment
system, where the treatment of dirty waste water is
concerned; in a similar manner, sand, rubbish and
similar substances are treated even if they do not
form part of waste water.
US5630942 Two phase anaerobic digestion process utilizing 1997-05-20
thermophilic, fixed growth bacteria
An improved anaerobic waste water treatment
process comprising the steps of introducing waste
water containing organic material into a first
reaction zone containing thermophilic, fixed
growth, hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria and
fermenting the waste water in the first reaction zone
under anaerobic conditions at a pH of between
about 5 and 6 and a temperature between about 115
to 160 degrees Fahrenheit to produce an acid
effluent. The acid effluent is then conveyed to a
second reaction zone containing thermophilic, fixed
growth, methanogenic bacteria where it is
fermented under anaerobic conditions at a pH
between about 7.2 and 8.2 and at a temperature
between about 115 to 160 degrees Fahrenheit to
produce process effluent and gas including
methane. The methane is collected and the process
effluent is removed.
US5626717 Oxidative treatment of bleach plant effluent 1997-05-06
The invention described in the specification relates
to a process and apparatus for the reduction of
adsorbable organic halide (AOX), chemical oxygen
demand (COD) and color bodies from the filtrates
generated in a chlorine compound-containing pulp
bleaching sequence. The method involves
vigorously and intensely mixing certain pulp
bleaching filtrates in order to lower the AOX
content of the filtrate and the use of a peroxy
compound and a ferrous salt catalyst to treat a
combined filtrate streams thereby significantly
reducing the level of AOX, COD and color in the
effluent leaving the pulp bleaching plant.
US5624576 Pelletized composition for treatment of storm 1997-04-29
water runoff
A pelletized composition and method of using this
composition for removing pollutants from storm
water runoff. A bed of the pellets has a useful initial
permeability to storm water runoff, and retains a
significant proportion of this permeability for a
period of several years. Preferably, the pellets are
dried to a moisture content of less than 25 wt. % so
that they are able to withstand a crush force of at
least 7 lb., without structural failure. Optionally, the
pellets may contain gravel that forms a core of the
compost pellet and that assists in causing the
compost to agglomerate into a rounded pellet.
When immersed in water, the pellets retain the
original dry shape and maintain a significant
proportion of the crush strength while providing
interstitial spaces through which storm water can
flow thereby reducing the problem of sedimentation
that is encountered in unpelletized beds of compost
used in this service.
US5620606 Method and apparatus for reacting oxidizable 1997-04-15
matter with particles
Method/system of adding solid particles to inhibit
or prevent plugging in a reactor at conditions such
that the temperature and pressure are at least in the
vicinity of supercritical conditions for water.
Particles may be added in conjunction with a pH-
adjusting material, thereby inhibiting plugging in
the reactor caused by addition of the pH-adjusting
material. Reactor pressure may be reduced by
flowing the stream through a static restriction
device.
US5618622 Surface-modified fibrous material as a filtration 1997-04-08
medium
A surface-modified fibrous material which includes
hydrocarbon polymer fibers having cationic or
anionic groups on the surfaces thereof and coated
with a polyelectrolyte having a net charge opposite
to that of the cationic or anionic groups on the
surfaces of the fibers. The hydrocarbon polymer
may be, by way of illustration, a polyolefin, such as
polyethylene or polypropylene. The cationic or
anionic groups may be carboxylic acid, sulfonic
acid groups, or quaternary ammonium groups.
Examples of polyelectrolytes include chitosan,
poly(methacryloxyethyltrimethylammonium
bromide), poly(acrylic acid), and poly(styrene
sulfonate). Also disclosed is a method of making
the surface-modified fibrous material. The surface-
modified fibrous material may be used as a
filtration medium for liquids.
US5611928 Process for treating waste water 1997-03-18

The invention relates to a process for the


treatment of waste waters of the forest industry.
According to the invention, waste water is pre-
treated biologically, whereafter the further
treatment is carried out by using Fe(II) salt and
hydrogen peroxide.
US5597399 Soil enhancing compound and method for 1997-01-28
producing same
A method for producing a soil enhancing
compound is provided, comprising the steps of
mechanically mixing a portion of composted
agricultural waste consisting essentially of plant by-
products, with a portion of bio-solid waste
consisting essentially of sludge from waste water
treatment, to form an organic compost mixture, and
mechanically mixing with the organic compost
mixture, a portion of industrial waste consisting
essentially of calcium sulfate and phosphorous to
form a final soil enhancing mixture, wherein a
gelatinous, nutrient-containing substance is formed
within the soil enhancing mixture by the interaction
of the composted agricultural waste and the
industrial waste. Alternatively, the agricultural
waste can be used alone with the industrial waste.
Either the agricultural waste, the bio-solids or the
industrial waste may be acidic or alkaline, as long
as the final soil enhancing mixture has a pH of
between 6.0 and 7.5. If the radioactivity of the
industrial waste exceeds permissible levels, the
proportions of the other components in the final
compound can be increased to dilute the
radioactivity of the soil enhancing compound to
acceptable levels.
US5591415 Reactor for supercritical water oxidation of 1997-01-07
waste
A reactor enclosed in a pressure vessel in a manner
that the walls of the pressure vessel are thermally
insulated and chemically isolated from the harsh
environment of the reaction zone in the reactor.
This allows the pressure vessel to handle the high
pressures involved, since it is maintained at a
reasonably low temperature range. Simultaneously,
it allows the reactor to handle the high temperatures
involved, since the pressure differentials around it
are only minimal.
US5587081 Thermophilic aerobic waste treatment process 1996-12-24
A system for thermophilic aerobic destruction of
pathogenic organisms and organic matter within
waste water treatment sludge includes a tank for
maintaining the sludge and an air transfer apparatus
for injecting air into the sludge near the bottom
thereof so as to bubble up through the sludge and
react exothermically with the thermophilic
microorganisms therein so as to kill or destroy the
mesophilic micro- organisms within the sludge. The
thermophilic reaction is preferably controlled
within a desired temperature range by control of the
flow of fresh air versus recycled air being injected
into the sludge. The fresh air to recycle air ratio can
be controlled by several different mechanisms so as
to produce the desired temperature range. The air is
also utilized to mix the sludge within the tank. A
pumping apparatus is also provided for transferring
sludge into and out of the tank and for recirculating
the sludge for purposes of auxiliary mixing. The
pump can also be utilized in conjunction with an
eductor for drawing fresh air into the sludge. A
process controller is advantageously useable in
conjunction with the various equipment to control
the overall system.
US5585004 Treatment of aqueous media containing organic 1996-12-17
material using tubular membranes

A method of reducing the concentration of at


least one organic compound present in an aqueous
feedstock, wherein said feedstock is supplied to one
side of a substantially water-insoluble selectively
permeable polymeric sheet or tubular membrane
whose permeability to the or each said organic
compound exceeds its permeability to chloride ion
whilst simultaneously maintaining in contact with
the other side of said membrane an aqueous
reaction medium containing biologically active
reaction means capable of reacting with said at least
one compound after it permeates through the wall
of the tubular membrane. Apparatus, preferably
enclosed, for carrying into effect the method is also
disclosed and permits treatment of waste waters
containing volatile organic compounds. Modular
bioreactor apparatus in the form of a cartridge
containing a bundle of polymeric membrane tubes
is also disclosed.
US5585001 Waste water treatment method employing a 1996-12-17
continuous respiration meter and an apparatus
thereof
Disclosed herein is a method for treating a waste
water comprising a high concentration of organic
substances in a stable and controllable manner and
an apparatus therefor.The method comprises the
steps of determining continuously a dissolved
oxygen(DO) within a reactor in which the waste
water is biologically degraded by using a continous
respiration meter; determining a relationship
between a loading rate and a respiration rate by
using the DO value transmitted as an electrical
signal from the respiration meter, establishing a set
loading rate which is optimum for the reactor, and
controlling the waste water input flow rate into the
reactor in order to maintain a loading rate of the
influent waste water is to be close to the set loading
rate. The apparatus comprises a continous
respiration meter for detecting the DO within a
reactor and a control part for determining a
relationship between a loading rate and a
respiration rate and controlling the waste water
input flow rate into the reactor.
US5582732 Biological method of waste water treatment 1996-12-10
A method of treating waste water is described.
Firstly, providing specially acclimatized microbial
consortia with relatively low sensitivity to changes
in pH and changes in temperature, such that the
microbial consortia is capable of metabolizing
contaminants efficiently within a predetermined
broad pH range and broad temperature range.
Secondly, maintain the microbial consortia in a
space limited and a substrate limited mode within
an immobilized bioreactor operating within the
predetermined pH range and the predetermined
temperature range. Thirdly, introduce waste water
with liquified insoluble organic contaminants into
the immobilized bioreactor. The organic
contaminants are metabolized by the microbial
consortia working under space limited and substrate
limited conditions, thereby treating the waste water
with a minimal sludge production rate.
US5582715 Supercritical oxidation apparatus for treating 1996-12-10
water with side injection ports
An apparatus for treating waste water streams is
constructed by introducing a mixture of pre-heated
waste water and an amount of a oxidant lower than
that required to oxidize all the organic matter in the
waste stream into the front port of an elongate
tubular reaction chamber maintained at
supercritical temperatures and pressures. The
amount of oxidant is high enough, it initially raise
the temperature of the stream in the reaction
chamber to 750-1,200 F. A first injection side port
is located downstream from the front port of the
reaction chamber at a distance at which the
temperature has reached a maximum value, and 90-
100% of the available oxidant has been consumed.
Oxidant and water are simultaneously injected
through the first port, in a manner that the amount
of oxidant is adequate to oxidize to oxidize a
specified amount of organic matter, and the amount
of water is effective to counterbalance the heat
produced by the ration of the co-injected oxidant
with the respective organic matter. At the point that
90-100% of the newly injected oxidant has been
consumed, a second port is used to introduce more
oxidant and water in a similar manner and under
similar conditions. More ports are also used,
following similar rules, until the organic matter has
been substantially exhausted.
US5580770 Support containing particulate adsorbent and 1996-12-03
microorganisms for removal of pollutants
A biologically active support for removing
pollutants from a fluid stream such as waste water
is prepared. The support is formed of a polymeric
foam substrate coated with a composition
containing a particulate adsorbent which adsorbs,
then releases pollutants, and a polymeric binder that
binds the adsorbent to the surface of the substrate.
The binder contains a suspension aid, and one or
more pollutant-degrading microorganisms are
adhered to the surface of the coated support. The
binder preferably has a T.sub.g of lower than or
equal to about 250 C. and may be a latex.
Examples of suspension aids are surfactants and
polyanionic polypeptides such as ammonium
caseinate. The adsorbent is preferably a carbon
material such as coal, charcoal, carbon black and
activated carbon. Other adsorbents are silica gel,
active clays, zeolites, hydrophobic and ion
exchange resins, and molecular sieves. To remove
pollutants, the biologically active support is placed
in a reactor and a fluid stream containing a
pollutant such as phenol is passed through the
reactor where the pollutant is degraded by the
microorganism and adsorbed to the adsorbent. The
adsorbent acts as a buffer by adsorbing excess
pollutant from solution when the pollutant
concentration increases and when the pollutant
concentration decreases releases pollutant into
solution where the microorganism degrades the
pollutant.
US5573662 Apparatus for treatment of low-concentration 1996-11-12
organic waste water
An apparatus for the treatment of a low-
concentration organic waste water for relaim a low-
concentration organic waste water having a TOC
concentration of from 0.5 to 3 ppm and obtaining
an ultra pure water having a TOC concentration of
not more than 1 ppb is characterized by the fact that
a first treating system comprising a reverse osmosis
unit for transforming a low-concentration organic
waste water having a TOC concentration of from
0.5 to 3 ppm into a low-concentration organic
waste water having a TOC concentration of from
60 to 200 ppb and a vacuum degasifier adapted to
admit an inert gas at a volumetric feed flow rate in
the range of from 0.001 to 1.0 based on the volume
of the waste water under treatment at a vacuum rate
of not more than 35 Torrs and a second treating
system comprising a low-pressure ultraviolet
decomposition unit for emitting an ultraviolet light
of a wavelength of 184.9 nm and an ion-exchange
column are disposed along the flow path of the
waste water sequentially in the order mentioned.
This apparatus operates with a reduction in both
initial cost and running cost because it uses a
vacuum degasifier of low running cost with high
efficiency and also uses a low-pressure ultraviolet
irradiating unit which costs less than the high-
pressure ultraviolet irradiating unit, requires no
large space for installation, and manifests high
efficiency of TOC decomposition. It is easy to
manage as compared with the apparatus which is
operated by a method resorting to an aerobic
microorganism.
US5558775 Process for the treatment of hazardous waste 1996-09-24
water
There is disclosed a portable assembly for treating
hazardous waste water having a plurality of paired
filter units having filter mediums and operated at
high filter rates to minimize solids build up wherein
solids are caused to be smashed and broken by
shear forces and wherein chemicals are sequentially
added to facilitate solids reduction, to oxidize
organic compounds and to precipitate dissolved
solids and wherein the process stream is subjected
to ultraviolet light to reduce organic loading and
downstream ultra filtration units to further reduce
solids followed by reverse osmosis and/or
ionization treatment.
US5552115 Microbial decontamination system with 1996-09-03
components porous to anti-microbial fluids
A countertop decontamination unit (A) has a
decontamination chamber (10) for receiving a tray
or module (C) which contains items to be sterilized,
disinfected, or otherwise microbially
decontaminated. The tray or walls of the
decontamination chamber itself provide fluid
outlets from which an anti-microbial solution is
conveyed through tubing (76) to fittings (78). A
pump (20) recirculates the anti-microbial fluid. The
fittings include a porous sleeve (80, 92) which is
received in firm frictional connection with an
annular surface of a bore, nipple, or coupler
mechanism of the item (86) to be sterilized. The
porous sleeve is preferably elastomeric when used
for frictional interconnections, but may be rigid
when used with threaded or other standardized
connectors. The porous sleeve has a porosity of 3
microns or more, sufficient that the anti-microbial
fluid penetrates through the porous portion and
contacts the immediately contiguous and abutting
annular surface. The porous member permits
sufficient quantities of solution to contact these
surfaces to assure they are microbially
decontaminated. Associated surfaces that contact
the item and can potentially trap microbes are also
constructed of porous material. Other associated
porous structures include porous closures, such as
plugs (124, 160) or caps (120, 122) which close
some of the access ports to the interior passages of
endoscopes, item retainers (68), a bottom wall
portion (62), other surfaces of the item (174), and
the like.
US5552039 Turbulent flow cold-wall reactor 1996-09-03
A high pressure and high temperature reactor,
especially operating under supercritical water
conditions combined with corrosive atmosphere.
The reactor comprises a reaction chamber and a
pressure vessel, which surrounds the reaction
chamber. It has high integrity since it has only one
penetration in the pressure vessel, and its size is
minimized due to induced turbulent flow of the
ignited reaction mixture.
US5551472 Pressure reduction system and method 1996-09-03
Systems and methods for pressure reduction,
including a first conduit with a pressure sensor, a
static restriction device, and second conduit
connected therebetween. Fluid is introduced
through the second conduit as a function of the
pressure sensed by the pressure sensor, thereby
compensating for fluctuations in sensed pressures
due to restriction device degradation and other
factors.
US5543059 Enhanced reactive metal wall for dehalogenation 1996-08-06
of hydrocarbons
A method is provided for remediation of
contaminated solutions using a tiered metal wall or
column. The tiered metal wall or column has at
least three zones with graduated sizes of reducing
metal particles. Contaminated solutions pass
through the tiered wall or column to dehalogenate
contaminant halogenated hydrocarbons.
US5543052 Process for removal of organic pollutants from 1996-08-06
waste water
Tis invention relates to a process for reducing the
concentration of an organic pollutant such as
phenol in an aqueous stream which comprises
passing the stream through a bioreacter containing
a plurality of biologically active particles
comprising a hydrophobic polyurethane substrate
having an effective amount of one or more aerobic
microorganism capable of metabolizing at least one
of said organic materials on; in or on and in said
substrate in the absence or in the substantial
absence of a carbon absorbent.
US5527466 Cross-flow filtration apparatus and method 1996-06-18
Apparatus and methods utilizing cross-flow
filtration under supercritical conditions for water to
separate/filter a feed stream or reaction mixture,
remove oxides or other solids from fluids, and/or
separate ion species (e.g., ions, electrolytes, or
salts). Cross-flow filtration may be utilized in
combination with wet oxidation of waste and
wastewaters to remove organic and inorganic
materials.
US5522940 Process for cleaning electronic parts or precision 1996-06-04
parts
Disclosed is a process for cleaning electronic parts
or precision parts which comprises the steps of:
washing the parts with a cleaning agent
composition, rinsing the washed parts with water
having a temperature of from 5 to 100 C., and
maintaining the rinsing waste water at a
temperature of 20 C. or higher to effect separation
of organic substances. The cleaning agent
composition contains, as active cleaning
components, a nonionic surface active agent and a
compound selected from the group consisting of
hydrocarbon compounds and slightly water soluble
alkyl esters or alkyl ketones. The composition is
such that 50% by weight or more of the organic
substances separate from the water phase when the
composition is made into an aqueous solution
having an organic substance content of 5% by
weight adjusted by diluting it with water or by
evaporating water from it and the resulting cleaning
agent aqueous solution is subsequently allowed to
stand still for 30 minutes at a temperature of from
20 to 100 C.According to the present invention,
organic substances in rinsing waste water can be
separated and removed efficiently, and subsequent
waste water treatment step can be simplified. The
process is economically advantageous, because the
rinsing waste water after the separation treatment
can be used again as a rinsing liquid.
US5521052 Metal ion reduction in novolak resin using an 1996-05-28
ion exchange catalyst in a polar solvent and
photoresists compositions therefrom
The present invention provides methods for
producing water insoluble, aqueous alkali soluble,
film forming novolak resins having an extremely
low level of metal ions, utilizing treated anion and
cation exchange resins. A method is also provided
for producing photoresist composition having a
very low level of metal ions from such novolak
resin and for producing semiconductor devices
using such photoresist compositions.
US5518620 Apparatus for biological treatment of water and 1996-05-21
method for biological treatment of water using
said apparatus
An apparatus for biological treatment of water in
which a water containing organic matter (e.g. waste
water, recovered water, or untreated water in water
treatment works) is biologically treated to
decompose and remove the organic matter, which
apparatus comprises a formed material comprising
a felt-like activated carbon fiber cloth,
accomodated in the treatment vessel as a packing
medium, which has a ratio of surface area
(cm.sup.2) of felt-like activated carbon fiber cloth
to effective volume (cm.sup.3) of the treatment
vessel, of 0.5-50 cm.sup.2 /cm.sup.3, and which is
arranged so that the cloth surface is vertical and the
cloth-to-cloth distance is 0.5-2.0 cm, thereby
shortening the rise time from operation start to
stable operation, and efficiently operating over a
long period of time.
US5505857 Process for the treatment of metal-containing 1996-04-09
water and recovery of metals therefrom
Metals contained in various wastewaters are
selectively recovered as metal precipitates and/or as
spinel ferrite and water suitable for discharge into
the environment is obtained. High grade magnetic
spinel ferrite is recovered from wastewaters having
aluminum and arsenic if present in the wastewater,
removed from the wastewater. There are three
process stages for the treatment of wastewater. In
the first process stage which is optional, at least a
portion of at least one non-ferrous or non-ferric
metal is precipitated from the wastewater by
subjecting the wastewater to an oxidizing agent to
increase the oxidation-reduction potential of the
water, by adjusting the pH of the wastewater to a
pH at which the metal precipitates from the water
and by adding an organic or inorganic sulfur
compound, capable of causing the metal to form a
precipitate, to the water in a quantity sufficient to
precipitate the metal. When aluminum is present in
the wastewater, aluminum is recovered from the
water by adding a reducing agent to lower the
oxidation-reduction potential of the water and by
adjusting the pH of the water to about 5. The
aluminum which precipitates in the aqueous
solution, is removed from the water. In the third
precipitation stage, iron is recovered as spinel
ferrite in an ambient temperature process by adding
a reducing agent to the water, adding a soluble
ferrous salt to the water, adjusting the pH to about
9-12 and oxidizing the water with an oxidizer, e.g.,
air, to form spinel ferrite. If aluminum and/or
arsenic are present in the wastewater and are
removed from the wastewater by the process, high
grade magnetic spinel ferrite is recovered.
US5496739 Test for glycol in water 1996-03-05
Disclosed is a method of determining the presence
of glycol in an aqueous solution comprising
providing a container containing a mixture of
potassium dichromate, a catalyst comprised of
mercuric sulfate and silver sulfate, the mixture
provided in an acidic solution. To the container is
added a controlled volume of aqueous solution
containing glycol. The mixture is permitted a time
sufficient to change color, the time not being in
excess of 15 minutes. The color is compared to a
set of color standards to determine the presence of
glycol in said aqueous solution.
US5496469 Apparatus for reducing and separating 1996-03-05
emulsions and homgeneous components from
contaminated water
A system for the reduction and separation of highly
emulsified and/or immiscible components mixed in
a fluid, particularly useful for treating waste water
contaminated with oils and oily emulsions, as from
depleted oil wells, vehicle washing stations, and
meat rendering plants. The system is operative for
reducing the amount of organic and inorganic
contaminants, and is particularly suitable for
reducing the amount of oil, with oil-consuming
microorganisms, and separating oil that is not
consumed within the system from the water so that
the oil may be recycled and the water discharged
into wetlands or sanitary sewers without further
treatment. The system comprises a multi-stage,
recirculating series of treatment tanks. In a first
stage, the fluid is recirculated through a treatment
loop where the fluid is aerated and then passed
through a coalescer. Organic metabolizing
microorganisms that contribute to de-emulsification
and contaminant reduction within the system are
introduced, together with a superoxygenated
catalyst containing microorganism nutrients. The
coalescer is preferably a horizontal stack of evenly
spaced apart polypropylene plates with sinusoidal
corrugations running along the plane of the plates.
In subsequent treatment stages, the fluid is
recirculated through filters prior to discharge from
the system.
US5480538 Apparatus for treating waste water oxidation 1996-01-02
ponds to abate malodors
A process and an apparatus for treating waste water
in oxidations ponds, oxidation ditches, or other
bodies of water in a waste water treatment facility
to abate the malodors caused by the presence of
volatile contaminants. In the process, a water
stream is withdrawn from the body of waste water
and contacted with an air stream in an air-water
contact apparatus. The water stream is thereby
aerated and stripped of potentially odor causing
volatile contaminants and an off-gas stream is
produced containing the stripped volatile
contaminants. At least a portion of the aerated and
stripped water stream is returned to the body of
waste water to inhibit anaerobic decomposition of
organic impurities. The off-gas stream is passed
through a fixed bed type biofilter comprising a
porous filter bed provided with appropriate
microorganisms so that the volatile contaminants in
the off-gas stream come into contact with the
microorganisms and are biologically metabolized
into environmentally innocuous substances rather
than being emitted into the ambient air.
US5478472 Process for treating waste water containing 1995-12-26
organic and inorganic compounds
A method for treating waste water which contains
organic and inorganic compounds, particularly
waste water from the synthesis of epichlorohydrins,
in which the waste water is subjected to

a) thermal-alkaline treatment,

b) biological treatment, and

c) optionally to chemical-oxidative
treatment.

US5470480 Process for treating waste water effluent 1995-11-28


Waste water effluent streams are treated with
hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet radiation.
Hydroxyl ions formed by action of UV on H.sub.2
O.sub.2 reduces BOD, COD, AOX and color in
effluent. In the case of pulp mill effluent, some or
all of the effluent can then be recycled to the pulp
mill.
US5464539 Process for the production of hydrogen by 1995-11-07
microorganisms
The present invention relates to a process for the
production of hydrogen comprising treating in an
anaerobic condition a substrate such as waste water
including organic matter using sludge compost,
whereby stable hydrogen generation at a higher
efficiency for a longer period of time is attained
together with the treatment of waste water.
US5454955 Use of hectorite as a clarification aid for deink 1995-10-03
plant effluent
Hectorite is utilized in conjunction with a water
soluble cationic coagulant to clarify waste water
from the deinking of waste paper.
US5454950 Method and apparatus for reverse-injection wet 1995-10-03
oxidation, sintered material catalytic reaction,
sintered material filtration at supercritical
conditions, sintered material gas separation, and
high temperature pressurization
A system for effective utilization of reaction heat
and in situ separation of solid and gaseous products
in wet oxidation of waste and wastewater. This
invention does not require special preheaters for
preheating feed streams, therefore reducing the
possibility of scale and char formation in the heat
exchange zone. The cold feed stream is introduced
into the reactor with part of the effluent which has
been recycled through a high temperature pumping
means to form a hot, near critical oxidant-
containing mixture. The cold feed is directly heated
up by the oxidant-containing mixture. The reaction
mixture is separated by in situ crossflow filtration
elements, including sintered material. Catalyzed
reactions and sintered material gas separation are
also described.
US5449460 Process for the treatment of water containing 1995-09-12
sulphur compounds
A process is provided for the treatment of water
containing sulphide wherein the sulphide is
oxidized in an aerobic reactor having a minimum
sulphide sludge load. The minimum sulphide load
is at least 10 mg of sulphide per mg of the nitrogen
present in the sludge per hour, the sludge load
being calculated on the basis of the sulphide
oxidizing part of the biomass. The minimum
sulphide load may also be defined as 25 mg of
sulphide per liter of reactor material per hour. The
sulphide can be largely oxidized to elemental
sulphur which is then separated and reused. Waste
water also containing organic matter in addition to
varying levels of sulphide is purified without
interference of filamentous bacteria using a two-
step aerobic process. The process for sulphide
removal can be used for the treatment of waste
water having high levels of sulphur compounds
such as sulphate, sulphite and thiosulphate by first
reducing these sulphur compounds in an aerobic
step. Heavy metals are removed from water by
adding sulphide to the water and precipitating the
metals as sulphides; the sulphide can be added by
reducing sulphur compounds already present.
US5445741 Process for treating waste water 1995-08-29
The present invention relates to a process for
decreasing the content of organic-chemical
substances in waste water by chemical oxidation,
preferably in the presence of chlorine, and
optionally additional alkaline thermal treatment of
the waste water, in which the waste water, which
has a COD content (chemical oxygen demand) and
is alkaline or is rendered alkaline, is introduced into
at least one reactor and is treated at a temperature
of more than 15 C. with a chlorine-containing
and/or chlorine-releasing chemical substance, the
introduction of chlorine taking place in a quantity
of more than 1 g chlorine/g COD (relative to the
chlorine content of the chlorine-containing and/or
chlorine-releasing chemical substance), and a molar
ratio of OH.sup.- to chlorine of more than 1.5 and a
pH value of the waste water of >=5 being
maintained or set, and the resulting chlorine-
treated, hypochlorite-containing waste water is
subjected to a reaction time of more than 0.25
hours, with the organic compounds being at least
partially oxidized, and subsequently the waste
water is treated further and/or is discharged or
drained from the reactor.
US5439858 Hydrated granular carrier prepared from 1995-08-08
polyvinyl alcohol and activated charcoal for
biological treatment apparatus
A hydrated granular carrier is prepared for microbe
immobilization in a biological treatment apparatus
such as for treating waste water and exhaust gas.
The carrier contains hydrated granular gel particles
coated with a finely ground organic powder. The
gel particles are made of a polymer insoluble in
cold water but soluble in hot water. In making the
hydrated gel particles, heated water is added to the
polymer while stirring at high speed. Then, the
finely ground organic powder is added together
with heated water while stirring at high speed to
coat the finely ground organic powder on the gel
particles. Preferably, the polymer is polyvinyl
alcohol having a degree of polymerization of 1000
to 2500 and a degree of saponification of 98% or
more. Heated water added to the polyvinyl alcohol
is added by spraying at 10 to 15 liters per minute at
a temperature of 40 to 100 C. in an amount of 50
to 150 parts by weight based on 100 parts by
weight of the polyvinyl alcohol. The organic
powder is activated charcoal having a particle size
of 200 mesh or less in an amount of 3 parts by
weight or more, and the water added with the
charcoal is at 40 to 100 C. in an amount of 5 to 20
parts by weight. The high speed stirring is at 500 to
1000 rpm.
US5433858 Treatment of hazardous waste water 1995-07-18
Treating industrial waste water to remove
particulates of metals, organics, or salts so the same
can be fed to a boiler or other processor by
adjusting the ph of the waste water to a range of
between 8.5 and 11.5 using an ultrafiltration unit or
a clarifier to separate clear water and sludge and oil
and deliver the clean water as needed.
US5431808 Device for odor filtering of exhaust air from 1995-07-11
waste water treatment
The waste water which is discharged from the
anaerobic treatment stages of biological waste
water treatment plants still contains highly volatile
organic substances which, if not biodegraded,
escape into the ambient air and lead to unwelcome
odors. Also, the exhaust air of the anaerobic
treatment stage may contain such highly volatile
substances. An escape into the ambient air can be
prevented if the waste water which is discharged
from the anaerobic treatment stage is aerated with
exhaust air sucked off from the anaerobic stage and
if this exhaust air, after the aeration, is then fed to a
spray washer and compost filter. The water for the
spray washer is taken from the discharge of the
anaerobic stage and returns there.
US5429747 Method for treatment and decolorization of 1995-07-04
waste water from cosmetic manufacturing
processes
The invention is a method for the treatment and
decolorization of waste water incident to the
manufacturing of cosmetic products that contains
dyestuffs, fatty organic chemicals and other organic
chemicals. The method requires a strong base
which is added to the waste water at a suitably high
temperature to cause flocculation of fatty
substances. Then an strong colorless oxidizer is
added to reduce the hydrophilic character of the
remaining organic chemicals and cause partial
decolorization. The resulting waste water is in a
state that can then be decolorized with powdered
activated carbon. Finally, the powdered activated
carbon is separated from the waste water. The
decolorized waste water is discharged in
compliance with acceptable water quality standards
for plant effluents.
US5421998 Apparatus for reverse-injection wet oxidation 1995-06-06
A system for effective utilization of reaction heat
and in situ separation of solid and gaseous products
in wet oxidation of waste and wastewater. This
invention does not require special preheaters for
preheating feed streams, therefore reducing the
possibility of scale and char formation in the heat
exchange zone. The cold feed stream is introduced
into the reactor with part of the effluent which has
been recycled through a high temperature pumping
means to form a hot, near critical oxidant-
containing mixture. The cold feed is directly heated
up by the oxidant-containing mixture. The reaction
mixture is separated by in situ crossflow filtration
elements, including sintered material. Catalyzed
reactions and sintered material gas separation are
also described.
US5411665 Methods for reducing and separating emulsions 1995-05-02
and homogeneous components from
contaminated water
A system for the reduction and separation of highly
emulsified and/or immiscible components mixed in
a fluid, particularly useful for treating waste water
contaminated with oils and oily emulsions, as from
depleted oil wells, vehicle washing stations, and
meat rendering plants. The system is operative for
reducing the amount of organic and inorganic
contaminants, and is particularly suitable for
reducing the amount of oil, with oil-consuming
microorganisms, and separating oil that is not
consumed within the system from the water so that
the oil may be recycled and the water discharged
into wetlands or sanitary sewers without further
treatment. The system comprises a multi-stage,
recirculating series of treatment tanks. In a first
stage, the fluid is recirculated through a treatment
loop where the fluid is aerated and then passed
through a coalescer. Organic metabolizing
microorganisms that contribute to de-emulsification
and contaminant reduction within the system are
introduced, together with a superoxygenated
catalyst containing microorganism nutrients. The
coalescer is preferably a horizontal stack of evenly
spaced apart polypropylene plates with sinusoidal
corrugations running along the plane of the plates.
In subsequent treatment stages, the fluid is
recirculated through filters prior to discharge from
the system.
US5409569 Etchant, detergent and device/apparatus 1995-04-25
manufacturing method
An etchant which generates neither heat nor gas
during the process, does not sublimate, is stable for
a long period of time, requires no special pipings,
and further requires no special treatment of waste
water because of containing no organic solvents.
The etchant is a solution containing hydrofluoric
acid and an-oxoacid or oxoacid salt compound
expressed by Mm(XOn)p (where M is hydrogen,
one-to three-valence metal or NH.sub.4, m is 1 or
5, X is a halogen element, n is 3, 4 or 6, and p is 1,
2 or 3).
US5401420 Sulfide ion-selective electrodes for control of 1995-03-28
chemical feed of organic sulfide products for
metal ion precipitation from waste water
A wastewater treatment system and method for
chemical precipitation and removal of metals from
wastewater in a continuous or batch treatment
process includes an ion-selective sulfide electrode
and a reference electrode disposed in a precipitation
tank for measuring an electrochemical potential
therebetween in a predetermined range. A controller
unit is provided which is responsive to the
electrochemical potential in the predetermined
range and is connected to a precipitant feed unit for
automatically controlling the chemical precipitant
fed into the precipitation tank.
US5399247 Method of electrolysis employing a doped 1995-03-21
diamond anode to oxidize solutes in wastewater
A method of treating a solute in a liquid solution in
order to render the solution more acceptable for
discharge into the environment, comprises
electrolyzing the solution with an anode comprising
electrically conductive crystalline doped diamond
to thereby oxidize the solute.
US5395536 Wastewater organic acid removal process 1995-03-07
A process for removing carboxylic acids from
aqueous solutions using a composition of a
polyaluminum chlorohydrate and a cationic
polyelectrolyte is described. After or during the
initial contact of the aqueous solution with the
composition, an organic liquid may optionally be
added after which separation into an aqueous phase
and an organic phase occurs whereby the organic
acids are removed in the organic phase. The
preferred polyaluminum chlorohydrate is aluminum
chlorohydrate, and the preferred cationic
polyelectrolyte is a high molecular weight
poly(dimethyl diallyl) ammonium chloride.
US5393428 Process for treating waste water containing 1995-02-28
chlorinated organic compounds from production
of epichlorohydrin
A process for treating waste water containing
chlorinated organic substances, particularly waste
water from production of epichlorohydrin which
contains more than 10 mg of adsorbable organic
halogen compounds (AOX) per liter, comprising
charging the waste water at a pH of 10 to 14
(measured at room temperature) into a reactor and
maintaining a temperature of at least 75C., a
pressure of at least 1 bar (abs.), and a residence
time of at least 0.5 hours in said reactor, thereby
partially dechlorinating and/or dehydrochlorinating
chlorinated organic compounds contained in the
waste water, and thereafter subjecting the waste
water to further dechlorination and/or
dehydrochlorination treatment in the presence of a
hydrogen-containing gas, a hydrogen-releasing
compound and/or a catalytically active material;
and optionally subjecting the waste water to a
biological treatment with the use of
microorganisms; and apparatus for carrying out the
foregoing process.
US5389247 Waste water treatment process 1995-02-14
An apparatus for treating waste water in which a
series of filtering pads are formed by a plurality of
offset nets made from ribbon-like lines having a
multitude of ringlets. The nets are mounted in
planar configuration within a frame at spaced
intervals, with the plane of the nets being supported
at an angle of 40 to 50 from the horizontal. The
frames may be placed in any water system such as
fabricated basins, ponds, ditches, rivers or lakes.
Also, one or more of the netted frames may be
placed in a basin for anaerobic treating organic
waste water. Water circulation means are fixed
within the tank for repetitive flow through the
filtering pads and the delivery of oxygen and/or
other process elements.
US5387344 Process for treating waste water oxidation ponds 1995-02-07
to abate malodors
A process and an apparatus for treating waste water
in oxidations ponds, oxidation ditches, or other
bodies of water in a waste water treatment facility
to abate the malodors caused by the presence of
volatile contaminants. In the process, a water
stream is withdrawn from the body of waste water
and contacted with an air stream in an air-water
contact apparatus. The water stream is thereby
aerated and stripped of potentially odor causing
volatile contaminants and an off-gas stream is
produced containing the stripped volatile
contaminants. At least a portion of the aerated and
stripped water stream is returned to the body of
waste water to inhibit anaerobic decomposition of
organic impurities. The off-gas stream is passed
through a fixed bed type biofilter comprising a
porous filter bed provided with appropriate
microorganisms so that the volatile contaminants in
the off-gas stream come into contact with the
microorganisms and are biologically metabolized
into environmentally innocuous substances rather
than being emitted into the ambient air.
US5382265 Perchlorate removal process 1995-01-17
A process for removing perchlorate ion from waste
water using KCl is disclosed. In the process, waste
perchlorate is concentrated by water evaporation in
a stripping tower. Ammonia and volatile organics
are removed during the concentrating step.
Potassium chloride (KCl) is added to the
concentrated perchlorate solution to form
potassium perchlorate (KClO.sub.4), and the
reaction mixture is cooled to effect crystallization
of the potassium perchlorate. The crystallization
liquor is removed by centrifuge or filter press and
may be further treated as part of an overall waste
water treatment system.
US5366633 Process for the treatment of water containing 1994-11-22
sulphur compounds

A process is provided for the treatment of water


containing sulphide wherein the sulphide is
oxidized in an aerobic reactor having a minimum
sulphide sludge load. The minimum sulphide load
is at least 10 mg of sulphide per mg of the nitrogen
present in the sludge per hour, the sludge load
being calculated on the basis of the sulphide
oxidizing part of the biomass. The minimum
sulphide load may also be defined as 25 mg of
sulphide per liter of reactor material per hour. The
sulphide can be largely oxidized to elemental
sulphur which is then separated and reused. Waste
water also containing organic matter in addition to
varying levels of sulphide is purified without
interference of filamentous bacteria using a two
step aerobic process. The process for sulphide
removal can be used for the treatment of waste
water having high levels of sulphur compounds
such as sulphate, sulphite and thiosulphate by first
reducing these sulphur compounds in an aerobic
step. Heavy metals are removed from water by
adding sulphide to the water and precipitating the
metals as sulphides; the sulphide can be added by
reducing sulphur compounds already present.
US5364537 Process for the oxidation of organic 1994-11-15
micropollutants in water using the O.sub.3
/H.sub.2 O.sub.2 combination
A process and device for combined oxidation of
polluted water, e.g. industrial waste water or
effluents, to make it suitable for drinking, involves
injection of hydrogen peroxide (pure aqueous
solution or diluted) and ozone (gaseous, or
ozonized oxygen or air) simultaneously and in a
flow direction co-current with the circulation of the
water to be treated, at the inlet of the oxidation
reactor. For example, a reactor is endowed with
mechanisms to inject ozone and hydrogen peroxide
at its base, at very closely-spaced points and
simultaneously, in a flow direction the same as the
water to be treated, with an automatic control
system to regulate the levels of the oxidizing
agents.
US5362405 Catalytic oxidation of aqueous organic 1994-11-08
contaminants
A catalyst for oxidizing aqueous organic
contaminants includes about 5 wt % to about 20 wt
% noble metal crystallites selected from the group
consisting of platinum, palladium, ruthenium,
iridium, and combinations thereof deposited on a
high surface area catalyst support. The crystallites
are about 100 .ANG. or smaller. A system for
catalytically oxidizing aqueous organic
contaminants has a catalyst bed containing such a
catalyst, means for heating a reactor feed stream to
a desired reaction temperature, means oxygenating
the feed stream, and a phase separator for
separating gaseous reaction products from a reactor
effluent stream.
US5358646 Method and apparatus for multiple-stage and 1994-10-25
recycle wet oxidation
An organic or inorganic feed compound can be
treated in two or more zones to progressively
oxidize the compound. The first zone oxidizes the
compound to an intermediate product which
includes a first intermediate compound which is
intermediate the feed compound and end product.
The second zone further oxidizes the intermediate
product to an end product or a second intermediate
compound which is intermediate the first
intermediate compound and an end product. One or
both zones may operate catalytically and/or at
supercritical conditions for water to oxidize the
compounds.
US5356437 Removal of excess dye from new textiles 1994-10-18

Dye leached from dyed or printed textiles in an


aqueous solution can be decolorized by adding
enzymes that utilize hydrogen peroxide or
molecular oxygen for the oxidation of organic or
inorganic substances, including colored substances,
together with a source of H.sub.2 O.sub.2 or
O.sub.2. Such enzymes are usually termed
peroxidases and oxidases, respectively. This
treatment reduces the risk of back-straining
(redeposition of dye onto textile) even when less
water is used. The enzymatic bleaching of released
dyestuff will decrease process time as well as the
amount of energy and water needed to achieve a
satisfactory quality of the textile, and the color of
the waste water is reduced.
US5354477 Low molecular weight amines and amine 1994-10-11
quaternaries for the removal of soluble organics
in oil field produced water
A method is set forth for the treatment of mixed oil
and water flowing from a producing oil well.
Certain salts may be formed by the mixture some of
which will be soluble organic salts. The present
process sets forth a method of treating the produced
stream with low molecular weight amines and
preferably amine quaternaries with strong acids so
that the oil based salts are removed from the water
phase and left with the oil for segregation, thereby
permitting disposal of the produced water without
creating a sheen on the produced water. Subsequent
waste water treatment is avoided to remove traces
of oil on the produced but separated water.
US5346620 Process for waste water treatment by removal of 1994-09-13
sodium sulfate
The present invention is a process for treatment of
waste water streams having a sodium sulfate
content of above 20 percent. The process is useful
for treating waste water generated in the production
of polyethyleneimine and cyclohexanone. The
process includes the steps of removing sodium
sulfate from waste water by the addition of organic
solvent. The waste water having reduced sodium
sulfate content is then subjected to biological
treatment with activated sludge. First the waste
water is subjected to pre-treatment. Pre-treated
waste water is combined other waste water and
treated by denitrification and nitrification.
US5332508 Reversible photodeposition and dissolution of 1994-07-26
metal ions
A cyclic photocatalytic process for treating waste
water containing metal and organic contaminants.
In one embodiment of the method, metal ions are
photoreduced onto the photocatalyst and the metal
concentrated by resolubilization in a smaller
volume. In another embodiment of the method,
contaminant organics are first oxidized, then metal
ions removed by photoreductive deposition. The
present invention allows the photocatalyst to be
recycled until nearly complete removal of metal
ions and organic contaminants is achieved.
US5328599 System using sulfide ion-selective electrodes for 1994-07-12
control of chemical feed of organic sulfide
products for metal ion precipitation from waste
water
A wastewater treatment system and method for
chemical precipitation and removal of metals from
wastewater in a continuous or batch treatment
process includes an ion-selective sulfide electrode
and a reference electrode disposed in a precipitation
tank for measuring an electrochemical potential
therebetween in a predetermined range. A controller
unit is provided which is responsive to the
electrochemical potential in the predetermined
range and is connected to a precipitant feed unit for
automatically controlling the chemical precipitant
fed into the precipitation tank.
US5322629 Method and apparatus for treating storm water 1994-06-21
Storm water runoff is treated by passing the runoff
through a bed of high quality leaf compost material
to remove pollutants from the runoff prior to
discharge into a water receiving system, such as a
river, lake or storm water drainage system.
Apparatus for treating storm water runoff is
disclosed having at least one chamber for
containing compost defined by a pair of opposed
side walls and a pair of opposed end walls; an
influent pathway for providing storm water to the
compost chamber, a drain field positioned beneath
the compost chamber for receiving storm water
from the compost chamber, a layer of water
permeable material interposed between the compost
chamber and the drain field providing fluid
communication between the compost chamber and
the drain field while preventing the flow of
compost material into the drain field, and a storm
water outlet in fluid communication with the drain
field for discharging treated storm water from the
apparatus.
US5306422 Compact clarifier system for municipal waste 1994-04-26
water treatment
A compact water treatment plant has at least one
vertical stack of dissolved air flotation (DAF) type
clarifiers. Raw water is directed first to a single
stage clarifier with a shallow tank. Its output is fed
to an underlying two stage clarifier, preferably one
with tall, mutually isolated cells, inclined baffles
over a filtration medium in each cell, a cell-by-cell
backwash capability, and an arrangement for
isolating the first filtrate from the clarified water.
Preferably, there are two such stacks in side-by-side
array to provide a peak-load capacity, redundancy,
and extreme compactness. Also preferably, clarified
water from the single stage clarifier flows to the
two stage clarifier via a bioreactor and an
associated DAF clarifier. A source of aeration
defines an upper, aerobic zone in the reactor where
bacteria act on organic contaminants (COD's and
BOD's). Strips of a deep pile, woven textile form a
biocarrier. The strips oscillate in the tank. A portion
of the bioliquor and sludge from the bioreactor-
dedicated clarifier recirculate through a lower,
anoxic zone of the bioreactor for denitrification.
US5298176 Controlled velocity settling tank 1994-03-29
A settling tank for settling inorganic matter such as
sand, grit and plastic from a fluid stream such as a
waste water stream entering a waste water
treatment facility. A set of mechanical mixers
directing energy into the fluid stream so as to cause
spiraling flow parallel to a substantially horizontal
axis. The mixer shaft is rotated by a motorized
drive, the speed of which is adjustable to account
for variations in fluid flow rate so that an optimal
balance is achieved between the settling of
inorganic solids and continuing suspension and
resuspension of organic solids for subsequent
treatment.
US5298164 Emission reduction of organic volatiles from 1994-03-29
aerobic biological reactors
An aerobic treatment of waste water is
accomplished in such a manner as to effectively
reduce the emission of volatile organic compounds
contained therein by first re-introducing oxygen
containing gas previously used in the process as
supplemented with additional oxygen containing
gas to fulfill make-up requirements during the
operation. The reuse is effected in an enclosed
vessel having a lower sparging compartment within
which both a suitable quantity of mixed reused and
make-up gas is thoroughly mixed with
contaminated waste water being introduced therein
for treatment. The thus humidified gas and
preliminarily treated waste water are then moved
upwardly within and through a central biological
growth area, and the treated waste water is formed
as a liquid level in an upper compartment and
removed through a trap therefrom to maintain a
water level therein and collect the resultant treated
oxygen containing gas above the water level. A
portion of the oxygen containing gas containing
volatiles therein may be vented and the main
portion that is released above the water level is
continuously removed from a chamber area above
the water level, and progressively mixed with a
suitable quantity of make-up oxygen containing
gas, and then introduced into the sparging chamber
for continuing the operation.
US5290693 Immobilization of microorganisms or enzymes 1994-03-01
in polyvinyl alcohol beads
Microorganisms or enzymes are immobilized by
using polyvinyl alcohol to form beads containing a
microorganism or an enzyme. An aqueous solution
of about 10 to about 20 wt % polyvinyl alcohol
containing a microorganism or an enzyme is
reacted with an aqueous solution of about 3 wt % to
saturated boric acid for a period of about 10
minutes to about two hours to form gelled spherical
beads. The beads are then hardened by treatment
with an aqueous solution of about 3 to about 20 wt
% phosphoric acid or phosphate for at least 30
minutes. Preferably, the polyvinyl alcohol has a
degree of polymerization of about 1000 to about
3000 and a degree of saponification of about 70 to
about 99 mol %. In an alternative embodiment, the
boric acid solution can contain the phosphoric acid
or phosphate. The microorganism can be an
acclimatized activated sludge microorganism from
agricultural or industrial waste water. The beads
can be used for removing inorganic nitrogen and
organic carbon in waste water treatment or in
processes for making biochemical products.
US5284587 Bacteria-containing polymer gel for waste water 1994-02-08
treatment
A bacteria-containing two component polymer gel
is provided for solubilizing particulate or colloidal
organic materials in wastewater. The gel contains a
minor amount of a polymer component that is
difficult to solubilize by bacteria in the gel and a
major amount of a polymer component that is
easier to solubilize by bacteria in the gel. The gel
contains bacteria for solubilizing material in
wastewater and for solubilizing the gel, and
nutrients for the bacteria. The gel also contains a
bacteria inhibitor such as sodium sulfide or sodium
azide that can diffuse out of the gel at a gel-water
interface to allow bacteria to dissolve the gel at the
interface while preventing an interior region of the
gel from prematurely dissolving. The gel is placed
in a housing through which wastewater flows and
contacts the gel. The inhibitor diffuses out of the
gel at a gel-wastewater interface and bacteria
dissolve the gel at the interface to release bacteria
that produce extracellular enzymes for dissolving
material in the waste water.
US5282980 Method for treatment of waste water sludge 1994-02-01
A method for treating liquid waste water sludge
after its generation and separation from the waste
liquid involves forcibly impacting sludge particles
and microbial cells against a contact surface to
thereby fragment the particles into smaller-sized
particles and break apart the organic cells. As a
result of such a fragmentation process, water
located in the pores of the sludge particles is
released, thereby enhancing a subsequent
dewatering process performed on the sludge. The
destruction of the cells permits a subsequent solids
digestion process to work more efficiently, while
also permitting a more complete conversion to
dissolved sugars, proteins and carbon dioxide.
USRE34486 Compositions of inorganic-organic alloy with 1993-12-21
highly charged nitrogen content polymers and
their manufacture
Inorganic-organic alloy polymer adduct or organic
blends polymer compositions for waste water
treatment, having the formula:
A.B.sup.+.C.D.sup.+

wherein A is from 0% to 98% by weight of


the total alloy composition, and is selected
from the group comprising:
polyhydroxyaluminumchloride,
hydroxyaluminumchloride,
polyhydroxyaluminumagnesiumchloride,
polyhydroxyaluminumagnesium sulfate,
polyhydroxyaluminumagnesiumsulfate,
hydroxyaluminumsulfate,
polyhydroxyaluminumzincoxidechloride,
polyhydroxyaluminumchlorosulfate,
polyhydroxymagnesiumchlorosulfate,
polyaluminumferricchloride,
polyaluminumferrouschloride,
polyaluminumcholridesulfate,
polyhydroxyaluminumchloridesilicate, and
polyhydroxyaluminumsodiumsulfophosphat
e; and aluminum salts; where A vary from
0% to 100%

B.sup.+ is from 2% to 98% 0 to 100% by


weight of the total alloy composition, and is
selected from the group comprising
polymers or resins made from guanidine,
dicyandiamide, or cyanoguanidine
compounds, copolymerized with cationic
charges, multiple organic cationic charges,
protonized agents, alkylamines,
alkanolamines, alkyl, or
hydroxyalkylguanidine, or any mixture
thereof;

C is from 0 to 95% 0% to 100% by weight


of the total alloy composition, and is an
aqueous solution of cationic resin mixed
with a reagent selected from
polyalkylamines, polyethylenepolyamines,
N-substituted ethyleneimines,
polyquaternary compound, 1,3-
bisquaternaryammonium compound, and
polyquaternaryalkylamines; and melamine-
formaldehyde protonized or quaternized or
their blends.

D.sup.+ is from 0% to 95% 0% to 100% by


weight of the total alloy composition, and is
selected from the group comprising aqueous
solutions of the quaternary ammonium
compounds like PDADMAC, or cationic
(co)polyacrylamide, or their (co)polymers,
and their ethylenically unsaturated
(co)polymerizable compounds,
POLYDADMAC melamine formaldehyde
alloy, Manich type,
(co)polyacrylamidemelamineformaldehyde
alloy polymers, incorporated therein and
provided that at least one of A, B.sup.+, C,
D.sup.+ is positive.

[continued...]
US5259960 Regeneration and recycling of contaminated 1993-11-09
solutions from aluminum and tin washer
processes
A process is described for regenerating and
recycling a contaminated solution recovered from
an aluminum or tin washer process wherein the
contaminated solution contains contaminants
comprising inorganic soils, organic soils, or both as
a result of the use of the solution in the washer
process, which comprises

(A) regenerating said solution by

o (A-1) extracting said contaminants


from the solution in a manner which
does not substantially reduce the
amount of any chemicals present in
the solutions prior to use; and

o (A-2) selectively replenishing


chemicals as required; and

(B) recycling the regenerated solution to the


washer process. The process of the present
invention significantly reduces the amount
of waste water containing chemicals which
must be discarded or treated in waste
treatment facilities. The process also
reduces the amount of process chemicals
and water necessary for maintaining the
washer processes used for aluminum and tin
coil and container washer processes.

US5258124 Treatment of contaminated waste waters and 1993-11-02


groundwaters with photolytically generated
hydrated electrons
A process for treating an aqueous waste water or
groundwater containing organic contaminants
degradable by hydrated electrons comprises
contacting the aqueous waste water or groundwater
with an agent which generates hydrated electrons
on photolysis. Additionally, the aqueous waste
water or groundwater is irradiated with UV light to
photolyse the hydrated electron generating agent,
thereby generating hydrated electrons to degrade
the contaminants. In one embodiment, the aqueous
waste water or groundwater is contacted with the
hydrated electron generating agent and a reducing
agent to recycle the hydrated electron generating
agent.
US5248423 Process for the regulation of a device for the 1993-09-28
removal of pollutants from waste water
This invention relates to a process for the regulation
and automatic control of a device for the removal
of pollutants from waste water by methane
fermentation, which consists of simultaneously
measuring, in the gaseous phase in the digesters of
a fermentation reactor, the following three
parameters: output of gas emanating from the
conversion of the organic matter during
fermentation, the ratio of the percentages of
methane and carbon dioxide and the gaseous
hydrogen content, and in then processing in real
time the data thus collected in order to obtain
signals reflecting the instantaneous state of the
ecosystem of the pollutant removal device.
US5242598 Solid phase extraction 1993-09-07
Hydrophobic contaminants are removed from a
particulate matter by contacting the particulate
matter with a solid organic phase. The hydrophobic
contaminants have greater affinity for the solid
organic phase than for the particulate matter and
repartition to the solid organic phase. The solid
organic phase is then separated from the particulate
matter. A typical embodiment utilizes polystyrene
particles to remove polychlorinated biphenyls from
soil.
US5240599 Apparatus for treatment of waste water sludge 1993-08-31
A method and apparatus for fragmenting waste
water sludge particles to destroy sludge particles
and to enhance a dewatering process performed on
the sludge. Sludge is passed through a slotted rotor
that centrifugally propels the sludge through slots
in a surrounding annular stator. Sludge particles
forcibly impact against the side surfaces of the
stator slots to fragment into smaller sized particles.
During the fragmentation process water located in
the pores of the sludge particles is released. The
free water can later be separated from the sludge in
a dewatering apparatus. When passing through the
rotor and stator slots, organic cells are broken apart
and a portion of each is converted to dissolved
sugars and proteins.
US5234584 Catalytic oxidation of aqueous organic 1993-08-10
contaminants
A catalyst for oxidizing aqueous organic
contaminants includes about 5 wt % to about 20 wt
% noble metal crystallites selected from the group
consisting of platinum, palladium, ruthenium,
iridium, and combinations thereof deposited on a
high surface area catalyst support. The crystallites
are about 100 .ANG. or smaller. A system for
catalytically oxidizing aqueous organic
contaminants has a catalyst bed containing such a
catalyst, means for heating a reactor feed stream to
a desired reaction temperature, means oxygenating
the feed stream, and a phase separator for
separating gaseous reaction products from a reactor
effluent stream.
US5232604 Process for the oxidation of materials in water at 1993-08-03
supercritical temperatures utilizing reaction rate
enhancers
Disclosed is a method of substantially completely
oxidizing material in an aqueous phase at
supercritical temperatures and sub- or supercritical
pressures by initiating the oxidation in the presence
of small amounts of strong oxidizing agents that
function to increase the initial reaction rate for the
oxidation. The strong oxidizing agents suitable for
use in the present invention comprise at least one
selected from the group consisting of ozone
(O.sub.3), hydrogen peroxide (H.sub.2 O.sub.2),
salts containing persulfate (S.sub.2 O.sub.8.sup.2-),
salts containing permanganate (MnO.sub.4.sup.-),
nitric acid (HNO.sub.3), salts containing nitrate
(NO.sub.3.sup.-), oxyacids of chlorine and their
corresponding salts, hypochlorous acid (HOCl),
salts containing hypochlorite (OCl.sup.-), chlorous
acid (HOClO), salts containing chlorite
(ClO.sub.2.sup.-), chloric acid (HOClO.sub.2), salts
containing chlorate (ClO.sub.3.sup.), perchloric
acid (HOClO.sub.3), and salts containing
perchlorate (ClO.sub.4.sup.-).
US5192453 Wet oxidation process for ACN waste streams 1993-03-09
A process is disclosed which limits the corrosion of
the materials of construction of a wet oxidation
system treating wastewaters. The process is
particularly useful in the wet oxidation treatment of
ammonium sulfate containing wastes such as
acrylonitrile wastewaters. The wastewater is mixed
with an oxygen containing gas such that a
substantial residual oxygen gas concentration is
maintained from before the stream-gas mixture is
heated for wet oxidation until after the oxidized
stream-gas mixture is cooled and separated.
Preferably, in the treatment of acrylonitrile waste
water the shutdown procedure comprises cooling
said waste stream by introducing an aqueous liquid
substantially free of organic impurities and
containing a basic material.
US5187274 Process to avoid the formation of waste water 1993-02-16
during hexamine production
In a process to avoid the formation of waste water
in the production of hexamine from ammonia and
the stream of gas containing formaldehyde resulting
from the catalytic oxidation of methanol on
metallic oxide catalysts, or by oxidative
dehydrogenation to formaldehyde, the liquid
volume during reaction for the production of
hexamine is kept constant, and carbon monoxide,
the organic components of the exhaust gas and also
hydrogen, if present, are oxidized to carbon dioxide
and water, thus avoiding an energy-consuming
condensation of the condensable components from
the stream of exhaust gas and their treatment.
US5178762 Soybean peroxidase treatment of contaminated 1993-01-12
substances
A method for oxidizing organic and/or heavy metal
contaminants in wastewaters, sludges, or soils
containing such contaminants by contacting the
wastewaters, sludges, or soils with soybean
peroxidase and a peroxide.
US5160621 Method for treatment of waste water by 1992-11-03
activated sludge process
A method for treatment of waste water by an
activated sludge process wherein the aeration tank
system is composed of three tanks: a first tank, a
second tank and a third tank, in which sludge
microorganisms adsorb the organic substances in
the waste water to be treated and a part of them
begin oxidation and decomposition of the
substances in the first tank, the organic substances
which are adsorbed by the sludge microorganisms
are further decomposed by the microorganisms of
the second tank, and the sludge microorganisms are
activated in the third tank, is disclosed. The
aeration amount to the respective tanks is
controlled to fall within specified ratios. Further,
the pH value in the aeration tank system is
controlled to be slightly acidic, and the pH of the
tanks increases in order from the first tank to the
third tank. The process may also be carried out in a
single tank using a three-step batchwise process,
where the batches are subject to the aeration and
pH requirements.
US5152888 Apparatus for treatment of organic waste water 1992-10-06
and contactor for use therein
An apparatus for treating organic waste water
including a treating tank equipped with oscillatable
submerged type contactors in which the organic
waste water is treated. A top mixer is disposed
under water in a top portion of the treating tank for
creating a current of water in agitated condition.
Pipe mixers are disposed below the top mixer, each
pipe mixer including a pipe which is open at both
ends and a band-like agitating blade fitted in the
pipe and having a baffle plate portion. One end
opening of each pipe mixer is positioned below the
top mixer and the other end opening thereof is
positioned in a lower portion of the treating tank, so
that the current of water from the top mixer can
pass through the pipe mixer from the one end
opening toward the other end opening and can be
discharged from the other end opening. An air
feeder pipe extends from an external source to a
position intermediate between the water-current
generating top mixer and the pipe mixers, the tip of
the feeder pipe being open at the intermediate
position.
US5145587 Method for treatment of waste water 1992-09-08
A method for the treatment of waste water, which
comprises wet oxidizing said waste water with a
molecular oxygen-containing gas of an amount 1.0
to 1.5 times the amount thereof theoretically
necessary for decomposing at least one substance
selected from the group consisting of organic
substances and inorganic substances present in said
waste water to nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water
at a temperature not exceeding 370 C. under a
pressure enough for said waste water to retain a
liquid phase in the presence of a solid catalyst
comprising of a first catalytic component formed of
titanium dioxide, a second catalytic component
formed of the oxide of an element of lanthanide
series, and a third catalytic component containing at
least one metal selected from the group consisting
of manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, tungsten,
copper, silver, gold, platinum, palladium, rhodium,
ruthenium, and iridium or a water-insoluble or
sparingly water-soluble compound of said metal.
US5135659 Agricultural waste water treatment 1992-08-04
An integrated apparatus and a process for
precipitation and charcoal absorption of pesticide
residues in agriculatural waste water solutions are
disclosed.
US5135656 Process for removing water soluble organic 1992-08-04
compounds from produced water
A process for the removal of water soluble organic
compounds from produced water is provided. The
process allows for the removal of water soluble
organic compounds by passing the produced water
through a column of adsorbing resin which is
capable of removing the soluble organic
compounds from the water and providing an
environmentally acceptable effluent. The removal
of polllutants from the produced water is monitored
continuously by a fluorescence detector. The
process further allows for the generation of the
adsorbing resin by regenerating the resin with a
solvent capable of eluting accumulated soluble
organic compounds from the column followed by
treatment of the resin with steam to remove residual
eluting solvent. The process further allows for the
treatment of the eluting solvent and soluble organic
compound admixture in a manner to allow reuse of
the solvent and to allow recovery of the soluble
organic compound or to allow direct injection of
the soluble organic compound admixture into the
oil stream. Thus, the invention provides a process
for removal and recovery of water soluble organic
compounds from produced water which creates no
environmentally hazardous waste streams.
US5130396 Formed, polymeric organosiloxane ammonium 1992-07-14
compounds, method of their preparation and use
Spherical, polymeric organosiloxane ammonium
compounds are disclosed with a silica-like skeleton
consisting of: [Figure] units in which R.sup.1 and
R.sup.2 stand for a group [Figure] in which
R.sup.5 is alkylene the oxygen atoms are saturated
by silicon atoms of other groups (II) with the
optional inclusion of cross-linking agents, R.sup.3
has the meaning of R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 or stands
for hydrogen, alkyl, cycloalkyl or benzyl, R.sup.4 is
hydrogen or alkyl, cycloalkyl, benzyl, allyl,
propargyl, chloroethyl, hydroxyethyl or
chloropropyl, X stands for a monovalent to trivalent
anion of a protonic acid which forms stable salts
with amine bases and x can be a number from 1 to
3.
US5124051 Process for treatment of contaminated waste 1992-06-23
water or groundwater
A process is provided for treating aqueous waste or
groundwater contaminated with nitro-containing
organic chemicals to degrade the compound
sufficiently to permit disposal of the waste or
groundwater.
US5118422 Photocatalytic treatment of water 1992-06-02
An ultraviolet driven photocatalytic post-treatment
technique for the purification of waste water
distillates, reverse osmosis permeates and
spacecraft habitat atmospheric humidity
condensates is described. Experimental results
show that organic impurity carbon content of
simulated reclamation waters at nominal 40 PPM
level are reduced to, PPB using a recirculating
batch reactor. The organic impurities common to
reclaimed waste waters are completely oxidized
employing minimum expendables (stoichiometric
oxygen). This paper discusses test results and
parameteric data obtained for design and
fabrication of a bread-board system. The parametric
testing includes UV light source evaluation,
photolysis vs photocatalysis comparison, oxygen
concentration dependence, temperature
dependence, reactor mixing, disinfection features,
photocatalyst loading, photocatalyst degradation
studies and power consumption estimates. This
novel post-treatment approach for waste water
reclamation shows potential for integration with
closed-loop life support systems.
US5114587 Method of sewage treatment 1992-05-19

The present invention refers to a process for


wastewater treatment, wherein the amount of
soluble organic matter is reduced by means of
addition of nitrate. A relief of the wastewater
treatment plants is obtained by the fact that the
agent is added as early as possible in the pipe line
net. The addition of nitrate may be controlled by
measurement of the redox potential.
US5110449 Oxygen addition to a coking zone and sludge 1992-05-05
addition with oxygen addition
A process is disclosed for sludge addition to a
coking zone in which the sludge is contacted with
oxygen. The sludge is then contacted with feed,
liquid derived from the feed, or vapor derived from
the feed. Oxygen also contacts the feed, liquid
derived from the feed, or vapor derived from the
feed to help maintain reaction temperature in the
coking zone.
US5106496 Treatment of volatile organic substances at 1992-04-21
waste water treatment plants
A method and apparatus for purifying industrial
waste fluids by an aerobic biological treatment is
provided herein, which is capable of concurrently
purifying waste gases emanating from such waste
liquids. The improvement relates to the elimination
or reduction of odors and volatile organic
substances by enclosing all tanks and basins from
the influent of the waste water treatment plant up to
the aeration treatment zone for the liquid waste
water and venting these gases to an aerobic digester
and/or an aeration basin to biologically decompose
or degrade the VOS in the waste gas by action of
the microorganisms in the aeration basin or aerobic
digester.
US5104545 Process for removing water soluble organic 1992-04-14
compounds from produced water
A process for the removal of water soluble organic
compounds from produced water is provided. The
process allows for the removal of water soluble
organic compounds by passing the produced water
through a column of adsorbing resin which is
capable of removing the soluble organic
compounds from the water and providing an
environmentally acceptable effluent. The process
further allows for the regeneration of the adsorbing
resin by backwashing the resin with a solvent
capable of eluting accumulated soluble organic
compounds from the column. The process further
allows for the treatment of the eluting solvent and
soluble organic compound admixture in a manner
to allow reuse of the solvent and to allow recovery
of the soluble organic compounds or to allow direct
injection of the soluble organic compound
admixture into the oil stream. Thus, the invention
provides a process for removal and recovery of
water soluble organic compounds from produced
water which creates no environmentally hazardous
waste streams.
US5091315 Bioconversion reactor 1992-02-25
A bioconversion reactor for the anaerobic
fermentation of organic material. The
bioconversion reactor comprises a shell enclosing a
predetermined volume, an inlet port through which
a liquid stream containing organic materials enters
the shell, and an outlet port through which the
stream exits the shell. A series of vertical and
spaced-apart baffles are positioned within the shell
to force the stream to flow under and over them as
it passes from the inlet to the outlet port. The
baffles present a barrier to the microorganisms
within the shell causing them to rise and fall within
the reactor but to move horizontally at a very slow
rate. Treatment detention times of one day or less
are possible.
US5075008 Process for high-load treatment of carbohydrate 1991-12-24
containing waste water
A process for high-load treatment of carbohydrate-
containing waste water comprises the steps of
separating a yeast appearing in the waste water,
subjecting the separated yeast to large-quantity
culture, and treating the waste water by a high-load
operation using the cultured yeast as a seed fungus
under the conditions of a volume load of 10 to 80
kg-BOD/m.sup.3 .multidot.day and a yeast load of
1.0 to 5.0 kg-BOD/kg-yeast.multidot.day, whereby
it is possible to treat the high-concentration waste
water efficiently with a small volume for treatment.
To obviate the conflict between the yeast and
bacteria, it is recommendable to add Cl.sub.2 to a
reservoir in an amount of 10 to 50 mg/l. Upon the
treatment of the waste water, a surplus of yeast is
generated, which contains proteins and vitamins in
high contents and, therefore, is capable of being
taken by a fodder company as fodder or fertilizer;
thus, the disposal cost associated with the surplus
yeast is saved.
US5028360 Method of manufacturing spherical silica 1991-07-02
particles
A method of manufacturing spherical silica
particles comprising the steps of processing in an
acid-containing solution and then washing with
water the coagulant derived from an aqueous alkali
metal silicate solution extruded through pores in a
water-miscible organic medium or acid solution,
wet-grinding the amorphous silica thus obtained in
a liquid dispersion medium to obtain a fine particle
silica suspension with a weight average particle
size of 10 m or less, spray-drying this fine particle
silica suspension with hot air and sintering the
spherical granulated silica thus obtained. According
to the present invention, the high-purity spherical
silica particles can be obtained with high solidity
and adjusted surface smoothness without any
complicated operation or waste water treatment for
use as a sealant filler for highly-integrated IC
electronic parts.
US5008319 Homogeneous mixtures of solid organic acids 1991-04-16
and solid cationic ester-based polymer
flocculants
Homogeneous compositions of a solid, water
soluble organic acid, e.g., glutaric acid, and a solid
cationic ester-based copolymer flocculant are
resistant to mechanical segregation and
stratification caused by agitation. The compositions
are prepared by coating the polymeric flocculant
with the organic acid. The compositions are useful
in sludge dewatering, water treatment, paper
processing and waste water treatment.
US5008035 Fluidization of heavy slurries 1991-04-16
A process for fluidizing oily heavy slurries chosen
from slurries of catalyst fines in hydrocarbon, coke
slurries in hydrocarbon, and asphalt residues in
hydrocarbon which comprises:

(1) heating, with effective mixing, the oily


heavy slurries to at least 140 F., thereby
forming a heated heavy slurry;

(2) Adding to said heated heavy slurry with


effective mixing, an effective fluidizing
amount of a fluidizing agent which
comprises the ingredients:

______________________________________
Ingredient Wt. Percent
______________________________________
(a) water 15-85
(b) an ethoxylated nonyl phenol/
40-5
formaldehyde resin having a
molecular wt. between about
1000-25,000
(c) Surfactants having an HLB
40-5
between about 2.0-25.0, said
surfactants chosen from the
group consisting of alkanolamide
condensates, alkoxylated fatty
alcohol phosphates and mixtures
thereof; and
(d) liquid organic solvents chosen
75-5
from the group consisting of
naphthas, aromatic naphthas, heavy
aromatic naphthas, alkylated
aromatics, light aromatic petroleum
distillates, turpentine, dipentene
rich turpentine, and mixtures thereof;
thereby forming a heated treated heavy
slurry, and then mixing effectively
until the heated treated heavy slurry
becomes fluidized and pumpable.
______________________________________
US4999113 Selective separation of thiocyanate ions from a 1991-03-12
scrubbing medium
A process is provided for the selective removal of
thiocyanate ions from a vanadium-containing
loaded scrubbing solution used for oxidative
hydrogen sulfide scrubbing. The thiocyanate ions
are removed by means of an ion exchanger making
reuse of the scrubbing solution possible. In this
process, the ion exchanger can be loaded until the
inlet and outlet concentrations of the thiocyanate
ions are substantially the same.
US4986917 Selective recovery of a nitrophenolic by-product 1991-01-22
from nitration waste water by extraction
A process for selectively recovering a nitrophenolic
by-product from nitration waste water in
substantially pure form by solvent extraction is
provided. The pH of the waste water is adjusted
using an acid to affect the solubility of a particular
nitrophenolic by-product in the waste water so that
the by-product is selectively separable from the
other components of the nitration waste water by
solvent extraction.
US4983297 Waste water treating process scheme 1991-01-08
Waste water, such as water separated from crude oil
at a production well which comprises an alkali
metal component, a Group II A metal component,
organic pollutants and insoluble oils and solids, is
treated by the sequential steps of oils and solids
removal, H.sub.2 S removal, anaerobic treatment
and aerobic treatment.
US4975190 Organic polymer separation membrane having 1990-12-04
fluorene skeleton and oxygen enrichment device
utilizing same
A separation membrane consisting of a polyamide
having a unit (I) or a mixing of polyamides having
units (I) and (II) an (II') or a polyester having a unit
(III) or (IV) and (IV') or a mixture of polyesters
having units (III) and (IV) and (IV'):
--HN--X--NH--Z.sub.1 -- (I)

--(HN--X--NH--Z.sub.1).sub.l -- (II)

--HN--X--NH--Z.sub.1 ').sub.n -- (II')

--O--X--O--Z.sub.2 -- (III)

--(O--X--O--Z.sub.2).sub.r -- (IV)

--O--X--O--Z.sub.2 ').sub.s -- (IV')


wherein X represents [Figure] where R represents
H, CH.sub.3, or C.sub.2 H.sub.5 ; Z.sub.1 and
Z.sub.2 represent [Figure] Z.sub.1 ' represents
--CO--(CH.sub.2).sub.p --CO--, Z.sub.2 ' represents
--CO--CH=CH--CO--, p is an integer of 4 to 8, n/l
is 1.0 to 20, and r/s is 0.5 to 100.
US4949743 Fluidization of heavy slurries 1990-08-21
A process for fluidizing oily heavy slurries chosen
from slurries of catalyst fines in hydrocarbon, coke
slurries in hydrocarbon, and asphalt residues in
hydrocarbon which comprises: (1) heating, with
effective mixing, the oily heavy slurries to at least
140 F., thereby forming a heated heavy slurry; (2)
Adding to said heated heavy slurry with effective
mixing, an effective fluidizing amount of a
fluidizing agent which comprises the ingredients:
______________________________________
Ingredient Wt. Percent
______________________________________
(a) water 15-85
(b) an ethoxylated nonyl
phenol/formaldehyde
40-5
resin having a molecular wt. between
about 1000-25,000
(c) Surfactants having an HLB bwtween
about
40-5
2.0-25.0, said surfactants chosen from
the
group consisting of alkanolamide
condensates,
alkoxylated fatty alcohol phosphates and
mixtures thereof; and
(d) liquid organic solvents chosen from
the group
75-5
consisting of napthas, aromatic napthas,
heavy
aromatic napthas, alkylated aromatics,
light
aromatic petroleum distillates,
turpentine,
dipentene rich turpentine, and mixtures
thereof; thereby forming a heated
treated
heavy slurry, and then mixing
effectively
until the heated treated heavy slurry
becomes
fluidized and pumpable.
______________________________________
US4942269 Process for fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils, and 1990-07-17
products derived therefrom
A process is disclosed for fractionating
lignocellulosic materials fast-prolysis oils to
produce phenol-containing compositions suitable
for the manufacture of phenol-formaldehyde resins.
The process includes admixing the oils with an
organic solvent having at least a moderate
solubility parameter and good hydrogen
The United States Government has rights in this
invention under Contract No. DE-AC02-
83CH10093 between the United States Department
of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute,
a Division of the Midwest Research Institute.
US4919692 Process for removing solvents and other 1990-04-24
contaminants from an inlet solvent laden air
path
A process is provided for the removal of solvents
and other contaminants from an inlet solvent laden
air (SLA) path. The process comprises the step of
passing the SLA through an adsorbent in an
adsorber. The adsorbent is regenerated when it
becomes saturated with solvents. The regeneration
step is performed by passing a regenerating fluid,
preferably steam, through the adsorber. The steam
removes solvents from the adsorbent and transports
the solvents out of the adsorber. The steam and
solvents are condensed in a condensation step.
Water is separated from the condensaton produced
in a separation step such as decantation and
distillation. The condensed water is passed to a
steam generation step. The recovered water is used
as boiler feed water to generate low pressure steam.
The steam generated in the steam generation step is
recycled to the adsorbent regeneration step. The
recycling of the water used for regenerating the
adsorbent eliminates a waste water stream, thereby
eliminating or reducing waste water treatments.
US4917802 Method for treating waste water 1990-04-17

A method of treating raw water containing


phosphorous and nitrogen compounds and organic
matter in which the raw water is passed through an
aerobic zone containing a porous material.
Anaerobic treatment is carried out in the presence
of a hydrogen donor. The porous material is
tobermorite and/or xonotlite with a porosity of 50%
to 90% and is produced by foaming and hardening
a silica-based material, a lime-based material and
water, and subjecting the porous material to
hydrothermal synthesis. The order of the aerobic
and anaerobic treatments may be varied.
US4915846 Water clarification 1990-04-10
A water clarification apparatus (10) and method for
removing dye and other organic matter from waste
water within a dye lagoon (11) or other reservoir.
The water clarification apparatus (10) comprises at
least one first electrode (12) for being immersed in
the waste water (32) within the reservoir (11), and
at least one second electrode (14) for being
immersed in the waste water (32) at a preselected
distance from the first electrode (12). The apparatus
further comprises a DC power supply means (20) to
which the first and second electrodes are connected
such that the first electrode defines an anode (12)
and the second electrode defines a cathode (14). In
accordance with the method of the present
invention, the power supply means (20) is utilized
to energize the anode (12) such that electrical
current passes through the waste water (32) from
the first electrode, or anode (12) to the second
electrode, or cathode (14), causing the dye in the
waste water (32) to coagulate into a precipitatable
solid which can be readily removed from the waste
water by conventional sewage treatment means.
US4911844 Modified polyvinylalcohol containing 1990-03-27
semipermeable composite membranes, process
for their manufacture and their use
Semipermeable composite membranes containing
on one surface of a porous support a superficial thin
film having semipermeable properties. The film
contains polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/polyvinyl
alcohol-copolymers (PVA-copolymers) modified
by at least radicals containing ionizable groups are
provided. The modification steps comprise e.g.
reacting PVA/PVA-copolymer films with

(a) a monomeric organic compound


containing at least two functional groups,

(b) a linear or branched polyfunctional


oligomer or polymer, and

(c) a compound containing cross-linking


and ionizable groups.

The novel membranes show good mechanical,


temperature and pH-stabilities and are suitable, for
example, for separating monovalent ions of low
ionic weight from polyvalent ions of low or high
ionic weight or for separating ionic compounds
from non-ionic compounds or from ionic
compounds which have a different molecular
weight or opposite charge. They can be used for
example for separating salts from organic
compounds (dyes) or in waste-water treatment.
US4908478 Single-vessel process for preparing 2- 1990-03-13
acetaminonaphthalene-6-sulfonic acid of high
purity
A single-vessel process for preparing 2-
acetaminonaphthalene-6-sulfonic acid of high
purity by sulfonating 2-hydroxynaphthalene with
concentrated sulfuric acid, converting the 2-
hydroxynaphthalenesulfonic acid formed with
ammonia in the presence of ammonium
hydrogensulfite into 2-amino-naphthalene-6-
sulfonic acid (Bucherer reaction) and N-acetylating
the latter to give 2-acetaminonaphthalene-6-
sulfonic acid, which comprises, after diluting the
sulfonating melt with water, substantially removing
any impurities still present in the resulting aqueous
solution of 2-hydroxynaphthalene-6-sulfonic acid,
in particular 2-hydroxynaphthalene, by extraction
with toluene or xylene and/or clarification using
active carbon.
US4902779 Compositions of inorganic -organic alloy with 1990-02-20
highly charged nitrogen content polymers and
their manufacture
Inorganic-organic alloy polymer adduct
compositions for waste water treatment, having the
formula:
A.B.sup.+.C.D.sup.+

wherein A is from 0% to 98% by weight of


the total alloy composition, and is selected
from the group comprising:
polyhydroxyaluminumchloride,
hydroxyaluminumchloride,
polyhydroxyaluminumagnesiumchloride,
polyhydroxyaluminumagnesium sulfate,
polyhydroxyaluminumagnesiumsulfate,
hydroxyaluminumsulfate,
polyhydroxyaluminumzincoxidechloride,
polyhydroxyaluminumchlorosulfate,
polyhydroxymagnesiumchlorosulfate,
polyaluminumferricchloride,
polyaluminumferrouschloride,
polyaluminumcholridesulfate,
polyhydroxyaluminumchloridesilicate, and
polyhydroxyaluminumsodiumsulfophosphat
e;

B.sup.+ is from 2% to 98% by weight of the


total alloy composition, and is selected from
the group comprising polymers or resins
made from guanidine, dicyandiamide, or
cyanoguanidine compounds, copolymerized
with cationic charges, multiple organic
cationic charges, protonized agents,
alkylamines, alkanolamines, alkyl, or
hydroxyalkylguanidine, or any mixture
thereof;

C is from 0 to 95% by weight of the total


alloy composition, and is an aqueous
solution of cationic resin mixed with a
reagent selected from polyalkylamines,
polyethylenepolyamines, N-substituted
ethyleneimines, polyquaternary compound,
1,3-bisquaternaryammonium compound,
and polyquaternaryalkylamines; and

D.sup.+ is from 0% to 95% by weight of the


total alloy composition, and is selected from
the group comprising aqueous solutions of
the quaternary ammonium compounds and
their ethylenically unsaturated
(co)polymerizable compounds,
POLYDADMAC melamine formaldehyde
alloy, Manich type,
(co)polyacrylamidemelamineformaldehyde
alloy polymers, incorporated therein.

Methods for making the compounds are also


disclosed.
US4894162 Treatment of volatile organic substances at 1990-01-16
waste water treatment plants
A method and apparatus for purifying industrial
waste fluids by an aerobic biological treatment is
provided herein, which is capable of concurrently
purifying waste gases emanating from such waste
liquids. The improvement relates to the elimination
or reduction of odors and volatile organic
substances by enclosing all tanks and basins from
the influent of the waste water treatment plant up to
the aeration treatment zone for the liquid waste
water and venting these gases to an aerobic digester
and/or an aeration basin to biologically decompose
or degrade the VOS in the waste gas by action of
the microorganisms in the aeration basin or aerobic
digester.
US4891422 Compositions of inorganic-organic alloy with 1990-01-02
high nitrogen content polymers and their
manufacture
Inorganic-organic alloy polymer adduct
composition for waste water treatment, having the
formula:
A.multidot.B.multidot.C.multidot.D
wherein

A is from 5% to 95% by weight of the total


alloy composition, and is selected from the
group comprising:
polyhydroxyaluminumchloride,
hydroxyaluminumchloride,
polyhydroxyaluminumagnesiumchloride,
polyhydroxyaluminumagnesium sulfate,
polyhydroxyaluminumagnesiumsulfate,
hydroxyaluminumsulfate,
polyhydroxyaluminumzincoxidechloride,
polyhydroxyaluminumchlorosulfate,
polyhydroxymagnesiumchlorosulfate,
polyaluminumferricchloride,
polyaluminumferrouschloride,
polyaluminumchloridesulfate,
polyhydroxyaluminumchloridesilicate, and
polyhydroxyaluminumsodiumsulfophosphat
e;

B is selected from the group comprising


polymers or resins made from guanidine,
dicyandiamide, or cyanoguanidine
compounds;

C is an aqueous solution of cationic resin


mixed with a reagent selected from
polyalkylamines, polyethylenepolyamines,
N-substituted ethyleneimines,
polyquaternary compound, 1,3-
bisquaternaryammonium compound, and
polyquaternaryalkylamines; and

D is selected from the group comprising


aqueous solutions of the quaternary
ammonium compounds and their
ethylenically unsaturated (co)polymerizable
compounds incorporated therein.

US4889633 Process for treating aqueous fluids containing 1989-12-26


organic compounds and salts of polyvalent
inorganic acids
Aqueous fluids, such as chemical reaction solutions
or effluents from chemical production plants or dye
houses, containing organic compounds and salts of
polyvalent inorganic acids, prefereably sulfates, are
adjusted to a pH value in the range below about 4,
concentrated by a membrane treatment and
separated into an aqueous retentate concentrated
with respect to the organic compounds and an
aqueous permeate substantially free of organic
compounds. Under these strong acid conditions an
effective concentration of the organic compounds
without the disturbing increase of the osmotic
pressure caused by the presence of said salts can be
reached. The concentrates can be easily disposed of
and the permeates, for example effluents
substantially free of any organic compounds can be
discharged into a waste water plant for further
treatments and purification.
US4872993 Waste treatment 1989-10-10
Processes and techniques are described for treating
waste water (domestic and industrial) to remove
organic matter and heavy metals. Clay and
flocculating agent are added to the waste water to
cause separation of a sludge. The sludge is fired at
high temperature in particle form to produce
ceramic particles. Organic matter is oxidized; heavy
metals are bound within the ceramic particles and
cannot leach out. The ceramic particles are useful
as aggregate (e.g., in concrete) and in landscaping.
US4872959 Electrolytic treatment of liquids 1989-10-10
An improved electrolytic system for treating
aqueous solution which passes the solution along
an inner helical insulator wrapped around a
centrally located anode solid rod and an enclosing
inner cathode tube, then along a cathode tube
wrapped or spaced with another helical insulator
and an enclosing outer anode tube. The solid rod
can be replaced with an innermost tube in order for
the solution to initially pass through a cathode
portion of the system. Also, the innermost cathode
tube can have a plurality of apertures as
passageways for the solution. A DC voltage is
applied, in one direction or in sequential fields of
different directions across the plurality of metal
rods and tubes, thereby effectively removing both
suspended materials and dissolved solids from the
aqueous solution to be treated. The power supply
required from the DC voltage can be decreased by
treating specified tubes or rods. Various materials
may be removed from waste water, either with the
improved apparatus and method of the new
apparatus of this invention or with the Liggett
device, including removal of organics, or rendering
plant fats, colloids, salts or the recovery of certain
metals including gold.
US4867883 High-rate biological waste water treatment 1989-09-19
process using activated sludge recycle
A high-rate biological waste water treatment
process for removing organic tter, phosphorus and
nitrogen nutrients from municipal waste water
comprising the steps of mixing the influent waste
water in an initial anaerobic reactor zone to
maintain the biological solvents in suspension with
a denitrified mixed liquor from a downstream
anoxic reactor zone, typically at a flow rate of 0.5
to two times the waste water flow rate. The reactor
zone serves to select microorganisms capable of
accumulating quantities of phosphorus in excess of
that required for simple cell growth and
reproduction. The phosphorus removal occurs due
to the removal of excess sludge (waste activated
sludge) produced in the process wherein such
sludge can be removed from the clarifier underflow
or as a mixed liquor directly from the biological
reactor.
US4861446 Treatment of gas liquor 1989-08-29
A method and apparatus for converting a raw gas
such as the gas liquor resulting from a Lurgi-type
coal gassification process together with CO.sub.2
and/or water by passing it through a plasma arc
heater and gas converter to convert it to a mixture
of CO and H.sub.2.
US4851124 Method of removing and detoxifying a 1989-07-25
phosphorus-based substance
A method of removing organic phosphorus-based
poisonous substances from water contaminated
therewith and of subsequently destroying the
toxicity of the substance is disclosed. Initially, a
water-immiscible organic is immobilized on a
supported liquid membrane. Thereafter, the
contaminated water is contacted with one side of
the supported liquid membrane to selectively
dissolve the phosphorus-based substance in the
organic extractant. At the same time, the other side
of the supported liquid membrane is contacted with
a hydroxy-affording strong base to react the
phosphorus-based substance dissolved by the
organic extractant with a hydroxy ion. This forms a
non-toxic reaction product in the base. The organic
extractant can be a water-insoluble trialkyl amine,
such as trilauryl amine. The phosphorus-based
substance can be phosphoryl or a thiophosphoryl.
US4839007 Method for purifying industrial waste water by 1989-06-13
direct oxidation of the organic pollutants
A method for purifying industrial waste water by
direct oxidation of the organic pollutants in an
electrochemical cell the anode of which contains, in
its active part or in any intermediate layer present,
neither noble metals in any form nor PbO.sub.2 nor
graphite, but instead comprises in this part
exclusively SnO.sub.2 which is doped with F, Cl,
Sb, Mo, W, Nb, Ta or with a mixture of at least two
of these elements. The anode has an oxygen
overvoltage which is higher than that of a
PbO.sub.2 comparison anode and reaches the value
of at least 1.85 V at a current density of 0.1
mA/cm.sup.2 in 1 normal H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 under a
pressure of 1 bar at a temperature of 20 C. in the
presence of a Pt counterelectrode.
US4824563 Equipment for treating waste water 1989-04-25
In the method of treating high-concentration
organic waste water in dependence upon
microorganism, waste water is first anaerobically
treated in an anaerobic operation tank in
dependence upon anaerobic bacteria groups and
methane bacteria groups; in the second step, the
waste water is further aerobically treated repeatedly
in an aerobic operation tank, and an organic
substance as hydrogen donor (raw waste water) is
supplied to the aerobic operation tank before the
succeeding aerobic treatment; in the third step,
ozone treatment is effected to decolor the treated
water. Two speed bacteria culture tanks for sludge
bacteria and methane bacteria are provided
separately to supply bacteria to the anaerobic
operation tank for providing further reliable
decomposition and denitrification of organic
substance into methane and nitrogen gasses.
US4802994 Biocide treatment to control sulfate-reducing 1989-02-07
bacteria in industrial process waste waters
Sulfate-reducing bacteria present in industrial waste
waters can be controlled by using hydrogen
peroxide in combination with non-oxidizing
organic biocides known to be effective against
sulfate-reducing bacteria.
US4793933 Waste treatment method for metal hydroxide 1988-12-27
electroplating sludges
A waste treatment method for metal hydroxide
electroplating sludges. Metal hydroxide sludges
from the treatment of electroplating waste waters
are rendered environmentally safe. The sludges are
first dewatered and heated to a temperature
sufficient to cause the metal hydroxides to convert
to metal oxides. Predetermined quantities of silica
and soda, or sources thereof, are mixed with the
metal oxides. The mixture is further heated to a
temperature sufficient to cause fusion of the
mixture and form a slag-like composition having
the metal oxides in chemical solution. The slag-like
composition is then cooled to ambient temperature.
The structure of the cooled slag-like composition is
predominantly crystalline, having the metal oxides
in solid solution in either a precipitate phase or a
silicate matrix. The slag-like composition is
resistant to corrosion even in an acidic
environment.
US4769154 Chlorine oxidation waste water treatment 1988-09-06
method
A method for oxidation treatment of waste water
material containing organic solid particles includes
forming a discrete batch of waste water material,
adjusting the pH of the entire batch to close to 7 or
acid-alkaline neutral, and then flowing the batch
through a reactor along with chlorine gas. The
chlorine produces hypochlorous acid, which
produces nascent oxygen and hypochlorite ions, for
chemically oxidizing the organic solid particles and
also forming minute gas bubbles, including
nitrogen and carbon dioxide, which adhere to the
particles. The treated material is flowed into a
separation receptacle, where the gas bubble buoyed
particles float to the surface of the water. The clear
water is rapidly gravity-drained from beneath the
particles, leaving the particles coalesced into a
relatively dry, disinfected or stabilized sludge. The
drained clear water may be substantially pH-
neutralized and then flowed into a water system for
reuse, while the stabilized, disinfected sludge may
be deposited elsewhere as fertilizer or ground cover
and the like.
US4765901 Method for purifying waste water 1988-08-23
A process for treating waste water containing both
phenolic compounds being toxic for methanogenic
organisms and degradable non-phenolic compounds
prior to its anaerobic purification as well as a
process for detoxifying waste water containing
phenolic compounds being toxic for aquatic
organisms by subjecting said waste water to an
oxidative treatment in such a way that no or
virtually no precipitation is formed of the
polyphenol compounds produced and virtually no
influence is executed on the biochemical oxygen
demand and the chemical oxygen demand of the
waste water.
US4755296 Integrated biological-adsorption process for 1988-07-05
treating waste water
The invention relates to the treatment of chemical
process wastewaters and chemical waste landfill
leachates containing obnoxious and hazardous
halogenated organic chemicals by the use of a
combination of physical, chemical and biological
processes to produce a liquid discharge acceptable
to the environment in an efficient and economical
manner.
US4753725 Semipermeable composite membranes, their 1988-06-28
manufacture, and use
Semipermeable composite membranes containing
on one surface of a porous support a superficial thin
film having semipermeable properties. The film
contains polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/polyvinyl
alcohol-copolymers (PVA-copolymers) modified
by at least radicals containing ionizable groups are
provided. The modification steps comprise e.g.
reacting PVA/PVA-copolymer films with

(a) a monomeric organic compound


containing at least two functional groups,

(b) a linear or branched polyfunctional


oligomer or polymer, and

(c) a compound containing cross-linking


and ionizable groups.

The novel membranes show good mechanical,


temperature and pH-stabilities and are suitable, for
example, for separating monovalent ions of low
ionic weight from polyvalent ions of low or high
ionic weight or for separating ionic compounds
from non-ionic compounds or from ionic
compounds which have a different molecular
weight or opposite charge. They can be used for
example for separating salts from organic
compounds (dyes) or in waste-water treatment.
US4749494 Treatment of waste water by the activated 1988-06-07
sludge process

An activated sludge treatment process for waste


water characterized in that, in the waste water
treatment where waste water containing organic
matter is introduced into an activated sludge
reaction tank and the excess sludge formed in the
reaction tank is introduced into a sludge digestion
tank to effect the digestion of said excess sludge by
intermittent aeration with air, a part of the digestion
tank liquid is passed through a filtration apparatus
having an ultrafiltration membrane, the filtrate
passed therethrough is withdrawn outside the
system, the remainder is circulated to the digestion
tank to maintain the liquid volume of the digestion
tank at a definite level, and when the amount of the
reaction tank liquid introduced from the reaction
tank into the digestion tank is taken as W.sub.1, the
digestion tank liquid is returned in an amount of
(0.2-0.8)W.sub.1 to the reaction tank, and thus the
amount of excess sludge to be treated outside the
system can be reduced or can be completely
eliminated.
US4735723 Anaerobic purification of waste water 1988-04-05
containing sulfate and organic material
Waste water containing sulfate and organic material
is purified by anaerobic biological waste water
treatment where at least 80% of the sulfate is
converted into hydrogen sulfide in an acidification
process and at least 70% of the resulting hydrogen
sulfide is removed from the waste water.
US4734274 Stabilization of aqueous alkali metal aluminate 1988-03-29
solutions
A method of stabilizing an aqueous solution of
alkali metal aluminate comprises admixing an
aqueous solution of alkali metal aluminate having a
pH of at least 10 with a sufficient amount of
carboxylate-containing vinyl polymer to form a
solution containing fron 0.1 to 2.0 weight percent
of an anionic vinyl polymer based on alkali metal
aluminate solids, and a stabilized aqueous alkali
metal aluminate solution.
US4728441 Electrical waste water treatment system 1988-03-01
employing oxygen recovery and ozone injection
means
Waste water containing organic materials is first
subjected to electrolysis to encourage flocculation
of particles contained in the water and is thereafter
introduced into an aeration tank where the contents
experience aerobic action to reduce their biological
oxygen demand before being discharged from the
system. During electrolysis, oxygen released by the
electrolytic action is captured within an
accumulation space above the water level and is
drawn off to a heater where it is dried before being
introduced into an ozone generator. Ozone from the
generator is in turn injected into the aerating tank to
promote the aerobic action taking place therein.
US4715958 Process and means for conducting the 1987-12-29
denitrification of water
In a denitrification process wherein denitrifying
agents are supported on a carrier material, the
invention comprises conducting denitrification in
the presence of a carrier impregnated with an
organic substance capable of serving as a reducing
agent for the denitrifying agents. In another aspect
the invention relates to a method of preparing such
a carrier and to the carrier itself.
US4707270 Process for treating waste water containing 1987-11-17
phosphorus compounds and/or organic cod
substances
The specification discloses a novel calcium silicate
water-treating agent exhibiting a superior ability to
remove various kinds of phosphorus compounds or
other environmental pollutants contained in
wastewater, the calcium silicate water treating
agent comprising a burned product which is
prepared by burning a mixture containing as main
constituents calcium compound, thermally
decomposable to calcium oxide (CaO), and
SiO.sub.2 -containing compound at a temperature
of 1300 to 1600 C., the molar ratio of
CaO/SiO.sub.2 of the resultant burned product
being in the range of 1.5 to 5.0, preferably 2.0 to
4.0. In this water treating agent, SiO.sub.2
component may be partially replaced by Al.sub.2
O.sub.3 and/or Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3. A further water
treating agent is prepared by heating the hydrate of
the burned product prepared above at a temperature
of 50 to 700 C. By using the thus obtained water
treating agents, water treatment can be carried out
with a high efficiency, thereby the treatment time,
labor and cost can be considerably saved.
US4689154 Process for removing phosphorus from 1987-08-25
industrial waste water
An improved process is described for removing
phosphorus from industrial waste water by
contacting the waste water with ozone to convert
reduced or organic phosphates into ortho-
phosphates, and precipitating the soluble ortho-
phosphates by treatment with lime. The precipitated
material can be filtered, and the filtrate treated with
activated carbon to produce an effluent stream
having low levels of phosphorus.The process of this
invention is particularly effective at low treatment
temperatures, enabling efficient treatment of the
waste water during periods of cold weather.
US4676908 Waste water treatment 1987-06-30
Waste water streams from the steam-extraction of
heavy oils are treated to remove organic
contaminants, suspended solids and mineral
contaminants, so as to produce a purified water
stream of a quality suitable for reuse in steam
production. Suspended solids are removed by
coagulation, flocculation and flotation, organic
contaminants are removed by activated carbon
adsorption, and mineral contaminants are removed
by electrodialysis or reverse osmosis and ion-
exchange. Thermal economy also is effected by
passing the purified water stream in heat exchange
relation with the waste water stream after
suspended solids removal.
US4670158 Primary treatment of wastewater 1987-06-02
A process for treating waste water which contains
an undesirable level of suspended organic materials
comprising a precipitation and coagulation by the
controlled addition of lime and phosphoric acid.
US4626357 Waste water control method and means 1986-12-02
A waste water control method and means
comprising three basic units, a first unit including a
flush booth wherein a radiator, or the like, may be
exteriorly sprayed and/or interiorly flushed in the
usual manner, and a multi-compartmented sump
arranged for receiving the fluid draining from the
spraying and/or flushing operation; a second unit
including a first settling compartment wherein the
fluid from the sump is received for a separation of
heavy particles or components of the fluid from
lighter components thereof, the lighter components
of the fluid being directed to a first holding
compartment for a chemical bath treatment thereof
to substantially eliminate undesirable organic
matter from the fluid; and a third unit including a
second settling compartment for receiving the fluid
from the first holding compartment to provide a
final separation of heavier components of the fluid
from the lighter components thereof, and a second
holding compartment in communication with the
second settling compartment for receiving the
substantially clean or clear fluid therefrom for
ultimate discharge with substantially no pollution
damage to the surrounding area.
US4626258 Multiple hearth apparatus and process for 1986-12-02
thermal treatment of carbonaceous materials
A multiple hearth reactor apparatus and process for
the thermal treatment of organic carbonaceous
materials under controlled pressure and temperature
comprising in accordance with one embodiment, a
pressure vessel containing a plurality of
superimposed annular hearths including a series of
upper hearths defining a preheating zone and a
series of lower hearths spaced therebelow defining
a reaction zone. The reactor is provided with an
inlet for introducing a moist carbonaceous feed
material under pressure into the preheat zone and
the feed material is transferred downwardly in a
cascading manner through the preheat zone and
reaction zone. The solid product is extracted from
the lower portion of the apparatus while waste
water and product gas are extracted from the
preheat zone. The hot gases are passed in
countercurrent fashion to effect a preheating of the
feed material. In accordance with a second
embodiment of the apparatus, a separate chamber is
employed for preheating of the feed material and
the preheated and partially dewatered feed material
is thereafter directly charged into the multiple
hearth apparatus defining the reaction zone. In
operation, the apparatus is adapted to operate at
temperatures ranging from about 200 F. up to
about 1200 F. or higher at pressures generally
ranging from about 300 up to about 3000 psig.
Residence times of as little as 1 minute up to about
1 hour or longer can be employed depending upon
the nature of the feed material and the desired
thermal restructuring.
US4618709 Waste water treatment in the production of 1986-10-21
methacrylic acid
A process for separation of methacrylic acid from a
methacrylic acid-containing, gaseous reaction
mixture obtained by subjecting methacrolein or a
compound which can afford methacrolein under
reaction conditions and molecular oxygen to gas
phase reaction in the presence of a catalyst for
oxidation under the coexistence of an inert gas for
dilution which comprises (a) cooling the gaseous
reaction mixture from a reactor wherein the gas
phase reaction has been effected to separate into
condensable components including methacrylic
acid, acetic acid and water vapor as a condensed
liquor and non-condensable components including
methacrolein as a non-condensed gaseous mixture,
(b) eliminating contaminating methacrolein from
the condensed liquor and (c) contacting the
resulting condensed liquor with an organic solvent
to extract methacrylic acid, followed by separation
into an organic solvent solution including
methacrylic acid and an aqueous solution as waste
water, characterized in that (1) the inert gas for
dilution is a non-condensable gas or its mixture
with water vapor and (2) the aqueous solution
ultimately separated is evaporated and the evolved
vapor is subjected to catalytic combustion with
molecular oxygen, whereby the amount of waste
water to be discharged is much suppressed.
US4618428 Process for recovery of zinc from plating waste 1986-10-21
solutions
A membrane-based solvent extraction system is
used to separate zinc from plating wastes and to
recycle the concentrated zinc solution to the plating
bath. Di-2 ethylhexylphosphoric acid (DEHPA) is
used as an organic carrier, and an acid or salt
solution is used as a stripping agent in this process.
US4604204 Porous, semipermeable membranes of 1986-08-05
chemically modified cellulose acetate
Cellulose acetate containing membranes which
have pore diameters of about 10 to 1000 .ANG. are
modified by reacting these membranes (a) with (b)
an at least difunctional compound, e.g. cyanuric
chloride, (c) a polyfunctional oligomer or polymer,
e.g. polyethyleneimine, and then with (d) a
compound which contains at least one ionic group
and one group capable of reaction with component
(c). Reactant (d) is necessary only if the
polyfunctional component (c) does not already
contain sufficient ionic groups.The novel
membranes are suitable for ultrafiltration and can
be used for example for separating monovalent ions
of low ionic weight from polyvalent ions of low or
relatively high ionic weight of from monovalent
ions of relatively high ionic weight and for
separating ionic compounds (salts) from non-ionic
(organic) compounds or from ionic compounds
which have a different molecular weight or
opposite charge. They can be used for example for
separating salts from organic compounds (dyes) or
in waste-water treatment.
US4599168 Apparatus for treatment of waste water having 1986-07-08
selective recycle control
An apparatus is provided for treatment of organic
contaminant containing waste water such that the
oxygen demand of the waste water is reduced and
methane is produced. The apparatus comprises an
anaerobic digester or filter. The digester is packed
with a media which provides a substantial growth
surface area to microorganisms contained within
the digester. The digester also includes recirculation
means whereby fluid in the digester below the
media is recirculated directly to an upper portion of
the digester. Furthermore, the digester has effluent
overflow outlets which outlets include a trap to
prevent oxygen from entering the digester from the
atmosphere. Fluid to be treated in the digester
enters the upper portion thereof, passes
downwardly through the media, is recirculated by
the recirculating means to an upper portion of the
digester, and exits the digester after treatment by
the microorganisms therein through the outlets. The
recirculating means may be selectively adjusted to
vary flow in different portions of the digester.A
process is also provided for removing sulfur from
the digester to prevent "sulfide" poisoning.
US4599167 Apparatus for treatment of waste water 1986-07-08
An apparatus is provided for treatment of organic
contaminant containing waste water such that the
oxygen demand of the waste water is reduced and
methane is produced. The apparatus comprises an
anaerobic digester or filter. The digester is packed
with a media which provides a substantial growth
surface area to microorganisms contained within
the digester. The digester also includes recirculation
means whereby fluid in the digester below the
media is recirculated directly to an upper portion of
the digester. Furthermore, the digester has effluent
overflow outlets which outlets include a trap to
prevent oxygen from entering the digester from the
atmosphere. Fluid to be treated in the digester
enters the upper portion thereof, passes
downwardly through the media, is recirculated by
the recirculating means to an upper portion of the
digester, and exits the digester after treatment by
the microorganisms therein through the outlets. The
recirculating means may be selectively adjusted to
vary flow in different portions of the digester.
US4595577 Treatment of gases containing organic sulphur 1986-06-17
compounds
Process for the treatment of waste water and gases
containing dialkyl disulphides by catalytic
oxidation of these compounds by means of a
peroxide compound in an aqueous medium.
Divalent copper ions are used for the catalyst and
the medium is kept at a pH below 6.5.
US4584103 Reverse osmosis of ultrafiltration modified 1986-04-22
polyacrylonitrile-containing membrane
Modified, polyacrylonitrile-containing membranes
suitable for ultrafiltration are prepared by reacting
polyacrylonitrile or copolymers of acrylonitrile and
other ethylenically unsaturated monomers with,
successively, hydroxylamine, at least difunctional
compounds, which act as bridge members, e.g.
cyanuric chloride, a polyfunctional oligomer or
polymer, e.g. polyethyleneimine, and, finally, a
reactive compound containing at least one ionic
group, e.g. an anionic reactive azo dye. The latter
compound must be able to react with the
polyfunctional oligomer or polymer and is required
only if the said polymer does not already itself
contain ionic groups.The novel membranes show
good mechanical, temperature and pH-stabilities
and are suitable, for example, for separating
monovalent ions of low ionic weight from
polyvalent ions of low or relatively high ionic
weight or from monovalent ions of relatively high
ionic weight and for separating ionic compounds
from non-ionic compounds or from ionic
compounds which have a different molecular
weight or opposite charge. They can be used for
example for separating salts from organic
compounds (dyes) or in waste-water treatment.
US4559142 Split feed for the anaerobic biological 1985-12-17
purification of wastewater
In the anaerobic biological purification of
wastewater containing organic substances, some of
which have a low rate of metabolism in anaerobic
microorganisms, e.g., undissolved and/or partly
macromolecular substances, the low-rate
substances are separated from the wastewater into a
secondary stream, e.g., by mechanical, adsorptive
or precipitating means, before introducing the
mainstream of the wastewater to be purified into
the reactor operated under anaerobic conditions.
The low-rate substances separated in concentrated
form are treated, e.g., in a separate anaerobic
reactor, or in an aerobic reactor situated
downstream of the anaerobic reactor.
US4554021 Preparation of a cationic starch paste 1985-11-19
A process for preparing a cationic starch dispersion
wherein an alkaline, gelatinized starch is reacted
with a cationic reagent either concurrently with, or
subsequently to, the cooking process resulting in a
product in which the cationic reagent is chemically
bound to the starch molecule. The process is
conducive to on-site preparation of a cationic starch
derivative which can be utilized without additional
treatment as a papermaking adjunct, textile size,
waste-water treatment or tailings flocculent, etc.
US4515317 Method of and apparatus for grinding solid 1985-05-07
organic waste material encountered in sewage
waste and waste water reclamation
A method of and apparatus involving an
unrestricted gravity feed influent inlet and an
unrestricted effluent outlet which is upward and
opposed by the force of gravity, for grinding by the
slicing action of jet streams of an incompressible
fluid such as water, solid waste materials into
homogeneous sized bits suitable for pumping and
subsequent further processing in a waste treatment
system.
US4505819 Method for the anaerobic degradation of 1985-03-19
organic material
A system for the anaerobic bacterial degradation of
organic material in waste water, comprising
introducing the waste water into a contact reactor,
pumping the waste water into the bottom of a
fluidized bed reactor containing anaerobic bacteria
attached to the particles in the bed, the fluidized
bed reactor having an effective volume not more
than 0.35 times the effective volume of the contact
reactor, returning the waste water which has passed
through the fluidized bed reactor to the contact
reactor and continuously or discontinuously
removing treated effluent from the system.A start-
up procedure for the anaerobic treatment system is
described comprising culturing anoxic bacteria in
the system by adding nitrate ions to the waste water
and gradually reducing the amount of nitrate ions in
the stream until the population of anoxic bacteria is
substantially replaced by a population of anaerobic
bacteria. A viable microbial population is
established in both the fluidized bed reactor and the
contact reactor.
US4501664 Method and apparatus for treating organic 1985-02-26
wastewater
A method and apparatus for achieving high quality
treatment of organic waste water (both domestic
and industrial types), which can also be used to
treat organically contaminated water supplies or to
reduce hazardous organic wastes (cyanides, PCBs,
etc.)The apparatus operates at elevated pressures
(up to about 35 psig), at high levels of dissolved
oxygen (over 5 PPM), and at high concentrations of
activated sludge (about 10,000 mg/l, MLSS). It
consists of four separate process compartments (2
aeration compartments, a separator and a clarifier)
which are contained within three vessels or
alternatively in two vessels. The process
compartments are linked in series by passageways
and by piping and are maintained at a uniform
pressure using a common manifold.The process is
designed for simplicity of operation, compactness,
and maintenance by a single part time attendant.
US4490257 Process for purification of waste waters 1984-12-25
accumulated from pulp production, particularly
from chlorine bleaching of pulp
There is disclosed a process for purification of
waste waters accumulating from the production of
pulp, particularly from chlorine bleaching of pulp,
which comprises the combination of the following
steps:

(a) release of solid particles from the waste


water in a series-connected, mechanical
purification stage,

(b) introduction of the pre-cleaned waste


water into an electrolysis installation,
wherein the waste water is subjected to
constant movement during an anodic
oxidation treatment, and an electric
potential differential is plotted between the
electrodes and the pH of the waste water is
set and maintained at approximately 1 to 6.5
in a known manner,

(c) transfer of the waste water thus treated


from stage (b) into a flocculation
(sedimentation) zone, in which an aqueous
solution of a powerful cationic
polyelectrolyte is fed to the waste water at
room temperature and under constant
movement, and the pH is set and maintained
at 1 to 6.5, and flocculation of colloids and
suspended components occurs,

(d) transfer of the waste water thus treated


together with the flocculated products from
stage (c) into another zone, in which the
flocculated products are separated out,

(e) neutralization of the waste water which


is freed of the flocculated products, and

(f) transfer of the neutralized waste water


into an activated sludge installation, in
which, with addition of additive nutrient
materials, suitable microorganisms cause
biological decomposition of the organic
products still present in the waste water,
whereupon the waste water which is thus
clarified is discharged into a receiving
stream.

US4487697 Biological waste-water-treatment method 1984-12-11


A plant for the treatment of waste water, such as
municipal sewage and industrial wastes containing
organic matter which must be decomposed,
comprises a mechanical clarifier for the removal of
non-degradable and coarse contaminants, an
activation vessel for a first digestion stage
operating with an oxygen content close to 0 mg/l
with facultative anaerobic operation, an
intermediate clarifier, an aeration stage formed by a
trickling filter for oxidative decomposition, an
afterclarifier and an arrangement for removal and
preferably the treatment of surplus sludge. An
unaerated mixture (facultative anaerobic) basin is
provided upstream of the afterclarifier in which
water from the trickling filter is contacted with
surplus sludge from the activation basin.
US4486314 Process for the handling of waste waters 1984-12-04

Process for the treatment of sewage by using


conventional precipitants and flocculants, like
silicates, iron- or aluminum salts or organic
polymers, and in addition about 0.1-10 (0.03-3) g/l
sewage of X-ray amorphous or crystalline, finely-
divided alkali- and/or alkaline earth-alumosilicates
of the formula:
x cat.sub.2/n.Al.sub.2 O.sub.3.y SiO.sub.2
where x=0.7-1.5; y=0.8-6; cat=Na, K, Mg or Ca;
n=1-2. The compounds contain preferably bound
water. The alumosilicate is added preferably in the
form of an aqueous suspension (pH 3.5-5.0) to the
sewage to be treated, adjusted if necessary to a
weakly alkaline to weakly acid pH-value (5-10).
The pH-value is preferably adjusted with strong
acids, preferably sulfuric acid.In sewage from
laundries, which can already contain x g
alumosilicates, the amount is reduced by x
g.Advantage: Compared to known processes, the
dirt elimination rate is greater and/or the
consumption of precipitants is reduced. The
separated impurities are deposited in large
floccules, and the separated sludges contain less
water.
US4446029 Destruction of iron cyanide complexes 1984-05-01
A process for the destruction of cyanide in an
aqueous solution containing an iron cyanide
complex wherein the pH of the solution is adjusted
to be between 11 and 12 and the solution is
irradiated with ultraviolet radiation. The pH of the
solution is subsequently reduced to between 8 and
11, hydrogen peroxide is added, and the solution is
then reacted absent further radiation.
US4444664 Process for the biological treatment of a liquid 1984-04-24
effluent on an adsorbing material bed
A process for treating a liquid effluent, such as
waste water, containing biodegradable organic
materials in solution and/or in suspension which
consists in causing this effluent to flow over an
adsorbing material previously seeded with
microbian flora and on which said organic
materials spread out depending on their ease of
adsorption while thus defining successive
layers.This process is characterized in that the
adsorbing material is in the form of as many
independent beds as there are layers, these beds
being disposed in series.
US4443342 Treatment of waste water containing organic 1984-04-17
sulphur compounds
Process for the treatment of waste water and gases
containing dialkyl disulphides by catalytic
oxidation of these compounds by means of a
peroxide compound in an aqueous medium.
Divalent copper ions are used for the catalyst and
the medium is kept at a pH below 6.5.
US4421648 Apparatus and a method for biological 1983-12-20
treatment of waste waters
An apparatus and a method for biological treatment
of waste waters achieving biological oxidation of
organic matter, biological nitrification and
denitrification of nitrogenous compounds and
biological removal of phosphorus and clarification
of the treated waste water in a single reaction tank
in a single suspended growth sludge system without
the use of traditional compressors, mixers,
recirculation pumps, piping and valving and
without the use of the traditional clarifier.
US4407725 Regeneration of activated carbon 1983-10-04
Spent activated carbon previously used to remove
humate-type organic impurities from an aqueous
inorganic acid solution is regenerated by a specific
chemical regeneration process. According to this
process, the spent carbon is subjected to the
following treatments: (1) a first water wash, (2) a
caustic wash in which at least 1.5% free caustic is
maintained, (3) a warm and preferably hot water
wash, and (4) an optional periodic acid wash. The
process is particularly applicable to regenerating
activated carbon used to remove humates from wet
process phosphoric acid.
US4351729 Biological filter and process 1982-09-28
A biological filter apparatus, and process for using
the same, wherein organic pollutants in a waste
water stream may be biologically degraded by a
biomass of suitable microorganisms located on the
surface of a packing. The filter comprises a sealed
vessel in which the packing having the biomass
thereon is located, and the waste water, mixed with
several volumes of liquid recycle, is allowed to
trickle downwardly through the packing
countercurrently to ascending gases, effluent liquid
is removed from the bottom of the vessel at a rate
sufficient to maintain the level of effluent liquid
below the packing in order to prevent the packing
from being submerged in liquid. The apparatus and
process are applicable to the anaerobic
methanogenic processes wherein methane is
produced as a product; and are also applicable to
non-methanogenic processes which are conducted
in the absence of added molecular oxygen wherein
combined nitrogen is converted to molecular
nitrogen. Extrinsic gases may be added to the filter
at a point below the packing to aid in the
degradation.
US4339265 Sewage treatment method and apparatus 1982-07-13
A method and apparatus for treating sewage and
converting the sewage into organic fertilizer which
utilizes equipment for converting the solid material
of the sewage into patties and a mixing apparatus
for mixing the patties with bulking agents. The
mixture of patties and bulking agents is stored in a
pile and subjected to a supply of air to enhance the
self-combustion or oxidation of the organic
material in the patties. The bulking agents provide
the patty-bulking agent mixture with air passages
and pockets and minimize compaction of the
patties. The self-combustion of the patties
continues until the organic material is burned out,
leaving a residual ash. A shaker separator having an
elongated longitudinal perforated member is
reciprocated to separate the ash from the bulking
agents. The ash is collected and utilized as organic
fertilizer. The bulking agents are recycled back to
the mixing apparatus.
US4311593 Process for treatment of waste water 1982-01-19
A method is provided for reducing the oxygen
demand of waste water having a partial organic
composition, especially a solution commonly
known as mostos which is the waste effluent of a
molasses fermentation and distillation process. The
waste water is fed into an anaerobic digester near
the top thereof so as to flow downwardly through
the interior of the digester. The digester is at least
partially filled with a high surface area media. The
digester contains a microorganism which
preferentially produces methane when in contact
with the organic material in the waste water and
also reduces the oxygen demand of materials
therein. Also preferentially, the microorganisms
tend to grow on the media surface. Nitrogen and
phosphorous containing materials are added as
necessary to promote growth of the
microorganisms. As the waste water flows
downwardly through the digester, methane is
released therefrom which bubbles to the surface
whereupon the methane is collected for combusting
to produce energy. A buffering component may be
added to the digester so as to produce an optimum
pH for the process. Preferred temperatures of the
digesting process are 95 F. and the range of 125
to 130 F. During the process a portion of the
biomass of the microorganisms growing on the
media surface is sloughed therefrom and settles to
the floor of the digester. The sloughed biomass
along with a portion of the waste water is
recirculated from the bottom of the digester to the
top thereof, preferably at a rate of five times the
flow of the influent to the digester. An effluent flow
is removed from the digester in such a manner as to
overflow the top thereof without allowing
atmospheric air therein. When necessary to aid in
removing biomass from the filter media, the
collected methane may be selectively recirculated
into the bottom of the digester and bubbled up
through the waste water therein. A pressure of
approximately one pound per square inch is
preferably maintained on the digester to urge
carbon dioxide produced during the process to
remain in solution with the effluent.
US4302236 Composting system used in scrubbing gas 1981-11-24
effluvia
Disclosed is a method for removing inorganic acid-
forming constituents from a gas stream
contaminated therewith (e.g. high sulfur coal
effluent). Such removal is accomplished by passing
the gas stream through an active composting
biodegradable organic waste held under
thermophilic bacteria-phase digestion conditions.
Also disclosed is a comprehensive composting
treatment site which desirably employs a
windrowing composting technique and is suitably
adapted to be operated with the gas stream
scrubbing process disclosed herein.
US4267049 Biological sludge-energy recycling method 1981-05-12
A method is described for converting treated sludge
into an improved concentrated organic feedstock.
The method includes conditioning of sludge with
hydrolytic enzymes, the mechanical disintegration
of tissue and cell components, the removal of heavy
metals, autolysis and dewatering to produce an
organic fertilizer or feedstock. Product stabilization
for long-term storage is achieved by acidification or
addition of granular sorbents. Agricultural
fertilizers are produced from input raw material
such as sludge from municipal waste-water
treatment facilities or sludge from biological
processing of other organic wastes. Animal feed
protein concentrates are produced from cultured
cellular biomass sludge inputs. The separated heavy
metals fraction may be refined to recover individual
minerals. Energy usually expended for disposal of
sludge as wastes may be applied to recycling such
sludge into useful products of this invention. The
commercial equivalents of these products usually
are manufactured from petrochemical and other
primary energy resources.
US4256573 Process for biological treatment of waste water 1981-03-17
in downflow operation
This invention relates to biological treatment of
waste water using a carrier floatable on water, and
more particularly to a novel process for treatment
of waste water utilizing a fluidized bed which is
formed by supplying waste water in a downflow
operation. The process for treatment of waste water
of this invention is applicable to both anaerobic and
aerobic biological treatment. A good example of the
former anaerobic biological treatment to which this
invention is applicable is the process wherein the
nitrate or nitrite nitrogen which is one of the
nitrogen compounds that are at present believed to
be one cause of the eutrophication in rivers, lakes,
seas, etc. is treated with denitrifying bacteria in an
anaerobic condition to be released in the form of
nitrogen gas, and the typical of the latter aerobic
treatment is the practice in the utilization of the
action of the aerobic bacteria which can oxidize
organic substances in sewage, industrial waste
waters, etc.
US4252643 Removal of toxic and odorous organics from 1981-02-24
waste water by saturated activated carbon
An adsorption process for the selective removal of
naphthalenic hydrocarbons in the waste water from
a petrochemical operation which comprises
contacting the effluent waste water for relatively
short periods with activated carbon which has
become saturated with respect to non-naphthalenic
organics. Contact of the waste water streams with
the saturated carbon is continued until the
breakthrough of naphthalenic compounds in the
waste water exceeds a predetermined concentration,
such as 2 ppm. It has been found that efficient
removal of naphthalenic compounds can be
effected by contacting the waste water for relatively
short contact times, for example 10 minutes,
notwithstanding the fact that the activated carbon
has previously become saturated with respect to
non-naphthalenic compounds.
US4214887 Sewage and waste water treatment 1980-07-29
This sewage and waste water treatment introduces a
different approach to the usual biological digestion
of organic solids and sterilization thereof in the
effluent. It proceeds from the concept that all
sediments and suspended solids to 20 microns or
less are removed immediately and continuously
from the in-flow, and the almost suspended solid-
free flow therefrom is treated in a unique manner
with ozone so as to react chemically with the
dissolved and remaining suspended solids by
oxidation to produce precipitations, gasifications
and sterilization which in turn are removed
immediately and continuously to 5 microns or less,
thus greatly reducing the ozone requirements for
the oxidation reactions. The liquid effluent
discharged from this process is a clear and
sterilized liquid having no contaminants harmful to
biological life.The process also includes the
treatment of the removed solids from sewage with
ozone to produce a completely deodorized and
sterile product without the requirement of
substantial chemical oxidation reactions, thereby
reducing the ozone demand, and further treatment
of the solids in such a manner so as to produce
useful dry commercial fertilizers containing a
maximum amount of non-pathogenic soil
microorganisms required to sustain plant life.The
steps herein are performed largely by existing
equipment of proven ability with a minimum of
moving parts. The ozone treating method can be
applied to liquids and liquids containing a
substantial amount of suspended solids in
comparatively large and varied particulated sizes.
US4203841 Apparatus for high-efficient microbiological 1980-05-20
oxidation treatment
Waste water containing organic materials is
introduced into an aeration tank, and is subjected to
aeration treatment in the presence of activated
sludge, while supplying oxygen to the aeration
tank. The tank provided with an air diffusion pipe
at the bottom of the tank, an air dispersion device
above the air diffusion pipe and a plurality of inside
cylinders above the air dispersion device. An
overall circulating stream and partial circulating
streams are generated in the aeration tank.
US4202763 High-efficient activated sludge method 1980-05-13
Waste water containing organic materials is
introduced into an aeration tank, and is subjected to
aeration treatment in the presence of activated
sludge, while supplying oxygen to the aeration
tank. The organic materials contained in the waste
water are oxidized by high-efficient activated
sludge at a high oxygen transfer rate of 5 to 80
mmol O.sub.2 /l.multidot.hr to the aeration tank.
US4201663 Method and apparatus for the enhanced 1980-05-06
treatment of food processing waste waters using
aerobic microorganisms
A method and apparatus for treating waste water,
containing large quantities of organic material, by
means of an aerobic bacteriological process which
uses a plastic film to support an air transport system
and a blanket of inexpensive biodegradable
material which provides the functions of heat
insulation, odor absorption/adsorption and
mechanical support for attached aerobic
microorganisms which act to decompose odorous
gases.
US4188289 Process for purification of sanitary waters 1980-02-12
A purification process for removal of suspended
solids, carbonaceous material, nitrogenous material,
phosphorus, refractory organics, bacteria and
viruses comprises of combining and carrying out
the various biochemical and chemical reactions and
separation of the suspended solids in a single
sludge system in a simplified process sequence
suitable for use in a single reaction tank.The
biooxidation, nitrification, denitrification and
chemical precipitation processes are carried out in
presence of mixed microbial population entrapped
into fluidized nonbiodegradable suspended solids
with portion of the fluidized suspended solids
circulating through three reaction zones having
varying concentration of disolved oxygen to
maintain environmental conditions to support
growth of the microbial population and
simultaneously to maintain operating conditions
required to carry out the involved reactions.The
fluidized suspended solids entrap the active
microorganisms, colloidal matter and suspended
solids present in the incoming waste water and/or
generated during purification of the waste water,
improve the settling properties of the resulting
sludge and enhance separation of suspended solids
from the purified waste water.The concentration of
the active microbial population in this purification
process is significantly higher than that achieved by
the prior art processes resulting in better
performance, more efficient removal of pollutants
and reduced treatment costs. The followed chemical
oxidation provides for removal of remaining
impurities and killing of bacteria and viruses.
US4186085 Suspension of powdered carbonaceous 1980-01-29
adsorbent in a hydrocarbon solvent and its use
in waste water treatment
A novel composition is formed by suspending a
carbonaceous adsorbent in a branched hydrocarbon
solvent. In addition, said powdered carbonaceous
adsorbent suspended in a hydrocarbon solvent,
preferably a branched hydrocarbon solvent, is an
effective adsorbent-extractant for removing both
soluble and insoluble organic materials from waste
water. Use of this suspension as an adsorbent
enables the use of a continuous adsorption process
having high capacity for removal of contaminants,
fast contaminant removal rates and high adsorbent
utilization while permitting easy staged contacting.
The spent suspension may then be regenerated by
vapor stripping or solvent extraction.
US4186058 Method and apparatus for high volume 1980-01-29
distillation of liquids
A method and closed system for high volume
distillation of impure liquids comprises evaporating
the impure liquid in an evaporator to form a vapor
at a temperature above the freezing point and below
the critical point, preferably the boiling point, of the
liquid at ambient pressure and at a pressure not
exceeding a pressure corresponding to the
evaporation temperature under saturated conditions;
compressing the vapor in compression means
which preferably has a compression ratio variable
in the range 1.2:1 to 250:1; operating the
compression means by direct drive from a
mechanical energy source or, preferably, by
drivingly linking the compresion means to an
auxiliary turbine and causing a gas flow, for
example by combusting fuel, through the auxiliary
turbine to motivate the auxiliary turbine and,
through the drive link, to drive the compression
means; cooling the vapor in a condenser means
disposed in heat transfer relation with the impure
liquid whereby the vapor at least partially
condenses, transferring heat to the impure liquid for
evaporating at least a portion thereof; and
collecting the condensed vapor. The system may
also include a coaxial expansion engine means
shaft linked to the compression means to receive
compressed vapor from the compression means and
to produce shaft energy for driving the compression
means as the vapor expands therethrough.
US4181604 Process and apparatus for waste water 1980-01-01
treatment
Waste water containing organic pollutants is
purified by biological treatment with aerobic
microorganisms supported on hollow fibers having
microporous walls through which oxygen is
supplied to the microorganisms.
US4179347 System for electrocatalytic treatment of waste 1979-12-18
water streams
A continuous system for disinfecting waste water
streams, such as sewage and streams containing
organic matter and removing suspended solids
therefrom is disclosed. A waste water stream is
passed into an electrolytic cell open to the
atmosphere and between a series of electrically
charged parallel electrode plates. A controlled
amount of electrolyte such as sodium chloride is
added to the waste water stream before it passes
through the electrolytic cell. During passage
between the electrode plates a foam is generated
which entrains suspended selected nutrient solids
contained in the waste water stream, the foam
removed by skimming and/or suction means. The
treated water discharged from the electrolytic cell is
filtered to remove additional non-nutrient
suspended solids not entrained with the foam. A
portion of the treated water from the electrolytic
cell is recycled and reinjected into the influent
stream. Control means are included to control
residual chlorine in the effluent discharged from the
electrolytic cell while maintaining high dissolved
oxygen in the effluent.
US4169050 Buoyant contact surfaces in waste treatment 1979-09-25
pond
A wastewater treatment and reclamation system
using natural ecological processes consisting of
ponds; greenhouse pond cover; pollution-
consuming, floating aquatic plants; high-surface-
area, submerged, activated bio-web substrates for
greatly increasing fixed bacterial film area and
activity; aeration co-functioning with the bio-web
substrate for accelerating bacterial metabolism
and/or solar heat transfer, mixing and aerating the
water body; and a polyculture of micro-
invertebrates, fish and shellfish providing a
balanced food chain for maximum removal and
bio-concentration of nutrients and organics from
the wastewater.
US4167479 Process for purifying waste waters 1979-09-11
A purification process for the removal of
biodegradable suspended and dissolved organic
solids, nitrogenous compounds and phosphates
from contaminated water by biological and
chemical reactions carried out simultaneously in
active media of a biological waste treatment
reaction system. The process comprises adding a
finely divided mineral or mixture of minerals to the
reaction system. Various levels of oxygen in the
system are maintained to provide for biological
oxidation of organic compounds and biological
nitrification of nitrogen containing compounds and
subsequent biological denitrification of the formed
nitrites and nitrates. The selection of the mineral is
such that through its dissociation in the system, the
released metal ions are capable of precipitating a
portion of ionic species, particularly phosphates
present in the processed waste water, at the
operating pH range of 6 to 8. The surfaces of the
mineral attract micro-organisms and suspended
solids to facilitate and enhance simultaneously
occuring biological and chemical reactions.
US4165289 System for the clarification of waste water and 1979-08-21
utilization of waste products
A solid and liquid waste disposal and treatment
plant, and a method for operating the plant is
described. Solid waste received in the plant is
incinerated in one or more rotary drums disposed in
a closed furnace chamber. The solid waste
incineration takes place under an oxygen deficiency
to liberate heat energy and generate a combustible
gas. A pyrolyzation or carbonization drum is also
disposed in the furnace chamber and heated with
the liberated heat energy. Organic matter, primarily
organic sewage sludge is placed into the
pyrolyzation drum and carbonized to produce coal.
The coal is placed into a two-stage coal filter for
the filtration of incoming sewage. The second stage
of the coal filter utilizes coal activated within the
plant for the removal of both particulate and
dissolved contaminants so that the effluent from the
filter comprises usable water. The combustible gas
is cracked in a cracking unit to form short chain
hydrocarbons and the gas is utilized in an internal
or external combustion engine, a furnace or
liquefied for subsequent use. Hot exhaust gases
generated in the furnace and in the combustion
engine are cooled by directing it through suitable
heat exchangers or over wet solid waste or wet,
sludge saturated filter coal to dry them while
cooling the exhaust gas and to further cleanse the
exhaust gas of pollutants for its discharge to the
atmosphere. Sludge saturated filter coal is
regenerated in the furnace by carbonizing organic
sludge adhering to the filter coal or it may be
incinerated with solid waste.
US4159944 Wastewater energy recycling method 1979-07-03
An auxiliary process and method for use in
wastewater treatment plants, modifying
conventional primary and secondary treatment, to
condition the effluent for use as agricultural
irrigation water containing liquified fertilizer and
soil amendment materials. Primary sludge and
skimmed materials are comminuted and added to
the volume of organic materials available for
secondary treatment. A bacterial inoculum is added
to accelerate the microbial reduction of
biodegradable materials into a biomass of cells. The
separated predominantly cellular secondary sludge
is processed to rupture the cellular structure thus
releasing the protoplasm to colloidal suspension.
Combined with the mainflow of secondary clarified
effluent, the resultant micro-particulate effluent is
thereby conditioned for effective chelation
treatment to remove heavy metal ions and for
effective disinfection with reduced requirements for
toxic reactants. The product is discharged as
agricultural irrigation water containing, in solution,
agricultural fertilizers as nitrogen, minerals,
carbonaceous compounds and oxygen, plus ligno-
cellulose soilbuilding materials. The heavy metals
may be separated and recycled as a by-product.
US4151077 Process for elimination of mercury from 1979-04-24
industrial waste waters by means of extraction
with solvents
The present invention relates to a process for
eliminating mercury from industrial waste waters
by means of extraction with solvents, which
includes its treatment with an oxidant agent to pass
the whole of the mercury to its state of valence
Hg.sup.++, its subsequent treatment by direct
contact with a reducer in order to eliminate the
excess oxidant which otherwise would degrade the
agent of extraction and with an organic solution
that contains the agent that extracts the mercury and
leaves it free from the latter for its evacuation into
the environment, and regeneration of the agent of
extraction by means of its treatment with an
aqueous solution of chloride ions, the mercury
being recovered in the form of an aqueous solution
of mercuric chloride, relatively concentrated.
US4141826 Treatment of acrylonitrile waste water with 1979-02-27
activated carbon
Waste water produced in an acrylonitrile plant and
containing significant amounts of acrylonitrile and
acrylic acid is processed so as to reduce its organics
content for disposal purposes and to recover the
acrylonitrile and acrylic acid contained therein. The
waste water is treated by contact with activated
carbon to adsorb the organics contained therein.
The activated carbon is periodicaly regenerated
with a desorbing liquid and the desorbate product is
distilled to yield acrylonitrile and acrylic acid.
Every fifth regeneration cycle, the activated carbon
is regenerated thermally rather than means of a
liquid in order to restore its activity to its original
value.
US4116713 Acid cleaner and process for disposal thereof 1978-09-26
A thickened acid cleaner concentrate composition
comprising an inorganic acid, e.g., hydrochloric, an
organic acid, e.g., oxalic, a nonionic surfactant, an
anionic surfactant, a flocculating agent such as iron
or aluminum ion and water is used to clean vehicles
such as railroad equipment. The waste water is then
treated by increasing its pH to cause flocculation
and separation to remove suspended solids and
entrained BOD prior to discharge or re-use within
the plant. The flocculating agent in the composition
provides a proportional pretreatment of the waste to
facilitate the final treatment and separation of waste
in the used composition.
US4113615 Method for obtaining substantially complete 1978-09-12
removal of phenols from waste water
The substantially complete removal from waste
water of phenols and other organic compounds that
dissociate in solution to produce organic anions and
hydrogen ions is obtained by contacting the waste
water with char derived from a carbonaceous
material whose ash contains a total of at least 15
weight percent calcium, magnesium, potassium and
sodium expressed as oxides on a moisture-free
basis while maintaining the pH of the resultant
slurry at a value such that the ratio of the highest
dissociation constant of the organic compounds
present to the hydrogen ion concentration of the
slurry is less than about 0.1. By adjusting the pH to
such a level, the phenols and other organic
compounds are maintained in their nonionized,
more adsorbable form which insures the
substantially complete adsorption of these
substances by the char.
US4104204 Photosensitization of oxygen to the singlet 1978-08-01
excited state using ion exchange resin to which is
attached a dye and photooxidative waste water
treatment
A composition and method for the oxidation of
organic contaminants in waste water by subjection
to heterogeneous photosensitized oxidation is
disclosed.
US4089780 Color removal process 1978-05-16
Color is removed from paper mill waste waters by
treatment with a cationic water soluble polyamine
having an average molecular weight of at least 300
at a pH of 2 to 5, preferably 2.5 to 3.5, followed by
precipitation with a water soluble anionic or non-
ionic organic polymer having an average molecular
weight of at least 10,000.
US4076615 Process and system for treating waste water 1978-02-28
A process of treating raw or primary waste water
using a powdered, activated carbon/aerated
biological treatment system is disclosed. Effluent
turbidities less than 2 JTU (Jackson turbidity units),
zero TOC (total organic carbon) and in the range of
10 mg/l COD (chemical oxygen demand) can be
obtained. An influent stream of raw or primary
waste water is contacted with an acidified,
powdered, activated carbon/alum mixture. Lime is
then added to the slurry to raise the pH to about 7.0.
A polyelectrolyte flocculant is added to the slurry
followed by a flocculation period -- then
sedimentation and filtration. The separated solids
(sludge) are aerated in a stabilization sludge basin
and a portion thereof recycled to an aerated contact
basin for mixing with the influent waste water
stream prior to or after contact of the influent
stream with the powdered, activated carbon/alum
mixture.
US4072678 Process for producing caprolactam 1978-02-07
Treatment of process waste waters to be discharged
from a lactam manufacturing plant by stepwise
concentration in two steps under suitable
conditions, extraction of lactam from the
concentrate with an organic solvent, oxidative
combustion of the extract residue and conversion of
sulfur dioxide formed into sulfuric acid can save
losses of lactams, organic solvents and sulfur
containing compounds to a considerable extent and
render the waste waters no longer harmful.
US4071449 Process for treatment of waste water exhausted 1978-01-31
from water-wash spray booth using water-
soluble paint
A process for treatment of waste water exhausted
from a water-wash spray booth using a water-
soluble paint which comprises adding an acidic
agent and an alkaline agent, which can form a salt
insoluble or hardly soluble in water as the result of
the interaction between them, to the waste water
while keeping its pH value in the range of about 6
to 9 so as to cause the water-soluble paint to be
deposited as a non-adhesive coagulation product
and eliminating the non-adhesive coagulation
product from the resultant waste water by a
conventional procedure for separation of solid and
liquid.
US4070281 Method for treating waste water 1978-01-24
In wet-oxidizing organic waste water containing
cyanogen i.e. inorganic-CN, or a compound
capable of forming cyanogen under oxidative
conditions, if the wet oxidation is conducted in the
presence of copper or a copper compound and a
specific ammonium salt, COD and the cyanogen
concentration can be reduced at highly improved
removal ratios. Copper ions resulting from the
copper component made present at the wet
oxidation step can be effectively removed by
precipitation or ion exchange. Accordingly, this
treatment method does not cause secondary
pollution at all. In case recovery of the copper ions
is performed by ion exchange, good results are
obtained when the oxidized liquid from the wet
oxidation step is flashed at a temperature higher
than 100 C. and the pH of the oxidized liquid is
adjusted to 4-7 after the cyanogen decomposition
step but before the ion exchange treatment. A
weakly acidic ion exchange resin is preferably
employed. When recovery of the copper ions is
performed by precipitation, good results are
obtained when sulfide type insolubilizing agents are
employed.
US4069148 Industrial waste water treatment process 1978-01-17
Industrial waste water, containing impurities which
poison or otherwise inhibit bacterial forms
employed in biological treatment of waste water, is
purified by a process which comprises subjecting
the waste water to a biological treatment process in
the presence of activated carbon or fuller's earth. A
gas containing molecular oxygen is distributed
within the liquid mixture during treatment to
provide oxidation means. Despite the presence of
the poisonous or inhibiting impurities, the process
efficiently reduces the biochemical oxygen
demand, chemical oxygen demand and total organic
content of the waste water in an unusually rapid
manner, and removes material not normally
removed by the biological treatment alone.
US4069147 Waste water treatment with oxygen 1978-01-17
The organic pollutants in a waste water stream can
be reduced 90-95% by providing oxygen to sludge
organisms for biological oxygenation of the
pollutants. The raw waste water and activated
organisms (sludge containing little or no pollutants)
are mixed in a vessel for less than 30 minutes. In
this vessel, the organisms absorb and adsorb 90-
95% of the organic pollutants present in the influent
raw waste water. Any means for gentle agitation
can be used in this vessel. The waste-enriched
organisms are separated from the supernatant liquid
in a clarifier and sent to an oxygenation vessel
where the organisms metabolize the waste by
treatment with an oxygen-containing gas having at
least 30% by volume oxygen. The thus-activated
organisms are returned to the mixed liquor vessel to
complete the cycle.
US4066538 Water purification by treating with activated 1978-01-03
carbon before biochemical treatment
Waste water having a high chemical oxygen
demand caused primarily by soluble organic matter
is treated with activated carbon and thereafter
passed to a biochemical treating operation.
US4058526 Treatment of waste water from the preparation 1977-11-15
of 6-substituted 3-mercapto-4-amino-1,2,4-
triazine-5-ones
A process for the treatment of waste water obtained
in the condensation of thiocarbohydrazide and an
aqueous solution of an -keto carboxylic acid such
as, e.g., 3,3-dimethyl-2-oxo-butyric acid, which
comprises mixing said waste water with a water-
immiscible ketone, preferably selected from the
group consisting of methyl isobutyl ketone,
cyclohexanone and pinacolone, said ketone being
employed in an amount sufficient to form two
phases, separating said two phases, and discharging
as waste the aqueous phase. Advantageously the pH
of the waste water is no higher than about 6 and its
temperature is 20 to 50 C. The organic phase
comprises the ketone containing dissolved therein
an adduct of the ketone with thiocarbohydrazide
and/or similar amino materials originally present in
waste water. The excess of the ketone may be
recovered from the organic phase by distillation, or
the organic phase may be treated with alkali to
effect hydrolysis of such adducts, the ketone
separated and recycled and the amino materials
recovered.
US4055517 Process for producing water-soluble organic 1977-10-25
macromolecules, and the water-soluble organic
macromolecules obtained
Water-soluble organic macromolecules having a
chemical structure juxtapositioned between
nonionic macromolecules and macromolecules with
polyelectrolyte structure are prepared by reacting
water-insoluble macromolecules carrying tertiary
substituted basic nitrogen atoms with a material
which will release oxygen. The macromolecules,
rendered water soluble through the presence of a
plurality of semi-polar linkages between nitrogen
and oxygen atoms, are useful as binders in water-
dilutable paint systems, surface-active wetting
agents, flocculating aids as, for example, in
treatment of waste water, and the like.
US4054524 Apparatus for purifying waste water containing 1977-10-18
organic contaminants
A cylindrical reaction chamber for purifying waste
water has a separating zone extending substantially
along its entire length and bounded transversely by
first and second downwardly converging partition
walls. The space in the vessel between the vessel
wall and the first and second walls form separate
waste water activation zones, in at least one of
which an aerating device is disposed. Such zones
are so configured that separate, oppositely directed
transverse swirls of the waste water are established
in the respective activating zones. A portion of the
agitated water, after suitable treatment by baffle
plates to remove the transverse swirling
component, is introduced into the bottom of the
separating zone for purification via fluid filtration.
A pair of guide channels extend obliquely
downwardly adjacent both ends of the separating
zone, thereby providing a longitudinal circulation
of waste water which promotes denitrification of
certain contaminants in the waste water in the
absence of aeration of the second activation zone.
US4053396 Control of aerobic biological growth in activated 1977-10-11
carbon waste water treatment
Organic contaminants are removed from waste
water streams by initially pretreating the stream to
remove suspended solids and oil therefrom and
thereafter passing the pretreated waste water
through bed(s) of activated carbon while adding a
controlled amount of oxygen to the bed(s) in an
amount ranging from about 0.05 to about 0.15
pound of oxygen consumed per pound of total COD
contaminants removed from the waste water by this
process. By following the method of the present
invention, the balance between the
aerobic/anaerobic biological oxidation of the
contaminants adsorbed on the activated carbon may
be controlled so as to suppress the evolution of
hydrogen sulfide from the bed while minimizing
the formation of aerobic biological sludge which
would plug the bed(s). This controlled biological
activity that occurs in the carbon adsorption system
provides for a substantial increase in the effective
organic contaminant removal capacity of the
activated carbon. It is preferred that the oxygen is
dissolved in the waste water stream prior to contact
with the bed(s) of activated carbon.
US4043904 Waste water treatment method 1977-08-23
A waste water treatment method for treating waste
waters containing a surface active agent comprising
a condensate obtained by condensing, with
formaldehyde, a sulfonated organic compound such
as an aromatic compound, a fused benzene ring
compound or a hetero compound, in which a
flocculation treatment is combined with an active
carbon treatment.
US4042494 Pressure pipe treatment for sewage 1977-08-16
A sewage treatment simultaneously treats raw
sewage and transports the effluent to a location
where the treated effluent can be economically
reused. The system converts raw sewage to primary
effluent, and the solids in the primary effluent are
transported to an aerobic sludge activator which
converts the solids to activated sludge. The
remaining primary effluent is mixed with the
activated sludge and pumped up a pressure pipe
treatment line which is preferably an upwardly
inclined conduit at least 1000 feet long. Air or
oxygen is injected into the treatment line
downstream of the pump so that oxygen is
dissolved at a relatively high pressure and in a
sufficient amount to meet the biological oxygen
demand (BOD) of the organic matter in the sewage.
By the time the sewage reaches the outlet end of the
line it contains substantially completely treated
water and activated sludge.Trunk sewers collect
raw sewage and transport it by gravity to a
headworks facility. Some of the waste water in the
raw sewage is intercepted in the trunk sewer
system, and is pumped into the pressure pipe
treatment line. The remaining portion of the solids
and waste water in the trunk sewer system are sent
to the headworks. This reduces considerably the
required hydraulic capacity of the trunk sewers, the
primary treatment facility, and the pressure pipe
treatment line, and eliminates almost completely
the conventional secondary treatment facility.
Activated sludge is removed from the pressure pipe
treatment line and returned through the trunk
sewers to the downstream sewage treatment facility
to insure an adequate supply of activated sludge for
continued treatment and for meeting the varying
conditions in the raw sewage.After substantial
reduction of the sewage BOD, the treated sewage
or effluent is maintained under anaerobic
conditions to encourage bacteria to denitrify the
effluent.
US4033763 Process for recovery of selected metal values 1977-07-05
from waste waters
A process for economically recovering metal
values, especially precious metal values, from
waste waters comprising a mixture of natural
surface water, industrial waste water and organic
waste, where the metal values appear in
concentrations below levels previously
commercially of interest, including the steps of
concentrating the metal values of the waste waters
by bacterial treatment thereof to imbibe and capture
the metal values from the waters and immobilize
them in a sludge, coagulating and separating the
sludge from the water, de-watering the sludge and
burning off the organic matter, and recovering
selected metal values by inorganic metal-winning
process steps.
US4032466 Acid cleaner and process for disposal thereof 1977-06-28
A thickened acid cleaner concentrate composition
comprising an inorganic acid, e.g., hydrochloric, an
organic acid, e.g., oxalic, a nonionic surfactant, an
anionic surfactant, a flocculating agent such as iron
or aluminum ion and water is useful in cleaning
vehicles such as railroad equipment. The waste
water is then treated by flocculation and separation
to remove suspended solids and entrained BOD
prior to discharge or re-use within the plant. The
flocculating agent in the composition provides a
proportional pretreatment of the waste to facilitate
the final treatment and separation of waste in the
used composition.
US4025423 Process for removing monohydric and 1977-05-24
polyhydric phenols from waste water
Monohydric and polyhydric phenols are removed
from waste water together with hydrogen sulfide,
free and combined ammonia, by extraction and
distillation. The waste water is formed during the
degasification or gasification of coal and is
subsequently subjected to biological
purification.The steps of the process are as follows:

1. Removing a major portion of the


monohydric phenol, part of the polyhydric
phenol and any free fatty acids present in
the waste water by extraction with a small
amount of a non-saponifying organic
solvent having a boiling point below 100
C;

2. separating the phenols from the extract by


distillation;

3. Removing a major portion of the


polyhydric phenols, the remaining
monohydric phenols and any free acids by a
single or repeated extraction with a large
amount of the same organic solvent from
the refine phase from step (1).

4. Transforming the phenols in the extract


from step (3) to their salts by treatment with
an aqueous alkaline solution, washing the
salts out and separating the mixture into an
organic phase and an aqueous phase;

5. Recycling the solvent-containing organic


phase from step (4) to step (3);

6. Recovering the free phenols from the


aqueous phase from step (4) using surplus
carbon dioxide; and

7. Separating the free phenols by decanting


and/or extraction with the organic solvent or
the sump product from step (2).

US4019982 Method for treatment of waste water containing 1977-04-26


organic pollutants
An aqueous solution containing aluminum is mixed
with an aqueous solution containing calcium and/or
an aqueous solution containing magnesium and, if
necessary, further with an aqueous solution
containing iron and the pH of the resulting mixture
is adjusted to cause insolubilization of the metallic
elements present therein and consequently gives
rise to a coprecipitation product. This
coprecipitation product is dehydrated and dried
and, as an adsorbent, brought into contact with
waste water containing organic pollutants. The
adsorbent adsorbs and removes said organic
pollutants from said waste water.
US4019952 Method of purifying the waste water of paper 1977-04-26
mills
Granular -alumina in contact with the waste water
of paper mills contaminated with oxygen-
demanding, organic substances adsorbs the
contaminants, particularly ligninsulfonic acids, and
lowers the oxygen demand of the waste water much
more effectively than activated charcoal, thereby
permitting the purified waste to be fed directly to a
secondary biological treatment without damaging
the microorganisms.
US4013552 Sewage treatment process 1977-03-22
Ultrasonic energy is transmitted to sewage,
including, inter alia, liquid or waste water, organic
solid matter and aerobic bacteria, to reduce the
liquid particle size and enrobe the reduced water
particles with air to enhance the air to liquid
absorption of the liquid and thereby provide (a) the
aerobic bacteria with additional oxygen to utilize in
the process of oxidation whereby the aerobic
bacteria convert the organic solid matter to a more
stable form or compound; (b) the effluent of
sewage treatment plants with a higher oxygen
content sufficient to aid or sustain desirable aquatic
life. In a further embodiment, the liquid is first
coverted to a thin film and then subjected to
ultrasonic energy. In a still further embodiment, the
sewage is first preheated to enhance the aerobic
organism or bacteria activity.In a still further
embodiment the air is preheated and/or hydrated to
diminish heat loss and thus a temperature drop, by
the liquid.Additionally, the synergistic effects of
ultrasonic energy and ultraviolet energy are utilized
to sensitize microorganisms which may then be
easily destroyed by chemicals, and/or radiati on
and/or other means.Still further, the synergistic
effects of ultrasonic and microwave energy are
utilized to decontaminate the surface of sewage
liquid and solids, the ultrasonic energy is utilized to
produce a humid atmosphere and the microwave
energy provides surface decontamination.
US4011156 Method for eliminating organic and inorganic 1977-03-08
bound nitrogen from domestic and industrial
waste water
A method of eliminating organic and inorganic
bound nitrogen from domestic and industrial waste
water in a biological waste water treatment plant
consisting of two in series connected stages each
containing an aeration tank and a subsequently
connected settling basin. Waste water entering the
treatment plant will be aerated in the first stage
aeration tank and subsequently will be introduced
for settling into the settling basin, where the
overflow is removed free of oxygen and introduced
into the second stage where it will be again aerated
and subsequently introduced into the settling basin
of the second stage. According to the invention
there are carried out the steps of aerating the waste
water which is free of oxygen containing ammonia
and removing it from the settling basin of the first
stage to the aeration tank of the second stage while
providing favorable conditions for as extensive as
possible nitrification of the ammonia, continuously
recirculating a portion of the waste water nitrified
in this manner from the settling basin of the second
stage to the first stage, and denitrifying such
recirculated portion of the waste water in the
settling basin of the first stage where there are
provided favorable conditions for the
ammonification of the organic bound nitrogen and
for the denitrification of the nitrate in the influent
and the nitrate in the recirculated effluents.
US4009105 Waste treatment apparatus 1977-02-22
Process and apparatus for removing organic carbon
from waste water to reduce biochemical oxygen
demand by generating a fluidized bed formed from
biota attached to a solid particulate carrier and
waste water, providing enough oxygen to allow the
biota to reduce the biochemical oxygen demand of
the waste water passing therethrough and then
mechanically removing excess bacterial growth
formed on the carrier during the process.
US4009098 Waste treatment process 1977-02-22
Process for removing organic carbon from waste
water to reduce biochemical oxygen demand by
generating a fluidized bed formed from biota
attached to a solid particulate carrier and waste
water, providing enough oxygen to allow the biota
to reduce the biochemical oxygen demand of the
waste water passing therethrough and then
mechanically removing excess bacterial growth
formed on the carrier during the process.
US4008159 Renovation of waste water 1977-02-15
A waste water treatment system for the renovation
of waste water includes a four stage treatment for
removal of gross solids, suspended, colloidal and
dissolved organic matter, dissolved nitrogenous
material, phosphates odor, color, coliform and
residual solids.
US4008136 Process for the treatment of waste water by 1977-02-15
heterogeneous photosensitized oxidation
A composition and method for the oxidation of
organic contaminants in waste water by subjection
to heterogeneous photosensitized oxidation is
disclosed.
US4000069 Method for purifying waste waters which 1976-12-28
contain anionic-type organic compounds
In waste-water-treatment, the improvement
consisting in causing the precipitation of anionic
pollutants by adding to the sewage an aqueous
solution of a bis-triarylphosphonium salt. A number
of different chemical formulas for such salts are
disclosed. It becomes possible to recover dyestuffs
from dyeing baths in the textile industries, while
solving a severe pollution-preventing problem.
US3998731 Method of purifying the waste water of paper 1976-12-21
mills
The biochemical oxygen demand of waste water
from paper mills containing nin and other
colloidally dispersed organic contaminants is
sharply reduced by adsorption of the contaminants
from the acidified waste water by granular alumina.
The treatment is most effective at pH 2.5 and when
the waste water is acidified with hydrochloric acid.
US3994803 Apparatus and method for denitrification of 1976-11-30
waste water
Apparatus and method for periodic backwashing
and inoculating with anaerobic denitrifying bacteria
a columnar filter bed in a waste water treatment
system. A minor portion of backwash water
containing a substantial quantity of denitrifying
bacteria is retained for return to the filter bed media
by gravity flow after completion of the backwash
cycle. The apparatus and method have particular
utility in an activated sludge sewage treatment
system the effluent from which contains nitrates
(converted from organic nitrogen and ammonia)
and suspended solids which are removed in a filter
bed comprising several discrete layers of filter sand
of different particle sizes supported on coarse
gravel.
US3972693 Process for the treatment of phenol-containing 1976-08-03
waste water from coal degassing or gasification
processes
Dissolved organic compounds in waste water
resulting from coal degassing or gasification
processes are removed by extraction with a solvent
which is substantially water-immiscible, the solvent
residues in the waste water are removed by inert
gas scrubbing, and CO.sub.2, H.sub.2 S and
NH.sub.3 in the waste water are removed by
heating and steam contacting. NH.sub.3 is
effectively removed in a steam gas/liquid
contacting column by feeding the condensed head
product of the column back to the top portion
thereof, withdrawing a portion of the condensate
from the column at a level intermediate the top and
bottom portions of the column, treating the
condensate in admixture with waste water
containing CO.sub.2, H.sub.2 S and NH.sub.3 in a
deacidification gas/liquid contacting column, and
feeding the sump product of the deacidification
column to the first column at a region below the
region at which the condensate is withdrawn but
intermediate the top and bottom portions of the
NH.sub.3 -removal column.
US3971639 Fluid bed coal gasification 1976-07-27
A process and apparatus for gasifying coal to
produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen in which a
first stream of coal is burned without bed formation
in a combustion zone in the presence of water
under oxidation conditions to produce gases
containing carbon dioxide and steam. A second
stream of coal is maintained as a fluid bed in a
separate gasifier zone by upflowing carbon dioxide
and steam from the combustion zone while being
gasified under reducing conditions to produce
carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Char produced in
the fluid bed is elutriated overhead and material in
the fluid bed is prevented from direct entry into the
combustion zone. The ratio of carbonaceous
material to ash in the char removed overhead is
lower than the average ratio of carbonaceous
material to ash in the solids in the fluid bed.
This invention relates to a process for gasifying
coal, coke, or other carbonaceous solids to produce
a gaseous mixture which, after removal of carbon
dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, is composed mainly
of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The gaseous
product may be utilized as a moderate Btu-content
fuel; as a reducing gas for metallurgical and
chemical purposes; and as an intermediate for
conversion to hydrogen for use in chemical
processes, in petroleum refineries, in coal
conversion plants for manufacture of coal liquids or
high Btu-content gas.
In accordance with the present invention, coal is
converted to carbon monoxide and hydrogen by a
process which exhibits a minimum potential for
polluting. Essentially no water effluent is produced.
Water makeup for use within the process as steam
for gasification or as wash water may include
polluted, solids-containing water from other
processes. As a result, process requirements for
fresh water are greatly reduced, and conventional
requirements for purification and discharge of
process waste water are similarly reduced.
Ash, entering as part of the coal feed, is removed
from the process in the oxidized form as solidified
slag, suitable for landfill or for additional
processing to recover valuable minerals.
Noncombustible solids introduced in water makeup
from other processes or in raw water are also
removed as part of the oxidized, solidified slag.
Essentially no ash or other solids is rejected to the
atmosphere.[continued...]
US3966594 Treatment of aqueous waste solution 1976-06-29
Organic waste water containing water-soluble
organic anionic substances is treated by

1. contacting an acidic waste water with a


water-insoluble organic solvent solution of
at least one amine represented by the
formula, [Figure] wherein R.sub.1 and
R.sub. 2 are each a hydrogen or halogen
atom or a C.sub.1 - C.sub.4 alkyl group, and
R is a C.sub.8 - C.sub.18 alkyl or alkenyl
group,

2. separating the aqueous layer from the


organic layer, and

3. contacting said organic layer with an


aqueous alkali solution whereby said
substances are transferred to said aqueous
alkali layer and said amine is recovered as
the organic solution thereof.
US3940334 Method for separating oil from water 1976-02-24
A method for separating oil from water, wherein, in
order to simplify the treatment processes, to
improve separation efficiency, and to make possible
the recycling of added solvents, in the course of
separation treatment of oil from waste water
containing fats and oils, paraffinic hydrocarbons of
low specific gravities, as extractive solvents for fats
and oils, and inorganic or organic coagulants are
added to the waste water; the mixture is then stirred
and allowed to stand; the oil-containing scum
separating as an upper layer is then removed so as
to separate the oil from water, and furthermore, the
solvent previously added is recovered from the oil-
containing scum so removed by means of
distillation.
US3931003 Ion exchanger for the treatment of waste water 1976-01-06
An ion-exchanger material consisting of a cellulose
ion-exchanger impregnated with -manganese
dioxide.A method for the treatment of waste water
to remove dissolved high molecular organic
compounds, ammonium and phosphate ions
therefrom, comprising a pretreatment of said waste
water with a chemical selected from the group
consisting of precipitating agents and flocculating
agents and subsequently passing the pretreated
water through a bed consisting of a cellulose ion-
exchanger impregnated with -manganese dioxide.
US3904518 Waste water treatment process 1975-09-09
Waste water is purified by a process which
comprises subjecting the waste water to a
biological treatment process in the presence of
activated carbon or fuller's earth. A gas containing
molecular oxygen is distributed within the liquid
mixture during treatment to provide oxidation
means. The process efficiently reduces the
biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen
demand and total organic content of the waste
water in an unusually rapid manner, and removes
material not normally removed by the biological
treatment alone.
US3891496 Method of heat exchange and evaporation 1975-06-24
The invention provides an evaporation process and
apparatus for an aqueous solution containing
dissolved solids, such as mineral salts, without
adherence of the solids to any surface contacting
the aqueous solution. Heated immiscible oil is used
as the heat transfer liquid which makes liquid/liquid
contact with the solution, preferably in the form of
a highly dispersed mixture of the solution and oil
from a cooler part of the system in a mixing
chamber whereby the solution droplets are
vaporized by intimate contact with the hot oil. The
mixture of hot oil and aqueous solution is fed from
the mixing chamber into an evaporation chamber
wherein all or a portion of remaining aqueous
solution is converted to vapor by cascading
downward over baffles, and the solids and liquid
components of the mixture are separated into strata
in the lower portion of the evaporating chamber.
The oil stratum is continuously withdrawn, most of
it being re-cycled to the heating and evaporation
zones. The aqueous solution stratum is
continuously withdrawn and re-cycled to the
original evaporation step or on to a second stage
evaporation step if so desired. The solids slurry is
removed separately for separation of solids from
liquids in a suitable solids-liquid separator.
Apparatus surfaces exposed to the aqueous solution
including particularly the mixing chamber, the
heating elements in the oil heating chamber, and the
evaporation chamber and parts therein are coated
with a material which is preferentially oil wettable
and zero water adsorbent. The immiscible oil
circulating through the mixing chamber and
evaporation chamber wets the surfaces therein,
preventing adherence of solids and acting as a
flushing agent to prevent sedimentation of solids
thereon.All contacting apparatus surface is exposed
to the aqueous solution should be smooth and free
from sharp edges and should, preferably, be
preferentially oil wettable. Multiple stage
evaporators (details not shown) utilizing the
methods herein disclosed may be used in order to
conserve heat and selectively separate mineral
components where feasible.[continued...]
US3867284 Water treatment with nitrogen dioxide 1975-02-18
Water is treated to reduce or eliminate the tendency
of waste waters to pollute the waterways into which
they are discharged, to purify drinking water
supplies, to control taste and odor, and to disinfect
it, by dissolving therein a small but effective
amount of NO.sub.2 base on the weight of solids
suspended in the water.
US3864312 Process for Producing a Cationic Carbamoyl 1975-02-04
Polymer Prepared by Aminoalkylation of
Carbamoyl Polymer in Mixture of Water and
Water-Miscible Organic Solvent
A powdered cationic carbamoyl polymer, useful as
a flocculant for the treatment of organic slurried
waste waters, is prepared by the aminoalkylation of
a carbamoyl polymer in a mixture of water and an
organic solvent which is miscible with water and
not capable of dissolving the carbamoyl polymer.
US3788476 SEWAGE TREATMENT SYSTEM 1974-01-29
A system is described for removing pollutants of
waste waters, including domestic and other sewage,
by simultaneous oxidation of organic wastes, both
soluble and insoluble, and by sedimentation of
insoluble particles causing turbidity. This is
essentially a conventional solids-liquid contactor
clarifier with some additions to provide means for:
(a) addition of air or purer oxygen to sewage
waters; (b) pressurizing the sewage water up to 10
atmospheres to increase solubility and
concentration of oxygen-hence velocity of chemical
and/or aerobic reaction; (c) withdrawing and
depressurizing the sewage water to atmospheric
pressure to allow most of dissolved gases to be
released and to be discharged because of lower
solubility for gases at atmospheric pressure; (d)
recycling the sewage water for from 2 to 50 times
through this pressurizing-depressurizing cycle; and,
when used aboard ship, (e) means for installation in
the ship's hold to minimize effects of the ship's
movements on the sedimentation operation. It is
particularly useful for smaller installations, for use
on ships, and other places where waste from not
more than several thousand people is to be handled.
It also may be used as a sedimentation system alone
wherein insoluble solids are settled out to give a
clear effluent. The sludge solids produced in an
earlier sedimentation, either with or without
oxidation, may be oxidized and sedimented in a
separate step in the equipment.
US3775048 PROCESS FOR THE CONTINUOUS DYEING 1973-11-27
OF POLYESTER FIBERS WITH
ANTHRAQUINONE DYESTUFFS
Process for the continuous dyeing of synthetic fibre
materials from organic solvents wherein the fiber
materials are impregnated with solutions of
anthraquinone dyestuffs of the formula [Figure]In
which A, B and B.sub.1 have the meaning given
below, in organic water-immiscible solvents and are
subsequently subjected to a heat treatment. There
are obtained without originating waste waters,
dyeings with excellent fastness properties and high
dyestuff yields.
US3755156 METHOD FOR BIOCHEMICAL 1973-08-28
TREATMENT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE
WATER
A method for biochemical treatment of industrial
waste water containing combined oxygen in the
form of inorganic compounds of hexavalent
chromium, chlorine or mixtures of said compounds,
in which said industrial waste water is mixed with
municipal sewage containing organic matter and in
which said municipal sewage is subject to
mechanical purification from contaminants present
therein. The mixed water is thereafter fed to an
unaerated tank, wherein biochemical reduction of
said inorganic oxygen-containing compounds
through the use of activated sludge as well as
biochemical oxidation of organic matter are
effected simultaneously. Biochemical reduction of
inorganic oxygen-containing compounds having
been effected, the mixed water together with the
activated sludge is delivered from the unaerated
tank to a settler and the precipitated sludge adapted
to said inorganic oxygen-containing compounds is
returned to said unaerated tank. The herein-
disclosed method provides for treatment of
industrial waste water featuring higher
concentration of inorganic oxygen-containing
compounds of chromium and chlorine as well as for
a more intensified process of reduction of said
compounds.
US3754858 PROCESS FOR CONTINUOUS DYEING 1973-08-28
POLYESTER FIBER MATERIAL WITH
ANTHRAQUINONE DYESTUFF
Process for the continuous dyeing of synthetic fibre
materials from organic solvents wherein the fibre
materials are impregnated with dye liquors
containing anthraquinone dyestuffs of the formula
[Figure]In which X, Y and n have the meaning
given in the description below and are subsequently
subjected to a heat treatment. There are obtained
without originating waste waters dyeings which are
characterised by excellent fastness properties.
US3725236 ELECTROCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND 1973-04-03
APPARATUS
A non-biological method of exhaustive
electrochemical oxidation utilizing an apparatus for
forming oxygen in an aqueous sample through
exhaustive electrolysis by a current flow between a
pair of electrodes to oxidize the organic material in
the sample in combination with an electrochemical
oxidation of the organic material at an electrode
immersed in the sample. The separate products of
the electrolysis at the respective electrodes are
collected, and the partial pressures thereof are
measured by a differential pressure measuring
means to provide an indication of the oxygen
demand when correlated with an electrolysis of a
reference fluid sample.
Subject matter which may be shown but not
claimed herein is shown and claimed in the patent
application of John P. Cummings, Ser. No. 58,448,
filed on July 27, 1970 and assigned to the same
assignee as the present invention and in the patent
application of John P. Cummings and Richard E.
Berg, Ser. No. 58,254, filed on July 27, 1970 and
assigned to the same assignee as the present
invention.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The oxygen demand of a water system is the


most important water quality parameter currently
used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment of
sanitary and other industrial plant effluents. A
detailed discussion of this subject matter can be
found in the book entitled "Standard Methods for
the Examination of Water and Waste Water" by the
American Public Health Assoc., 11th edition, New
York, 1960. The oxygen demand or the amount of
dissolved oxygen required for stabilization of
dissolved organic material, has been historically
measured by means of the so-called 5-day
biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) test. In
essence, the test measures the oxygen consumed by
bacteria during their normal metabolic processes on
dissolved and biologically unstabilized organic
matter. Normally, 20 days are required for complete
stabilization, but this incubation period has been
shortened to 5 days in the BOD test which is the
minimum incubation period necessary for
reproducible results to be obtained.[continued...]
US3706646 METHOD FOR REMOVING SOLIDS BUILD- 1972-12-19
UP FROM CATHODES OF ELECTROLYTIC
CELL
Apparatus and method for removing solids which
build up on the cathode of an electrolytic cell,
particularly an electrolytic cell used in the
treatment of waste water such as sewage or
industrial wastes. The cell preferably comprises a
metallic hollow tube which may form the cathode,
and a lead dioxide-coated anode disposed within,
but electrically insulated from, the encircling
cathode. The electrolyte flows through the cell in
the space between the anode and encircling
cathode. In the electrolytic treatment of organic and
inorganic waste materials, various chemical
deposits, particularly including calcium and
magnesium salts of orthophosphate and carbonate
as well as calcium and magnesium hydroxide tend
to become deposited on the cathode surface and
soon prevent proper cell operation. Such deposits
are removed periodically by injecting pressurized
air into the cell at preselected time intervals. During
periods of air injection, a predetermined minimum
amount of air is injected dependent upon the rate of
liquid flow through the cell.
US3640686 WASTE WATER PURIFICATION 1972-02-08
A process for purifying an aqueous stream
contaminated with organic sulfonate salts having a
carbon number of at least four and for producing
purified oil and H.sub.2 S which process comprises
contacting the aqueous stream with an acid to
convert the organic sulfonate salt to an organic
sulfonic acid, extracting the organic sulfonic acid
from the aqueous stream by contacting the aqueous
stream with a C.sub.6 + hydrocarbon to obtain a
contaminated C.sub.6 + hydrocarbon stream
containing the organic sulfonic acid, and
hydrofining the contaminated C.sub.6 + stream by
contacting the stream, at a temperature between
450 and 900 F. and in the presence of added
hydrogen gas, with a hydrofining catalyst. The
process can also be applied to aqueous streams
containing naphthenate salts.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to the purification


of contaminated water. More particularly, the
present invention relates to the purification of water
streams contaminated with sulfonate compounds.
Hydrocarbon oils, such as for example those
obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum,
often are contaminated with impurities which are
susceptible of removal by sulfuric acid. Such
impurities include sulfur bodies, nitrogenous
bodies, unsaturated compounds, etc. These
impurities are readily removed or reduced by
treatment with sulfuric acid. When the sulfuric acid
treatment is completed and the sulfuric acid is
separated from the treated oil by any suitable means
(such as by gravity, centrifugation, electrostatic
treatment, etc.), the sulfuric acid treated
hydrocarbon is then treated with caustic to remove
sulfuric acid and other residual acid bodies
remaining in the hydrocarbon. After the caustic
phase is separated from the hydrocarbon by any
suitable means (gravity, centrifugation,
electrostatics, etc.) the hydrocarbon is water
washed to remove caustic and other residual water
soluble impurities present in the oil. The water
obtained upon separating the oil and the water is
contaminated with organic sulfonate salts which
may be represented as RSO.sub.3 Na. The R group
of the organic sulfonate salt can be any of a wide
range of hydrocarbonaceous compounds including
naphthenes, alkyl groups and aromatic groups.
[continued...]
US3637488 REMOVAL OF INORGANIC SPECIES BY 1972-01-25
LIQUID MEMBRANE
Inorganic species are removed from liquid streams
such as waste water streams by treatment with an
emulsion of reagent-containing aqueous droplets
suspended in an organic liquid containing
surfactant which forms a membrane around said
aqueous droplets. The inorganic species, such as
phosphates in waste water will permeate the
membrane; the reagent within the droplet is such
that it will react with the permeating inorganic
species to form a new compound which will
precipitate and remain within the droplets. The
emulsion is then removed from the system.
US3635817 WASTE WATER TREATMENT PROCESS 1972-01-18
Waste water from industrial and municipal sources
is treated in a hydrolysis treatment sequence
wherein large soluble organic molecules such as
proteins and polysaccharides in the waste water are
broken down into small molecules such as amino
acids and mono and disaccharides which are more
readily adsorbed by activated carbon or other
adsorbents. Additional treatment processes may be
employed at various stages of the hydrolysis
treatment sequence.
US3617546 REMOVAL OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY 1971-11-02
LIQUID MEMBRANE
Organic compounds are removed from waste water
streams by treatment with an emulsion of aqueous
droplets containing a reagent coated by an organic
liquid membrane containing surfactants through
which the organic compounds in waste water will
permeate and react in the aqueous droplets to form
new chemical compounds and from which they can
be recovered eventually by flashing off or emulsion
breakup. The formation of new chemical
compounds in the aqueous droplets prevents the
organic compounds from permeating out of the
emulsion. In a preferred embodiment of the
invention phenol is removed from waste water
streams.
US3607736 METHOD OF TREATING ORGANIC WASTE 1971-09-21
WATER
A method of treating organic waste water which
comprises the steps of bringing activated sludge
consisting mainly of denitrifying bacteria into
contact with organic waste water in the presence of
nitrate ions or nitrite ions, keeping said waste water
in an anaerobic state and destroying the
decomposable organic matters contained in the
waste water by virtue of the nitrate respiration of
said denitrifying sludge.
US3607735 SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF 1971-09-21
SECONDARY SEWAGE
Sewage effluent from a primary treatment plant is
initially pumped to a vacuum deaerator for removal
of dissolved air and hence nitrogen, from the
effluent stream. This stream, deaerated as required,
is joined with a stream of recycled activated sludge
and a stream of pure oxygen in quantity sufficient
to meet the "biological oxygen demand" (BOD) of
the combined effluent and recycled activated
sludge. The confluence is pumped through an
underground pipeline reactor having a static mixer
for enhancing contact between the oxygen, aerobic
bacteria and organic pollutants. The reactor stream
BOD is progressively reduced to the required level
at the reactor outlet. A downstream clarifier
separates the reactor activated sludge from treated
waste water and separated sludge in part is returned
for recycling to the inlet of the reactor. The clear
waste effluent from the clarifier is sent to tertiary
treatment units or to receiving waters.
US3595393 WASTE WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM 1971-07-27
A waste water treatment system is disclosed
wherein water to be treated is processed to remove
turbidity, solids, organics, surfactants, colloidal
suspensions, detergents, etc. An upflow clarifier is
partially surrounded by a filter chamber, an
adsorption chamber, and a storage chamber. The
water to be treated is mixed with a dry coagulant
which forms a floc blanket in the upflow clarifier.
Detection means are provided to limit the upper
limit of the floc blanket and partially withdraw the
contents of the clarifier when the floc blanket rises
above a predetermined level.
US3552570 LIQUID TREATING APPARATUS 1971-01-05
An apparatus for the biological treatment of dilute
aqueous streams containing dissolved organic
substances, or for other chemical or biochemical
treatment of waste water or other liquids, wherein
means are provided for controlling the process
reaction rate of the liquid as it flows through the
apparatus.
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