Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 19

API 2006 Storage Tank Conference

Tulsa, Oklahoma

Preparing Tanks for Hurricanes

Presented By:
Ray Penny

Prepared By:
Steven L. Braune, PE
Tank Industry Consultants, Inc.

You own a bunch of tanks


and there is a big storm coming

Katrina at Landfall August 29, 2005

1
Now what?

API Standard 650 has provisions


for addressing some of the storm
related issues that affect storage
tanks.

Storage Tanks Vulnerabilities

Wind Issues
Shell Buckling
Tank Overturning
Roof Damage
Flooding Issues
Floating Off of Foundation
Shell Buckling

2
Wind Loads on Tanks

API Standard 650 has specific


requirements for shell buckling
and tank overturning

There are no requirements in the


current Standard that address roof
damage

Shell Buckling

In general, new tanks are designed to


resist wind speeds of 100 mph

In the absence of an owner-specified


wind speed, manufacturer may select
shell thicknesses only for liquid loads
and then report the permissible wind
speed to the purchaser

3
API-650 Shell Stability

Tank is most vulnerable when empty

API procedures originated in early 1960s

Methods based on uniform vacuum


analogy using the maximum wind
pressures on shell

Shell Buckling During


Construction

4
Shell Buckling When Empty

Shell Buckling After Loss of


Roof

5
No shell Buckling after loss of roof

Tornado Damage

6
Buckling on Windward Side

Wind Storage
Tank

Empty Tank Shell Stability

H1 Check permissible
H
unstiffened shell height,
H1

Diameter, D 3
t
H1 = 600,000(t )
D

7
My Tank Engineer says
Tanks constructed to API-12C are
generally resistant to wind buckling for
wind speeds in the range of 95 to 120 mph

Resistance to wind buckling varies for


tanks constructed to API-650. The typical
wind speeds are in the range of 80 to 105
mph

Tank diameters up to 260and shell


heights to 48

What if shell is not stable for the


expected wind speed?
Hope for the best (we can do better than that)

Fill tank with product, if possible

Partially fill tank

8
Add Product to Tank to Reduce
Risk of Shell Buckling

H1

Your Tank Engineer can


determine a recommended
product depth using API-650
principles

Wind Overturning

Primarily a problem for small diameter


tanks that are empty

Doesnt happen often, but should be


considered

API-650 has simplified procedures to


verify

9
Wind Overturning Loads

Overturning
Moment, M
Per API-650

W M max = WD/2
(Tank Empty)

Knocked Over Tanks

Tank Industry Consultants

10
Toppling of Small Diameter Tanks
Tank Toppling Speed
(40 ft High Tank)

200
Wind Velocity

150
(mph)

100

50

0
0 10 20 30 40 50
Tank Diameter (ft)
Tank Industry Consultants

Add Product to Tank to


Prevent Overturning of
Unanchored Tanks

Your Tank Engineer can


determine a recommended
product depth

11
Fixed Roof Damage
Roof uplift pressure
will occasionally
damage tanks

Roof -to-shell joint


may tear and peel
away roof plate
Wind
Roof structure may be
dislodged by
distortion of shell

Peeling Off of Roof Plate

12
Plate Pulled Off Tank Roof

Floating Roof Damage


Roof uplift pressure and
wind forces may cause
ponded water to shifton
a floating roof.

Unsymmetrical load may


lead to roof structural
failure
Wind
Water may shift away
from location of roof
drains overloads with
water may result

13
Floating Roof Damage

Rolling Ladder Damage

14
Tank Flotation

Tanks are most vulnerable to floatation


when empty
Minimal flood depth required to float a
tank off of its foundation
Wind may displace a floating tank
laterally

Dike Flooding
Flood depths of less than
two feet will float most large
diameter storage tanks when
they are empty

15
AST Displaced by Flooding

ASTs Displaced by Flooding

16
ASTs Displaced by Flooding

Avoid Tank Flotation


Your Tank Engineer can
determine a recommended
product depth

17
Avoid Tank Flotation
If tank is empty and clean,
leave the shell manholes open

Shell Buckling Due to Dike


Flooding
Water pressure may cause
collapse of the shell, if it is
empty and anchored

Your Tank Engineer can


determine a recommended
product depth

18
Summary
Design for the expected conditions (primarily
wind)
Maintain your tanks
A well maintained tank will fair better than a
ragged tank.
Add liquid to prevent flotation, overturning,
wind buckling, & shell buckling from external
pressure (rising water)
A full tank will fair better than an empty tank.

QUESTIONS?
Steven L. Braune, P.E.
804-897-7176 office
804-897-7178 fax
804-307-5609 mobile
Braune@TankIndustry.com

19

Centres d'intérêt liés