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# Clarke Transform - Open Electrical https://wiki.openelectrical.org/index.php?

title=Clarke_Transform

## From Open Electrical

The Clarke or 0 transform is a space vector transformation of time-domain signals (e.g. voltage, current,
flux, etc) from a natural three-phase coordinate system (ABC) into a stationary two-phase reference frame
( 0 ). It is named after electrical engineer Edith Clarke (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edith_Clarke) [1].

## Consider the voltage phasors in the figure to

the right. In the natural reference frame, the
voltage distribution of the three stationary
axes Ua, Ub, and Uc are 120o apart from
each other. Cartesian axes are also
portrayed, where U is the horizontal axis
aligned with phase Ua, and the vertical axis
rotated by 90o is indicated by U . U and
U have the same magnitude in per unit.
Three-phase voltages varying in time along
the axes a, b, and c, can be algebraically
transformed into two-phase voltages, varying
in time along the axes and by the
following transformation matrix:
1 1
1 2
2
2 3 3
T 0 = 0 Three-phase and two-phase stationary reference frames
3 2 2
1 1 1
2 2 2

The inverse transformation can also be obtained to transform the quantities back from two-phase to three-phase:

1 0 1
1 3
T 10 = 2 2
1
1 3
2
2
1

It is interesting to note that the 0-component in the Clarke transform is the same as the zero sequence component
in the symmetrical components transform. For example, for voltages Ua, Ub and Uc, the zero sequence
1
component for both the Clarke and symmetrical components transforms is (U a + U b + U c).
3

## 1 Clarke Transform of Balanced Three-Phase Voltages

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Clarke Transform - Open Electrical https://wiki.openelectrical.org/index.php?title=Clarke_Transform

## 2 Clarke Transform of Balanced Three-Phase Currents

3 Derivation of Transformation Matrix
4 References
5 Related Topics

## Consider the following balanced three-phase voltage waveforms:

Ua U m cos( t)
2
Ub = U m cos( t+ 3
)
Uc 2
U m cos( t 3
)

## Taking the Clarke transform, we get:

U Ua
U = T 0 Ub
U0 Uc
1 1
1 2
2 U m cos( t)
2 3 3 2
= 0 U m cos( t+ 3
)
3 2 2
2
1 1 1 U m cos( t )
2 2 2 3

2U m 1 2 1 2
3
[cos( t) 2
cos( t+ 3
) 2
cos( t 3
)]
3U m 2 2
= [cos( t+ ) cos( t )]
3 3 3
Um 2 2
3
[cos( t)+ cos( t+ 3
)+ cos( t 3
)]

U m cos( t)
= U m sin( t)
0
Time domain simulation result of transformation from three-phase stationary into two-phase stationary
coordinated system is shown in the following figures:

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Clarke Transform - Open Electrical https://wiki.openelectrical.org/index.php?title=Clarke_Transform

## Transformation of three-phase voltages into two-phase orthogonal voltages

From the equations and figures above, it can be concluded that in the balanced condition, U and U are
sinusoidal functions and U 0 is zero.

Similarly, one can calculate the Clarke transform of balanced three-phase currents (which lags the voltage by an
arbitrary angle ):

Ia Im cos( t )
2
Ib = Im cos( t + 3
)
Ic 2
Im cos( t 3
)

## Using the same procedure as before, the Clarke transform is:

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Clarke Transform - Open Electrical https://wiki.openelectrical.org/index.php?title=Clarke_Transform

I Ia
I = T 0 Ib
I0 Ic

Im cos( t )
= Im sin( t )
0
We can see that as in the voltage case, I is a cosine function, I is a sine function and U = I0 is zero.
However note the lagging phase angle .

As three phase voltages can be represented in 2D complex plane like vectors, the transformation can be done by
using same idea. If vector decomposition is used, it can be seen that:

3 3

## U = U a cos( )+ U b cos( ) U c cos( )

2 6 6
To obtain zero component, every phase voltage can be summed with equal weights to reveal any imbalances
between phases or DC component. Therefore;

## U 0 = U ak0 + U bk0 + U ck0

If these are written in matrix form;
1 1
U 1 2
2 Ua
U = k1 3 3 Ub
0 2
2
U0 k0 k0 k0 Uc

Here a different constant, k1, is added as a correction factor to remove scaling errors that occured due to
2 1
multiplication. These constants are selected as k1 = and k0 = above as standard values. However, there
3 2
are also another possibilities to select these coefficients. Another approach can be reduction of gain in matrix to
1 [2].

Let us calculate the gain caused by the matrix coefficients for the first row;

1 2 1 2 3
G = 12 + ( ) + ( ) =
2 2 2

The same result can be obtained for second row if the necesssary calculations are done. To reduce this gain to
unity value, a coefficent should be added as;

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Clarke Transform - Open Electrical https://wiki.openelectrical.org/index.php?title=Clarke_Transform

1 2
k1 = =
G 3
And value of k0 can be calculated from by using;

G 0 = 3k02
G0 = G

2 3
3k0 =
2
1
k0 =
2
In matrix form:
1 1
1
U 2 2 Ua
2 3 3
U = 0 2
2 Ub
3
U0 1 1 1 Uc
2 2 2

of coefficients brings the power invariancy.

## In first method power can be written as;

T T T
Ua Ia U I U I
T
S= Ub Ib = (T 10 U ) (T 10 I )= ( U ) (T 10) (T 10)( I )
Uc Ic U0 I0 U0 I0
Here the multiplication of 2 transformation matrices can be found as following in the first approach;
3
2
0 0
T
(T 10) (T 10)= 0 3
0
2
0 0 3
which causes power to be:

3
S = U aIa + U bIb + U cIc = (U I + U I + 2U 0I0)
2
However, in the second approach where the coefficients are reduced to unity;

1 0 0
T
(T 10) (T 10)= 0 1 0
0 0 1
and the power;

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Clarke Transform - Open Electrical https://wiki.openelectrical.org/index.php?title=Clarke_Transform

## S = U aIa + U bIb + U cIc = (U I + U I + U 0I0)

[1] Edith Clarke, "Circuit Analysis of AC Power Systems. Vol. I.", Wiley, New York, 1943

[2] Kalyan Kumar, "Power System Stability and Control, Chapter 3" (http://nptel.ac.in/courses
/108106026/3), Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India

dq0 Transform
Symmetrical Components
Reference Frames