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Operational Amplifiers and Transducers

Riscia R. Nadura, Sellina M. Sy


Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering
University of the Philippines
Diliman, Quezon City

I. Methodology
The objectives of the experiment are to examine the performances of different operational amplifier
configurations by determining the electric signal generated by each and to find the effects of changes in
illumination and temperature to light and temperature sensors respectively. For this experiment, we first
gathered the necessary materials: a DC power supply, photocell (light-dependent resistor or LDR), five 10k
resistors, thermistor, LM 741 operational amplifier, oscilloscope, signal generator, probes, wires and alligator
clips.
Part 1. Operational Amplifiers
This part of the experiment is divided into four parts: Open Loop
Comparator, Voltage Follower/Buffer, Inverting Amplifier and Non-Inverting
Amplifier. Before continuing with the circuits, we learned the different parts of
the KM 741 operational amplifier shown in the figure in the right.

In the Open Loop Comparator section, we constructed the circuit


shown in Figure 1. We used VCC = 14V, a 12 VPP triangular waveform with a
500 Hz frequency for VS and Vref = 5V. The two resistors used have R=10k .
To get the waveforms of the electric signal of the input V S and output VO, we
connected the positive probes of Channel 1 (for VS) and Channel 2 (for VO) to
R1 and RL respectively while the negative probes were connected to the
ground. Then, we recorded the resulting waveforms.
In the Voltage Follower/Buffer section, we constructed the circuit
shown in Figure 2. Then, we used VCC = 12 V, a 10 VPP sinusoidal waveform
with a 500 Hz frequency for VS and resistors with R=10k . Again, we used
the positive probes of Channel 1 and Channel 2 of the oscilloscope to
determine the electric signal of the input V S and output VO respectively. Again,
we connected the negative probes to the ground of the whole circuit. Then, we
recorded the resulting waveforms from the oscilloscope.
In the Inverting Amplifier section, we constructed the circuit shown
in Figure 3. Then we used VCC =12V, a 2 VPP sinusoidal waveform with a 500
Hz frequency for VS and resistors with R=10k for R1 and RL. For RF, we
used two resistors with R=10k in series to have a resulting resistance of 20k
. Next, we derived an expression for the output V O of the circuit. Then, just
like in the previous sections, we used Channel 1 and Channel 2 of the
oscilloscope to determine the electric signal of the input V S and output VO
respectively. We recorded the resulting waveforms from the oscilloscope.
In the Non-Inverting Amplifier section, we constructed the circuit
shown in Figure 4 with the same values for the VCC, VS, R1, RL and RF in the
previous section (Inverting Amplifier). Then, we derived an expression for the
output VO of the circuit. Then, just like in the previous sections, we used
Channel 1 and Channel 2 of the oscilloscope to determine the input V S and VO
respectively. We recorded the resulting waveforms from the oscilloscope.
Part 2. Transducers
For this part of the experiment, we determined the sensitivity of a light and temperature sensor to
changes in illumination and temperature. For the first section, we focused on a light sensor. To determine the
effect of changes in illumination on the resistance of a light sensor, we attached the probes of a multimeter to the
two legs of the light sensor and subjected it to four different lighting conditions: bright in which we used the
flash light of a mobile phone and placed it directly across the face of the sensor, ambient in which we used
nothing except the lighting in the room, shadow in which we placed a forefinger about half a centimeter above
the face of the light sensor and lastly, dark in which we completely covered the face of the light sensor with a
finger. We measured the resistance in each lighting condition.
For the next section, we used a thermistor and two different conditions to determine the effect of
changes in temperature on the resistance of a thermistor. The two conditions were ambient in which the
thermistor is exposed to room temperature (approximately 25C) and body temperature in which it is placed on
the crelbow or the part of the arm that is opposite of our elbow. We measured and recorded the resistances for
each condition.

II. Discussion and Methodology


An operational amplifier, or op-amp, is a three-terminal, voltage-amplifying device. Together with one
or more external feedback components such as resistors between its input and output terminals, an op-amp can
perform a variety of different operations depending on the feedback configurations. An ideal op-amp is a device
that has an infinite open-loop gain (AO), infinite input resistance (Rin), zero output resistance (Rout), infinite
bandwidth and zero offset. Usually, a variety of different functions can be performed by an op-amp that is used
with negative feedback by controlling the magnitude of its output signal.[5]
Part 1. Operational Amplifiers
In the first section, we have an Open Loop
Comparator circuit which compares the magnitudes of an
input voltage to a preset reference voltage and determines
which is larger between the two. An open-loop comparator
circuit is an op-amp in its open-loop configuration that
changes the state of its output when the input Voltage (Vin) is
larger or lower than the reference voltage (Vref). If Vin < Vref,
Vout = -VCC but if Vin > Vref, Vout = +VCC. [4] Thus, if the
waveforms is plotted in a Vout vs Vin graph, the lower
horizontal line of the Vout waveform in the graph is equal to
VCC while the upper horizontal line of the Vout is equal to
+VCC. Based on the instructions given, we get the waveforms
seen in Figure 5.

In the second section, we have a Voltage


Follower/Buffer circuit which has a high input immpedance
and low output impedance which prevents loading effects
within the circuit.[6] Looking at the circuit, we see that the
output is directly connected to one of the inputs and thus, the
overall gain is 1 and Vout = Vin. We can see this in the
resulting waveform given in Figure 6.
In the third section, we have an Inverting Amplifier
circuit which has an input signal being fed to the inverting (-)
terminal and a feedback resistor Rf. The gain of the amplifier
is being controlled by the negative feedback of Rf and is
equal to -Rf/R1. Thus, an Inverting Amplifier circuit both
inverts and amplifies the input signal by -Rf/R1. For the
experiment, Rf is equal to 20k while R1 is equal to 10k .
Following the equation for the gain, the output signal should
have an inverted shape compared to the input signal and
should be twice the value of the input signal. [1]
Employing a single nodal voltage equation at the inverting
terminal of Figure 4, we have = 1 . Knowing that
+ is zero (connected to ground), we know that is also zero (by Eqn (1)), we then have: 1 = ( 0)1
and = (0 ) . From Eqn (2), + is also zero and we have: 1 = . Finally: = ( 1 ) .
Rf 20k
AV= = = 2
R1 10k
R f 20000
Vout = V = V = 2Vin
R1 in 10000 in

Looking at the graph of the resulting waveforms of the input and output signals, we see that the output signal
has indeed an inverted shape of the input signal and has twice its value.
In the fourth section, we have a non-inverting amplifier with an input signal being fed to the non-inverting (+)
terminal. Thus, the output signal is "in-phase" with the input signal. The current loop voltage gain of this circuit
is equal to 1 + (Rf/R1). Therefore, a non-inverting operational amplifier does not invert and only amplifies the
input signal. Following the equation for the gain, the output signal should have the same shape as the input
signal but has thrice the value of the input signal.[3]
Since the op amp input current is zero, + is equal to ; and by Eqn (1), = as well. Employing, again, a
single nodal voltage equation at the inverting terminal of the op amp, we have: = 1 . Using Ohms
Law to express the currents in terms of the voltages, we have: = ( ) and 1 = ( 0)1 .
From Eqn (2), we know that = 0. Hence, we have: 1 = ( 0)1 = ( ) . After

rearranging: = (1 + )
1
20
AV= 1 + = 1 + = 3
1 10
Rf 20000
Vout = (1 + )Vin = (1 + )V = 3Vin
R1 10000 in
Part 2. Transducers
Transducer is the collective term for both sensors and actuators. But the focus of this part of the
experiment is sensor, which senses changes in an energy form (e.g. thermal) and returns an electrical signal
corresponding to the energy change. For example, a light sensor has different resistances for different lighting
conditions.[7]
For the first section, we examine the effect of changes in illumination to the resistance of a LDR. We
tabulate the measured resistances for each lighting condition.
Table 1. Effect of Lighting Condition in Resistance of LDR
Condition Description Resistance ()
Bright Place a light source across the face of the LDR. 4.04
Ambient Subject the LDR to normal room lighting conditions. 4.65
Shadow Place your forefinger about 0.5cm above the LDR. 6.39
Dark Completely cover the LDR with a finger. 6.98
An LDR is a sensor which exhibits photoconductivity. It means that when light is absorbed by the device, its
conductivity increases. In microscopic analysis, electrons are excited to the conduction band from the valence
band when light falls on the face of the sensor. Thus, more current starts flowing through the device and in a
closed loop, it means that the resistance of the LDR decreases. [2] In the measured resistances, it shows that as the
lighting condition becomes darker (light is removed), the resistance increases which follows the trend previously
stated.
For the next section, we now examine the effect of changes in temperature to the resistance of a
thermistor. We tabulate the measured resistances for each conditions.
Table 2. Effect of Temperature Condition in Resistance of a thermistor
Resistance
Condition Description ()
Ambient Measure the room temperature. 3.82
Body temp Place the thermistor on your crelbow. 63.22k
A thermistor is a temperature-sensing device which undergoes changes in resistance proportional to a change in
temperature. [8] There are two kinds of thermistor: a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) which undergoes a
decrease in resistance when there is an increase in temperature and a positive temperature coefficient (PTC)
which undergoes an increase in resistance when there is an increase in temperature. [9] Based on the measured
resistances, the thermistor used in the experiment is a PTC.

III. References
[1] Inverting Operational Amplifier. (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2016, from Electronics Tutorials:
http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/opamp/opamp_2.html
[2] Light Dependent Resistor ( LDR and Working Principle of LDR). (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2016, from
electrical4u: http://www.electrical4u.com/light-dependent-resistor-ldr-working-principle-of-ldr/
[3] Non-Inverting Amplifier. (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2016, from Electronics Tutorials:
http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/opamp/opamp_3.html
[4] Op-Amp Comparator. (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2016, from Electronics Tutorials: http://www.electronics-
tutorials.ws/opamp/op-amp-comparator.html
[5] Operational Amplifier Basics. (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2016, from Electronics Tutorials:
http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/opamp/opamp_1.html
[6] Operational Amplifier Building Blocks. (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2016, from Electronics Tutorials:
http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/opamp/op-amp-building-blocks.html
[7] Sensors and Transducers. (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2016, from Electronics Tutorials:
http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/io/io_1.html
[8] Thermistor. (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2016, from Omega: http://www.omega.com/prodinfo/thermistor.html
[9] What is a Thermistor? (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2016, from US Sensor Corp:
http://www.ussensor.com/technical-info/what-is-a-thermistor