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Ibrahim kshanh

www.ibrahim.kshanh.name
WWW.Ikshanh.jeeran.COM

Evolution of
BMS With
HVAC SYSTEMS
Name of Presenter : Ibrahim Elsayed Kshanh
Titlewww.ibrahim.kshanh.name
: Maintenance
Ibrahim kshanh
Specialist
Contents
1-Introduction To BMS
- BMS Def.
- BMS Objectives
2-HVAC Systems
3-HVAC Automation
- HVAC Control
- DDC Control
- Building Automation & BMS (Supervisory Controls)
-Control Theory (DDC Algorithm)
-Control Concept
-Modes of Control

4-HVAC Instrumentation
-Control Valves & Valve Authority Concept

Ibrahim kshanh
www.ibrahim.kshanh.name
WWW.Ikshanh.jeeran.COM

Building
Management
System
Fire Others
Access Security
HVAC

Ibrahim kshanh
www.ibrahim.kshanh.name
Objective of BMS

BMS Central Management


Energy Management Techniques

Maintenance Reports

Automatic Alarm Reporting

Long Term Trend data storage

Ibrahim kshanh
www.ibrahim.kshanh.name
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BMS
and HVAC
Systems
Ibrahim kshanh
www.ibrahim.kshanh.name
Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning System

HVAC

Self Contained
Central Systems
Unitary Units
Ex: AC split units .VRV,[Space Thermostat] -Central Supply Subsystem
Or Electronic Control -End Use Zone Subsystems
-Combination Ex: : Chiller or Boiler & AHU,FCU
Used when the first cost is more important
than the operating cost Central AHU & VAV

Ibrahim kshanh
www.ibrahim.kshanh.name
HVAC Control

HVAC:
Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning System
Comfort Condition
Temperature (T): 2025 C

Relative Humidity (RH) : 20% -- 60%

Pressure (P) : Slightly Positive

Ventilation : Air Quality

Ibrahim kshanh
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HVAC Control

Primary Chilled Water Pumps Condensed Water Pumps

Condenser

* * * *
2-WAY LOADS

Evaporator
Chiller1
Condenser

* * * *
Secondary Chilled Water Pumps
Evaporator
Chiller2
Condenser

* * * *

Evaporator
Chiller3

Chilled & Condensed Water System

Ibrahim kshanh
www.ibrahim.kshanh.name
AHU Control

An air handling unit (AHU)


air flow is from the right to left in this case.
Some AHU components shown are:
1-Supply duct
2-Fan compartment
3-Vibration isolator
4-cooling coil
5-Filter compartment
6-Mixing box air duct
Ibrahim kshanh
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AHU Control
SM T

Exhaust air
Return air
AO
M

AO

M
SM

E
CO2
Supply air
H
AO
M M

M
DO
AO

DI
MCC DDC DI
AI
Panel Control DI
AI
Panel
Ibrahim kshanh
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Chilled water system control
Primary. Ch.W.
Pumps
L

H L
Main Return
Header Chiller
H L
2-Way
Loads

DP

Secondary
Pumps Ch.W.

Main Supply
Header Chiller

VFD

Controller
PID Loop

Chilled Water System Pressure


Control
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DDC Control
Digital Microprocessor Based Controllers

Electronic, Microprocessor More accurate than pneumatic type


Based
With Free programmable Flexibility
SW Package (sp, schedule ,override)

Implementation of Energy Energy cost saving


Management techniques

Open Protocols
Promotes Integration

Strong Alarm, Trends Facilitates Diagnostic and trouble


Capabilities shooting

Web Based Provide Remote Access

Ibrahim kshanh
www.ibrahim.kshanh.name
Building Automation & BMS
(Supervisory Controls)

Management level Network

Supervisory
Control

Field level Network

LCP/DDC LCP/DDC LCP/DDC LCP/DDC


Ibrahim kshanh
www.ibrahim.kshanh.name
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Control Theory

Ibrahim kshanh
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Control Concept

The aim of The control is:


To keep certain variable (Controlled Variable) within a
desired value (set point) using certain calculations or
programming instructions (Algorithm) that results in a
corrective action (Control Signal) that affects the
controlled variable directly or through another controlled
variable (Automatic Control) in order to achieve a full
system balance and overall desired performance
To Maintain System Stability

Ibrahim kshanh
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Implemented Control Loops
Set point

Controller
(Algorithm)

Corrective
Closed loop Control

signal
Feed back

Final Control
Element

Manipulated
variable
Process External
(Final Control Element) Disturbance

Sensing
Element Controlled
variable
Ibrahim kshanh
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1-Two-Position Control
On/Off Control
Heating On/OFF
Control: Zone Over
1 for T Tmin Temp.
shoot
Control Signal
Off Value 22
Zero for T T max

Differential
+/- 2
Set Pont:20

On Value 18
Under
shoot
Time

Control
Signal
Disadvantages:
-Control Overshooting Off On
Time
-Results in Cycling Process
Cycle
Duty Cycle

Ibrahim kshanh
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2-Time Proportioning Two-Position Control
Process Error Signal Analog Controller Two Position Pulses with duty cycle
Signal
Controller
Output Converter 0%--100%
4 --20 mA
Control
Proportional Band
Signal T 460
Cycle

Over
shoot

Proportional Band
540 On
T =480

+/- 40
Set Point:500

460
Under
On Off
shoot

T =500

460
540

T =520
ON Off

T540

1-Reducing the Average Power being supplied to a kshanh


Ibrahim Heater
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Off
2-Eleminates Cycling
3-Minimizing Offset

Application:
Heating Current Valve

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www.ibrahim.kshanh.name
3-Floating /Three Position Control

Example: Static
Pressure
Static Pressure Control
Dead Set point
band

Inlet Van
Damper

P Actuator

Common Damper
DO1(ON)
ControllerDO2(OFF) position
remain close
remain open
DO1/2 open
remain

Time
Time
Fully Closed
Pulse Duration
Damper Position is Linear and proportional to the
On/Off Pulse Durations

Fully Open
Ibrahim kshanh
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4-Proportional Control (P)

Error Signal Control Signal


From Process Controller Continuous
-
Control Point Kp AO

T
4 20 mA Time
Set Point
010 Vdc
T
Control Signal = K p* Error +M
0% 50% 100%
K p: Controller Gain
Cooling
M : Bias or Manual Reset Coil Valve Set Point

Control
Output Cooling

Kp To Process
Manipulated Variable
GPM
M
Error
Linear Relation Ibrahim kshanh
www.ibrahim.kshanh.name
Proportional Control (P)
Actuator
Position
Cooling
100%

50%

0%

T1 Set Point T2 Control Point


T
Control Point Throttling Range
T

Set
point Offset

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5-Integral Control (PI)

Automatic Reset Control Signal = K p* Error + K I e. dt


Eliminates offset K I : Integral/Reset Gain

Actuator
Position
Cooling
100%

L1 L2 L3
Multiple Final Control 50%
Element Position for each
controlled variable value

0%

SP1 SP2 SP3 Control


Point (F)

The actuator final position depends on:


Throttling Ranges
Proportional Band (depends on actual load)
Deviation signal Amplitude (E) and duration (dt)
Ibrahim kshanh
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Control Variable
T

Offset

Time

Fast Response

Zero st.st Error

Excessive overshoot or integral windup


Ibrahim kshanh
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C

M
gpm
Controller Controlled Variable
P
Compensation Sensor

AHU Control
P Temp. Control Loop

Ibrahim kshanh
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6-Derivative Control (PID)

Control Signal = K p* e+ K I e. dt +Kd de/dt


Kd: Derivative Gain

Control Variable
T
Offset

Time

Oscillation damping
Noise Sensitive
Ibrahim kshanh
www.ibrahim.kshanh.name
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HVAC Instrumentation

Ibrahim kshanh
www.ibrahim.kshanh.name
HVAC Control Valves

Control valves in HVAC are motorized valves commanded


by BMS control signal , used to regulate the flow of the
operating fluid that affects certain HVAC parameter

Controller

AHU Control

Ibrahim kshanh
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Controllability The best controllability is achieved by keeping
Linear relationship between the Control output
(which considered as the valve stroke ) and the
output cooling
Output Energy
BTU 100%

50%

100% Valve Opening


0% 50%

4mA 20mA Control


Signal
The controllability curve depends upon two c/cs,the valve flow c/cs &
Ibrahimcoil
the cooling kshanh
flow c/cs
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Typical Coil Characteristics:

O/P Energy %
BTU
At Const.
Water Temp.
Air Temp.
Coil Surface Area.

100%
Flow %
gpm
Ibrahim kshanh
www.ibrahim.kshanh.name
Valves Flow Characteristics:

Theoretical /Inherent c/cs


Flow %
Assuming Const.P with flow
Quick Opening
100%

Linear Relationship

Equal Percentage
100%

Valve Stroke %
Ibrahim kshanh
www.ibrahim.kshanh.name
Combined Valve & Coil Characteristics:
Cooling
% 100 Flow % Equal Percentage curve
% 100%
Coil
Valve

100 100%
%
Flow % Valve Stroke %
Cooling %
Coil Curve

Best Controllability

Valve Curve

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Valve Stroke
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%
Equal Percentage valve Inherent C/Cs
Flow %
100%
[ (X/T)-1] Theoretical /Inherent c/cs
Q = Qmax R Assuming Const.P with flow

Q: Flow Rate (gpm)

X: Valve Position (in.)

T: Max Valve travel (in.) 100%

R: Valve Rangiability Valve Stroke %

=Max Flow / Min Controllable Flow

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Equal Percentage Installed C/Cs
M

Pc Pv

Total Pump Head

Curve deviation due to:


1-As valve closes Pv increases
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Pump Flow C/Cs

Pump Head
100% Pump

System Curve

100%
Flow %

2-As valve closes, More Pump Head will be appeared across the valve
Ibrahim kshanh
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To minimize the variation in the valve pressure drop (Pv)
Size the valve for initial pressure drop (P v100% ) as close as
possible to the close off pressure drop (P v 0% ) which is equal to
the Total Pump Head

Larger Required Initial Pump Head

More Excessive Pump Energy Cost


& Unpractical
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Valve Authority Concept M

Open Valve Pressure Drop (P v100% )


N= Pc Pv
Closed Valve Pressure Drop (P v 0% )

P v100% Total P.H.


N=
P.H. = P v100% + Pc100%
P v100% + Pc100%
Open : P v 100% = P.H. - Pc 100%

Close Off : P v 0% = P.H. - 0


(P v100% )
N=
2( Pv100% ) P v 100% Pc 100%
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N=0.5
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Flow %

100%

N=1%

N=10%
N=5%

N=33%

N=50%

100%

Valve Stroke %

Authority and Valve flow curve deviation


Ibrahim kshanh
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Valve Sizing and valve Authority
Q
Kv =
Pv
Kv: Valve ability to pass the flow
Q : Flow (M 3/hr)
Pv: Initial Pressure drop across the valve (bar)

Assumed to be equals to Pc i.e. N=0.5

Kv Selection

Lower Kv Higher Kv

Pv Pc Pv Pc
N: from 0.5 to 0.7 N: from 0.3 to 0.5
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From The Control Point of View From The Energy Point of View
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) (

Thank You
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Ibrahim Elsayed Kshanh


Ibrahim kshanh
www.ibrahim.kshanh.name