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Thomson's atomic model was proposed in 1904

and was called the plum pudding model. It was


introduced right after Thomson's 1897 discovery of
the electron, then called corpuscles. He said that no
matter where matter came from, it contained particles
that were the same and are smaller than the atoms
that matter is formed from. The model was a round
thick liquidy substance whose total charge canceled
out the charge of the electrons.He came to this
conclusion by using a cathode ray scope. This theory
was proved wrong by the gold foil experiment by
Rutherford. This experiment said that the atom
Made his discovery in 1803
contained a nucleus which had a highly positive
All matter is made up of atoms which are charge. When this experiment came out, people
indivisible, meaning that they cannot be drifted away from Thomson's theory on the atomic
broken down into simpler substances. model and moved towards Rutherford's.
All atoms of a given element are identical in
mass and properties.
Compounds are combinations of two or more
different types of atoms.
A chemical reaction is the rearrangement of
atoms.
All atoms of a given element are identical in
mass and properties.
Daltons atomic theory was the first
complete attempt to explain all matter in
terms of properties and atoms. Dalton based
his theory on the law of conservation of mass Rutherfords Model of the Atom
and law of constant composition to illustrate
Rutherford overturned Thomson's model in
his theory. Thus, the first model of the atom 1911 with his well-known gold foil
was created surrounding the theory proposed experiment in which he demonstrated that the
by Dalton. atom has a tiny, heavy nucleus. Rutherford
designed an experiment to use the alpha
particles emitted by a radioactive element as
probes to the unseen world of atomic
structure.
Rutherford concluded that theatom is mostly
empty space.
However, the atom contains anucleus where
the mass andpositive charge of the atom
areconcentrated.
We now know that the nucleus contains
PROTONS and NEUTRONS.
Electrons ORBIT the nucleus butare not
part of it.

In 1926 Erwin Schrdinger, an Austrian physicist,


took the Bohr atom model one step further.
Schrdinger used mathematical equations to describe
the likelihood of finding an electron in a certain
position. This atomic model is known as the
quantum mechanical model of the atom.
NIELS BOHR
Lived from: 1885 to 1962 Electrons occupy only certain orbits around
Put forward atomic model in: 1913 the nucleus. Those orbits are stable and are
Nickname for his model: Energy Level called "stationary" orbits.
Each orbit has an energy associated with it.
Model
The orbit nearest the nucleus has an energy of
Description of his model: E1, the next orbit E2, etc.
Bohrs atom like Rutherfords contained a Energy is absorbed when an electron jumps
dense, positive nucleus. He expanded on from a lower orbit to a higher one and energy
Rutherfords ideas, turning his attention to is emitted when an electron falls from a higher
describing the electron. He stated they moved orbit to a lower orbit.
in fixed, circular orbits (or energy levels) The energy and frequency of light emitted or
absorbed can be calculated by using the
around the nucleus, these called electron
difference between the two orbital energies.
shells. These shells were at set distances from
the nucleus and were the same for all atoms.
He stated they became larger the further away
they are from the nucleus, and that electrons
furthest from the nucleus have higher energy.
He identified that an electron can jump from
a lower orbit to a higher orbit by absorbing
energy, this can be done in the forms of heat,
light or electricity. These electrons then lose
energy when they are allowed to cool, giving
them the emission spectra for all different
elements.