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Fiber Optics & Optoelectronics:

Basics
BITS Pilani RAHUL SINGHAL
Pilani Campus
ATTENUATION IN SMF

Signal attenuation reduce the optical power reaching to the receiver.


Receiver requires certain minimum incident power for decision.

Loss provided by fiber decides maximum distance between two repeaters.


Hence, no. of repeaters between source transmitter and receiver destination.

Attenuation of optical power, P with distance z is given by,

dP
P
dz
where, is coefficient of attenuation. varies with and material of fiber.

The expression above includes only absorption losses not scattering or bending losses.

L 10 P
Pout Pin e (dB / km)
L
log10 in
Pout
Absorption Losses
Intrinsic absorption light absorbed by one or more major components of glass.
Electronic resonances (UV), Vibrational resonances (IR).

Intrinsic Material Absorption - Intrinsic absorption is caused by interaction of the


propagating lightwave with one more more major components of glass that
constitute the fibers material composition.

These results a fundamental minimum to the attainable loss and can be


overcome only by changing the fiber material.

An example of such an interaction is the infrared absorption band of SiO2


Extrinsic impurity ions absorption is caused by the presence of minute quantity of
metallic ions (such as Fe2+, Cu2+, Cr3+) and the OH- ion from water dissolved in
glass.
Extrinsic absorption- absorption due to Impurities within the glass.
Cr3+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Ni2+, Mn2+, etc. absorb strongly in range of 0.6-
1.6 m.
Impurity content < 1 ppb in order to achieve loss <1 dB/km.

Impurity Ion Loss due to 1ppm of Absorption Peak


impurity (dB/km) Wavelength (um)

2+
Fe 0.68 1.1
2+
Fe 0.15 0.4
2+
Cu 1.1 0.85
3+
Cr 1.6 0.625
-
OH 1 0.95
-
OH 4 1.38
Another source of extrinsic absorption is OH- ions.
OH- ions gets incorporated during Manufacturing processes for fiber
OH- Vibrational resonance at 2.73 m and overtones at 0.72, 0.95, and 1.38 m.

OH- Impurity content < 10 ppb in order to achieve loss <10 dB/km at 1.38 m.
Scattering losses
Rayleigh scattering - Due to density variations of fiber material, 1/4.
Mie scattering - irregularities at core-cladding interface, change in core diameter, etc.

Linear or Non-Linear Scattering


Linear
Rayleigh
Mie
Non-Linear
Brillouin Scattering
Stimulated Raman Scattering
linear scattering and nonlinear
scattering
For linear scattering, the amount of light power that is transferred from a wave
is proportional to the power in the wave. It is characterized by having no
change in frequency in the scattered wave.

On the other hand, nonlinear scattering is accompanied by a frequency shift of


the scattered light. Nonlinear scattering is caused by high values of electric field
within the fiber (modest to high amount of optical power). Nonlinear scattering
causes significant power to be scattered in the forward, backward, or sideways
directions.
Rayleigh scattering (named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh) is the
main type of linear scattering. It is caused by small-scale (small compared
with the wavelength of the lightwave) inhomogeneities that are produced in
the fiber fabrication process.

Examples of inhomogeneities are glass composition fluctuations (which


results in minute refractive index change) and density fluctuations
(fundamental and not improvable).

Rayleigh scattering accounts for about 96% of attenuation in optical fiber.


Mie scattering is named after German physicist Gustav Mie. This theory describes
scattering of electromagnetic radiation by particles that are comparable in size to
a wavelength (larger than 10% of wavelength).

For glass fibers, Mie scattering occurs in in-homogeneities such as core-cladding


refractive index variations over the length of the fiber, impurities at the core-
cladding interface, strains or bubbles in the fiber, or diameter fluctuations.

Mie scattering can be reduced by carefully removing imperfections from the glass
material, carefully controlling the quality and cleanliness of the manufacturing
process. In commercial fibers, the effects of Mie scattering are insignificant.
EDFA @ 1550 nm

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus


DISPERSION 1. Modal/Multipath Dispersion
2. Material Dispersion
3. Waveguide Dispersion
4. Chromatic Dispersion (1+2)
Material Dispersion
In terms of wave theory, v is phase
Refractive index,
& Phase velocity v vp c / n velocity vp of the wave in medium.

vp / where, 2f Angular frequency in radians per sec.


2
& where, m
m n
is propagation constant ; m is wavelength of light in medium; is free space wavelength
c
Thus, vp c / n / or, n

Any signal superposed onto a wave does not propagate with phase velocity but travels
with a group velocity.
1
Group Velocity, vg d / d
d / d
In non-dispersive medium, v p vg as v p
But in dispersive medium, vp is a function of .

1
vg
d / d

Thus, a light pulse, will travel with vg in core of fiber.

Group index, ng c / v g

Group index, in terms of phase index or ordinary refractive index,

d d n d
ng c c ( ) (n )
d d c d
dn
n
d
dn dn d
Since, .
d d d
2c
&,

d 2c
2
d
We have,

dn 2c dn 2 dn
ng n n n
d d 2c d
Thus,
c c
vg
ng (n dn )
d
A light pulse will travel through core a length L in time t,

dn
n d L
t L / vg
c
If light source has a wavelength spread of , the pulse will spread over a time t.

dt L dn dn d 2n
t 2
d c d d d
L d 2n
2
c d

Relative spectral width,

L 2 d 2n
Pulse broadening due to material dispersion,
in terms of half power width, . c d2
d 2
n
Pulse broadening per unit length, 2

L c d2
The material dispersion of
optical fibers is quoted
in terms of the material
dispersion parameter, Dm
given by
= ZD = 1.276 m

1 d 2n
Dm
L c d2
Combined Effect Of Multipath & Material Dispersion

1 2


2
0
2
1 2
2 1/ 2

1/ 2

2 2 2
0
2
1
2
2
2
L L L L
In terms of rms width of received pulses,
1/ 2

2 2 2

0
2
1
2
2
2
L L L L