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During 1.06.2017 to 20.06.2017

VIJAY JETHWA (140280105021)




Practical knowledge means the visualization of the knowledge, which we read in our books. For
this, we perform experiments and get observations. Practical knowledge is very important in
every field. One must be familiar with the problems related to that field so that he may solve
them and become a successful person.
After achieving the proper goal in life, an engineer has to enter in professional life. According to
this life, he has to serve an industry, may be public or private sector or self-own. For the efficient
work in the field, he must be well aware of the practical knowledge as well as theoretical
knowledge. To be a good engineer, one must be aware of the industrial environment and must
know about management, working in the industry, labor problems etc. so he can tackle them
successfully in future.
Due to all the above reasons and to bridge the gap between theory and practical, our engineering
curriculum provides a practical training of 30 days.
During this period, a student works in the industry and gets all type of experience and knowledge
about the working and maintenance of various types of machinery.

Vijay Jethwa,
140280105021 (7thSem),
Chemical Department,
L.D.College of Engineering


The internship opportunity I had with GNFC (BHARUCH) was a great chance for learning and
professional development. Therefore, I consider myself as a very lucky individual as I was
provided with an opportunity to be a part of it. I am also grateful for having a chance to meet so
many wonderful people and professionals who led me though this internship period.
I perceive as this opportunity as a big milestone in my career development. I will strive to use
gained skills and knowledge in the best possible way, and I will continue to work on their
improvement, in order to attain desired career objectives. Hope to continue cooperation with all
of you in the future.

In this journey, A group of people we might call them INDUSTRY EXPERTS have helped me
so as a sincere student I would like to thank all the people that helped me.
First of all a big thank you to,

Mr. I.P. Bhatt (Chief Manager)

Mr. V.C. Shah (Sr. Manager)
Mr. S.T. Sharma (Sr. Manager)
Mr. H.K. Parekh (Training Officer)
Mr. P.M. Patel (AGM of ASGP Plant)
Mr. T.S. Senta (Chief Manager. of ASGP Plant)
Mr. V.K. Patel (Manager of ASGP Plant)
Mr. V.D. Parikh (Senior Operator of ASGP Plant)
Mr. H.G. Mistry (Senior Operator of ASGP Plant)



Sr. No. Title Page No.

1 Introduction 7
1.1 Vision 8
1.2 Mission Statement 8
1.3 Product Profile 8
1.4 Production Highlights 10
1.5 Technology Partners 10
1.6 Hall of Fame 11
2 Process Description 12
2.1 Introduction 12
2.2 Description of Process Unit 13
2.2.1 Desulphurization 14
2.2.2 Reforming Section 16
2.2.3 Flue Gas Heat Recovery Section 19
2.2.4 CO Conversion Section 20
2.2.5 CO2 Removal Section 22
2.2.6 Pressure Swing Adsorption Unit 24
2.2.7 Compression 25
2.2.8 Condensate Stripper Section 26
2.2.9 Steam System 27
2.2.10 Flare System 27
2.2.11 Effluent Collection & Treatment 28
2.2.12 Cooling Tower 28
2.3 Key Notes 30
3 Important Units 31
3.1 Compressor 31
3.2 Lube Oil System 35
3.3 DSC 36

3.4 Interlock System 38
4 Utilities 39
5 Material Safety 40
5.1 Carbon Dioxide 40
5.2 Ammonia Synthesis Gas 42
6 Safety 44
6.1 Personal Protective Equipment 44
6.2 Toxicity of Chemicals & Catalyst 45
7 Conclusion 46


GNFC at Glance

Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited (GNFC) is an Indian

manufacturer of fertilizers and Chemicals. GNFC was founded in 1976.
The company was jointly promoted by the Government of Gujarat and the Gujarat State
Fertilizer Company Limited (GSFC). It was set up in Bharuch Gujarat.
GNFC started its manufacturing and marketing operations by setting up in 1982, one of
the world's largest single-stream ammonia-urea fertilizer complexes. Over the next few
years, GNFC successfully commissioned different projects - in fields as diverse as
chemicals and fertilizers.
Since inception, GNFC has worked towards an extensive growth as a corporation. A
growth which respects the environment and springs from the progressive vision of
GNFC today has extended its profile much beyond fertilizers through a process of
horizontal integration. Chemicals/Petrochemicals, Energy Sector,
Electronics/Telecommunications and Information Technology form ambitious
andchallenging additions to its corporate portfolio. GNFC has an enterprising, strategic
view towards expansion and diversification.

1.1. Vision

To be a technology driven environmentally responsible joint sector company

manufacturing fertilizers, commodity, and specialty chemicals maintaining highest
standards of operational excellence and innovation for creating sustainable value for all

1.2. Mission Statement:

To be a leading provider of chemicals and agricultural inputs through adoption of state of

the art Technologies and business processes.
Have a firm commitment to quality environment, health and safety.
Enrich human resources and promote teamwork innovativeness and integrity.
Achieve sustainable economic growth based on corporate excellence driven by ethical
business practices, professionalism, dynamism and social responsibility.

1.3. Product Profile

4,45,000 MTPA,
Technology: From M/s Linde AG, Germany, GE Energy, USA, BASF, Germany,
HaldorTopsoe, Denmark

The Counties largest capacity. 1,85,000 MTPA available for sale.
Technology: From ICI, UK, Product conforms of highest purity grade of US Federal AA.

 Acetic Acid
The Countries largest capacity. 1,15,000 MTPA available for sale.
Technology: From M/s B.P.Chemicals, UK. The only manufacture in the country to
employ Methanol route.

 Formic Acid
The Countries largest capacity. 20,000 MTPa available for sale.
Technology: From Kemira OY, Finland.

 Methyl Formate
3,000 MTPa available for sale.
Technology: From Kemira OY, Finland.

 Weak Nitric Acid

75,000 MTPA available for sale.
Technology: M/s UDHE, Germany.

 Ammonium Nitrate [melt]

1,50,000 MTPA available for sale.
Technology: M/s UHDE, Germany.

The Countries largest single stream capacity. 40,000 MTPA available for sale.
Technology: M/s Du Pont, USA.

 Toluene Di-Isocyanate
The only producer in South East Aisa. 67,000 MTPA available for sale.
Technology: M/s Du Pont, USA.

2,000 MTPA available for sale.
Technology: M/s Chemtur Engineering AB, Sweden.

1.4. Production Highlights

Products Production (MT) Capacity Utilization (%)

Ammonia 6,36,766 142.93
Urea 7,66,718 120.38
Methanol ( I + II) 1,32,449 55.63
Methyl Formate 27,110 118.90
Formic Acid 21,530 215.30
Acetic Acid 1,57,905 157.91
Weak Nitric Acid (I + II) 4,20,860 121.11
Concentrated Nitric Acid(I + II + 1,21,621 104.85
Toluene Di-Isocynate (TDI I) 19,166 136.90
Toluene Di-Isocynate (TDI II) 26,514 53.03
Aniline 39,401 112.57
Nitro Benzene 56,763 120.13
MTD I Bharuch 15,472 131.08
MTD II Dahej 20,016 53.73

1.5. Technology Partners

LINDE AG, Germany G E - ENERGY, USA BASF, Germany

Sweden Denmark

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1.6. Hall of Fame:

Set up the world's largest single stream, fuel oil based Ammonia - Urea plant
All fertilizers under the brand name of Narmada, along with extensive support activities,
have been well accepted by the country's farmer community.
India's largest producer of Formic Acid, Acetic acid, Methanol and premium quality
Ethyl Acetate.
India's only manufacturer of Glacial Acetic Acid through the cutting-edge Methanol
India's largest single stream plant of Aniline.
The only manufacturer of Toluene Di-Isocyanate in South East Asia.
Record capacity utilizations in all plants, defying the vintage through ingeniously
innovative maintenance measures.
Development of the first indigenous, eco-friendly technology for H2S removal,
CATSOL, a much awarded product of the Company's R&D labs.
Set up 21 MW wind turbo generators.
Cogeneration power and stream unit with capacity of 33 MW power and 61 MT / HR
steam Commissioned.
Ammonia synthesis gas generation plant for LSHS to natural gas conversion has been
Ethyl Acetate plant for 50,000 MTA a capacity has been commissioned.
Facilities for Neem coated urea have been established.
Neem project: GNFC has undertaken a solo economic Neem project for manufacturing its
sown requirement of Neem oil for coating urea and for selling, also to make Organic
Neem cake fertilizer with main objective of women empowerment and uplifting of poor
rural population.

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2.1. Introduction
This document contains information on chemical reactions, catalysts and an overview of
the process in each of the main sections:

CO Conversion
CO2 Removal
Pressure Swing Adsorption
Process Condensate Stripping

 Incoming Lines
Natural Gas Feed
DM Water for BFW Preparation Unit
HP Superheated Steam
Cooling Water Supply
Refrigerant Ammonia Supply
Start Up and Emergency H2

 Outgoing Lines
Ammonia Synthesis Gas Product
CO2 Product
Refrigerant NH3 Return
Cooling Water Return
Stripping Condensate to BFW Preparation
Turbine Condensate to BFW Preparation

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Product Capacity (Nm3/h)

Ammonia Synthesis Gas 123,702
CO2 25,691


Natural Gas Capacity (Nm3/h)

Process Feed 34,607
Reformer Fuel 2,775
Total 37,382

2.2. Description of Process Units

The process steps necessary for production of synthesis gas and CO2 from the above
mentioned raw materials.
The hydrocarbon feed is desulphurized to ppb level in the desulphurization section.
The desulphurized hydrocarbon feed is reformed with steam into process gas. The gas
contains mainly hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and steam.
In the gas purification section, the CO is first converted into CO2. Then the CO2 is
recovered from the process gas in the CO2 removal section. The CO and CO2 residues in
the gas outlet of the CO2 removal unit are removed in the PSA section.
The purified hydrogen gas is mixed with nitrogen to form synthesis gas which is then
compressed. After that the gas is sent to the existing ammonia loop.
The CO2 product is compressed, dried and chilled before it is sent to the battery limit.

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Process Block Diagram

2.2.1. Desulphurization
Gas contains HS and organic sulphur compounds.
First, organic sulphur compound converted into HS in hydrogenator and HS absorption
takes place in sulphur absorbers.
After these process, content of sulphur is less than 0.1 volume ppm.

Desulphurisation Section

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The natural gas contains up to 10 volume ppm of sulphur compounds.

The natural gas must be desulphurized in order to avoid sulphur poisoning of downstream
The preheated natural gas is fed to hydrogenator.
The vessel contains hydrogenation catalyst TK-250 which is cobalt-molybdenum based
catalyst (COMOX).

RSH + H2 RH + H2S
R1SSR2 + 3H2 R1H + R2H + 2H2S
R1SR2 + 2H2 R1H + R2H + H2S
(CH)4S + 4H2 C4H10 + H2S
COS + H2 CO + H2S
where R is hydrocarbon radical.

The hydrogenation catalyst must not get into contact with hydrocarbons without the
presence of hydrogen. The result would be poor conversion of the organic sulphur
compounds causing an increased sulphur slip to the reforming section.
The catalyst is oxidized at delivery and resumes its activity when sulphided. In the
sulphided state the catalyst is pyrophoric and it must be not exposed to air at temperatures
above 70oC.
If oxygen is present in the feed gas, an exothermic reaction takes place in the reactor.

2H2 + O2 2H2O

 H2S Absorption

The hydrogenated natural gas is fed to the SulphurAbsorbers . The two sulphur absorbers,
located in series, are identical. acts as a guard in case of sulphur is taken out of service for
catalyst replacement. Both reactors contain a layer of desulphurization catalyst.

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In addition to this layer, also contains a bottom layer of sulphur guard catalyst, to secure a
very low slip of sulphur to reforming and shift section catalyst. The normal operating
temperature is approximately 365oC.
The zinc oxide reacts with the hydrogen sulphide and carbonyl sulphide in the following
equilibrium reactions:

ZnO + H2S ZnS + H2O

ZnO + COS ZnS + CO2

The catalyst does not react with oxygen or hydrogen at any practical temperature. Zinc
sulphide is not pyrophoric and no special care during unloading is required. Steam
operations should not be carried out in:

The zinc oxide would hydrate and it would then be impossible to regenerate the ZnO
material in the reactor. The sulphur content in the natural gas leaving the final
desulphurisation is reduced to less than 0.1 ppm by weight.

2.2.2. Reforming Section

The gas from the desulphurization section is mixed with steam and sent to the reforming
section where hydrocarbons are reacted over nickel catalysts with steam in two steps. At
first, in the adiabatic prereformer and then in the tubular reformer. The steam reforming
of hydrocarbons can be described by the following reactions:

1) CnHm + nH2O nCO + (n+ )2 Heat

2) CO + 3H2 CH4 + H2O + Heat

3) CO + H2O CO2 + H2 + Heat

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 Adiabatic Prereforming
The steam reforming of the hydrocarbon feed takes place in two stages, an adiabatic
prereformer and a direct fired tubular reformer.
The hydrocarbon feed coming from the desulphurization unit is mixed with steam. The
steam/carbon ratio is 2.9.
The reaction mixture is preheated to 520oC and is taken to the Prereformer, where all
higher hydrocarbons are completely converted to methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide,
and carbon dioxide over a highly active reforming catalyst, in an overall endothermic
reaction sequence.
The outlet stream from, now free of all higher hydrocarbons, shall be heated further to a
627oC, before being sent to the Tubular Reformer,. A sketch of Prereformer, given in

Adiabatic Prereforming

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 Tubular Reforming

The prereformed gas from the Prereformer, is preheated and sent to the Tubular
Reformer, in which most of the methane reforming takes places, decomposing the
methane into hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide over a nickel catalyst. The
reaction is strongly endothermic and the heat of reaction is supplied by indirect firing.
The tubular reformer is constructed as a simplex furnace containing a number of
vertically mounted, high alloy Cr-Ni steel tubes filled with catalyst. The tubes are
mounted in a single row along the centre line of the chamber. The process gas is flowing
downwards with the gas being distributed to the top of the tubes from a header through
"hairpins" at a temperature of about 627oC. The gas leaves the bottom of the tubes and
enters a refractory lined collector.
The tubes are heated by a number of burners located in each side wall of the furnace
chamber and arranged in horizontal rows at several elevations to provide easy control of
the uniform temperature profile along the length of the catalyst tubes.
In this manner, the optimal utilization of the expensive high alloy tubes is obtained. Flue
gas flow is upwards with outlet near the top of the radiant chamber. The flue gas
temperature is about 1050oC.
The fuel for the reformer furnace is mainly off-gas from the PSA unit, and the CO2
removal section with a balance of natural gas.
The Combustion Air Blower, supplies combustion air to the burners, which has been
preheated to 261C in the flue gas waste heat recovery section. To ensure a complete
combustion of the fuel gas, the burners must operate with excess air.

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Tubular Reforming

2.2.3. Flue Gas Heat Recovery Section

The Flue Gas from the Tubular Reformer Furnace passes via the flue gas duct to the flue
gas heat recovery section, in which the sensible heat of the flue gas is utilized for the
following duties:

 Heating of the prereformed Hydrocarbon/Steam feed to the Tubular Reformer

 Preheating of the Hydrocarbon/Steam mixture going to the Prereformer
 Superheating of High Pressure Steam
 Final Preheating of Natural Gas
 Preheating of Natural Gas
 Preheating of Combustion Air

At Outlet, the flue gas temperature is reduced to approximate 140oC. A Flue Gas blower
takes the flue gas to the stack.

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2.2.4. CO Shift Conversion

The carbon monoxide in the process gas leaving the reforming section is converted into
carbon dioxide and hydrogen according to the shift reaction:
CO + H2O CO2 + H2+ Heat
The shift reaction equilibrium is moved towards higher conversion of CO by lower
temperature and more water vapour, however, the reaction rate increases with higher
temperature. The optimum temperature for the shift reaction depends upon catalyst and
composition of gas.
The CO conversion takes place in the two shift converters: High Temperature Shift
Converter, and Low Temperature Shift Converter, with process gas cooling after each
converter. The process gas leaves the reforming section at about 850oC. It is cooled to
about 360oC in the Waste Heat Boiler , and sent to the CO conversion.
After reforming, about 13% CO is present in the gas (dry basis). In the High Temperature
Shift Converter, the CO content is reduced to approximately 2-3 vol%, and the
temperature increases from 360oC to 423oC. The gas is then cooled to 205oC and passed
on to the Low Temperature Shift Converter, in which the CO content is reduced to
approximately 0.25vol%, while the temperature increases to 227oC.

Shift Conversion

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 High Temperature Shift Converter

The High Temperature Shift Converter contains a Cu-promoted high temperature shift
catalyst type, which features high activity and high mechanical strength. The catalyst is to
be installed in its highest oxidized state.
Reduction is carried out in process gas containing hydrogen during start-up of the
reforming section. The activated catalyst can operate continuously in the range of 320oC-
Fresh catalyst should be operated at a gas inlet temperature of about 360oC. Later, as the
catalyst ages the optimum inlet temperature will increase, but as long as the outlet
temperature has not reached 460oC, the catalyst activity will only decrease slowly. The
activity of the catalyst increases with increasing temperature, but the life of the catalyst is
Chlorine and inorganic salts are poisons to the catalyst. The content of chlorine in the
process gas should be well below 1 ppm. However, the reforming and low temperature
shift catalysts are much more sensitive to these contaminants; therefore they are always
removed to a level well below the tolerance limit of the catalyst.
Heating in condensing steam will not harm the catalyst in any way. The hot catalyst
should not, however, be exposed to liquid water, since this might cause disintegration of
the catalyst.

 Low Temperature Shift Converter

 The Low Temperature Shift Converter is loaded with low temperature shift catalyst type,
which is characterized by high activity, high strength, and high tolerance towards sulphur
 The catalyst is activated at 150oC-200oC in circulating nitrogen containing 0.2-2%
hydrogen. During the reduction process, the copper oxide reacts with hydrogen to form
free copper.
 The catalyst can be operated within a temperature range of 170oC-250oC. Fresh catalyst
should be operated at a gas inlet temperature of about 205oC. The activity of the catalyst
increases with increasing temperature, but the life of the catalyst is shortened.

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2.2.5. CO2 Removal

The CO2 removal system is based on the two-stage activated MDEA process. The solvent
used for CO2 absorption is aMDEA. The main process system consists of a two-stage
CO2 absorber, a CO2 stripper and two flash vessels.
The CO2 is recovered from the gas by absorption in the aMDEA solution containing 40
wt% aMDEA. The aMDEA solution contains an activator, which increases the mass
transfer rate of CO2 from the gas phase to the liquid phase. The rest of the solution is
water. The overall reactions occurring during the CO2 absorption process are described
by the following equations:

R3N + H2O + CO2 R3NH+ + HCO3-

2R2NH + CO2 R2NH2+ + R2N-COO-

 Process Description

The gas leaving the CO conversion unit contains a considerable amount of recoverable
heat. Owing to the content of steam, this heat is present mainly as latent heat. It is
recovered in a BFW Preheater, in the Stripper Reboiler, and in the DMW Preheater.
For removal of the carbon dioxide, the activated aMDEA process is used. Main
equipment in the aMDEA process is the CO2 Absorber, and the CO2 Stripper.
The extracted CO2 will be delivered from the unit cooled to 43oC and at a pressure of
0.50 bar g. CO2 is removed from the process gas by counter-current absorption in two
stages. In the lower part of the CO2 Absorber, flash-regenerated solution is used for bulk
CO2 removal.
In the upper part of the absorber, regenerated solution is used for scrubbing. The flash
regeneration of the rich solution is performed in two stages. In the HP Flash Drum, a
large part of the dissolved inert components is expelled at a pressure of 7.8 bar g.

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The flashed gas is sent as fuel to the Tubular Reformer. The flashed solution from the
bottom of the LP Flash Drum is divided and the major part of the solution is transferred
to the lower part of the absorber.
Only a minor part of the lashed solution is fed to the CO2 Stripper, where CO2 is stripped
out with steam to obtain a low residual CO2 loading. The lean solvent from the bottom of
the stripper is pumped to the top of the CO2 Absorber.
In this way, a nearly complete removal of CO2 with only 0.05 vol% CO2 (on dry basis)
left in the treated gas is obtained with very low heat consumption.

CO2 Removal

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2.2.6. PSA Unit

After removal of CO2, the process gas contains about 92% H2 (on dry basis). A Pressure
Swing Adsorption (PSA) unit is installed in order to purify the process gas to 99.9% H2.
The basic principle of pressure swing adsorption is to adsorb the impurities contained in
the hydrogen stream at high pressure, while the hydrogen passes through the adsorbent
and then releases the impurities again at low pressure and in this way regenerates the
adsorbent. The UOP POLYBED PSA unit uses Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA).
Impurities are adsorbed at high pressure and then desorbed at low pressure. Each
adsorber goes through the same cycle of adsorption and regeneration without change in
temperature, except for the heat of adsorption and desorption.
In the main mode of operation, there are always 3 adsorbers in adsorption, while the
others are in depressurisation, regeneration or repressurisation.

 Process Description

During adsorption, feed gas enters the bottom of the adsorber, while pure hydrogen
leaves from the top. At the end of adsorption, the adsorber is loaded with impurities,
concentrated at the bottom.
The remaining hydrogen concentrated at the top is first removed by co-current
depressurisation and used to repressurise (equalize) and purge other adsorbers.
Subsequently, the adsorbers are counter-currently depressurised (from top to bottom) in
the dump step.
Following the dump step the adsorbers are purged with the high purity stream provided in
step B (providing purge). In steps C and D the gas leaving the adsorbers at the bottom is
sent to surge drum to obtain a steady and homogeneous off-gas flow.
Before going back into the adsorption step, the adsorber has to be repressurised with gas
provided in step B (equalization) and a slipstream of the feed gas.

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2.2.7. Compression

 Nitrogen Compression

Nitrogen gas which is coming from air separation unit is compressed in N2 Compressor
up to 23.1 bar g. The hydrogen gas is mixed with compressed nitrogen, to give a
hydrogen/nitrogen ratio of approximately 3 to 1 in the product gas, which is used as
make-up gas to the ammonia synthesis loop.

 Synthesis Gas Compression

The hydrogen/nitrogen mixture is compressed to 75.1 bar g in the Synthesis Gas

Compressor, and chilled to 10oC with ammonia in order to match the process conditions
required at the suction side of the existing make-up gas compressor.
A small stream of recycle hydrogen is extracted from the appropriate stage of and
returned to the desulphurization section.

 CO2 Compression

Carbon dioxide from the aMDEA CO2 removal section is compressed in the
CO2Compressor, to 4.8 bar g.
Compressed CO2 is cooled to 9 C in 1st CO2 product chiller and then sent to CO2 dryer.

 CO2 Dryer

CO2 dryer, CO2 gas saturated at 4 bar g and at 9C, is dehydrated to an outlet moisture
content of 100 ppm. CO2 dryer operates on the principle of Thermal Swing Adsorption.
It operates in a cycles of adsorption and regeneration. For detailed description of drying
process, refer vendor document - Process Description / Sequence Operation.
The dried CO2 is chilled to -15C with ammonia in 2nd CO2product chiller, before being
delivered to the urea plant.

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2.2.8. Condensate Stripper Section

Process condensate, which is separated from the synthesis gas produced in the front end,
is purified in the Process Condensate Stripper.
Small amounts of methanol are formed in the Low Temperature Shift Converter.
Together with the carbon dioxide in the raw synthesis gas, these compounds enter the
process condensate according to the following equilibrium reactions:

1) NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OH-

2) CO2 + H2O H+ + HCO3-
3) HCO3- CO32- + H+
4) NH3 + HCO3- NH2COO- + H2O

Condensate Stripper Section

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2.2.9. Steam System

The major part of the waste heat available is utilized for production of High Pressure
steam in waste heat boliers. This High Pressure steam is Superheated in Steam
Superheater (Flue Gas Duct).
Superheated High Pressure Steam is used to run the Synthesis Gas and CO2 Compressors.
The Medium Pressure Steam is let down to Low Pressure Steam, which is used for
deareation of Boiler Feed Water.

Steam Level Pressure (bar g) Temperature (oC)

Min Norm Max Min Norm Max
1 HP Steam 91 93 95 490 500 510
2 HP Steam Import 91 93 95 490 500 510
3 MP Steam 32 35.5 37 360 387 388
4 LP Steam - 3.5 - - 160 -

Steam System

2.2.10. Flare System

Process gas venting through various PSVs and vent valves are sent to flare for burning
obnoxious gases before venting to safe location in to atmosphere. Flare system comprises
of flare network, flare stack which is equipped with low flare tip with flame stabilizers
and pilot burners which maintains constant source of ignition.
Natural gas is used as a source of ignition. The Ignition system provided for the Flare is
FD (forced draft) Flame Front Generator type to lit Pilot burners sequentially. Molecular
Seal is located just below the Flare tip.
The seal has been designed to prevent air ingress into the flare riser thus preventing the
formation of an explosion mixture in the system.

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2.2.11. Effluent Collection & Treatment

The liquid effluents generated from the ammonia syngas plant are as listed below:
 Oily Water
 Amine Blowdown to Amine Treatment System
 Effluent from Condensate Polishing Unit to Reverse Osmosis System
 Cooling Tower Blowdown and Backwash Effluent from Side Stream Filter
 Boiler Blowdown
 Condensate from flare system
 Water released during catalyst reduction
 Process condensate during start up

2.2.12. Cooling Tower

Cooling water system caters to the cooling water requirement of various process units
and utilities. Cooling water from the cooling tower sump is pumped to various users by
the cooling water pumps (P 60901 A/B/C).
Cooling water is supplied at a pressure of 3.5 bar g and 33C temperature. Cooling water
return from various consumers at 43C is returned back to the cooling tower where it is
cooled to 33C. Cooling water system comprises of the following:
 Cooling Tower including fans
 Side stream filter
 Cooling water pumps
Chemical (corrosion inhibitor/biocide) dosing system is provided for cooling water
system to prevent corrosion and fouling in the circulating system. Chemicals/biocide are
dosed directly into the cooling tower sump.
Side stream filtration unit will be provided on the cooling water circuit wherein a small
stream of circulating cooling water will be circulated through a filter to remove the
suspended impurities from the water.
The effluent generated from the backwash of the side stream filter will be routed to the
Cooling tower blowdown pit and pump to B/L for further processing by GNFC.

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General Terms Used in Cooling Water Systems:

Acidity: Presence of acid in water, pH of water less than 7.

Alkalinity: Presence of alkali in water, pH of water is more than 7.

Hold up capacity of the system: It is an amount of water contained in basin and sump of
cooling tower + water contained in piping and equipment.

Blow down: Since pure water is evaporated out of the System, the dissolved and the
Suspended solids are concentrated in the circulating water. Beyond certain limit, these
Solids will cause massive scale and corrosion. In order to balance this, a certain amount
of Water is removed from the System by blow down.

Make up Water: This is the water, which is to be added to replace the water lost by
evaporation, blow downdrift and leakages

Drift: Some water droplets escape along with the evaporation. A usual drift loss in
conventional Cooling towers is in the range of about 0.05 - 1% of the recirculation rate

System Losses: Circulating water is lost in the plant through pumps, valves or leakages
through flanges, etc.

Evaporation Losses:The water lost to the atmosphere in the cooling process is

evaporation. The rate of evaporation depends upon the temperature differential and the
circulation rate. It amounts to about 0.1% of the circulation rate for each 10 of
temperature drop.

Cycle of Concentration: Due to evaporation of water in Cooling tower the impurities get
concentrated in recirculating Water. Number of times the impurities get concentrated in
recirculating water is known as Cycle of Concentration (C.O.C.).

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2.3. Key Notes

Hydrogenation Unit is having Cobalt Molybdenum catalyst (COMOX Bed).

Sulphur Absorbing Unit is having Zinc Oxide Bed.
Nickel catalyst is used in the Reforming Section.
HTSC & LTSC Units are having Copper promoted catalyst.
There are 168 high Cr-Ni Steel tubes and 252 burners in the Tubular Reformer.
Hydrazine is used as Oxygen Scavenger for treating of DM Water.

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Lube Oil System
Important Controls in ASGP
Interlock System

3.1. Compressor (Synthesis Gas)

The Compressors are designed to achieve different operating conditions. The 2BCL508
(LP) Syn Gas Compressor is a two-phase machine wherein 8 impellers are arranged in
series and 2BCL407/A (HP) Compressor is a two-phase machine wherein 7 impellers are
arranged in series.
This 2BCL508 (LP)Compressor has a suction nozzle of 14 handling a flow of 7324
m3/h at a pressure of 19.41 bar g and delivering the gas at 44.76 bar g through a
discharge nozzle of 10.
The 2BCL407/A (HP) Compressor has a 1st suction nozzle of 10 handling a flow of
2367 m3/h at a pressure of 44.27 bar g and delivering the gas at 76.2 bar g through a
discharge nozzle of 6.
The compressors are being driven by a Steam turbine connected to each other by flexible
couplings.The Compressors runs at a maximum continuous speed (MCS) of 9421 rpm.

A L.S. of Compressor

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3.1.1. Casing

The casing of the compressors is barrel shaped, closed at the ends by two vertical flanges
(casing heads).
The suction and discharge nozzles are welded to the casing. Four paws projecting from
the horizontal centerline and laid on special pillars support the casing.
The transverse alignment of the machine is ensured with the help of two guide keys and
centering plate. The guide keys are welded to the casing along longitudinal axis whereas
the corresponding guides are welded to the base plate. This arrangement permits thermal
expansions without changing the machine alignment.

3.1.2. Diaphragms

The diaphragms make up the separating wall between each compression stage.
Each diaphragm constitutes a diffuser, which converts the kinetic energy of the gas at the
outlet of the impeller into pressure and the return channel, which leads the gas to the
suction of the next impeller.

3.1.3. Rotor

It consists of a shaft on which impellers and spacers are assembled. The spacers are
shrunk on the shaft and they axially position the impellers as well as protect the shaft
sections between the impellers from contacting the gas.
The impeller is the part of the centrifugal compressor that adds energy to the gas.
The impellers are of enclosed, backward- bladed type and are shrunk and keyed on to the

3.1.4. Balancing Drum

The centrifugal compressor rotor is subjected to an axial thrust towards the suction end
due to the differential pressure acting on the hubs and shrouds of the impellers.

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In these types of compressors, the axial thrust is partially balanced by the balance drum
fitted between the discharge sides of the two stages.

Balance Drum
3.1.5.Journal bearings

The journal bearings are of the tilting pad type with forced lubrication. Oil under pressure
enters the bearings radially, goes through holes to lubricate pads and blocks. After
picking up the heat, the hot oil is axially discharged.

3.1.6. Thrust bearing

The thrust bearing is designed to support the residual axial thrust acting on the rotor that
is partially balanced by the balance drum.
The bearing is double acting tilting pad type, and is installed at both sides of the thrust
collar at the compressor shaft end.
It is provided with an oil control ring to minimize the power loss due to churning of the
oil in the bearing cavity under high speed operation.

3.1.7. Labyrinth seal (internal)

The internal seals, used between rotating and stationary parts of the compressor to reduce
gas leakage between areas of different pressure, are labyrinth type. The labyrinth seal

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consists of a ring the periphery of which is shaped on a series of fins having small
clearance with the rotor.
These rings are manufactured in 2 halves of a soft alloy, resistant to corrosion to avoid
damage to the rotor in the event of an accidental contact. The upper halves of the rings
are fastened to relevant diaphragm. The lower halves of the rings can be easily removed
by rotating them in their grooved seat in the diaphragms.
The positions of the rotor which face the labyrinths seals are: the impeller disk, the shaft
sleeves between the impellers and the balance drum. The same type of seals is located at
the shaft end to limits the gas leakage out of the compressor.

3.1.8. Dry Gas seal

The Dry Gas seals are located between rotating and stationary parts of the compressor to
reduce gas leakage from the ends. These are usually of tandem type (i.e., two
pneumatically balanced single seals) with an intermediate labyrinth seal. These seals are
supplimented by a barrier seal which separates the bearing chamber and seal zone.
The Dry Gas seals are of uni-directional and bi-directional type. The uni-directional seals
have a geometry on the sealing face that is specific to the direction of rotation, Whereas
the bi-directional seals have a sealing geometry that is independent of the direction of

A Dry Gas Seal

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3.2. Lube Oil System

The lubrication and seal oil system for a machine must provide the rotating equipment
with, 1) the necessary amount of, 2) the correct fluid, at 3) the correct pressure, at 4) the
correct time. The proper amount of fluid is needed to remove bearing and seal losses and
control the temperature of these components to reduce wear and maintain proper
The correct fluid is that for which the rotating equipment is designed to run and that
which the oil console is designed to deliver at the required flow, pressure, temperature,
and cleanliness.
The use of other than the design lubricant supplied at the design conditions may cause or
contribute to problems, such as premature wear, rotor instability or vibration, or poor
system response.

3.2.1. Main Reservoir

The main reservoir has a charge capacity of about 9.0 m3.

The reservoir is fitted with an electric heater to give the oil correct viscosity during start-
up (or after prolonged periods of non-operation).
The reservoir is provided with necessary appurtenances for oil charging, draining,
venting and inspection.

3.2.2. Oil Pumps

Two identical pumps are provided for required oil circulation.

The stand-by pump starts automatically based on the low-pressure signal from the
pressure transmitter of the main running pump.
The suction line of each pump is provided with a strainer, an isolation valve and pressure

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3.2.3. Coolers

The oil is cooled by a TWIN OIL COOLER (E-60731 A/B) (one as stand-by to the
other). During normal operation, the oil flow is directed to only one of the coolers,
leaving the other as a standby.

3.2.4. Filters

The oil reaches the 5- duplex oil filters (S-60731 A/B) (2x100%). Each filter provides a
continuous filtration of the total oil supplied by the oil system.
Only One filter at a time is put to service so that the cleaning, inspection and maintenance
of the second filter can be performed without interrupting oil flow or shutting down the
machines.To equalize the oil pressure and facilitate the changeover operation, a bypass
valve connects the two filters.
The pressure drop in the filter units is measured by means of a differential pressure
indicator (PDG-7142). To annunciate a high differential pressure across filter, a
Differential pressure transmitter, PDT 7141 is connected to an alarm in DCS. When the
differential pressure exceeds 1.5 kg/cm2, take the filter for cleaning by switching the oil
flow to the standby filter.

3.3. Distributed Control Systems (DSC)

Collection of hardware and instrumentation necessary for implementing control systems

Provide the infrastructure (platform) for implementing advanced control algorithms
Among all computer control networks, DSC is the most comprehensive, while PLC
(Programmable Logic Controllers) is specialized for non-continuous process, during
startup or shutdown, when interlocks are required.
DCS can be operated Manually, Automatically or under Supervision.
Interface between digital computer and analog instruments:(A/D) Transducers
convert analog signals to digital signals. (Sensor Computer) and (D/A) Transducers
convert digital signals to analog signals. (Computer Valve).

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3.3.1. DCS Elements

Local Control Unit:: This unit can handle 8 to 16 individual PID loops.
Data Acquisition Unit:: Digital (discrete) and analog I/O can be handle.
Batch Sequencing Unit:: This unit controls a timing counters, arbitrary function generators,
and internal logic.
Local Display: This
is device provides analog display stations, and video display for readout.
Bulk Memory Unit: This unit is used to store and recall process data.
Computer:: This unit is programmed by a customer or third party to
General Purpose Computer
perform optimization, advanc
advance control, expert system, etc
Display:: This unit typically contain several consoles for operator
Central Operator Display
communication with the system, and multiple video color graphics display units
Data Highway: A serial digital data transmission link connecting all other components in
the system. It allow for redundant data highway to reduce the risk of data loss
Local area Network (LAN)

Flow Diagram of DCS

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3.4. Interlock System

General description of the alarm and interlocking system:

The function of the alarm and interlocking system is to guard all variables of the plant
such as temperature, pressure, flow, level a.s.o. on the adjusted critical values (alarm set points).
The interlocking system is a fail to safe type and operates by the holding-current
principle, that the during normal operation all contacts are closed, all signal units and solenoids
are energized.
Voltage failure, cable break, intentional or unintentional interruption of a cable connection as
well as opening of an interlocking contact will cause the plant shut down. The alarm and
interlocking system consists of two main groups.

First signal alarm system with plant trip effect

Any first signal alarm will be indicated on the visual announciator by a flashing light and
all following alarms by steady on lights. Also the alarm horn will sound. That is the flashing
light of the first signal alarm permits identification of the cause of the plant shut down.
The first signal alarm will be acknowledged by pressing alarm acknowledge key, After
acknowledgement flashing light will change to steady on light and the alarm horn will
besilenced. All alarm lights give now steady on lights. The incidence, acknowledgement and
clearance of an alarm is recorded by the printer.

Last signal alarm system with and without secondary trip effect
Any last alarm will be indicated by flashing light and the horn will sound. By pressing the alarm
acknowledge key the horn will be silenced and the flashing light will change to steady on light.
After the cause of the alarm is corrected, the alarm light turns off completely.

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 High Pressure Superheated Steam Import

Temprature 470oC
Pressure 93 bar g

 Demineralised Water From BFW Preparation Unit

Temperature 45oC
Pressure 8.0 bar g.

 Cooling water

Temperature 33oc
Pressure 3.5 bar g.

Temperature 43oC
Pressure 2.5 bar g.

 Instrument Air
Temperature Ambient
Pressure 6 bar g.

 Electric Power
 Inert Gas System (N2)
 Refrigerant Ammonia
 H2 for Emergency and Startup
 Methanol for Emergency

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5.1. Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

5.1.1. Hazard Identification

5.1.2. First Aid Measures

INHALATION: Immediately remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial

respiration. If breathing is difficult, qualified personnel may give oxygen. Call a
SKIN CONTACT: For exposure to cold vapor or solid carbon dioxide (dry ice),
immediately warm frostbite area with warm water not to exceed 105F (41C). In case of
massive exposure, remove contaminated clothing while showering with warm water. Call
a physician.
EYE CONTACT: For exposure to cold vapor or solid carbon dioxide (dry ice),
immediately flush eyes thoroughly with warm water for at least 15 minutes. Hold the
eyelids open and away from the eyeballs to ensure that all surfaces are flushed
thoroughly. See a physician, preferably an ophthalmologist, immediately.
SWALLOWING: An unlikely route of exposure. This product is a gas at normal
temperature and pressure.

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5.1.3. Physical and Chemical Properties

5.1.7. Toxicological Information

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5.2. Ammonia Synthesis Gas

5.2.1. First Aid Measures

EYE CONTACT: Get medical attention immediately. Call a poison centre or physician.
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water, occasionally lifting the upper and lower
eyelids. Check for and remove any contact lenses. Continue to rinse for at least 10
minutes. Chemical burns must be treated promptly by a physician. Contact: Get medical
attention immediately. Call a poison centre or physician. Flush contaminated skin with
plenty of water. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. To avoid the risk of static
discharges and gas ignition, soak contaminated clothing thoroughly with water before
removing it. Continue to rinse for at least 10 minutes. In case of contact with liquid,
warm frozen tissues slowly with lukewarm water and get medical attention. Do not rub
affected area. Chemical burns must be treated promptly by a physician. Wash clothing
before reuse. Clean shoes thoroughly before reuse.
INHALATION: Get medical attention immediately. Call a poison centre or physician.
Remove victim to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing. If it is
suspected that fumes are still present, the rescuer should wear an appropriate mask or
self-contained breathing apparatus. If not breathing, if breathing is irregular or if
respiratory arrest occurs, provide artificial respiration or oxygen by trained personnel. It
may be dangerous to the person providing aid to give mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. If
unconscious, place in recover position and get medical attention immediately. Maintain
an open airway. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. In case of
inhalation of decomposition products in a fire, symptoms may be delayed. The exposed
person may need to be kept under medical surveillance for 48 hours.
INGESTION: Get medical attention immediately. Call a poison centre or physician.
Remove victim to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing.
Chemical burns must be treated promptly by a physician. Ingestion of liquid can cause
burns similar to frostbite. If frostbite occurs, get medical attention. Never give anything
by mouth to an unconscious person. If conscious, place in recovery position and get
medical attention immediately. Maintain an open airway. Loosen tight clothing such as a

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collar, tie, belt or waistband. As this product rapidly becomes a gas when released, refer
to the inhalation section.

5.2.2. Physical and Chemical Properties

5.2.3. Toxicological Information

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The safety procedures described in this chapter are those which specifically apply to
potential hazards within battery limit.
It is assumed that safety practices with general application or with specific application to
other processes outside battery limit is described elsewhere. The general safety practices
referred to above should include:
 Traffic safety
 First aid
 Work permit procedures
 Vessel entry procedures
 Sampling procedures

6.1. Personal Protective Equipments

For protection of personnel, the following equipment should be available:

 Safety helmets and shoes, which should be worn by personnel whenever they are in the
 Goggles for protection against liquids and gases.
 Gloves for protection against acid and alkaline solutions (rubber) or heat (asbestos or
 Respiration masks with filters for dust and poisonous gases (H2S, NH3, etc.)
 Compressed air masks for protection against CO poisoning.
 Compressed air masks for protection against CO poisoning.
 Ear muffs or other devices for protection against noise.
 Explosion meters
 Dragger equipment (tubes and "sniffers") for measuring poisonous gases such as CO,
H2S and NH3.
 Equipment for measuring oxygen content.

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6.2. Toxicity of Chemicals and Catalysts

 Toxic gases
The toxic gas normally present within the battery limits of the plant is carbon monoxide,
which is an extremely insidious gas. Ammonia vapour is also toxic but its odour gives
ample warning before hazardous conditions exist. Safety Information Sheets for carbon
monoxide and ammonia are included as appendices to this chapter.


Hydrazine is used in the preparation of BFW as an oxygen scavenger in the deaerated

BFW. The commercial grade of the hydrazine is a solution of 16% by weight of
hydrazine in water Great care should be taken to avoid either direct or airborne exposure
of skin, mucous membranes or eyes to hydrazine solution.
When handling hydrazine, all personnel should wear rubber suits covering their whole
body, rubber gloves and fresh air masks. The threshold limit value for eight hours of
continuous exposure to hydrazine is 0.1 ppm by volume.

The catalysts in the various reactors contain nickel and other metal salts which in the
form of dust can be poisonous and irritating if brought into contact with skin, eyes or
mucous membranes.
When the plant is running, catalysts are inaccessible: thus there is no hazard involved.
However, when loading or unloading catalysts, it is vital for the personnel doing the work
to be dressed in adequate protective clothing, including dust masks, eye goggles and
Safety data sheets for the individual catalysts used in the plant, including toxicological
information for individual components, are included as an appendix to this chapter.

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Here, I learn about the various different Application & Equipment of the process that
were theoretically learned during our college curriculum. In Ammonium Synthesis Gas
Generation Plant, I learned about the new Natural Gas based Process along with the old
LSCO Gasification based Process. I also saw the Mammoth Reformer, Tall Absorbers
and Huge Compressors.
Learned, What type of problems can occur in the operating plant.
Came to know about the safety precautions taken by the industrialists while operating a
I am sure that knowledge for my experience during this industrial training will help me in
future to the get a better and quicker understanding of Plants, Process, Techniques and
Working Principle of various Equipments.

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