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DHIRAJLAL GANDHI COLLEGE OF

TECHNOLOGY

LABORATORY MANUAL

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CE6315-STRENGTH OF MATERIALS LABORATORY

Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Opp. Salem Airport,


Sikanampatty, Omalur, Salem.
Tel : +91 04290 233333 Email : dgctsalem@gmail.com
DHIRAJLAL GANDHI COLLEGE OF

TECHNOLOGY
Subject Name : STRENGTH OF MATERIALS LABORATORY

Subject Code : CE 6315

Semester : IV

Dept. : Mechanical Engineering

University : Anna University

Year of Syllabus : R 2013

PREPARED & REVIEWED BY APPROVED BY

Name Mr G Vijayaganth & Mr V Vinoth Dr.N.Sundaramoorthy

Designation AP/MECH Professor & Head / MECH

Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Opp. Salem Airport,


Sikanampatty, Omalur, Salem.
Tel: +91 04290 2330000 Email: dgctsalem@gmail.coM
TIPS FOR A BETTER LAB SESSION

Some of the Best Practices to help the Lab run smoothly while maximizing Student
Learning.

1. Students should be thoroughly familiar with the Lab exercises before coming to
Lab.
2. Students should treat the Laboratory Exercises as original Research.
3. Students should make sure not to miss even a single Lab Class.
4. Students must apply the concepts learned in the class to New Situations.
5. Each student must try to do their Lab Exercises Individually.
6. The instructor will hold a pre-laboratory discussion on the lab exercises.
7. Each student should do the exercise and observe the results and check with the
instructor before every Lab Session.
8. The students should come prepared for Viva based on the questions given in the
lab manual.
9. If the students come unprepared, he/she will not be allowed to do the Lab
exercise and will be marked absent.
10. The progress of every student will be monitored on a regular basis. Based on the
progress report Extra Credit Marks will be awarded for the students in their
Internals.
11. Every student must be able to explain the Exercise concepts clearly at the end of
each Lab Session.
12. Labs are for you (students) and so consider it as your duty to use it perfectly. Its
your responsibility to take care of the computer systems and the other
equipment.

ENJOY THE JOY OF STRENGTH OF MATERI ALS LABORATORY


EVALUATIONS:
All students should go through the lab manual for the experiment to be carried
out for that day and come fully prepared to complete the experiment within the
prescribed periods. Student should complete the lab record work within the prescribed
periods.

Students must be fully aware of the core competencies to be gained by doing


experiment/exercise/programs.

Students should complete the lab record work within the prescribed periods.

The following aspects will be assessed during every exercise, in every lab class
and marks will be awarded accordingly:

Preparedness, conducting experiment, observation, calculation, results, record


presentation, basic understanding and answering for viva questions.

In case of repetition/redo, 25% of marks to be reduced for the respective


component.

Preparation means coming to the lab classes with neatly drawn circuit diagram
/experimental setup /written programs /flowchart, tabular columns, formula, model
graphs etc in the observation notebook and must know the step by step procedure to
conduct the experiment.

Conducting experiment means making connection, preparing the experimental


setup without any mistakes at the time of reporting to the faculty.

Observation means taking correct readings in the proper order and tabulating
the readings in the tabular columns.

Calculation means calculating the required parameters using the approximate


formula and readings.

Result means correct value of the required parameters and getting the correct
shape of the characteristics at the time of reporting of the faculty.

Viva voice means answering all the questions given in the manual pertaining to
the experiments.

Full marks will be awarded if the students perform well in each case of the above
component
CE6315 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS LABORATORY LTPC
003 2
OBJECTIVES
To supplement the theoretical knowledge gained in Mechanics of Solids with practical testing for
determining the strength of materials under externally applied loads. This would enable the student to
have a clear understanding of the design for strength and stiffness
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Tension test on a mild steel rod
2. Double shear test on Mild steel and Aluminium rods
3. Torsion test on mild steel rod
4. Impact test on metal specimen
5. Hardness test on metals - Brinnell and Rockwell Hardness Number
6. Deflection test on beams
7. Compression test on helical springs
8. Strain Measurement using Rosette strain gauge
9. Effect of hardening- Improvement in hardness and impact resistance of steels.
10. Tempering- Improvement Mechanical properties Comparison
(i) Unhardened specimen
(ii) Quenched Specimen and
(iii) Quenched and tempered specimen.
11. Microscopic Examination of
(i) Hardened samples and
(ii) Hardened and tempered samples. TOTAL: 45 PERIODS
OUTCOMES:
Ability to perform different destructive testing
Ability to characteristic materials
LIST OF EQUIPMENT FOR BATCH OF 30 STUDENTS

S.No Name of the Equipment Qty

1 Universal Tensile Testing machine with double 1 shear attachment 40 Ton Capacity 1

2 Torsion Testing Machine (60 NM Capacity) 1

3 Impact Testing Machine (300 J Capacity) 1

4 Brinell Hardness Testing Machine 1

5 Rockwell Hardness Testing Machine

6 Spring Testing Machine for tensile and compressive loads (2500 N) 1

7 Metallurgical Microscopes 3

8 Muffle Furnace (800 C) 1


TABLE OF CONTENTS

EX. PAGE STAFF


DATE NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT MARKS
NO. NO. SIGN.

1 TENSION TEST ON MILD STEEL ROD 2

2 DOUBLE SHEAR TEST ON MS AND AL RODS 10

3 TORSION TEST ON MILD STEEL ROD 14

4 IZOD IMPACT TEST ON METAL SPECIMEN 18

5A ROCKWELL HARDNESS TEST 22

5B BRINNELL HARDNESS TEST 28

6 DEFLECTION TEST ON BEAM 32

7A TENSION TEST ON SPRINGS 36

7B COMPRESSION TEST ON SPRINGS 40

TEMPERING- IMPROVEMENT MECHANICAL


8 44
PROPERTIES COMPARISON

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES FOR


9 47
UNHARDENED OR HARDENED SPECIMEN

MICROSCOPIC STUDY OF HARDENED AND


10 49
TEMPERED SPECIMEN

Completed date: Staff - in charge


Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

Observation:

1. Material of the specimen =

2. Length of the specimen, L = mm

3. Diameter of the specimen, d = mm

4. Initial gauge length of the specimen, li = mm

5. Final gauge length of the specimen, lf = mm

6. Diameter at neck, dn = mm

7. Yield load, Py = KN

8. Ultimate load, Pu = KN

9. Breaking load, Pb = KN

Tabulation:

Extensometer reading
Sl. Load in
Stress Strain
No. (KN) Divisions mm
(N/mm2)

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Ex. No: 1 TENSION TEST ON MILD STEEL


Date:

Aim:

To draw stress-strain curve for the given steel specimen by conducting axial tension

test and hence to find the following

1. Yield stress

2. Ultimate stress

3. Nominal breaking stress

4. Actual breaking stress

5. Percentage Elongation in length

6. Percentage Reduction in area

Apparatus and Specimen Required:

1. Universal testing machine (UTM)

2. Mild steel specimen

3. Scale

4. Vernier caliper

5. Dot punch

6. Hammer

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Formula Required:

i) Yield stress, y = Yield load (Py )


Initial Area (A i )

ii) Ultimate stress, u = Ultimate load (Pu )


Initial Area (A i )

Breaking load (Pb )


iii) Nominal breaking stress, bn =
Initial Area (A i )

Breaking load (Pb )


iv) Actual breaking stress, ba =
Neck Area (A n )

Final gauge length ( L f ) Initial Gauge Length (li )


x100
v) % Elongation in length = Initial gauge length (li )

vi) % Reduction in area = Initial area ( Ai ) Neck area ( An )


x100
Initial Area ( Ai )

Where, Ai = Initial Area = d 2


4

d n 2
An = Area at neck = 4

(vii) Young's modulus (E) = PL/A x

Where , P = Load in N from graph

L = Gauge length of extensometer in mm

A = Original cross sectional area in mm2

= Extension in mm from the graph

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Theory:

The tensile test is most applied one, of all mechanical tests. In this test ends of test

piece and fixed into grips connected to a straining device and to a load measuring device. If

the applied load is small enough, the deformation of any solid body is entirely elastic. An

entirely deformed solid will return to its original form as soon as load is removed. However,

if the load is too large, the material can be deformed permanently. The initial part of the

tension curve, which is recoverable immediately after unloading ,is termed as elastic and the

rest of the curve, which represents the manner in solid undergoes plastic deformation is

termed as plastic. The stress below which the deformation is essentially entirely elastic is

known as the yield strength of material. In some materials the onset of plastic deformation is

denoted by a sudden drop in load indication both an upper and a lower yield point. However,

some materials do not exhibit a sharp yield point. During plastic deformation, at larger

extensions strain hardening cannot compensate for the decrease in section and thus the load

passes through the maximum and then begins to decrease. At this stage the ultimate

strengths, which is defined as the ratio of the load on the specimen to the original cross

sectional are, reaches the maximum value. Further loading will eventually cause nick

formation and rupture.

Usually a tension testis conducted at room temperature and the tensile load is applied

slowly. During this test either round of flat specimens may be used. The round specimens

may have smooth, shouldered or threaded ends. The load on the specimen is applied

mechanically or hydraulically depending on the type of testing machine.

Procedure:

1. Measure the length (L) and diameter (d) of the given specimen.

2. Mark the centre of the specimen

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Fig.4 Stress Strain Curve for Mild Steel

Model Calculation:

1. Yield Stress = Yield Load / Cross Sectional Area

= N/mm2

2. Ultimate Stress = Ultimate Load / Cross Sectional Area

=....N/mm2

3. Nominal Breaking stress = Breaking Load / Cross Sectional Area

=.. N/mm2

4. Actual breaking Stress = Breaking Load /Neck area

=. N/mm2

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3. Mark two points P and Q at a distance of 150 mm on either side of the centre mark so

that the distance between P and Q will be equal to 300 mm.

4. Mark two points A and B at a distance of 2.5 times the rod diameter on either side of

the centre mark so that the distance between A & B will be equal to 5 times the rod diameter

and is known as initial gauge length of the rod (li).

5. Insert the specimen in the middle crosshead and top crosshead grips of the machine so

that the two points A and B coincide with grips.

6. Apply the load gradually and continue the application of load. After sometime, there

will be a slight pause in the increase of load. The load at this point is noted as yield load (Py).

7. Apply load continuously till the specimen fails and note down the ultimate load (Pu)

and breaking load (Pb)

8. Remove the specimen from the machine and join the two pieces of the specimen.

9. Measure the distance between the two points A and B. This distance is known as final

gauge length (l0) of the specimen.

10. Measure the diameter of the rod at neck (dn).

11. Determine the yield stress, ultimate stress, nominal breaking stress, actual breaking

stress, percentage elongation in length, percentage reduction in area and Young's modulus

using the following formulae:

12. Draw stress-strain curve for the specimen by taking stress along y-axis and strain along x-

axis.

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5. Percentage of Elongation = [Change in length / gauge length] x 100

= %

6. Percentage reduction in = [Change in area/Initial Area] x 100


Area of cross section

= .. %

7. Youngs modulus (E) = PL/A x

=. N/mm2

Practical Applications

If the applied load is small enough, the deformation of any solid body is entirely elastic. An

entirely deformed solid will return to its original form as soon as load is removed. However,

if the load is too large, the material can be deformed permanently. The initial part of the

tension curve, which is recoverable immediately after unloading ,is termed as elastic and the

rest of the curve, which represents the manner in solid undergoes plastic deformation is

termed as plastic.

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Result:
Tension test for the given specimen was conducted and the results are as follows:

1. Yield stress, y = N/mm2

2. Ultimate stress, u = N/mm2

3. Nominal breaking stress, bn = N/mm2

4. Actual breaking stress, ba = N/mm2

5. Percentage elongation in length = %

6. Percentage reduction in area = %

7. Young modulus (E) = N/mm2

Viva questions

1) What is the yield value of steel?

The yield strength is defined as the stress at which a predetermined amount of

permanent deformation occurs.

2) What is the Ultimate stress?

Ultimate stress is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to

elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size

3) How many points are marked on the specimen & how the distance between these

points are measured and how it is called before applying load?

Two points are marked on the steel and after the application of the load the steel

elongate.

4) State Hooks law

Stress is directly proportional to strain within elastic limit

5) What is the elastic modulus of steel?

190 -210 GPa

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Observation:

1. Material of the specimen =

2. Diameter of the specimen, d = mm2

Tabulation:

Diameter of Cross Ultimate


Maximum
Name of the the specimen sectional shear stress
S.No. shear load
Specimen d area =W/2A
W (N)
(mm) A (mm2) N/mm2

Formul Required:
Load at failure (P) in N
Maximum shear strength =
2 x Cross sec tional area of the bar in mm 2

Ultimate Shear Stress () = W N/mm2


2A

Where, =Ultimate Shear strength (N/mm2)

W =Ultimate load in (N)

d =diameter of specimen in mm

A = area of the specimen in mm2

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Ex. No: 2 DOUBLE SHEAR TEST


Date:

Aim:

To determine the maximum shear strength of the given specimen by conducting

double-shear test.

Apparatus and specimen required:

1. Universal testing machine (UTM)

2. Mild steel and Aluminum

3. Device for double-shear test

4. Vernier caliper / Screw gauge

Theory:

Place the shear test attachment on the lower table, this attachment consists of cutter.

The specimen is inserted in shear test attachment & lift the lower table so that the zero is

adjusted, then apply the load such that the specimen breaks in two or three pieces. If the

specimen breaks in two pieces then it will be in single shear & if it breaks in three pieces then

it will be in double shear.

Procedure:

1. Measure the diameter (d) of the given specimen.

2. Fit the specimen in the double-shear device and place the whole assembly in the UTM

3. Apply the load till the specimen fails by double-shear.

4. Note down the load at which the specimen fails (P).

5. Calculate the maximum shear strength of the given specimen by using the following

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Calculation:
Area of specimen (A) = /4 d2
= ________ mm2

Maximum load (W) = ________ N

Ultimate shear stress () = W


2A
= _________ N/mm2.

Practical Applications

Steel structures

Column to column and beam to column connections.

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Result:

The Maximum Ultimate Shear Strength of the given specimen = __________N/mm2

VIVA QUESTIONS

1) State the formula to find the double shear stress?


() = W
2A

2) State the formula to find the Shear stress


Shearing force/ area of resisting action

3) What is the difference between single shear & Double shear?


Single shear carries a load on one face while double shear carries it on two faces.

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Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

Observation:

Diameter of the rod =

Length of the specimen =

Gauge length =

Gauge diameter =

Tabulation:

Angle of Twist
Sl. Reading Torque
No ( kg- cm ) N mm

Degree Radian
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Mean

Formula used:

Basic Formula T =fs = C


J R L

Where
T - Torque applied in Nmm.
J - Polar Moment of inertia mm4 = d4 / 32.
fs - Shear Stress N/mm2 .
R - Radius of the Specimen mm.
C - Modulus of rigidity N/mm2. - Angle of twist due to the applied torque.
L - Gauge length of the specimen in mm.

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Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

Ex. No: 3 TORSION TEST ON MILD STEEL


Date:

Aim:

To draw torque Vs angle of twist curve for a given specimen by conducting Torsion
test for finding the following.
1. Modulus of rigidity.
2. Ultimate tensional stress.
3. Stiffness
Apparatus required:

Torsion testing machine, specimen, vernier caliper, Scale

Procedure:

1. The steel yard is adjusted horizontal with the position at zero.

2. The specimen is fixed between the chucks and grips the specimen tightly.

3. The torque gradually is applied by rotating the loading wheel.

4. The torques indicated by the vernier in the steel yard every degree.

5. The motor is operated to increase the rate of torque till the test piece breaks. Now the

maximum torque applied in the specimen is noted.

6. Note then angle of twist and the corresponding torque applied.

7. The stiffness of the rod is found

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Fig.5.Model graph for Torque Vs angle of Twist

Calculation:

Modulus of rigidity (C)) = TL / J =


= N/mm2
Ultimate torsional stress = Tmax R /J =
= N/mm2

Stiffness,(k) = T/

Practical Applicaitons

Rear axles in vehicles

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Result

The torque Vs angle of twist curve has been plotted and the stiffness of the rod is = N/mm

Viva questions

1) What is the use of vernier caliper?

The Vernier Caliper is a precision instrument that can be used to measure internal and

external distances extremely accurately

2) Define torque?

Torque is defined as a twisting force that tends to cause rotation.

3) Define angle of twist?

A twisted shaft section and the angle through the one section that is relative to the

other section when applying a torque.

4) What is the equation of torsion theory

Where q = shear intensity at radius r

r = radius at a point

= maximum shear stress at the surface of a shaft

R = radius of the shaft

G = shear modulus of the material

= angle of twist

l = length of the shaft

T = torque

J = polar moment of inertia

5) What is Stiffness,(k)?

It Is defined as the Torque by angle of twist

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Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

Observation:

1. Material of the specimen =

2. Type of notch (i.e. groove) =

3. Length of the specimen, l = mm

4. Breadth of the specimen =

4. Depth of the notch (d1) = mm

5. (B-D) depth of notch = mm

Tabular column:

Dimensions of Specimen Impact Impact


Breath Depth Length Depth of Energy Strength
b d l Notch Observed
Specimen d k I = k/A
mm mm Mm mm J J / m2

Formulae Used:

Impact resistance = Final izod scale reading Initial izod scale reading

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Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

Ex. No: 4 IZOD IMPACT TEST


Date:

Aim:

To determine the impact strength of the given specimen by conducting Izod impact

test.

Apparatus and specimen required:

1. Impact testing machine with attachment for izod test

2. Given specimen

3. Vernier Caliper

4. Scale

Procedure:

1. Measure the length (l), breadth (b), & depth (d) of the given specimen.

2. Lift the pendulum and keep it in the position meant for izod test.

3. Adjust the pointer to coincide with initial position (maximum value) in the izod scale.

4. Release the pendulum using the lever and note down the initial reading in the izod scale.

5. Repeat the steps 3 and 4.

6. Place the specimen vertically upwards such that the shorter distance between one end of

the specimen and groove will be the protruding length and also the groove in the specimen

should face the striking end of the hammer.

7. Release the pendulum again using the lever and note down the final reading in the izod

scale.

8. Find the impact resistance of the given material by using the following relation

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Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

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Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

Practical Applications

Steel structures
Vehicles

Result:
The impact strength of the given specimen (I) = -------------- J/m2

Viva Questions

1) Define impact?
Impact is a high force or shock applied over a short time period when two or more
bodies collide. Such a force or acceleration usually has a greater effect than a lower force
applied over a proportionally longer period.

2) What is resilience? How is it different from proof resilience and toughness?


If it deforms to the point of almost fracture the amount of energy it had absorbed is
the toughness. They are both the energy found by integrating the area under the stress strain
curve, except with different limits. The resilience is till the elastic limit. The limit for
toughness is till fracture point.

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Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

Tabulation:

Name of Rockwell
Load Load Dial
S.No the Penetrator Scale Hardness
(kgf) (N) Reading
Material Number
1.

2.

3.

4.

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HARDNESS TEST
Ex. No: 5 A
Date: (A) Rockwell hardness test

Aim :

To determine the Rockwell hardness number for the given specimen.

Apparatus and specimen required:

1. .Rockwell hardness testing machine

2. Penetrators

3. Test specimen

4. Emery sheet

Theory: -

The hardness of a material is resistance to penetration under a localized pressure or

resistance to abrasion. Hardness tests provide an accurate, rapid and economical way of

determining the resistance of materials to deformation.

There are three general types of hardness measurements depending upon the manner

in which the test is conducted:

a. Scratch hardness measurement,

b. Rebound hardness measurement

c. Indention hardness measurement.

In scratch hardness method the material are rated on their ability to scratch one

another and it is usually used by mineralogists only.

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Load Table:

Material Penetrator Load (Kgf) Scale

Diamond cone
Relatively soft Material 60 A
0
(120 )

Purely hard Material 1/16 Ball point 100 B

Hard Material Diamond Cone (800) 150 C

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The resistance of a material to indentation. The indenters usually a ball cone or

pyramid of a material much harder than that being used. Hardened steel, sintered tungsten

carbide or diamond indenters are generally used in indentation tests; a load is applied by

pressing the indenter at right angles to the surface being tested. The hardness of the material

depends on the resistance which it exerts during a small amount of yielding or plastic. The

resistance depends on friction, elasticity, viscosity and the intensity and distribution of plastic

strain produced by a given tool during indentation.

Procedure:

In this Rockwell hardness test direct reading instrument based on the principle of

different depth measured is used.

1. The penetrator scale and the load for material to be tested is selected from the

table and settings are done.

2. The surface of specimen is cleaned from dirt; oil etc. with an emery sheet and

specimen is placed on test platform.

3. The platform is raised until the dial reads zero.

4. The load is applied on the specimen and maintained until the longer point comes

to rest then the load applying lever is released.

5. The dial readings of longer pointer is noted after release of load and thus gives

direct reading of the Rockwell hardness number in corresponding scale.

6. The same procedure is repeated for each specimen and Range value is calculated,

which gives Rockwell hardness number.

Practical Applications
A study of the plastic deformation of metals by hard indenters shows that the
indentation hardness is essentially a measure of the plastic yield stress of the metal. From the
increase in hardness with load, a semi-quantitative estimate may be made of the work-
hardening

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Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

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Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

Result:

The Rockwell hardness number of

1. ____________with _______penetrator = __________


2. ____________with _______penetrator = __________

Viva Questions
1) What is meant by hardness of a material?
Resistance of a material to deformation, indentation, or penetration by means such as
abrasion, drilling, impact, scratching, and/or wear, measured by hardness tests such as
Brinell, meyer, Rockwell, or Vickers.

2) What are the types of hardness test?


Brinell tests
Meyer tests
Vickers tests
Rockwell tests.

3) What is meant by Rockwell hardness number?


The Rockwell scale is a hardness scale based on indentation hardness of a material.
The Rockwell test determines the hardness by measuring the depth of penetration of an
indenter under a large load compared to the penetration made by a preload.

4) What is the commonly used hardness method?


The Rockwell hardness test method, as defined in ASTM E-18, is the most
commonly used hardness test method

5) Name the material having highest hardness?


Diamond

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Tabular column:

Diameter of Mean
Load Impression diameter of Brinnell
Sl. (Kgf) Impression Area Hardness
Specimn A
No d1 d2 (mm) Number
P (mm) (mm) mm2 (BHN)
d

1 Brass

Range

Mild Steel
2 (5mm)

Range

Mild Steel
3 (10mm)

Range

Formula Required:

Brinnell hardness number = Load in kg


Spherical area of indentation in mm 2
P
kg / mm 2
D
D D 2 d 2
2
Where, P = Major load in kg.

D = Diameter of indent or in mm.

d = Diameter of impression in mm

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HARDNESS TEST
Ex. No: 5 B
Date: (B) Brinnell hardness test

Aim:

To determine the Brinnell hardness number for the given specimen.

Apparatus Required:

1. Brinnell Hardness Testing Machine

2. Brinnell Microscope

3. Ball Indenter (5,10 mm)

4. Test specimens

5. Emery Sheet

Procedure:

1. The type of ball indenter of specified diameter is selected and fixed in machine head.

2. The surface of specimen is to be cleaned from dust, oil etc. before placing it on the

test platform.

3. The platform with specimen is raised until gap between indenter and specimen is

minimum. Now the machine is switched on.

4. The load-applying lever is released to original position.

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Load Table:

P/D2 value in Diameter of steel ball


Sl. No. Material type
kg/mm2 (D) indent or in mm

1 Steel, Cast iron & Brass 30 2.5

2 Copper alloys and Aluminum 10 2.5

alloys

3 Aluminum & Copper 5 2.5

4 Lead, Tin and their alloys 1 2.5

Model Calculation:
Name of the Specimen =
Applied Load (P) = Kg
Ball diameter (D) = mm
Diameter of the impression d1 = mm
Diameter of the impression d2 = mm.

P
Surface Area of Impression (A) kg / mm 2
D 2
D D 2
d
2
=

Brinnell Hardness Number (P/A) = _____________

= Kg/mm2 Or BHN

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Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

Practical Applications

A study of the plastic deformation of metals by hard indenters shows that the

indentation hardness is essentially a measure of the plastic yield stress of the metal. From the

increase in hardness with load, a semi-quantitative estimate may be made of the work-

hardening

Result:

Hardness of the given specimen.

i) Brass of 10 mm Ball diameter = _________ BHN.

ii) Steel of 5 mm Ball diameter = _________ BHN.

iii) Steel of 10 mm Ball diameter = _________ BHN.

Viva Questions

1) What is the value of Ball indenter?

Ball indenter diameters can range from 10mm to 1mm

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Observation:

1. Material of the beam specimen =

2. Support condition =

3. Length of the beam, L = mm

4. Breadth of the beam, B = mm

5. Depth of the beam, D = mm

6. The value of 'b' = mm

7. The value of 'x' = mm

Tabulation:

Sl. Load in Dial gauge reading in divisions Actual deflection in mm

No. Kg N Loading Un Loading Average div mm

Average

Formula:

1. Youngs Modulus (E) = Wax (L2-a2 x2) N/mm2


6yIL

2. Stiffness S = W/y in N/mm

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Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

Ex. No: 6 DEFLECTION TEST ON BEAM


Date:

Aim:

To determine the Modulus of elasticity of the given material (Mild steel) of the beam

by conducting deflection test.

Apparatus and specimen required:

1. Deflection bench arrangement

2. Deflectometer

3. Loading hanger

4. Knife edge support

5. Vernier calipers

6. Scale

7. Weights

Procedure:

1. The dimensions of the beam are measured.


2. The distance between the knife edge supports is measured.
3. The Deflectometer and the load hanger are fixed on the beam as shown in the figure and
the corresponding distances a and x are measured.
4. The initial zero setting is done in the Deflectometer.
5. The load is applied on the hanger by kg increment and the corresponding change in the
deflection of the beam are noted for both loading and unloading of each kg increment
and decrement weights.

The results are tabulated and the Youngs Modulus is calculated.

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Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

Where,
I = Moment of Inertia in mm4 = bd3/12
= Deflection in mm
W = Load applied in N
X = Distance between the Deflectometer and one support in mm
a = Distance between the load hanger and another support in mm
L = Effective span of the beam in mm

Simply Supported Beam

Model graph for load vs. deflection curve

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Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

Practical Application

Deflection of bridges structures


Deflection of beams in the structures
Linear elements in the structures.
The flexural behaviour of stainless steel beams are studied on the determination of
deflections. Several conclusions are made on the calculation of deflections in
stainless steel beams considering the effects of the material non-linearity, the
effective cross-section and the variation of Young's modulus along the length of

the beam.

Result:

I) The Youngs modulus of the given material Mild steel is = N/mm2

Viva questions

1. What is the use of deflectometer?

To measure the deflection

2. How the load is applied?

The load is applied axially

3. What is use of loading hanger?

Using the load hanger mass is added at the center of beam.

4. What is moment of Inertia

A quantity expressing a body's tendency to resist angular acceleration, which

is the sum of the products of the mass of each particle in the body with the square of

its distance from the axis of rotation

5. What are types of steel?

Aluminium, Wood, Cast iron

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Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

Observation:

1. Material of the spring specimen =

2. Outer diameter of the spring, D = mm

3. Diameter of the spring coil, d = mm

4. Number of coils / turns, n = Nos

Tabulation:

Sl. Load in Dial gauge reading in divisions Actual deflection

No. Kg N Loading Un Loading Average div mm

Average

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Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

TEST ON SPRINGS
Ex. No: 7A
Date: A)Tension Spring

Aim:

To determine the modulus of rigidity and stiffness of the given closed helical spring

specimen.

Apparatus and specimen required:

1. Spring testing machine

2. Tension spring specimen

3. Vernier caliper

Procedure:

1. Measure the outer diameter (D) and diameter of the spring coil (d) for the given tension

spring specimen.

2. The mean radius(r) of the spring, the number of turns (n). The pitch (p) of the spring and

the free height of spring (h) are measure.

3. The compression spring is placed centrally on the bottom plate and the upper plate is

lowered such that it just touches the upper plate.

4. The pointer on the dial is set to zero. The Load is gradually applied.

5. The deflections for both loading as well as unloading are noted.

6. Result is tabulated and modulus of rigidity, stiffness, is determined.

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Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

Formula Required:

1) Modulus of rigidity, C = 64 PR 3 n
d 4

1. Stiffness of spring
S = W/ N/mm
(Slope of w- curve)

Where, P = load in N

R = Mean radius of the spring in mm D-d


( )
2
n = Number of turns in the spring

d = Diameter of the spring coil in mm

= Deflection of the spring in mm

D = Outer diameter of the spring in mm

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Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

Practical Applications
The design difference between compression springs and tension springs is that the latter are
usually have a loop or a hook attached at either end - these are for attachment purposes.
Tension springs can be found in garage doors but a trampoline is a better example of this type

of spring in action. The primary function of this type of spring is to allow an outside force to

create tension then use energy to pull components back together.

Result:

The modulus of rigidity of the given spring (C) = ___________N/mm2

The stiffness of the given spring (S) = ___________N/mm

Viva questions

1) What is stiffness?

Force required to produce unit deformation

2) What is called as Modulus of Rigidity?

Modulus of Rigidity = EI

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Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

Observation:

1. Material of the spring specimen =

2. Outer diameter of the spring, D = mm

3. Diameter of the spring coil, d = mm

4. Number of coils / turns, n = Nos.

Tabulation:

Sl. Load in Dial gauge reading in divisions Actual deflection

No. Kg N Loading Un Loading Average div mm

Average

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Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

TEST ON SPRINGS
Ex. No: 7B
Date: B)Compression Spring

Aim:

To determine the modulus of rigidity and stiffness of the given open helical spring

under compression.

Apparatus and specimen required:

1. Spring testing machine

2. Compression spring specimen

3. Vernier caliper

4. Deflectometer

Theory:

Springs are elastic member which distort under load and regain their original shape

when load is removed. They are used in railway carriages, motorcars, scooters, motorcycles,

rickshaws, governors etc. According to their uses the springs perform the following

Functions:

1) To absorb shock or impact loading as in carriage springs.

2) To store energy as in clock springs.

3) To apply forces to and to control motions as in brakes and clutches.

4) To measure forces as in spring balances.

5) To change the variations characteristic of a member as in flexible mounting of motors.

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Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

Model graph for load vs. deflection curve

Formula Required:
64 PR 3 n
1. Modulus of rigidity, C =
d 4
2. Stiffness of spring
S = W/ N/mm
(Slope of w- curve)

Where, P = load in N
D-d
R = Mean radius of the spring in mm ( )
2
n = Number of turns in the spring

d = Diameter of the spring coil in mm

= Deflection of the spring in mm

D = Outer diameter of the spring in mm

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Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

Corrosion resistance spring. Several types of spring are available for different application.

Springs may classify as helical springs, leaf springs and flat spring depending upon their

shape. They are fabricated of high shear strength materials such as high carbon alloy steels

spring form elements of not only mechanical system but also structural system. In several

cases it is essential to idealize complex structural systems by suitable spring.

Procedure:

1. Measure the outer diameter (D) and diameter of the spring coil (d) for the given

compression spring.

2. Count the number of turns i.e. coils (n) in the given compression spring.

3. Place the compression spring at the centre of the bottom beam of the spring testing

machine.

4. Rise the bottom beam by rotating right side wheel till the spring top touches the

middle cross beam.

5. Note down the initial reading from the scale fitted in the machine.

6. Apply a load of 1 kg and note down the scale reading. Increase the load at the rate of

1kg upto a maximum of 10 kg and note down the corresponding scale reading.

7. Find the actual deflection of the spring for each load by deducting the initial scale

reading from the corresponding scale reading.

8. Calculate the modulus of rigidity for each load applied by using the following

9. Determine the stiffness for each load applied by using the following formula:

Stiffness, K = P /.

10. Find the values of modulus of rigidity and spring constant of the given spring by

taking average values.

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Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

Practical Applications
Compression springs are a form of coil spring, it is designed to work differently to
the tension spring.
Compression springs are more often than not manufactured from a much larger gauge
wire and are not wound as tightly as the tension.
The compression spring is the most common type of spring and can be found in many
different products and machinery such as; mattresses, pogosticks, watches and
mobile phones.

Result: The modulus of rigidity of the given spring = ___________N/mm2

The stiffness of the given spring = ___________N/mm

Viva Questions

1) What are the types of springs?


Compression Spring
Extension Spring.
Torsion Spring.
2) What is meant by tension spring?
Extension springs, also known as a tension spring, are helical wound coils, wrapped
tightly together to create tension. Extension springs usually have hooks, loops, or end coils
that are pulled out and formed from each end of the body.
3) What is meant by torsion spring?
A torsion spring is a spring that works by torsion or twisting; that is, a flexible
elastic object that stores mechanical energy when it is twisted. When it is twisted, it exerts a
force (actually torque) in the opposite direction, proportional to the amount (angle) it is
twisted.
4) What is mean by compression spring?
Compression springs are devices made up of helically formed coils with pitch in
between used to push back on an applied force or load in order to return to its original
position when the force or load is released. They are the most commonly used type of spring
as well as the most economical.
5) How the springs are fabricated
o Coiling
Cold winding
Hot Winding
o Hardening
o Finishing
6) What are the functions of springs?
o To store energy for part of a functioning cycle.
o To force a component to bear against, to maintain contact with, to engage, to
disengage, or to remain clear of some other component.
o To counterbalance a weight or thrust (gravitational, hydraulic, etc.). Such
springs are usually called equilibrator springs.
o To maintain electrical continuity.
o To return a component to its original position after displacement.
o To reduce shock or impact by gradually checking the motion of a moving
weight.

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Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

Ex. No: 8 COMPARISIONS ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF


Date: ________ UNHARDENED AND HARDENED SPECIMEN

Aim:
To find hardness number and impact strength for unhardened, hardened specimen or Quenched and
tempered specimen and compare mechanical properties.

Material and Equipment:


1. Unhardened specimen,
2. Hardened or Quenched and tempered specimen,
3. Muffle furnace,
4. Rockwell testing machine,
5. Impact testing machine.

Procedure:

Hardening:

It is defined as a heat treatment process in which the steel is heated to a temperature within or above its
critical range, and held at this temperature for a considerable time to ensure through penetration of the
temperature inside the component and allowed to cool by quenching in water, oil or brine solution.

Case (I) - Unhardened specimen


1. Choose the indenter and load for given material.

2. Hold the indenter in indenter holder rigidly

3. Place the specimen on the anvil and raise the elevating screw by rotating the hand wheel up to the
initial load.

4. Apply the major load gradually by pushing the lever and then release it as before.

5. Note down the readings in the dial for corresponding scale.

6. Take min 5 readings for each material.

Izod Impact test:


1. Material of the specimen = Mild steel

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Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

2. Type of notch = V groove

3. Length of the specimen (l) = mm

4. Breath of the specimen (b) = mm

5. Depth below the notch (d) = mm

6. Depth of notch (b-d) = mm

Calculation:
Area = b (d-2) = mm2 = m2

I = k/ A = J/m2

Toughness = Energy observed in specimen / Volume

= ______________________ J/ m3

Case (II) - For Hardened specimen


1. Keep the specimen in muffle furnace at temperature of 700C to 850C for 2 hours

2. The specimen is taken from muffle furnace and quenched in water or oil.

3. Then above procedure is followed to test hardness .

Case (III) - For Tempered specimen


1. Keep the specimen in muffle furnace at temperature of 650C for 2 hours

2. Allow the specimen for air cooling after taking from muffle furnace

3. Then same procedure is followed for the specimen

Result:

1. Hardness in

(i) Deep case hardened steel =

(a) Unhardened =

(b) Quenched =

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Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

(ii) Mild steel =

(a) Unhardened =

(b) Quenched =

2. Impact strength in

(i) Deep case hardened steel =

(a) Unhardened =

(b) Quenched =

Hardened Sample:

Tempered Sample:

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Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

Ex. No: 9 TEMPERING IMPROVEMENT ON


Date: ________ MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, COMPARISON

Aim:
To perform the heat treatment tempering on the given material C-40 steel.
Apparatus required:
1. Muffle furnace: tongs

2. Given material: C-40 steel

3. Quenching medium: water


Procedure:
Quenching:

It is an operation of rapid cooling by immersing a hot piece into a quenching bath.

Tempering:

It is defined as the process of reheating the hardened specimen to some temperature before the critical
range followed by any rate of cooling such a reheating permit the trapped temperature to transform and relieve
the internal stresses.

1. The given specimen is subjected to Rockwell hardness test and Rockwell hardness number is
measured before hardening that the specimen is subjected to rough grinding.

2. The specimen is placed inside the combustion chamber of muffle furnace and is noted up to 830 C.

3. Then the specimen is soaked for 10 minutes at the same temperature 830C.

4. After soaking it is taken out from the furnace and it is quenched in the water.

5. The specimen is cooled, now the tempering is completed.

6. Again the specimen is subjected to Rockwell hardness test and Rockwell hardness number is
measured.
Result:
The heat treatment tempering on the given material C-40 steel and its Rockwell hardness number is
measured
1. Rockwell hardness number before tempering = ______________
2. Rockwell hardness number after tempering = ______________

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Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

Observation:
Rockwell hardness test:
Rockwell
Name of the Load Load Dial
Condition Penetrator Scale Hardness
Material (kgf) (N) Reading
Number

Tabulation:
Specimen Dimension of specimen Impact Impact
Breath (b) Depth(d) Length(l) Depth of Energy Strength (I)
mm mm mm notch observed (k) J/mm2
(b-d)mm J

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Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

Ex. No: 10
Microscopic study of Hardened & Tempered Specimen
Date: ________

Aim:
To study the micro-structure of Hardened and Tempered specimen.

Material and Equipment:


1. Unhardened specimen,
2. Hardened or Quenched and tempered specimen,
3. Muffle furnace,
4. Metallurgical Microscope.
Hardening:

It is defined as a heat treatment process in which the steel is heated to a temperature within or above its critical
range, and held at this temperature for a considerable time to ensure thorough penetration of the temperature
inside the component and allowed to cool by quenching in water, oil or brine solution.

Case (I) - Unhardened specimen


1. Choose the indenter and load for given material.

2. Hold the indenter in indenter holder rigidly

3. Place the specimen on the anvil and raise the elevating screw by rotating the hand wheel up to the initial load.

4. Apply the major load gradually by pushing the lever and then release it as before.

5. Note down the readings in the dial for corresponding scale.

6. Take min 5 readings for each material.

Case (II) - For Hardened specimen


1. Keep the specimen in muffle furnace at temperature of 700 to 850 for 2 hours

2. The specimen is taken from muffle furnace and quenched in water or oil.

3. Then above procedure is followed to test hardness .


Case (III) - For Tempered specimen
1. Keep the specimen in muffle furnace at temperature of 650 for 2 hours.
2. Allow the specimen for air cooling after taking from muffle furnace.
3. Then same procedure is followed foe the specimen.

Procedure:

Sample preparation for Microscopic study:

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Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem.

Polishing:
1. Begin with the 25-micron, nylon cloth polishing station.
2. Turn the water on adjusting to less than one drop per second.
3. Apply a small amount of the aluminum oxide abrasive solution to the polishing cloth.
4. When polishing the specimen, hold it with both hands, apply a moderate amount of pressure.
5. Before proceeding to the next polishing stage, wash and dry the specimen .
6. Repeat steps 5 to obtain 5-micron stage.

Etching:
Microscopic examination of a properly polished, un-etched specimen will reveal only a few structural
features such as inclusions and cracks or other physical imperfections. Etching is used to highlight, and
sometimes identify, micro structural features or phases present. Etching occurs when the acid or base is placed
on the specimen surface because of the difference in rate of attack of the various phases present and their
orientation. The etching process is usually accomplished by merely applying the appropriate solution to the
specimen surface for several seconds to several minutes.

Nital, a Nitric Acid - Alcohol mixture, is the etchant commonly utilized with common irons and steels.
Nital is dripped onto the specimen using an eye-dropper or cotton swab. Ten seconds to one minute is usually
sufficient for proper etching depending on sample and nital concentration. The sample is immediately washed
under running water, rinsed with alcohol and dried in an air blast. Do not touch, wipe or swab the specimen
following etching; dry off the rinsing alcohol on the specimen with the air blast and then move on to the
microscopic examination stage.
Microscopic Examination
The specimen is placed on the stage of the microscope so that its surface is perpendicular to the optical
axis. Detailed viewing is done with a Metallurgical Microscope. A metallurgical microscope has a system of
lenses (objectives and eyepiece) so that different magnifications (25X to 1000X) can be achieved. The important
characteristics of the microscope are: (1) magnification, (2) resolution and (3) flatness of field. The resultant
magnification is the product of the magnifying power of the objective and that of the ocular. Scanning Electron
Microscopes (SEMs) are capable of magnifications up to 20,000X and Transmission Electron. Microscopes
(TEMs) are utilized to view at magnifications up to 100,000X for highly detailed micro-structural study.

Result:
Thus the microscopic view of Hardened and Tempered samples are studied.

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