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P.A.

V
Philippine Athletes Village

A Thesis Proposal Submitted to the


College of Architecture
University of Santo Tomas

In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements
for the Degree of
Bachelor of Science in Architecture

ALCAUSIN, FRANCIS CHRISTIAN R.

5AR-4

September 2017
P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 1

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter I INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background and Nature of the Project 5

1.2 Statement of the Problem 7

1.3 Significance of the Project 10

1.4 Project Goal & Objectives 12

1.5 Project Scope & Limitations 13

1.6 Definition of Terms & Acronyms 15

Chapter II- REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 The Sociology of Sport. Is sport a religion? 19

2.2 Race and Sport 20

2.3 Sport and Gender 22

2.4 Homosexuality in sports 23

2.5 Sport, Culture and the Public 24

2.6 Youth and Sports 25

2.7 Timelessness of Sport 26

2.8 Functional Training and how it works 27

2.9 The potential role for sport and physical activity in disabilities 28

2.10 Sport Psychology 29

Chapter III- RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design 33

3.2 Research Methods 3

Chapter IV- SITE PROFILE AND ANALYSIS


P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 2

4.1 Site Criteria 36

4.2 Site Data 37

4.2.1 Site A: Tagaytay Highlands 37

4.2.2 Site B: New Clark Green City 46

4.3 Site Selection and Justification 60

Bibliography 61

List of Figures and Tables

1.1: Background of the Study

Table 1. The Philippine Olympic Medal Table 7

Table 2. The Philippine Asian Games Medal Table 7

4.2.1: Tagaytay Highlands

Figure 1. Tagaytay Highlands Map 37

Table 1. Slope Type Table 39

Figure 2. Site Slope Map 40

Figure 3. Tagaytay Base Map 41

Figure 4. Land Protection Areas 43

Table 1. Tagaytay Language Table 44

4.2.2 New Clark Green City

Figure 1. Soil Map or Tarlac 49

Figure 2. Topography Map of Tarlac 50

Figure 3. Geohazard Map of Tarlac 51

Table 1. Permanent Commercial Crops 56

Table 2. Planted Crop Production Table 57

Table 3 SWOT Table 59

Table 4 Site Selection Table 60


P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 3

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION

i. Introduction

The Olympic Games or simply The Games is an international sports festival. The

Games originated as a way for the ancient Greeks to salute their gods, but the modern Games

salute the athletic talents of citizens of all nations. It has become the pride of nations to

participate and win in the events and the Games have been the penultimate standard of a nations

caliber in a sport. The Olympic Games consist of both summer and winter events. The Summer

Games are scheduled every four years, while the Winter Games take place two years after the

Summer games, also in four-year intervals. Standard events in the Summer Games include

basketball, boxing, gymnastics, soccer, swimming, track and field, and many other sports.

Winter Game highlights include ice hockey, figure skating, skiing, and bobsledding. The

Paralympics established by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) is a branch of the

Olympic games that involve athletes of various disabilities and runs parallel to the Olympic

Games time tables.

The International Olympic Committee (IOC) has laid the groundwork for the

participating nations and imparts a mission they set out to do: celebrate the athletes of all

nations through fair competition among the best from around the world. (IOC,2015) Recent

advances in sport coverage has garnered the Olympics many viewers around the world,

numbering in the millions. With over 13,00 athletes in 33 different sports in nearly 400 events,

The Games have grown so much that nearly every nation is represented and had its own share

of controversies, boycotts, etc. The Philippines participation in The Games is well celebrated

through its history. With 10 medals under its belt, Philippine athletes receive plenty of

motivation and support from their compatriots, but can also find inspiration in the medals won

by the Philippines. The Philippine Olympic Committee (POC) was established to further
P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 4

strengthen the Philippine Olympic scene and to improve its standing in the world rankings,

which currently sits at 101st. The POC aims to impart a message as stated in its Preamble:

We, undertake, in accordance with our mission and role at national level, to

participate in actions to promote peace and to promote women in sport. We also

undertake to support and encourage the promotion of sports ethics, to fight against

doping and to demonstrate a responsible concern for environmental issues.

(Philippine Olympic Committee, 2015)


P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 5

1.1 Background and Nature of the Project

Scientific research has concluded that it takes a minimum of 10 years and 10,000 hours

of training for a talented athlete to reach elite levels. For athlete and coach, this translates into

slightly more than 3 hours of training or competition daily over 10 years.(MacNoughton,2012)

Orienteering is a late specialization sport and the international elite typically achieve their best

results only after 10 15 years of training and competition Thus, athlete development is not

static. It responds and reacts to scientific and sport specific innovations and is subject to

continuous research in all aspects. As an evolving vehicle for change, it reflects all emerging

facets of physical education, sport, community recreation, and life-long physical activity to

ensure systematic and logical delivery of programs to all ages.

Athlete development promotes ongoing education to athlete and recreation

administrators, coaches, sport scientists, parents, and educators about the interlocking

relationship between physical education, community recreation, life-long physical activity, and

high-performance sport. Sports can be classified as either early or late specialization. Early

specialization sports include artistic and acrobatic sports such as gymnastics, diving, and figure

skating. These differ from late specialization sports in that very complex skills are learned

before maturation, since they cannot be fully mastered if taught after maturation.

(MacNoughton,2012)

Physical activity is essential for healthy citizen development. Among its other benefits,

physical activity enhances development of brain function, coordination, social skills, gross

motor skills, emotional health, leadership, and imagination. Helps people build confidence and

positive self-esteem. It helps build strong bones and muscles, improves flexibility, develops

good posture and balance, improves fitness, reduces stress, and improves sleep, promotes
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healthy weight, helps people learn to move skillfully and to enjoy being active. Physical

activity should be a routine part of the daily life, and not something that is enforced or required.

Organized physical activity and active play are particularly important for the healthy

development of people with a disability, if they are to acquire habits of lifelong activity and

have positive outlook in life. A specific and well-planned training, competition and recovery

regime will ensure optimum development throughout an athletes career. Ultimately success

comes from training and performing well over the long-term rather than winning in the short

term. There is no short cut to success in athletic preparation. Rushing competition will always

result in shortcomings in physical, technical, tactical and mental abilities.

(MacNoughton,2012) This long-term athlete development mainly focuses on five different

stages in an athletes career.

Athlete development in the Philippines is growing, with various training programs such

as the Gilas Pilipinas Program and the Philippine Olympic Committee (POC) Training

Program, the ground work has been laid for future organizations to improve upon or add to the

existing programs the country has for athletic development. The Philippine Sports Commission

(PSC) challenges the Philippines' Local Government Units (LGUs) to produce worlds class

athletes and champions:

The challenge is to find hidden gems and develop them into world-class

athletes,

-(Kiram,2017)
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1.2 Statement of the Problem

Philippine sports is a mess (Coseteng, 2013). Before the Philippines recent medalist

Hidilyn Diaz bagging silver in the womens division of weightlifting during the last Olympic

Games at Rio de Janiero in Brazil, the Philippines had a podium finish drought for 20 years with

Mansueto Onyok Velasco winning the silver medal in boxing in Atlanta in the United States

(US) being the last.

Although the Philippines boasts a large population pool to grow and culture pedigree

athletes, The Philippines performance in the games seem paltry and poor in comparison to its

neighboring countries. In the 2000 Olympics in Sydney, Australia, the Philippines had 20

competitors in nine disciplines but failed to win a single medal. Filipinos also did not get a single

medal in succeeding games in 2004 in Athens, Greece with 16 athletes in six sports, in 2008 in

Beijing, China with 15 athletes in eight sports, and in 2012 in London, England with 11 athletes in

eight sports.

Table 1. The Philippine Olympic Medal Table Table 2. The Philippine Asian Games Medal Table
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Comparing the Philippine Medal Tables in the Olympics and Asian Games (Table

1 & 2, respectively). It is obvious how the Philippines compares to Asia and the rest of the

world.

According to former senator Nikki Coseteng, such poor showing was a result of

lack of foreign exposures and inadequate training because of insufficient budget

compounded by the long-time bickering of sports officials. I think it is messy because our

structures for the development of Philippine sports are very weak, in some areas invisible,

in some areas underdeveloped and in some other areas, very well supported, in other fields

almost, even totally unavailable. Thats one of the reasons why its messy, (Coseteng,

2013).

Lack of government support

The Philippine government lacks support and vision to create a strong and well-

funded sports development program as a part of a long-term goal towards sport excellence

in the future. It is stressed that there is a need for development and improvement in the

collaboration of the various sectors of the government pertaining to sports and even

departments such as the Dept. of Education (DepEd) and the Commission on Higher

Education (CHEd) as well as the Dept. of Labor and Employment (DOLE) to properly

facilitate the Palarong Pambansa (National Games) often held in rural areas in the

Philippines. Additionally, the Philippines lacks a government department solely dedicated

to sports, showing the government's lack of focus towards the athletics sector.
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Lack of Facilities

The Philippines lacks proper sports facilities, stadiums, and athlete and coach

quarters. Existing facilities most often cater to the rich and paying citizens creating a

barrier/divide and making it inaccessible and out of reach to the poorer population to

which most of the Philippines athletes come from. Apart from the run-down facilities of

the Rizal Memorial Sports Complex and athlete settlements in Cogeo, Montalban, the

Philippines lacks accessible facilities for its citizens.

In 2010, The Philippine Sports Commision (PSC) envisioned to create a training

center to create a training center for some 600 members of the national pool in the

sprawling government-owned lot at the Clark Development Zone in Angeles City as the

10-hectare Rizal Memorial Sports Complex is already congested and is not suitable for

the training of the athletes. Budgetary constraints remain the main problem in making

such plan a reality

The government must pour in a huge chunk of its resources for this undertaking. It

includes the training of athletes as well as sending them to various overseas stints for

exposures. But then, there is still the equally important grassroots program. The PSC has

already revived the Philippine National Games, Batang Pinoy and other sporting events to

discover fresh talents. But the obvious lack of proper facilities proves to be the biggest

obstacle.
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1.3 . Significance of the Problem

The Philippines is currently at the brink of being a global powerhouse in sports. With the PSC

and POC laying the groundwork for athletic program development, and private organizations and

professional clubs starting to collaborate with LGUs, a need for a centralized and gentrified complex

for athlete and sport development is in place. The provision of such facility will help the Philippines

create a symbol for national pride and sport dominance. The project will show the Philippines' strength

and advantages against all countries in the world. Also, the project will be a way to popularize sports

and promote clean and healthy living in the Philippines When the aim of the study succeeds, it can help

our country raise its pride and make its people proud to be Filipinos and tourism would also benefit. As

the project develops, local and foreign citizens will be exposed and educated to the local athlete

development and sports scene.

The idea is to create a model for sport facility and athlete training centers in the Philippines that

would encourage clean and healthy living and encourage people of all ages and backgrounds to take up

or improve upon a sport and encourage them to represent the Philippines as national team members.

Provision of housing spaces along with training facilities will help those from the remote parts of the

country and those from overseas to settle in the development rendering them capable of living in

comfort and be in their natural environment. The development will be beneficial to both athletes and

coach personnel as a centralized sport training facility will provide comfort focus to their development

to help discover and develop/ maximize their potentials in a clean, proper and safe environment.
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1.3.1. Sustainable Development Goals

#3. Good Health and Well-Being

Filipinos live in the most advanced age of science and medicine; yet preventable

disease, untreated drug & alcohol abuse, preventable birth defects, and avoidable traffic &

industrial accidents still kill millions of people each year. Where a person lives or how much

money he/she has should never keep him/her from receiving the medical attention he/she needs.

Every person, child or adult, should be able to get the resources they need to live a long and

healthy life.

#5. Gender Equality /10. Reduced Inequalities (Discrimination in sports)

Gender inequalities are still deeply rooted in every society. Many women still lack

access to employment opportunities, basic education, and healthcare, and they're often

subjected to violence and discrimination\

A truly developed world cannot exist without equal opportunities for both countries and

their citizens. Equality is at the core of all the sustainable development goals. Together we can

empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all people irrespective of

age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion, economic or other status.

#11. Sustainable Cities and Communities

By 2030, almost 60% of the world's population will live in urban areas, and most of

that urban expansion will be in the developing world. Rapid urbanization puts pressure on

supplies of fresh water, sewage systems, the living environment and public health. A

sustainable city must embrace the rapid change ang adapt accordingly to benefit its users and

stakeholders.
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1.4 Project Goals and Objectives

1.4.1 Goals

Given the need for a centralized athlete development and training center, the primary goal of

the project is to provide a model for athletic development facilities in the Philippines. The project aspires

to be the symbol of athlete development in the country through an accessible, sustainable, flexible, self-

aware, therapeutic, and systematized spaces encouraging athletes and regular citizens to partake in a

clean and healthy lifestyle.

1.4.2 Objectives

To improve the Philippines performance and output in international endeavors in sports

To encourage physical activity and promote a clean and healthy lifestyle to Filipinos

To produce world class athletes with qualities embodying Filipino tradition


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1.5 Project Scope and Research Limitations

1.5.1 Project Scope

The project to be developed will account for designing a master plan of an athlete

village and sport complex, consisting of athlete training and lodging facilities, open spaces

and sport surfaces (tracks, courts, etc.), and supplementary facilities (healthcare,

administrative, wellness center). The project is dedicated to serve and cater primarily to

Philippine athletes and Olympic delegates and secondarily to Filipinos interested to

observe or participate in the Philippines athletic program. The projects design will only

focus on the design of the athlete training and lodging facilities as well as the playing courts

and open areas while other supplementary facilities would only be of reference to the site.

The project aims to be a model for architecturally sustainable sporting and housing

facilities utilizing tropical design strategies as well as green and sustainable design

strategies.

The stakeholders to be accommodated in this thesis is as follows: senior athletes

(19-up), youth athletes (18-under), Paralympic athletes, amateur athletes, professional/

club athletes and wellness and fitness enthusiasts.

1.5.2 Research Limitations

There are some limitations where in gathering of data cannot be acquired. Listed below

are as follows:

Statistics regarding athlete population per sport is either outdated

inconsistent especially in the regional level in the rural areas. An alternative

solution is to base statistics referred to the highest governing body of sports


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in the Philippines which is the PSC. Further interviews with key personnel

of PSC shall be relied upon along with data from the organization

Information regarding minimum requirements regarding sporting facilities

and technologies in the PD 1096 and BP 344 is either outdated or

unspecified. Alternatives would be observation and analysis of local case

studies and combining them with international case studies. Minimum

standards for facilities and technologies will be referenced through

international standards.

Case studies in the Philippines are very limited and specific typologies do

not exist. Alternatives are international case studies and synthesizing

observations and information to the local Filipino context.

Due to the private ownership of the site and confidentiality of documents,

site boundaries, distances and bearings would be based and approximated

using satellite imagery and map data and reference to provided master plans.
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1.6 Definition of Terms & Acronyms

1.6.1 Definition of Terms

Accessible - it can be accessed, entered, and used by persons

with disabilities

Activity-- the condition in which things are happening or being done.

A recreational pursuit or pastime

Amateur-- a person who engages in a pursuit, especially a sport, on

an unpaid basis.

Athlete- a person who is proficient in sports and other forms of

physical exercise.

BP 344Batas Pambansa 344. Accessibility Law

Burnout-- physical or mental collapse caused by overwork or stress.

Centralized-- concentrate (control of an activity or organization)

under a single authority.

Core-- a central and often foundational part usually distinct from the

enveloping part by a difference in nature

Club-- an association or organization dedicated to a particular interest

or activity.

Competition-- the activity or condition of competing, an event or

contest in which people compete or the person or people with

whom one is competing, especially in a commercial or

sporting arena; the opposition.


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Coach-- an athletic instructor or trainer

Disability-- any restriction or lack of ability to perform an

activity in the manner or within the range considered normal

for a human being.

Delegate-- a person sent or authorized to represent others, an elected

representative sent to a conference.

Development-- the process of developing or being developed.

Fitness-- a general state of good health, usually as a result of exercise

and nutrition

Flexible-- able to be easily modified to respond to altered

circumstances or conditions.

Gentrified-- renovate and improve (especially a house or district) so

that it conforms to middle-class taste.

International-- something (a company, language, or organization)

involving more than a single country.

Nutrition-- the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and

other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth,

reproduction, health and disease of an organism. It includes

food intake, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis,

catabolism and excretion.

Olympic GamesInternational competition consisting of the

Summer Games and Winter Games taking place every four

years

ParalympicsBranch of the Olympics dedicated to disabled and

handicapped athletes
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PD 1096National Building Code of the Philippines

Prophylactic-- a medicine or course of action used to prevent disease.

Senior-- a person who is a specified number of years older than

someone else or a competitor of above a certain age or of the

highest status in a particular sport.

Skill-- the ability to do something well; expertise.

Self-Aware-- having conscious knowledge of one's own character and

feelings.

Sports -- includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games

which, through casual or organized participation, aim to use,

maintain or improve physical ability and skills while

providing enjoyment to participants, and in some cases,

entertainment for spectators. Usually the contest or game is

between two sides, each attempting to exceed the other

Specialization-- a method of production where a business, area or

economy focuses on the production of a limited scope of

products or services to gain greater degrees of productive

efficiency within an overall system.

Sustainable-- conserving an ecological balance by avoiding depletion

of natural resources. Also, being able to be maintained at a

certain rate or level.

Training-- the action of teaching a person a skill or type of behavior.

Wellness-- is an active process of becoming aware of and making

choices toward a healthy and fulfilling life.


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Youth-- the period between childhood and adult age, an early stage in

the development of something or young people considered as

a group.

1.6.2 Acronyms

CHEd- Commission on Higher Education

DepEd-Department of Education

DOLE- Department of Labor and

Employment

IOC- International Olympic Comitee

IPC- International Paralympic Committee

POC- Philippine Olympic Committee

PSC- Philippine Sports Commission

PSI- Philippine Sports Institute

PhilSpADA- Philippine Sports Association

for the Differently Abled

SDG- Sustainable Development Goals

WG- Winter Games

SG- Summer Games

BP- Batas Pambansa

PD- Presidential Decree

RA- Republic Act


P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 19

CHAPTER II: RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 The Sociology of Sport. Is sport a religion?

What is the role of sports in society? Society is self-aware. People might not like sports,

but they know what it is. Sports is considered very basic and something that is natural that

even children know what it is. The sociology of sport questions sport itself. Why do athletes

take drugs? Why do people take part in sports more than others? It examines the role and

function of sport in the lives of the people and the societies it forms. For sociologists, sport is

central to identity construction in modern contemporary societies. Sometimes, sports acts as

a surrogate religion and is an avocation (Malcolm, 2012)

Psychologists are closing in on the conclusion that sport has many of the same effects

on spectators as religion does (Barber, 2012). "The similarities between sport fandom and

organized religion are striking. Consider the vocabulary associated with both: faith, devotion,

worship, ritual, dedication, sacrifice, commitment, spirit, prayer, suffering, festival, and

celebration."(Wann,2001)

If ritual may be entertaining, then entertainment, as experienced in a sports stadium,

may be ritualistic. Fans wear the team colors and carry its flags, icons, and mascots. Then

there is repetitive chanting of team encouragement, hand-clapping, booing the other team,

doing the wave, and so forth. The singing of an anthem at a sporting event likely has similar

psychological effects as the singing of a hymn in church. As a group, sports fans are religious,

according to research. It is also curious that as religious attendance rates have dropped off in

recent decades, interest in sport spectatorship has soared. Moreover, research has debunked
P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 20

several stereotypes about sports fans that seem incompatible with religiosity. Fans are not

lazy, nor are they particularly prone to violence. (Wann, 2001)

In the Philippines, sport has not just become a religion, it has become a vocation. Many

a people dedicate themselves to their craft and sometimes neglect their needs and obligations

outside sports. A positive outlook is that while Filipinos are avid sports fans, most of them have

not graduated to idolatry or succumbed to maniacy. It has rooted itself in the culture of

Filipinos. With the help of media coverage and circulation of sports paraphernalia, sports in

modern Filipino society has cemented its place along religion in the country.

2.2 Race and Sport

In modern athletics, it has become prevalent that society places race as the main factor for

sport dominance. Black athletes excel in strength and endurance, while white athletes excel in

graceful fundamentals and Asian athletes have little to no advantage over their Western and

European counterparts. Sports has become one of the biggest stages in the issue of racism, as

it has permeated into sport itself. (Malcolm,2012)

Psychologists claim that there are two factors influencing these racial associations with

sport dominance:

1)Race Linked Physiological Traits

These traits are evident from a persons birth, as it is their physiological makeup that

defines or accentuates these traits. For example, black athletes are tall in nature and have more

compact muscle mass, making them appear lean and fast while white athletes are moderate in
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height but have looser muscle mass making them appear stocky and buff, while Asian athletes

are smaller in stature and have varying muscle mass making them look smaller and weaker.

Although these traits are apparent, psychologists stress that these may be purely visual.

Physiological traits can be trained, developed or changed, rendering assumptions of racial

factors affecting sport dominance to be false. (Malcolm, 2012)

2)Race Linked Psychological Traits

These traits stem from an athletes mindset and his/her disposition on race. Rooting

from assumptions that race governs sport dominance. These assumptions lead to athletes

thinking that training and competing in a sport dominated by another race to be futile.

(Malcolm, 2012) Recognition of this fact renders the athlete to thinking he is unqualified for

the sport.

In the Philippines, for example, children smaller in stature are discouraged from

partaking in heavy contact sports like football and basketball. It is a tradition and mindset that

to excel in these sports, you must be bigger, stronger and taller than your competition. Leading

to children being discouraged from partaking in competition which further leads to

underrepresentation.

These two factors contribute to the disproportionate representation of a particular race

leading to the racial majority into thinking they are the best. This phenomenon is called

stacking. (Malcolm, 2012)

2.3 Sport and gender


P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 22

In sports, institutional sexism has resulted/ contributed to the current situation where

women in sports are either discriminated or marginalized. Women in sports are often

marginalized and sometimes rendered invisible. This roots from sport being a male preserve.

Sport in history has always been participated in and dominated by men, and historically,

women are relegated to spectatorship or relief of these athletes. While female athleticism

challenges gender norms, women athletes continue to be depicted in traditional roles that

reaffirm their femininity - as wives and mothers or sex objects. By comparison, male athletes

are framed according to heroic masculine ideals that honor courage, strength,

and endurance

This expectation of femininity often results in women being dissuaded from lifting

weights, sweating, grunting, being aggressive, participating and competing in sports and

physical activities. The main reason for this is because society expects women to be ladylike,

not demonstrate characteristics that are defined as being masculine. However, when women do

cross the line and exhibit these so-called manly traits, their gender identity, sexual

orientation, values, and social roles are often questioned. Only recently has women become

empowered to voice out their reservations to men and feminist movements are gearing towards

gender equality in sport in all areas around the world. (Malcolm, 2012)
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2.4 Homosexuality in sport

Homophobia is a fear or hatred of homosexuals. Even though sport provides a

wonderful venue for positive and healthy experiences, homophobia exists in sport and is one

of several reasons that participants in sport are discriminated against on the basis of sexual

orientation. Sport is a gendered experience, and the sporting context is filled with intimate

linkages between sport and masculinity, femininity, and gender exploration.

Homophobia takes several forms. It can be a prejudice or negative prejudgment about

those who are homosexual or thought to be homosexual. It can take the form of a stereotype,

where an individual or group is thought to have characteristics assumed to be indicative of

homosexuality. It can also be a discriminatory behavior toward a person or group being treated

differently, usually negatively, based on sexual orientation. Elimination of homophobia is seen

by many as an important step in playing sports an equitable and safe place for participants.

(Brackenridge and Kirby 1997).

What is homophobia and how does it affect girls and women and boys and men in

sport? Rowe (1995) writes that there is an intimate linkage between sport and maleness and

that it is womens increasing involvement in sport that has contributed to a destabilization of

social categories of relationships and identities. In the sport world, this means that hegemonic

masculinity dominates femininity, and heterosexuality remains the organizing discourse rather

than homosexuality or any other forms of sexuality. Further, the principle referent in sport is

the heterosexual male, followed closely by the heterosexual female and only afterwards,

perhaps, by the gay male or lesbian respectively. Heterosexuality is assumed, and persons who

are not heterosexual experience active (because they are individually and collectively unable
P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 24

to participate fully in sport) or passive discrimination (because they are made to feel

invisible).

However, since sport is so intrinsically male defined and male dominated, it is virtually

impossible to write about homophobia without also writing about gender boundaries in sport,

hegemonic masculinity, compulsory heterosexuality, heteronormativity, homoeroticism, the

gay gaze, and homonegativity. Perhaps this makes homophobia look more complex, but it is

essential to understanding the discrimination dynamic. (Perotti, 2002)

2.5 Sport, Culture and the Public

Sport has entrenched itself into a cultures soul and the help of media coverage and

dissemination of sport paraphernalia further entrenches the soul of sport to its spectators and

consumers. Through the force of publicity, the world of sport is created and is being kept alive

by the services extended by the press and the public. (Schultz, 2015)

Sport reflects dominant cultures/ cultural themes. Athletes, at an early age, are

reinforced by their countrys cultural values like self-heroism, self-sacrifice, duty, honor etc.

Sports media further preserves old values and introduce /reinforce new traditional values.

(Schultz, 2015)

In the Philippines, athletes are taught the value of puso (heart) and sipag (diligence)

from an early age. These traditional traits are combined with the countrys athlete mantras of

humility in glory, grace in defeat and Laban Pilipinas! (Fight, Philippines!). These are

reciprocated by the public, cheering these words during spectating in international


P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 25

competitions and taken into heart by the national athletes. By bringing people together, sport

plays an important role in societies as it builds solidarity and reminds us of the importance of

being connected in a community. Sports is a way that young people from around the world

are finding a way to connect with each other. Young people are looking for community and

they are finding it through sport.

2.6 Youth and Sports

Sports and Athletics can benefit young children because sports and athletics offer these

young children several different avenues to becoming more physically, mentally, and

spiritually tough. By participating in athletics youth learn to be reliant on a team effort, not

only does this build leadership skills but it also builds up the child's self-esteem. Sports and

athletics also helps to build the participants mental, physical, and emotional awareness. By

becoming more aware of oneself through sports and athletic one can grow to levels of

emotional matureness that are not readily accessible to those of whom do not participate in

sports and athletics.

Physical skills are peaked when participating in sports and athletics. When a person is

physically fit, athletic skills are normally above and beyond what they would normally be

without them. Mentally, sports and athletics helps to strengthen the mind, helping people to

go farther mentally then they thought would ever be possible. It is proven that people that play

sports and become involved with clubs and other groups do better in school. It also allows

people to gain recognition in their sport.

Physical play is during infancy and early childhood is central to the development of

social and emotional competence. Researchers have reported that children who engage in
P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 26

more physical play with their parents exhibited greater enjoyment during play sessions, were

more aware of their emotions, had greater self-esteem and were more popular with their peers.

(Merkel, 2013)

Playing sports helps children spend their time better. Some studies show that children

spend 7.5 hours on electronics daily. Going outside and playing sports would cut into that

time. Other studies show that youth that play sports tend to get better grades.

Playing sports teaches children many social skills. They will communicate with

teammates their age and coaches who are older than them. Sportsmanship and character will

also be taught while playing. These social skills will greatly benefit them the rest of their life.

Sports can also help childrens self-esteem. They will undoubtedly get praise and

encouragement from parents and coaches. (Junonia, 2017)

2.7 Timelessness of sport

It is easy to assume that todays sport will remain forever. History shows that a sport

does not die and just simply evolves. This is because spectators have unprecedented demands

and modern designers and sport architects have finally learned to meet their own demands.

Spectators have a definite and predictable nature. If they like it, they turn up and stay and in

they dont, they grow bored and find something else. This poses a challenge for designers and

sport facility architects. How long can the building outlive its intended purpose and how it

should be cutting edge.

Now, sport architects must be highly specialized in consumer trends, safety legislation,

environmental issues and politics and the machinations of high finance and planning
P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 27

procedures. Despite these demands, there is a cruel caveat, facilities alone are not enough

(Ingus,2001)

2.8 Functional training and how it works

Functional training programs prepare an athlete to play his sport. Functional training

does not use one specific type of regimen to train an athlete of one sport to another which is

called cross training. Many programs confuse the two and as a result, trainers train their athletes

to excel in another sport other than their own primary sport. (Boyle, 2016)

How it works is that functional training programs produce instability in the athlete in

controlled amounts and allowing them to react accordingly to regain their stability. These

ensures that there is no over- or underdevelopment in an unnecessary aspect and instead

focusing on attaining a balance. This allows athletes to train parts of their body based on how

they would use it. (Boyle, 2016)

To be effective, a functional exercise program should include several different elements

which can be adapted to an individual's needs or goals

Based on functional tasks directed toward everyday life activities.

Individualized a training program should be tailored to each individual. Any program

must be specific to the goals of an individual, focusing on meaningful tasks. It must also

be specific to the individual state of health, including presence or history of injury. An

assessment should be performed to help guide exercise selection and training load.

Integrated It should include a variety of exercises that work on flexibility, core, balance,

strength and power, focusing on multiple movement planes.


P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 28

Progressive Progressive training steadily increases the difficulty of the task.

Periodized mainly by training with distributed practice and varying the tasks.

Repeated frequently.

Use of real life object manipulation.

Performed in context-specific environments.

Feedback should be incorporated following performance (self-feedback of success is used

as well as trainer/therapist feedback).

2.9 The potential role for sport and physical activity in disabilities

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) (2007), approximately

600million people in the world live with some form of disability. Of these, 80% live in LMICs,

are poor, and have little or no access to basic services (WHO, 2007). In many LMICs,

disability, if not outright excluded, is only minimally addressed by public health and social

policies, leaving PWD with few structural supports (WHO, 2007).

Having a disability or impairment may prevent persons from participating in their

social roles and being active members of their community. The ability to be productive and to

engage in activities is viewed as an essential part of life, a basic human need, and an important

determinant of health and well-being. The long-term health benefits of physical activity,

including recreation and sports, have long been established for all individuals with or without

disability. However, as with other marginalized members of society, PWD have also been

generally excluded from activities found in mainstream society, including sports and leisure
P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 29

activities. PWD have traditionally been considered frail and not physically capable, and,

because of their perceived inferior physical and mental status, excluded from sports beyond

rehabilitation or therapeutic applications (DePauw & Gavron, 2005)

The benefits of participation in sports and physical leisure activities are not limited

to rehabilitation for PWD. As with the general population, physical activity may reduce the

risk for chronic illnesses and secondary conditions for PWD However, even though they would

derive considerable benefit from physical exercise, children and adults living with disabilities

are more likely to be sedentary compared to their able-bodied counterpart both at a social and

an individual level. Participation in such activities may improve functioning in daily activities,

resulting in increased independence and empowerment of PWD, increased social integration

and inclusion, as well as help to change attitudes among members of the society in general.

(Burchell, 2006)

2.10 Sport Psychology

Modern sport at every level of competition and in virtually every sporting activity has

benefited from the application of psychological principles and mental training in the pursuit

of maximum athletic performance, stress management, improved training attitude and every

other aspect of sport where the mind, emotions and physical performance intersect.

Sport psychology is unique amongst the applied psychology disciplines for several

reasons. The phrase suggests that there are accepted common practices employed by sports

psychologists and it is acknowledged as with any science, the baseline approaches to the

education, training and certification of the sport psychologist are well understood across the
P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 30

world of sport and athletic competition. The feature of sports psychology practice that tends

to differentiate it from other form of applied psychology is the general closeness of the

relationships developed between an individual athlete and their psychologist.

The common professional boundaries of professional detachment are different in

sports environments where intense emotion and competitive desire are the fuel that both drives

the athlete onwards and makes them vulnerable to psychological stresses. Many sport

psychologists play a multi-dimensional role in the lives of their athlete clients - trained

professional psychologist, friend, sounding board, confidante and advisor are each possible

and entirely ethical component to the relationships that may develop in practice applications

(Scott, 2001)

Applied sport and exercise psychology involves the extension of psychology theory and

research into a specific field. While the athlete or team will inevitably attract the most attention

in these applications, given that the pursuit of athletic excellence is a primary objective, the

psychologist has a significant role to play in the education of any coaches, teammates, parents,

fitness professionals, and athletic trainers about the psychological aspects of the specific sport

or exercise activity. Applied sport and exercise psychologists seek to facilitate maximal

involvement, performance, and enjoyment in any sport environment.

The practice of applied sport and exercise psychology usually involves a combination

of individual and group consulting or counseling depending on the style of the professional

conducting the intervention and the needs of the client. The realty of amateur sport is that many

athletes do not have the access or means to have a personal psychological consultant. The

principles that support a proper practitioner / athlete relationship are the same. (Boyle, 2009)
P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 31

2.11 Stages of Athlete Development

This long-term athlete development mainly focuses on five different stages in an

athletes career.

STAGE 1- FUNDAMENTAL STAGE

The emphasis is on the overall development of the athletes physical capacities, and

fundamental movement skills, and the ABC's of athleticism - Agility, Balance, Coordination

and Speed. Participation in as many sports as possible is encouraged. Speed, power and

endurance are developed using games. Correct running, jumping and throwing techniques are

taught, using the ABC's of athletics. Strength training during this stage should include exercises

using the athletes own body weight exercises. Athletes should be introduced to the simple rules

and ethics of sports

STAGE 2- TRAINING STAGE

During this stage, young athletes learn how to train and they also learn the basic skills

of a specific sport. As well, they are introduced to the basic technical/tactical skills and

ancillary capacities including: warm up and cool down, stretching, hydration and nutrition,

recovery and regeneration, mental preparation, taper and peak, integrated pre-competition

routines and post-competition recovery. During competitions athletes play to win and to do

their best, but the major focus of training is on learning the basics as opposed to competing.

STAGE 3- COMPETITION STAGE

During this stage, high intensity individual and sport-specific training is provided to

athletes year-round. Athletes, who are now proficient at performing both basic and sport

specific skills, learn to perform these skills under a variety of competitive conditions during
P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 32

training. Special emphasis is placed on optimum preparation by modelling training and

competition. Fitness programs, recovery programs, psychological preparation and technical

development are now individually tailored to a greater degree. This emphasis on individual

preparation addresses each athletes individual strength and weaknesses.

STAGE 4-OPTIMIZATION STAGE

This is the final stage of athletic preparation. All of the athletes physical, technical,

tactical, mental, and ancillary capacities are now fully established and the focus of training has

shifted to the optimization of performance. Athletes are trained to peak for major competitions.

Training is characterized by high intensity and relatively high volume. Frequent prophylactic

breaks help to prevent physical and mental burnouts.

STAGE 5-RETAINING STAGE/ RETIREMENT STAGE

This stage refers to the activities performed after an athlete has retired from competition

permanently. During this final stage, ex athletes move into sport related careers that may

include coaching, officiating, sport administration, small business enterprises, masters

competition, media, etc.

CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design


P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 33

3.1.1 Key Personnel Interview

Interviews with the key personnel and experts will help gain several information on the

limitations, rules and related laws to the project involved as well as the existing specific rules

and prohibitions of the site and the client. Interviews will also bring about the insights of the

client, users and the neighborhood. Interview will be conducted with the following

professionals:

Dr. Lauro O. Domingo Jr., Chief Program, Research and Development Division,

Philippine Sports Commission

Manuel G. Bitog, Acting Chief, Sports Facilities Division, PSC

Elinita C. Constatino, In-Charge, Sports Science Center, PSC

Gina Calaguas, Executive Assistant, Philippine Olympic Committee

Gerardo A. Rosario, Secretary General, Philippine Paralympic Committee

3.1.2. Archival Research

There is an abundance of printed material about various training methods and athlete

development programs through the years. Sport architecture is well documented especially in

the US and Europe. Archival research on the history and development of sport facilities and

athlete development in different countries will help recognize the pre-existing problems and

recent issues the designer may address through the projects design.

3.1.3 Government Documents


P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 34

The project follows preemptive and existing laws and orders published by the

Philippine Sports Commission and the Philippine Olympic Committee. Laws and standards are

to be requested from the organizations upon their approval. Any international material

regarding laws and standards on sports are to be referenced and reviewed by PSC for

confirmation for use on the project.

3.1.4 News and Newspaper Articles

The project will closely monitor news material from professional media outlets as well

as amateur media for any news regarding the Philippine Sports scene. Newspaper material will

be collected either physically or electronically then archived for project use. Any outdated news

and newspaper articles (later than 2016) are to be reviewed for relevance to the project and

otherwise rejected and archived only for reference.

3.1.5 Electronic Sources

PDFs, eBooks and Digital articles will be sourced from public digital libraries and open

format collections. Copyrights and Royalties are to be observed to avoid plagiarism and

tampering.

jstor.org
ebscohost.org (digital library)
libgen.co.us (digital library)
doaj.com (Directory of Open Access Journals)

3.1.6 Websites
P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 35

Most of the related literature and additional research information will be gathered through

website searching. Any website of illegal activity is not to be referenced for safety.

http://www.web.psc.gov.ph/ (PSC)

http://olympic.ph/ (POC)

https://www.dole.gov.ph/ (DOLE)

http://www.deped.gov.ph/ (DepEd)

http://www.ched.gov.ph/ (CHEd)

https://www.olympic.org/the-ioc (IOC)

https://www.paralympic.org/ (IPC)

3.1.7 Case Studies

International case studies on sport facilities in both eastern and western countries will

help modify the design of the project. It will also bring up issues and concerns on existing

buildings, provide used strategies, technologies and practices that may be applied to the design

of the structure. The lack of proper standards for sporting facilities in the Philippines will be

remedied by case studies both international and local.

3.2 Research Method

Primary Data Gathering tools to be used are questionnaire and one on one interviews.

Secondary

CHAPTER IV: SITE PROFILE AND ANALYSIS


P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 36

4.1 Site Criteria

The following site criteria for a training and housing sport facility is based on

international standards and case studies:

4.1.1 Accessibility. A sport facility must be easily accessible to the greatest number of users it

intends to serve. Site must easily implement accessibility laws in its boundaries

4.1.2 Soil Condition. Generally, mountainous soil with ultisols and inceptisols is the best for sport

facilities. Ultisols have highly a nutritious topsoil and does not erode or weather very easily. These

soil types support load and disperse weight efficiently. Inceptisols retain water and nutrients very

well making them very good planting and landscaping surfaces. Additionally, inceptisols are

commonly found near ultisol deposits. The site will utilize cut and fill strategies.

4.1.3 Topography. The contour of the land should preferably be sloping to a level ground. Slope

must not exceed 15% or in near proximity to cliffsides and topographically dangerous areas such

as landslide prone areas. Buildings will be placed mirroring the slope of the site preferably in the

higher elevation where the road concourse will be.

4.1.4 Water and Electricity. The site must have water systems already in place or near existing

pipelines and must be connected to a power grid.

4.1.5 Proximity to Civic and Commercial Establishments/Facilities The site must be near or

adjacent to existing civic buildings and be in close proximity to commercial centers.


P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 37

4.1.6 Altitude Site can be elevated above sea level preferably a quarter kilometer (0.25 km) to one

kilometer (1 km) above sea level. Any site higher than two kilometers (2 km) will be excluded from

selection.

4.2 Site Data

4.2.1 SITE A-Tagaytay Highlands (Hypothetical Site Study)

SITE

Tagaytay Highlands Map

Site Boundaries highlighted in black


4.2.1.1 Site Descriprion

Situated in a developing area owned by the Tagaytay Highlands development, sitting

at highest elevation of Tagaytay at 260 m (853 ft.) above sea level, surrounded by commercial
P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 38

and resort developments, the site enjoys a 360 view of the vista below. The site is near the

Santa Rosa Highway and only a few kilometers from the South Luzon Expressway (SLEX).

4.2.1.2 City Data:

All data are referenced from the Tagaytay City Website (www.tagaytay.gov.ph )

Tagaytay City is in the Province of Cavite, island of Luzon. It is approximately 56

kilometers south of Manila, with a total land area of 6,500 hectares, which represents about

5.14% of the total land area of Cavite. It lies within 120o 56 latitude and 14o 16 longitude

and overlooks Manila Bay on the north, Taal Volcano and Taal Lake on the south and Laguna

de Bay on the east.

The city is linked by the national highway to the Metropolitan Manila Area and to the

Province of Batangas. It is also connected by roads to the adjoining municipalities of Amadeo,

Mendez, Indang, Silang and Alfonso in Cavite towards the northwest, to the municipalities of

Calamba and Sta. Rosa in Laguna in the northeast and to the town of Talisay in Batangas in

the south.

Slope

One of the important factors being considered in determining the suitability of lands

for urban development as well as the capability of an area for cultivation is the slope. For

classification of slopes specified by the Task Force on Human Settlements as part of the

Ecological Information Decision Systems (EIDS) used in Human Settlements planning, the

different slope categories and its distribution among the lands in Tagaytay are the following:
P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 39

Approximately 2,665 hectares of land, which represent 41.0% of the citys total land

area, have slopes of above 18.0%. These strongly rolling and mountainous portions are situated

along the ridge and on the eastern end of the city. Due to the unsuitability of these mountainous

and strongly sloping portions for cultivation and urban use, most of these areas are currently

utilized as forests or abandoned as open grasslands. Site selected sits at Type C (5%-10%).
P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 40

Site Slope Map (Shows Landslide Cautionary Areas)


Sourced from NOAH: http://ww.w.noah.dost.gov.ph

Soil

The central and western portions of the city are covered by the Tagaytay sandy loam.

The surface soil of the Tagaytay is sandy loam which is 12 to 50 centimetres deep, dark brown

to nearly black, friable and granular sandy loam with a considerable amount of volcanic sand.

The subsoil is dark brown to very dark brown and varies in texture from clay loam to clay. It

is underlain by reddish-brown to yellowish brown adobe clay.

This adobe clay varies in depth depending on the topography of the place. The site, at

the eastern portion of the city, is covered by Tagaytay loam, which has a surface soil consisting

of a 15 to 35-centimeter thick layer of brown to dark brown loam containing more or less fine

sandy material. The soil is moderately friable when moist. In the disturbed condition, it

becomes hard and cakes when dry. This type of soil is easy to work on.
P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 41

Tagaytay City Base Map


Sourced from Tagaytay City Website: http://ww.tagaytay.gov.ph

Climate

Tagaytay Citys climate is characterized by relatively low temperature, low humidity

and abundant rainfall. Like most areas in the Province of Cavite, the City has two pronounced

seasons: dry from November through April and wet during the rest of the year. The city is

endowed with a cool and invigorating climate with an average temperature of 22.7o C. Situated

approximately 600 meters above sea level, the city is misty and is relatively cooler during the

months of December, January and February.

Relative Humidity

Relative humidity is a measure of the moisture content of the atmosphere. The average

relative humidity of Tagaytay is 78 percent. This makes the city cooler than the Metropolitan

Manila area where the average relative humidity exceeds 81 percent.

Rainfall
P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 42

Maximum rainfall usually occurs from July to September. The citys annual rainfall is

2,546 mm with a peak of 459 mm in August and low of 27 mm in February.

Wind

North-eastern winds prevail in the city during the months of October, November,

December, January, February, March and April. Winds came from the southwest during May,

June, July, August and September. The average speed of the wind is 6 knots per hour.Typhoons

Thirty one to forty percent (31-40%) of the typhoons visiting the Philippines affect

Tagaytay City. The probable months of typhoon season are from June to December.

Land Allocation

The type of land use to which majority of land (26.73%) in Tagaytay are devoted is the

Ecological Development Area. Second is the Agricultural Development Area (20.86%)

followed by General Development Area (20.59%)

Land Reform Program

The Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP) has a total coverage of 482.70

hectares. They are located at the ridges and eastern part of the City. Barangay Iruhin East (Site

Area) declared as an Agrarian Reform Community.


P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 43

Land Protection Areas


Sourced from Tagaytay City Website: http://ww.tagaytay.gov.ph

Land Values

Lands located at the busiest intersections and along the ridge overlooking the Taal Lake

show higher trends in the current land values. Premium is based on the potential offered by

existing density of commercial activities and the presence of environmental amenities. Three

commercial nodes and a prime strip appear to be emerging based on these trends. They are the

Mendez Junction linked by the prime strip defined as the Tagaytay-Nasugbu-Calamba Road.

Three branch arteries are emerging defined by the roads leading to Manila, Amadeo and Sta.

Rosa. Considering the behavior of the land market, they may be the area that will continue to

experience rapid urbanization pressures

Social Composition and Characteristics


P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 44

Most of the residents of Tagaytay (93.58%) speak the Tagalog language. The second

most used dialect in Tagaytay is Bicolano, which is spoken by 1.52% of the residents.

Tagaytay Language Table

Population Size and Growth Rate

As per 2010 NSO report, the citys total population is 62,030. Since Tagaytay is a

major tourist destination, population doubles on weekends and holidays due to influx of tourists

and visitors. The recent population report shows the annual growth rate of 3.19% from the 2000

NSO census with a total of 45,287.

Present Status of well-being.

The quality of life of the residents can be measured in terms of their status of well-

being in relation to certain acceptable or desired standards, as well as the level of social services

that are made available to them. Indicators 28 of well-being include health, education, social

welfare, housing, employment and income, recreation and protective services.

Health

The delivery of basic health care services to the general public is basically one of the

primary concerns of the city. The 34 barangay their respective barangay health centers under
P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 45

the direct supervision of City Health Office personnel assisted by Barangay Health Workers

(BHWs) and Purok Social Workers (PSWs). Non-government Organizations (NGOs) such as

Project Health, Augustinian Sisters and private institutions also provide medical services to the

residents. At present the city has one (1) City Health Center, 34 barangay health centers, two

(2) hospitals, thirty six (36) medical/dental clinics, and thirteen (13) drugstores to meet the

health and medical needs of the people. 29 The city has twenty one (21) licensed physicians;

seventeen (17) dentists; eighty two (82) nurses; and fifty (50) Barangay Health Workers

(BHW). The City Nutrition Offices records show that from 1998 to 2015, the malnutrition rate

in the city is below 1%. As a concrete manifestation of the efficiency of the citys nutrition

program, the city has received several Nutrition Awards from the regional even up to national

level.

Tagaytay Zoning Map


Sourced from Tagaytay City Website: http://ww.tagaytay.gov.ph
P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 46

4.2.2 SITE B- New Clark Green City (PPP-Approved Site Study)

New Clark Green City Top Down Master Plan (Site area highlighted in black)
sourced from Base Conversion Development Authority Website: http://www.bcda.gov.ph/

4.2.2.1 Site Descriprion

Situated in one of the three institutional blocks of the New Clark Green City

development in Capas, Tarlac, the site is to be part of an inclusive green city of the future. With

a city covering 9, 450 hectares, the development city development aims to be holistic, vibrant,

self-sustaining, green and intelligent community housing 1,120,000 residents and 800,000

workers.
P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 47

4.2.2.2 Macro Level Analysis: City Data:

All data are referenced from the Municipality of Capas Website (http://www.capastarlac.gov.ph/)

Boundaries

Capas occupies a total area of 43,148.55 hectares. A land locked area located in the

southwestern part of Tarlac province, bounded by the towns of San Jose on the north, Tarlac

on the northeast, Concepcion on the east, Bamban on the south, and Zambales on the west. It

lies at geographical coordinates of 15 15 to 1526latitude and 120 37 longitude.

Soil

Soil characteristics include Tarlac clay loam, La Paz fine sand and Luisita sandy sand. The

western boundary is dominated by volcanic rocks of the basalt and andesite types covered by

undifferentiated Tarlac soils. Capas has coarse to medium textured soil that is prone to seasonal

flooding. Permeability is affected by soil texture and crop management practices by the farmers

when they plant sugar cane and other annual crops.

The towns hilly and mountainous portion manifests moderate to very rapid permeability due

to soil compactness. Sand deposits containing predominantly of quartz and magnetite minerals

were observed in ODonnell River. It is believed to have come from the pyroclastic hills and

mountains in the southern part of the municipality. Sand and gravel found in the area are good

for construction materials and aggregates. Topography


P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 48

The topography of capas is predominantly level to gently sloping (0-3 slope gradient) covers

90.84% or 38,633.44 hectares, which is suitable for urban expansion and settlements

development, and for agricultural production. The low slope has reduced risk of landsides in

the area and has low susceptibility and potential of erosion.

Site Slope Map (Shows Landslide Cautionary Areas)

Sourced from NOAH: http://ww.w.noah.dost.gov.ph

100-year Flood Hazard Map

Sourced from NOAH: http://ww.w.noah.dost.gov.ph


P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 49

Fig.1 Soil Map of Tarlac


Sourced from Tarlac Comprehensive Land Use Plan
P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 50

Fig.2 Topographic Map of Tarlac


Sourced from Tarlac Comprehensive Land Use Plan
P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 51

Fig.3 Geohazard Map of Tarlac


Sourced from Tarlac Comprehensive Land Use Plan
P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 52

Climate

Capas has two (2) distinct seasons: wet and dry. The moths of November to April are generally

dry while the rest of the year is in the rainy season. Tarlac receives continuous rainfall during

the southwest monsoon period from June to November, which corresponds to the wet season.

Demography

The Aetas were the first inhabitants of Capas, today it is inhabited by people of different

ethnic groupings Pampangos, Ilocanos, Pangasinenses and Tagalogs. One percent are

Bicolanos and Visayans. Capas has 20 barangays with a total population of 135,735, with a

household population of 27,147 (NSO 2012, unoffcial) at 3.55 annual growth rate.

As of 2012 the highest household population distributed among Capas 20 Barangays was

observed in Cristo Rey at 6,157 followed by ODonnell, Sta. Lucia and Cutcut I at 2,827, 2,173,

and 2,001 respectively. Bueno and Manga were observed to be the least populated Barangays

at 320 and 370 respectively. Like the rest of the country, the young population in Capas exhibits

a pyramidal age structure. The population between ages zero to 14 years old account for 40%.

Capas is predominantly a Kapampangan speaking town. Roman Catholic religion has remained

deeply rooted in the municipality of Capas ever since its propagation followed by the Iglesia

ni Cristo denomination. Literacy rate is pegged at 96%.


P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 53

Sourced from Philippine Statistics Authority: http://www.psa.gov.ph/

Anticipating the development of the New Clark City, population is expected to increase

with the Base Conversion Development Authority (BCDA) estimating a 1,220,000 influx of

residents and an influx of 800,000 workers at the final phase of the citys development.

Institutions and Economy

Several educational institutions, medical facilities, religious institutions and

government institutions are also found in this area. Major transport routes also pass through

the poblacion area which links the municipality to other nearby areas. This area was identifed

as major commercial/institutional area due to the existence/availability of the said institutions

and services. The municipality is predominantly an agricultural town despite the fast pace of

urbanization. The total productive agricultural area devoted to crops is 9,567 has. This is

30.28% of the total land area.


P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 54

Tourism is also a vital player in Capas economy. Sta. Juliana is home to a satellite offce

while the Municipal Hall serves as the main tourism information center. is home to a number

of tourism sites and activities which includes a wellness SPA, Tambo lake and Hotspring. It

also serves as the jump off point going to Mt. Pinatubo. Barangay ODonnell the adjacent

barangay of Sta. Juliana offers accommodation facilities for tourist.

4.2.2.3 Micro Level Analysis: Site Features

Scenic Views

1. Mount Pinatubo Base Camp

The site is in close proximity to the base of Mount Pinatubo and serves as a starting

point for hikers and tourists visiting the dormant volcano. A days hike will lead tourists to the

Mount Pinatubo Crater Lake, a caldera formed in the aftermath of the 1991 eruption

2. Capas National Shrine

The Capas National Shrine in barangay Cristo Rey, Capas, Tarlac, Philippines was built by

the Philippine government as a memorial to Allied soldiers who died at Camp O'Donnell at the

end of the Bataan Death March during the Second World War. The shrine is a focus for
P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 55

commemorations on Araw ng Kagitingan or Valour Day. US, Filipino, Czech and Slovak

soldiers are commemorated here.

3. Tambo Lake

A natural lagoon accidentally created out of lahar, river water and agricultural land.

Formerly a stretch of rice paddies, the lake formed is now a source of aquatic resources and

deemed a potential site for still water paddling and fishing activities.
P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 56

Noise, Air, Light Pollution

The site is almost pollution free due to its unused nature although in suffers from slight

noise and light pollution due to its proximity to established cities and barangays. The site

mainly receives pollution from the eastern side and relatively receives virtually none on the

western side.

Fig.4 Geohazard Map of Tarlac


Sourced from Tarlac Comprehensive Land Use Plan

Flora and Fauna

Table 2 Permanent Commercial Crops in Tarlac


Sourced from Tarlac Comprehensive Land Use Plan
P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 57

Table 1 Planted Crops, Production Volume, Prod. Area Table


Sourced from Tarlac Comprehensive Land Use Plan
P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 58

Table 3 Livestock and Animal Farming Table


Sourced from Tarlac Comprehensive Land Use Plan
Features

Capas is traverse by various water systems, such as rivers, creeks and tributaries. The

ODonnell River forms as the principal river. The Bulsa-Morinones River flows into

confluence with ODonnell River with Bangut River serving as tributary. Both rivers are prone

to flash floods. Cutcut River is a minor river system which flows in Rio Chico River at the

Tarlac-Nueva Ecija boundary. A hot spring is located in Barangay Bueno. Forest lands

occupied the largest area of Capas. There are two critical watershed areas namely; ODonnell

and Balog-Balog with a total area of 28,025 hectares. Capas Death March Monument is

declared a NIPAS Area.There are two national roads that link Capas with other municipalities

and provinces. The Manila North Road classifed as a north-south backbone and Capas-

Magalang Road classifed as a national secondary road. The Manila-North Road links Capas to

the North Luzon Expressway, while the latter forms part of Capas access to Subic-Clark-Tarlac

Expressway.
P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 59

Road Map
Sourced from NOAH: http://ww.w.noah.dost.gov.ph

SWOT and Strategies

SWOT Strategy Table Strengths-S Weaknesses-W


1. Large expanse of flat 1. Isolated location
non-undulating land 2. Undeveloped/
2. Good Soil Condition insufficient nearby
3. Air pollution-free institutions and
4. High development services
budget(BCDA) 3. Moderately light and
noise polluted
Opportunities O SO- Strategy WO-Strategy
1. Agricultural potential Integrating farming to Build around CDC and
2. Abundance of natural the proposed self- BCDA master plan of
resources sustaining community; New Clark to
3. Large economic harnessing soil maximize proximity to
workforce potential for future services
agricultural use Study of proper road
Maximize use of local networks to increase
products in circulation travel efficiently
by using materials in within the
the development of the development
village/community
Threats T ST-Strategy WT-Strategy
1. Environmental hazards Reducing the 3-tier Disaster mapping and
(Mt. Pinatubo) development phasing to study to create a
2. 3-tier development 2 to reduce contingency in event
phasing development time and of disaster
increase financial
efficiency
P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 60

4.3 Site Selection and Justification

4.3.1 Site Selection Checklist

Scoring:
5- Excellent 4 Good 3-Satisfactory 2-Unsatisfactory 1- Bad
Site Criteria Tagaytay Score New Clark Green Score
Highlands City
Accessibility The site is in 3 The site is in 4
proximity to the proximity to the
national highway national highway
system and is a 2-3- system and is a 20-
hour drive to the 30-minute drive to
nearest airfield/ the nearest airfield
port
Soil Condition The site sits on an 3 The site sits on a 5
ultisol soil type, loam inceptisol soil
ideal for cut and fill type, ideal for
constructions agricultural and
institutional use.
Topography Type C Slope- 5 to 2 Type A Slope 0 5
10% to 2.5%
Climate Low temperature, 5 Moderate 3
low humidity and temperature and
abundant rainfall humidity, high
amount of rainfall
Water, Electricity, Site is connected to 4 Site is not yet 1
Utilities existing water and connected to any
electricity lines service line
Proximity to Close proximity to 4 Moderate 3
Services housing, schools, proximity to
police and fire housing, schools,
stations police and fire
stations
Altitude 260 m (853 ft.) 3 46m (151 ft) 5
Disaster Moderate landslide 3 Proximity to 3
risk, no flood or dormant volcano,
storm surge risk Moderate flood
risk, light landslide
risk, no storm surge
risk
Total 27 Total 29

4.3.1 Site Justification

The New Clark City Development- Zone 6 meets the criteria for sporting facilities in

sprawling areas. With risk, disaster, flood, earthquake, housing and financial investigation,

together with its sufficient qualities and low risks, it may be ideal for the project to be in the

Zone 6, New Clark Green City, Capas, Tarlac.


P.A.V: Philippine Athletes Village 61

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