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Urea is an oraganic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also
known by the International Nonproprietary Name (INN) carbamide, as established by
the World Health Organization. Other names include carbamide resin, isourea,
carbonyl diamide, and carbonyldiamine.

Synthetic urea
It was the first organic compound to be artificially synthesized from
inorganic starting materials, in 1828 by Friedrich Whler, who prepared it by the
reaction of potassium cyanate with ammonium sulfate. Although Whler was
attempting to prepare ammonium cyanate, by forming urea, he inadvertently
discredited vitalism, the theory that the chemicals of living organisms are
fundamentally different from inanimate matter, thus starting the discipline of organic
This artificial urea synthesis was mainly relevant to human health
because of urea cycle in human beings. Urea was discovered; synthesis in human liver
in order to expel excess nitrogen from the body. So in past urea was not considered as
a chemical for agricultural and industrial use. Within the 20th century it was found to be
a by far the best nitrogenic fertilizer for the plants and became widely used as a
fertilizer. Urea was the leading nitrogen fertilizer worldwide in the 1990s.Apart
from that urea is being utilized in many other industries.
Urea is produced on a scale of some 100,000,000 tons per year worldwide.
For use in industry, urea is produced from synthetic ammonia and carbon dioxide. Urea
can be produced as prills, granules, flakes, pellets, crystals, and solutions.More than
90% of world production is destined for use as a fertilizer. Urea has the highest
nitrogen content of all solid nitrogenous fertilizers in common use (46.7%).
Therefore, it has the lowest transportation costs per unit of nitrogen nutrient. Urea is
highly soluble in water and is, therefore, also very suitable for use in fertilizer
solutions (in combination with ammonium nitrate).

Commercial production of urea

Urea is commercially produced from two raw materials, ammonia,
and carbon dioxide. Large quantities of carbon dioxide are produced during the
manufacture of ammonia from coal or from hydrocarbons such as natural gas and
petroleum-derived raw materials. This allows direct synthesis of urea from these raw
materials. The production of urea from ammonia and carbon dioxide takes place in an
equilibrium reaction, with incomplete conversion of the reactants. The various urea
processes are characterized by the conditions under which urea formation takes
place and the way in which unconverted reactants are further processed.
Unconverted reactants can be used for the manufacture of other products, for
example ammonium nitrate or sulfate, or they can be recycled for complete
conversion to urea in a totalrecycle process. Two principal reactions take place in the
formation of urea from ammonia and carbon dioxide. The first reaction is exothermic:

2 NH3 + CO2 H2N-COONH4 (ammonium carbamate)

Whereas the second reaction is endothermic:


Both reactions combined are exothermic.

Properties of urea

Mol. Formula -NH2CO NH2

Melting Point -132.60C

Sp. Gravity - 1.335@200C

Heat of Fusion - 57.08 Cal/gm

Heat of Combustion - 2531 Cal/gm

Crystal Form - Tetragonal

Nitrogen Content -46.6%

Boiling Point - Decompose on boiling

Colour - White

Bulk Density - 740 to 750 kg/m3

Angle of Repose - 23 to 300C

Viscosity - 2.58@132.70C

Triple point - 1020C

Dielectric Constant -3.52 to 0.2

Sp. Heat - 0.42Kcal/cm2

Raw materials of urea manufacturing

1. Ammonia
Ammonia, NH3, is a comparatively stable, colourless gas at ordinary
temperatures, with a boiling point of -33 C. Ammonia gas is lighter than air, with a
density of approximately 0.6 times that of air at the same temperature. Ammonia is
highly soluble in water, although solubility decreases rapidly with increased
temperature. Ammonia reacts with water in a reversible reaction to produce
ammonium (NH4)+ and hydroxide (OH)- ions, as shown in
equation. Ammonia is a weak base, and at room temperature only about 1 in 200
molecules are present in the ammonium form (NH4)+. The formation of
hydroxide ions in this reaction increases the pH of the water, forming an alkaline
NH3 + H2O (NH4) + OH-

Ammonia Production
Essentially all the processes employed for ammonia synthesis are
variations of the Haber-Bosch process, developed in Germany from 1904-1913.
This process involves the reaction of hydrogen and nitrogen under high
temperatures and pressures with an iron based
N2 +3 H2 2NH3

The source of nitrogen is always air. Hydrogen can be derived from a

number of raw materials including water, hydrocarbons from crude oil refining,
coal, and most commonly natural gas. Hydrogen rich reformer off-gases from oil
refineries have also been used as a source of hydrogen. Steam reforming is generally
employed for the production of hydrogen from these raw materials. This process also
generates carbon dioxide, which can then be used as a raw material in the production
of urea.

Ammonia storage
Anhydrous ammonia is usually stored as a liquid in refrigerated tanks at

-33.3 C and atmospheric pressure, often in doubled-walled tanks with the capacity for
hundreds or thousands of tonnes. The low temperature is usually maintained by the
venting of ammonia gas.

2. Carbon Dioxide
CO2 is a odourless and colourless gas which contain 0.03% in the
atmosphere. It is emitted as a pollutant from number of industries. CO2 can be
obtained from ammonia production process as a by product.

Applications of urea
1. Agricultural use
More than 90% of world production is destined for use as a fertilizer. Urea
is used as a nitrogen-release fertilizer, as it hydrolyses back to ammonia and carbon
dioxide, but its most common impurity, biuret, must be present at less than 2%, as it
impairs plant growth. Urea has the highest nitrogen content of all solid nitrogeneous
fertilizers in common use (46.4%N.) It therefore has the lowest transportation costs
per unit of nitrogen nutrient. In the past decade urea has surpassed and nearly replaced
ammonium nitrate as a fertilizer
In the soil, urea is converted into the ammonium ion form of nitrogen.
For most floras, the ammonium form of nitrogen is just as effective as the nitrate
form. The ammonium form is better retained in the soil by the clay materials than the
nitrate form and is therefore less subject to leaching. Urea is highly soluble in water and
is therefore also very suitable for use in fertilizer solutions, e.g. in foliar feed

2. Industrial use
Urea has the ability to form 'loose compounds', called clathrates, with
many organic compounds. The organic compounds are held in channels formed by
interpenetrating helices comprising of hydrogen-bonded urea molecules. This
behaviour can be used to separate mixtures, and has been used in the production of
aviation fuel and lubricating oils. As the helices are interconnected, all helices in a
crystal must have the same 'handedness'. This is determined when the crystal is
nucleated and can thus be forced by seeding. This property has been used to separate
racemic mixtures.

3. Further commercial uses

A stabilizer in nitrocellulose explosives

A component of fertilizer and animal feed, providing a relatively
cheap source of nitrogen to promote growth
A raw material for the manufacture of plastics, to be specific,
urea-formaldehyde resin
A raw material for the manufacture of various glues (urea-formaldehyde or
urea-melamine-formaldehyde); the latter is waterproof and is used for marine
An additive ingredient in cigarettes,designed to
enhance flavor
An ingredient in some hair conditioners, facial cleansers, bath oils, and lotions

A flame-proofing agent (commonly used in dry chemical fire extinguishers as Urea-
potassium bicarbonate)
An ingredient in many tooth whitening products
A cream to soften the skin, especially cracked skin on the bottom of
one's feet
An ingredient in dish soap.

4. Medical use

Urea is used in topical dermatological products to promote rehydration of

the skin. If covered by an occlusive dressing, 40% urea preparations may also be
used for nonsurgical debridement of nails. This drug is also used as an earwax
removal aid. Like saline, urea injection is used to perform abortions. It is also the main
component of an alternative medicinal treatment referred to as urine therapy.

5. Textile use

Urea is a raw material for urea-formaldehyde resins production in the adhesives

and textile industries. A significant portion of urea production is used in the
preparation of urea- formaldehyde resins. These synthetic resins are used in the
manufacture of adhesives, moulding powders, varnishes and foams. They are also
used for impregnating paper, textiles and leather. In textile laboratories they are
frequently used both in dyeing and printing as an important auxiliary, which provides
solubility to the bath and retains some moisture required for the dyeing or
printing process.


Process Selection
Several processes are used to urea manufacturing. Some of them are used
conventional technologies and others use modern technologies to achieve high efficiency. These
processes have several comparable advantages and disadvantages based on capital cost,
maintenance cost, energy cost, efficiency and product quality. Some of the widely used urea
production processes are
1. Conventional processes
2. Stamicarbon CO2 - stripping process
3. Snamprogetti Ammonia and self stripping processes
4. Isobaric double recycle process
5. ACES process

Snamprogetti Ammonia and self stripping processes

In the first generation of NH3 and self strip ping processes, ammonia was used as
stripping agent. Because of the extreme solubility of ammonia in the urea containing synthesis
fluid, the stripper effluent contained rather large amount s of dissolved ammonia, causing
ammonia overload in down stream section of the plant. Later versions of the process abandoned
the idea of using ammonia as stripping agent; stripping was achieved only by supply of heat.
Even without using ammonia as a stripping agent, the NH3:CO2 ratio in the stripper effluent is
relatively high. So the recirculation section of the plant requires an ammonia-carbomate
separation section
The process uses a vertical layout in the synthesis section. Recycle within the
synthesis section, from the stripper via the high pressure carbamate condenser, through the
carbamate separator back to the reactor, is maintained by using an ammonia-driven liquid-liquid
ejector. In the reactor, which is operated at 150 bars, NH3:CO2 molar feed ratio of 3.5 is applied.
The stripper is of the falling film type. Since stripping is achieved thermally, relatively high
temperatures (200-210 0C) are required to obtain a reasonable stripping efficiency. Because of
this high temperature, stainless steel is not suitable as a construction material for the stripper
from a corrosion point of view; titanium and bimetallic zircornium - stainless steel tubes have
been used Off gas from the stripper is condensed in a kettle type boiler. At the tube side of this
condenser the off gas is absorbed in recycled liquid carbamate from the medium pressure
recovery section. The heat of absorption is removed through the tubes, which are cooled by the

production of low pressure steam at the shell side. The steam produced is used effectively
in the back end of the process.In the medium pressure decomposition and recirculation section ,
typically operated at 18 bar, the urea solution from the high pressure stripper is subjected to the
decomposition of carbamate and evaporation of ammonia. The off gas from this medium pressure
decomposer is
rectified. Liquid ammonia reflux is applied to the top of this rectifier; in this way a top product
consisting of pure gaseous ammonia and a bottom product of liquid ammonium carbamate are
obtained. The pure ammonia off gas is condensed and recycled to the synthesis section. To
prevent solidification of ammonium carbamate in the rectifier, some water is added to the bottom
section of the column to dilute the ammonium carbamate below its crystallization point. The
liquid ammonium carbamate-water mixture obtained in this way is also recycled to the synthesis
section. The purge gas of the ammonia condenser is treated in a scrubber prior to being purged to
the atmosphere.

The urea solution from the medium pressure decomposer is subjected to a second low
pressure decomposition step. Here further decomposition of ammonium carbamate is achieved,
so that a substantially carbamate -free aqueous urea solution is obtained. Off gas from this low
pressure decomposer is condensed and recycled as an aqueous ammonium carbamate solution to
the synthesis section via the medium pressure recovery section.
Concentrating the urea water mixture obtained from the low pressure decomposer is
preformed in a single or double evaporator depending on the requirement of the finishing
section. Typically, if prilling is chosen as the final shaping procedure, a two stage evaporator is
required, whereas in the case of a fluidized bed granulator a single evaporation step is sufficient to
achieve the required final moisture content of the urea melt. In some versions of the process, heat
exchange is applied between the off gas from the medium pressure decomposer and the aqueous
urea solution to the evaporation section. In this way, the consumption of low pressure steam by the
process is reduced.
The process condensate obtained from the evaporation section is subjected to a
desorption hydrolysis operation to recover the urea and ammonia contained in the process



The process which is used in formation of urea is Snam Pragetti Process at IFFCO Plant.
This is self-stopping process.
The basic raw material for the formation of urea is Ammonia & Carbon Dioxide . The
formation of urea is taking place in following manner:-

2NH3 + CO2 NH4COONH2 + Heat (1)

(ammonium carbamate)

NH4COONH2 NH2CONH2 + H2O - Heat (2)


First reaction is takes place at high pressure and temperature that is P=150kg/cm2(g) & T= 1700C.
In this reaction carbamate is formed. At high pressure reaction is taking place at in forward
direction and at low pressure reaction is taking place in backward direction. It is exothermic
reaction. In the 2nd reaction carbamate is dehydrated to form Urea. This is endothermic process.
The heat which is generated in reaction first is utilised in reaction two. At a very high temperature
reaction two proceed backward direction.

The process root is summarised in the following steps:-


In this step carbon dioxide is compressed through compressor. The carbon dioxide enters in the
compressor at a 1.4 ata & temp. is around 400C for increasing the pressure up to 155kg/cm2(g).
This is achieved by using two centrifugal pumps driven by an extraction cum condensing turbine.
Ammonia is comes from the Ammonia Plant or from the Ammonia Storage Tank. The ammonia is
passed through the preheated tank to high pressure synthesis loop. The high pressure synthesis
loop is combination of booster centrifugal pump and reciprocating pressure pump. The pressure of
ammonia comes out from the high pressure synthesis loop is 240kg/cm2. The high pressure liquid
ammonia is also provided for motive force for ejector, which recycles carbamate solution to urea
reactor. The ammonia is kept in excess for the complete conversion of carbon dioxide. The ration
of ammonia to carbon dioxide is 3.33:1.

This section consist of reactor, high pressure stripper, horizontal carbamate condenser (two unit
placed in series). The compressed carbon dioxide and excess ammonia is entered in the reactor to
form the urea at the temp. 1900C & pressure 150kg/cm2(g). the concentration of urea formed in the
reactor is nearly 32%. The effluent of reactor is consisting of ammonia. Carbon dioxide,
carbamate,vapour and urea. This effluent is passed to stripper in which CO2 is absorbed according
to the henery law. Heat required for stripping is supplied by 26kg/cm 2(g) steam obtained from
extraction of carbon dioxide compression turbine. The concentration of urea obtained from the
stripper is 45%. The off gases obtained from the stripper ammonia, CO2 and vapour is entered
into horizontal carbamate condenser where the total mixture ,except for some inert ,is condensed
as carbamate and recycled to the reactor by means of ejector.


Urea purification takes place in two stages at decreasing pressures as follows:

Medium Pressure at 18 ata pressure

Low Pressure at 4.5 ata pressure

Medium Pressure Purification and Recovery at 18ata

The solution, with a low residual CO2 content, leaving the bottom of the stripper at synthesis
pressure is let down to18 ata and enters medium pressure decomposer The M.p decomposer and
divided in two parts

1.Top separated :where the released flash gases are removed before the solution enters the
tube bundle

2. Decomposition section (falling film type): where residual carbamate is decomposed and the
heat require for the decomposition is applied by means of 26 ata steam condensate flowing out
of the shell side of stripper

The NH3 and CO2 rich gases leaving the top separator are sent to medium pressure condenser
where they are partially absorbed in aqueous carbonate solution coming from low pressure
recovery section .The absorption heat is removed by tempered cooling water circulation in the
tube side of the medium pressure condenser. In the M.P condenser CO 2 is almost totally
absorbed. The effluents flow to medium pressure absorber. The gaseous phase enters the

rectification section of the M.P absorber. The rectification section has bubble trays. The bubble
cap trays are fed by pure reflux ammonia at the top trays which eliminates residual CO 2 and
H2O from gases leaving M.P absorber. The reflux ammonia is pumped to rectification
column.NH3 with inert gases leaving the M.P absorber is condensed in ammonia condenser.

The inert gases , saturated with ammonia enter ammonia preheater where an additional
amount of ammonia is condensed by heating cold ammonia coming from ammonia storage
area and used as make up feed to Urea plant

The inert gases with residual ammonia content are sent to medium pressure ammonia
absorber, which is a falling film type and where they meet a condensate flow which absorbs
ammonia From bottom of ammonia absorber the water ammonia solution is pumped to
medium pressure absorber.The inerts leaving the top are free from ammonia.

Low pressure purification and recovery stage(at 4.5 ata)

Low pressure decomposer consists of:

1.Top separator: where the released gases are removed before the solution enters the lower tube

2. Decomposition section (falling film type):where residual carbamate is decomposed and the heat
require for the decomposition is applied by means of saturated steam at 4.5 ata

The urea solution from the M.P decomposer bottom enters the L.P decomposer after expansion
through a level controller. Consequently most of the residual carbamate is decomposed and in the
process urea solution gets concentrated. The remaining carbamate is decomposed in a falling film
exchanger, which is a part of L.P. decomposer.

The vapors from the L.P decomposer enter the L.P. condenser where they get cooled and liquefied.
Prior to the entry of L.P off gases in L.P condenser the vapor gets mixed with the aqueous solution
from waste water section.The vapor thus formed get condensed in L.P condenser goes to carbonate
solution tank from where it is send back to MP condenser.The inert gases in the tank contains
considerable amount of ammonia and thus are absorbed in cool condensate before being sent to
vent stack.

The urea solution at the bottom of the L.P. decomposer is sent to pre vacuum concentrator through
a level control valve.

Urea concentration section:
As it is necessary in order to prill urea ;to concentrate urea solution up to 99.8 % wt, a vaccum
concentration section in two stages is provided.

The two concentrator use saturated steam at 4.5 ata the liq. Vapor phase coming out of second
vacuum concentrator enters gas- liq. Separator where the vapors are extacted by second vacuum

First vacuum system:

First evaporator is operated at 130C and 0.3 Kg/cm2 pressure. Over head vapor from the top of the
first vacuum separator is directed to the shell side of pre condenser and heat of condensation is
removed by cooling water in the tube side. Ammonia vapor and residual CO2 is absorbed in
condensate forming dil. Ammonium carbonate sol. and flows down through barometric leg of
waste water tank.

Uncondensed gases are sucked by the ejector (motive fluid being 44.5 ata steam) and discharged in
the shell side after condenser , which also receives uncondensed gases from second vacuum
system.Heat of condensation is removed by cooling water in the tube side.

Second vacuum system:

It operates at 1400 C and 0.03 Kg/cm2 pressure. Over head gases from second vacuum separator
are sucked by a booster ejector and discharged at slightly higher pressure where heat of
condensation is removed by cooling water in the tube side.

Uncondensed gases are drawn by ejector and discharged to shell side of second inter condenser
where heat of condensation is again removed by cooling water.

Urea prilling:
The molten urea leaving second vacuum separator is pumped to the prilling bucket by means of
centrifugal pump.

The molten urea coming out of the prilling bucket in the form of drops fall along the prilling tower
and encounters air flow which causes its solidification and subsequent cooling solid prills are sent
to the conveyer belt by rotary scraper which carries urea to bagging plant or storage. The heated air
containing few ppm of NH3 is released from the top into the atmosphere.


To design a UREA PLANT of capacity 1000 ton/day using ammonia and

carbon di-oxide as raw material


Plant Capacity =1000 ton/day of urea

Taking 10% over the design factor,

Capacity =1.1*1000 =1100 tons/day

=1100*1000 =45833.33 Kg/hr


=763.89 Kmol/hr


X3U =0.989 (given) X3B =0.002 (assume)

: W3 =46343.0107 Kg/hr 4 XNH3=0.2722

X3H2O =0.011 XCO2= 0.128

XU5 =0.94 (given)

Material balance: 5

W3 X3U = W5 XU5 XU=0.94

46343.1075*0.989 = W5 *0.94 XH2O=0.040

W5 =48758.865 Kg/hr XNH3=0.0135

W4 = W5 W3 XCO2 =0.00634

=2415.76 Kg/hr XB= 0.0019 3 XU =0.989

Let X4NH3 =0.2722 X4CO2=0.128 XH2O =0.011

:0.2722*2415.76 = X5NH3 *48758.865 XB =0.002

: X5NH3 = 0.1035

: 0.128 *2415.76 = X5CO2 *48758.865

X5CO2 = 0.00634

X5H2O = 0.040


XU7 =0.70 , XU5 =0.94(given)

Material balance

: 0.94 *48758.865 =0.7 * W7

W7 =65476.19 Kg/hr

W6 = W7 W5

= 16717.325 Kg/hr


X5CO2 = 0.00634 XB=0.001415 XH2O=0.76

X5NH3 =0.0135 XU=0.7 XNH3=0.17

XB5 = 0.0019 XNH3 =0.0534 XCO2=0.0726

Let water evaporated =12683.7973, W7

CO2 from top =1214.65, XCO2=0.023

NH3 from top =2841.945 XH2O=0.22 XU=0.94

X6CO2=0.0126, X6NH3 =0.17 , X6H2O =0.76 W5 XB=0.0019

: X7NH3 *65476.19 =0.17*16717.325 +0.0135*48758.865 XNH3=0.0135

X7NH3= 0.0534 XCO2=0.00634

X7B*65476.19 =0.0019 *48758.865 XH2O=0.040

X7B =0.001415

X7CO2 *65476.19 =1214.65+0.00634*48758.865

X7CO2 =0.023

X7H2O = 0.22


XU9 =0.63 , XU7 =0.70 (given)

Material balance

0.63 *W9 = 0.7 *65476.19

W9 = 72751.322

Let carbamate =72.28 Kmol/hr


NH3 produced =2 * 72.28

=144.56 Kmol/hr

=2457.58 Kg/hr

:CO2 produced =3180.32 Kg/hr W8

72751.132 =65476.19 +W8 XNH3=0.517

W8 =7275.132 XH2O=0.252

CO2 in vapour =3180.32 -0.023*65476.19 XCO2=0.23

=1674.367 Kg/hr W9

Let H2O evaporated =1838.77 Kg/hr XNH3=0.0997

NH3 evaporated =1304.475 Kg/hr XB=0.00127

W8 =1304.475 +2457.52 +1838.77 +1674.367 XCARB=0.0775

=7275.132 XH2O=0.1928

0.001415 *65476.19 = X9B *72757.322 W7 XNH3=0.0534

X9B =0.00127 XB=0.00415

X9NH3 *72757.322 =0.0534 *65476.19 +1304.475 +2457.52 XCO2=0.023

X9NH3 =0.0997 XH2O=0.22

X9CARB = 72.28*78 XU=0.70


= 0.0775

: X9H2O = 0.1928


W10 = W6 + W4 =19133.085 Kg/hr W6 + W4

X10NH3 = 2841.945 +(0.2722*2415.76)



X10H2O = 12683.7973 +0.599*2415.76

19133.085 XNH3=0.183, XH2O=0.739

= 0.739 W10 XCO2=0.078

: X10CO2 =0.0783


NH3 distilled = 17% W11 XNH3=0.289

= 3252.62 Kg/hr XH2O=0.576

Water distilled = 32.8% XCO2=0.133

=6466.98 Kg/hr W10

CO2 at top =1498.12 XNH3=0.183

W11 =11217.72 XH2O=0.739

W10 W11 = W12 XCO2=0.078

W12 =19133.085 -11217.72

=7915.365 Kg/hr W12 XNH3=0.031

XNH 3=0.031 XH2O=0.968

XH2O =0.968


Assume CO2 evaporation =52.7% W13

=789.196 Kg/hr

; W13 =789.196 W11 W14

For W15 , NH3 =2663.06 XNH3 =0.289

CO2 =652.88 XH2O=0.576 XCO2=0.076

H2O=5240.22 XCO2=0.133 W15 XH2O=0.615

: W15 =8590.52 XNH3=0.309

W14 = W11 - W15 - W13

= 1838.004 Kg/hr W13

X 14XNH3 = W11*0.29 - W15*0.31 W11 W14 XCO2=0.46

X 14NH3 = 0.32 XNH3 =0.32

W14X14CO2 = W11(0.1325) - W15 (0.076) W15

: X 14CO2 =0.46



W8 + W14 =9113.136 XCO2=0.0873

NH3 =4350.16 W16(g) XNH3=0.912

CO2 =2519.85

H2O =2243.13

Assume: W14(g)+ W8(g)

NH3 in vapour = 526.37

CO2 in vapour =50.397

: W16 =576.767 Kg/hr

W17 = W14 + W8 - W16 W17(l) XCO2 =0.29, XNH3=0.145, XH2O =0.565

= 8536.369 Kg/hr

W 17XNH3 = W8(0.577) + W14(0.32) -526.37

: X 17NH3 =0.45

W 17XCO2 = W8 X 8CO2 + W14 X 14CO2 -50.397

: XCO2 =0.29


NH3 added =526.37

Let H2O added =440 Kg/hr vent(g) 50.397Kg/hr

: W18 =966.37 Kg/hr W16(g) H2O(440 Kg/hr)

W16 +440 =966.37 +vent XNH3=0.912 XNH3=0.544

:vent =50.397 Kg/hr XCO2=0.0873 W18(l) XH2O=0.455


W21 = W17 + W18 XNH3=0.544

=9502.739 Kg/hr W18(l) XH2O=0.45

W21 XNH3 = W18*0.544 + W17*0.45 W17(L)

X 21NH3 =0.46 XNH3 =0.145 W21(l)

W21 XCO2 = W17 *0.29 XCO2=0.29 XNH3=0.46

X 21CO2 =0.26 XH2O=0.563 XCO2= 0.26



Let 64% of carbamate decomposed

:cabamate decomposed =130 Kmol/hr

=10140 Kg/hr W23(L) W22(G) XNH3=0.307

NH2COONH4 2NH3 +CO2 XH2O=0.299

NH3 formed =2*130 =260 Kmol/hr XCO2=0.393

=4420 Kg/hr

CO2 formed =130 Kmol/hr =5720 Kg/hr

Let 0.5% of urea be converted into biuret W9(L) XNH3=0.0997


Urea converted = 4072 Kmol/hr XCARB=0.0775

=286.46 Kg/hr XH2O=0.1928

Biuret formed =2.385 Kmol/hr W23(L) W22(G)

=245.69 Kg/hr XNH3=0.134

NH3 formed =2.385 *17 =40.545 Kg/hr XCARB=0.18

Total NH3 in vapour =4420+40.545 Kg/hr XH2O=0.156

Water evaporated =4356.4 Kg/hr XU=0.53 W9(L)

W22 =4356.4 +4460.545 +5720

=14536.945 Kg/hr

W23 - W22 = W9

: W23 =72751.322+14536.945

=87288.267 Kg/hr

W23XU = W9*0.63 +urea converted

=45833.33 +286.46


: X 23U =0.53

W23Xcarb = W9*0.078 +carbamate decomposed

X 23carb =0.18

W23XNH3 = W9 *0.0997 +4460.545

X 23NH3 = 0.134


CO2 in (W22 + W21 ) XNH3=0.46

=5720 +2470.712 W21(l) XCO2=0.26

=8190.712 W22(g) XH2O=0.28

NH3 =4460.545 +4371.26 XNH3=0.307 W25(l)

=8831.8 XH2O=0.299

W25 = W23 + W22 XCO2=0.393


=24039.684 Kg/hr

98% of CO2 converted back to carbamate through condensation


Carbamate formed =0.98 *8190.712/44

=182.45 Kmol/hr W21(l)

=14229.5 Kg/hr W25(l)

W 25Xcarb =14229.5 W22(g) XNH3 =0.27

: X 25carb =0.341 XCO2=0.241

W25XNH3 = W21 X 21NH3 + W22 X 22NH3 XCARB=0.42

=4460.545 +0.46 *9502.739

: X 25NH3 = 0.37


NH3 =2400 Kg/hr W26(g) W28(g)

W26 =2400 Kg/hr XNH3=1

Water in W27 =3900 Kg/hr W25 W27(l)

& NH3 in W27 = 475 Kg/hr XH2O=0.003 XNH3=0.108

: W27 =4375 XNH3=0.27 XH2O=0.891

CO2 absorbed =113.23 Kg/hr XCO2= 0.241 W29(l)

NH3 absorbed =85% XCARB=0.492

Total ammonia in =11769.68

NH3 absorbed =10023.68 Kg/hr

NH3 not absorbed =8894.68 +2400+475 -10013.68 W26(g) W28(g) XNH3=0.98

=1746.0 Kg/hr W25 XH2O=0.011

CO2 not absorbed=9215.74 W27(l)

: W28 =10961.74

W29 = W25 + W26 + W27 + W28 W29(l) XCO2=0.0059 , XNH3= 0.42

=19852.9 Kg/hr XCARB=0.50

W 29X29 CO2 = W 25X25CO2 - W 28X28CO2

: X 29CO2 =0.0057

W 29X29 carb= W 25X25carb

X29 carb=0.50

W 29X29 NH3= W 26X26 NH3 + W 27X27 NH3 +8894.62 - W 28X28 NH3



: X29 NH3 =0.32


Let ammonia condensed =25% W30(g) XNH3=0.1244

=0.25*1746 XCO2=0.876

=436.5 W28(g)

: W31 =436. XNH3=0.98 W31(l)

W28 = W30 + W31 XCO2=0.011 XNH3=1

: W30 =10961.74 -436.5


W 30X30 NH3 = W 28X28 NH3 NH3 condensed

=1746 -436.5


: X30 NH3 =0.1244

W 30X30 CO2 = W 28X28 CO2

X30 CO2 =0.876


W30 + W31 =1746

Let ammonia leaving top =454

Let CO2 leaving top =45 XNH3=1, W32(l) W34(g) XNH3=0.909

NH3 leaving bottom =34000 Kg/hr XCO2=0.090

: W34 =499 & W33 =34000 W31(l) + W30(g)

W30 + W31 + W32 = W33 +W34

1746+ W32 =34000+499

: W32 =32753 W33(L) XNH3=1


Let ammonia absorbed =464.5 Kg/hr

Water added =4000

Vent = W34 +water added W27

=499 +4000 -4375

=124 Kg/hr


Let 80% conversion of carbamate is taken place at stripper

W23 =87288.267 Kg/hr W35(g) XNH3=0.750

NH323 =11696.63 Kg/hr XCO2=0.24

Carb23 =15711.9 Kg/hr W36(g)

Carbamate decomposed = 930 Kg/hr XNH3=0.222

NH2COONH4 2NH3 +CO2 XN2=0.00193

NH3 formed =70000 Kg/hr XCARB=0.58

CO2 formed =35000 Kg/hr XU=0.199 W23(l) XNH3=0.134

NH3 boiled in vapour =40000 Kg/hr XH2O=0.156

Total NH3 boiled in vapour =40000 +70000 =110000 Kg/hr XCARB=0.18

NH3 in vapour =430 Kg/hr XU=0.53

W35 =110000 +35000 +430

=145430 Kg/hr

W36 = W35 + W23


=232718.27 Kg/hr

W 36XU = W23 (0.53)

: X36U =0.199

W 36X36 N2 = W 35X35 N2 =450

: X36 N2 =0.00193

W 36X NH3 = W 23X23 NH3 + W 35X35 NH3 - NH3 formed


=57696.6 Kg/hr

X NH3 =0.222

W 36X CARB = W 23X23CARB

: X36CARB = 0.58


NH3 + CO2 NH4COONH2 XNH3=0.759 W35(g)

Let CO2 condensed =64000 XCO2=0.24

NH3 condensed =59100 W29 XNH3=0.42

:carbamate formed =113454.54 XCO2=0.0059

W37 = W35 + W29 XCARB=0.50

= 145430+19852.9 XNH3= 0.25 W37

= 165282.9 Kg/hr XCARB=0.73, XCO2=0.00069, XH2O=0.0693

W 37X CARB = W29X29 CARB + W29 (0.32) NH3 condensed

=11000+6352.9 -59100


W 37XCO2 =64000+113.23-64000



NH3 evaporated =1500 Kg/hr vent(g) XNH3=0.43,XH2O=0.52

H2O evaporated =1800 Kg/hr XCO2=0.048

CO2 in vent = 150 Kg/hr W38 W37

Vent =3450 Kg/hr XNH3=0.17 XNH3=0.25

W 37= W 38 +vent XH2O=0.09 XCARB=0.73

W 38 =165282.9 3450 XCARB=0.74 XCO2=0.00069

= 161832.9 XH2O=0.0193

W 38X CARB = W 37X37 CARB +vent X CARB

=41320.725 +1500

X38 NH3 =0.17

X38 H2O =0.09


W 40 = W 33 - W 26 W36(g) XU=0.199

= 34000 -2400 XNH3=0.222

=31600 Kg/hr XCARB=0.58

W 36 = W39 + W38 + W 40 W39 XN2=0.00193

= 232718.27 -161832.9 -31600 XCO2=0.9854

=39285.37 Kg/hr XN2=0.01145

Known amount of N2 in W 36 =430

Corresponding O2 =143.3 W40 W38 XCARB=0.74

Air used =573.2 XNH3=0.17, XH2O=0.09

Amount of CO2 coming in reactor with W39 steam=39285.37-573.2

=38712.17 Kg/hr

W 39XCO2 =38712.17

: X39CO2 =0.9854

W 39XN2 = W 36X36 N2

: W39XN2=0.01145


For 100% CO2 conversion,

NH3 required =W32

= 32753 Kg/hr

=1926.65 Kmol/hr

UREA FORMED =771.85 Kmol/hr


Energy balance across stripper:

Now, here the solution enters at 190Cand leaves at 210C.Also a part of carbamate decomposes
into NH3 and CO2.The decomposition is as follows;

NH4COONH2 2NH3 +CO2: H= -38.Kcal/mol

The vapour and gases product from the top at 190C.Now we assume an average temperature of
200Cand find the final heat capacity of the solution.

Cp of water =4.278 KJ/KgC

Cp of ammonia =8.851 KJ/KgC

Cp of carbamate =2.682 KJ/KgC

Cp of urea =2.331 KJ/KgC

Cp mean :

[ ( 4.278 *42510.27) +(8.851 *15711.9) +(2.682 *11696.63) +(2.331 *17370.365)]

(42510.27 +15711.9 +11696.63 +17370.365)

Cp mean =4.499 KJ/KgC

Energy consumed in raising solution temperature is

=87288.267 *4.499*(210-190)


Energy consumed in carbamate decomposition is

=(930/78) *159 *103

=1895769.23 KJ/hr

Total energy consumed =9749967.495 KJ/hr

Saturated steam at 26 bar and266C is used for heating, =1827.914 KJ/kg

Steam flow rate =5333.93 Kg/hr

Energy balance across M.P Decomposer

Now, here the solution enters from the stripper, the solution is at 145 Kg/cm2 and 210C, and it is
flashed to 17 Kg/cm2before it enters the decomposer.Thus the temperature falls to 147C.Here the
first solution is heated to155C then water is evaporated from the solution.Also carbamate is
decomposed producing NH3 and CO2 .The energy is supply by steam condensate at 225C at 26 bar,
which gets cooled to 210C in this process

Cp mean =[ (4.27*14026.45) + (8.85*7253.306) + (2.68*5638.23) + (2.33*45833.33)]


Energy consumed in raising solution temperature :


=3.38 KJ/KgC

Energy consumed in carbamate decomposition :


=20670000 KJ/hr

Total energy consumed =22637894.57 KJ/hr

Hot water at 225C is used to provide the heat ,which get cooled to 210C

Water flow rate =22637894.57/(4.2*(225-210))

=359331.66 Kg/hr

Energy balance across L.P Decomposer:

Now the solution enters from the M.P Decomposer at 147C and 16.5 Kg/cm2 and it is flashed to
13.5 Kg/cm2 before it enters the decomposer.Thus the temperature falls to 100C.

Here all the carbamate isdecomposed and liquid stream flows out at a temperature of138C.The
top gases have NH3, CO2 and water vapour. The energy is supplied by steam condensate at 148C
at 4.5 bar.

Cp mean=[(2.33*45833.33) +(4.278*14404.76) +(8.85*3496.43)]


=3.045 KJ/KgC

Energy consumed in carbamate decomposition :


=11492520 KJ/hr

Energy consumed in evaporation of water:


=3951516.73 KJ/hr

Energy consumed in raising solution temperature :


=7576249.9 KJ/hr

Total energy consumed:

=20123979.16 KJ/hr

Energy balance across L.P ammonia absorber:

Ammonia is absorbed in water and the residue O2 is vented to the atmosphere

Here ammonia dissolved is =526.37Kg/hr

Heat released due to ammonia absorption =526.37/17 *34.79*103

=1077200.724 KJ/hr

Cooling water enters at 32C and leaves at 40C

Cooling water required =1077200.724 / 4.2*(40-32)


Energy balance across Ist vaccum concentrator separator:

In this due to flashing the temperature of the solution drop to 90cwhile effluent stream goes out at
130C.This heat is required to raise the temoerature and vaporize the water.The system operates at
130C and 0.3 Kg/cm2 pressure.

Cp mean=[(4.278*1958.156) +(8.851*658.2) +(2.331*45833.33)]


=2.5 KJ/KgC

Heat to raise the solution temperature =4878.865*2.5(130-90)

=4872504.618 KJ/hr

Heat required to vaporize water =12683.7973*2337

=29642034.29 KJ/hr

Total heat required =34514538.9 KJ/hr

Steam at 4.5 bar is used as heating


Steam required =34514538.91



Energy balance across IIndvaccum concentrator separator:

The unit operates at0.03 Kg/cm2 and 140C.The incoming feedis at 130C due to
flashing.Thusheat is required to first raise the feed temperature to 140C and to vaporize water.

Cp mean=[(4.278*509.77) +(2.33*45833.33) ]


=2.35 KJ/KgC

Heat to raise the solution temperature =46343.10*2.35*10

=1089062.55 KJ/hr

Heat required to vaporize water =2445.1*1448.97

=3542883.511 KJ/hr

Total heat required =4631946.361 KJ/hr

Steam at 4.5bar is used as heating media


Steam required = 4631946.361



Energy balance across reactor:

2NH3 +CO2 NH2COONH4 38.1Kcal/mol

NH2COONH4 NH2COONH2 +H2O -7.1Kcal/mol

Carbamate formed =1730.47 Kmol/hr

Urea formed =771.85 Kmol/hr


Energy released in carbamate formation:


=27514460.77 KJ/hr

Energy consumed in urea formation :

= 46310.94*30

=1389328.2 KJ/hr

Net energy released =26125132.57 KJ/hr

Ammonia inlet flow rate = 32753 kg/hr

Specific heat of ammonia = 1.23 kcal/kg c

Inlet ammonia temp.= 86 F = 30 c

Outlet ammonia temp.= 230 F= 110 c

Heat required by ammonia= (32753 kg/ 3600 sec) * 5.14 KJ/kg c * 80 c

= 3741.12 KJ/sec

= 3741.12 KW

Latent heat of steam = 503.7 cal/mol= 2105.466 J/mol

Therefore, m*2105.466 = 3741.12

m = (3741.12*1000)/2105.466

m = 1776.86 mol/sec =98.7 kg/sec

LMTD = {(304 - 86) (304 230 )}/ ln (218/74) = 133.28

Assume U = 200 W/ m2 c

Area A = Q/(U*LMTD) = (3741.12*1000)/(200*133.28)= 140.35 m2

Choose 20mm O.D.,16mm I.D.,4.88m long tubes, cupro nickel

L= 4.83m

Area of one tube = 3.14*d*l= 3.14*4.83*(20/1000)= 0.303 m2

No.of tubes= 140.5/0.303 = 463

Use 1.25 triangular pitch

Bundle diameter, Db= d0(Nt/k1) where, Nt= no.of tubes

Db= bundle dia in mm

d0= tube outside dia in mm

Therefore, Db= 20*(43/0.249) = 605.897mm

Using a split ring floating head type,

From the graph bundle diameter clearance= 62mm

Therefore, Shell diameter, Ds= 605.897+62 = 667.897mm


Mean ammonia temp.= (230+86)/2 =158 F= 70 c

Tube cross-sectional area =(3.14/4)*162= 201mm2

Tubes per pass =no.of tubes/2 = 463/2 = 231.5 = 231

Tube flow area = (231*201)/1000000= 0.046m2

Ammonia mass velocity= 32753/(60*60*0.046)= 197.78 kg/sec m2

Density of ammonia = 0.618 g/ml= 618 kg/m3

Ammonia linear velocity, ut= 197.78/618 = 0.32 m/sec

From the relation,

Viscosity of ammonia= 0.19 cp=(0.19/100) N/m2

K of ammonia= 0.29 Btu/hr ft2 = 0.29*1.729 = 0.50141 W/m c

Specific heat of ammonia= 1.02 cal/gm c= 4.2636 KJ/kg c

Reynold no.= (di*v*p)/viscosity= (618*0.32*16)/(0.19*10)= 1665.35

Prandtl no.=(cp*viscosity)/Kf=(4.2636*10*0.19)/ 0.50141= 16.156

L/ di = 4.83*1000/16= 302

From the fig., jh= 2.2*10-3

Therefore, hi= 2.2*10-3 * 1665.35* (16.156)0.33*0.50141 / 16*10-3

287.575 W/m2 c


Choose baffle spacing = DS/5 =667.897/5 = 133.6mm

Tube pitch = 1.25*20 = 25mm

Cross sectional area, AS= (PT-d0) Ds*lb/ Pt={(25-20)*667.897*133.6*10-6}/25

= 0.0178 m2

Mass velocity, GS= 98.7 kg/s*(1/0.0178)m2 = 5544.9 kg/m2 s

Equivalent diameter, de= 1.1/do( Pt2- 0.917d02)

= 1.1/20( 252-0.917*202)= 14.4mm

Mean shell side temp.=340 F= 151.11 c

K of steam = 700*10-3 W/m c

Viscosity of steam = 1860*10-6 Ns/m2

Re= (Gs*de)/ viscosity= 5544.9*14.4*10-3/ 1860*10-6= 42928.26

Pr= Cp*viscosity/ K= 4.21*1860*10-6/0.700 = 0.011

Choose 25% baffle cut, from fig.

Jh= 3*10-3

Therefore, (hs*de)/ Kf= Jh*Re* Pr0.33

hs=3*10-3* 42928.26*0.0110.33*0.700/ 14.4*10-3

hs=1413.38 W/m2 c


K of cupro nickel alloys =50 W/m c

Take the fouling coefficient from the table;

Steam condensate= 5000 W/m2c

Ammonia= 10,000 W/m2c

d o ln o
1 1

di d0 1 d0 1
U 0 h0 hod U0 d i hid d i hi

1/UO = 1/1413.38+1/5000+20*10-3 ln(20/16)/(2*50)+(20/16)*(1/10000)+1/287.575

UO= 219.58 = 220 W/m2 c



L m u 2
Pt N P 8 jf 2.5 t
di w 2

From fig, for Re= 1.67*103

Jf= 7.1*10-3

Therefore, Pt= 2*[8*7.1*103(4.83*103)/16 + 2.5] *618*(0.322)/2

= 1243.29 N/m2= 1.24 KPa


Linear velocity = Gs/p = 5544.9/618 = 8.97 m/s

From the graph, jf= 4*10-2

D L u 2

P s 8 jf s s s

de I B 2 w

Therefore, Ps= 8*4*10-2*(667.897/14.4)*(4.83*103/133.6)*(618* 8.972)/2

= 1334.07 N/m2

No.of tubes = 463

Shell i.d = 667.897 mm

Bundle diameter= 605.897 mm

Tube o.d.= 20 mm

Tube length = 4830 mm


As= (25-20)*667.897*133.6*10-6/ 25

= 0.0178 m2

Gs= 98.7/0.0178 = 5544.94 ks/s m2

Re= Gs*do/ viscosity = 5544.94*20*10-3/(1860*10-6)= 59623

From fig., jh= 4.1*10-3

Prandtl no.= 0.011

Neglect viscosity correction factor,

hoc*do/K = jh*Re*Pr0.33
oc= 4.1*10-3*59623*0.0110.33*0.700/ (20*10-3)

hoc= 1931.636vW/m2 c


Tube vertical pitch, Pt= 25* 0.87 =21.8 mm

Baffle cut height, Hc=0.25*667.897= 166.97mm

Height between baffle tips= 667.897-(2*166.97)=333.957 mm

Ncv = 333.957/ Pt = 15.32

From fig., Fn=1.02


Hb =Db/2 Dsi(0.5 baffle cut)

=605.897/2 -667.897(0.5 -0.25)


=135.974 mm

Bundle cut =Hb/Db = 135.97/605.897 =0.22

From the fig.12.41 at cut of 0.22

Ra1 =0.16

Tubes in one window area, Nw=Nt*Ra

=463*0.16= 74.08=74

Tubes in cross flow area, Nc=Nt-2Nw


= 315

Rw=2Nw/Nt=2*74/463= 0.32

From fig., Fw= 1.07


Ab=(Di-Db)Bs= (667.897-605.897)*267.2*10-6=0.0166 m2


Fb= exp[-1.35*0.39]=0.59

Very low sealing strips needed; try one strip for each 5 vertical rows


Fb= exp[-1.35*0.93{1-(2/5)0.33}]=0.72


Using clearances as specified in the standards

Tube to baffle 1/32inch =0.8 mm

Baffle to shell 3/16inch =4.8mm

Atb=(0.8/2)*20**(463-74)=9771.68 mm2=0.0098m2

From fig., 25% baffle cut,b=2.1 rads


= 6700.34mm2=0.006m2

At=Atb+Asb=0.0098+0.006=0.0158 m2

From fig, L=0.43



hs = hoc Fn Fw Fb FL=1931.636*1.02*1.07*0.72*0.41

= 622.34 W/m2 c

Appreciably lower than that predicted by Kerns method.



From fig.,at Re=59623,for 1.25pitch,

Jf= 5*10-2

Us=Gs/p=5544.94/618=8.97 m/s

Pi=8*jf*Ncv*pus2/2=8*5*10-2*15.32*618*(8.972)/2=152356.9 N/m2

=4.0 for Re>100,

Therefore, Fb=exp[-4*0.93{1-(2/5)0.33}]=0.38

From fig., L=0.7




From fig. for 25% baffle cut, Ra=0.19

Aw=[(Ds2/4)*Ra (NW**dO2/4)]

=[(*667.8972*0.19/4) (74**202/4)]=43297.8 mm2=0.043m2


Uz=( Uw*Us)1/2= (3.7*8.97)1/2=5.8m/s

Nwv=Hb/ Pt=135.97/21.8 = 6.24

Pw=FL(2+0.6Nwv)pUz2/2=2030.055 N/m2



= 152356.9[(6.24+15.32)/15.32]*0.38=81477.13N/m2


No.of baffles, Nb= (4830/267.2)-1=17


= 228960.39 N/m2

= 228.96 KPa

The liquid mixture of NH3 and carbamate (100C) and gaseous CO2 (140C) are fed to reactor
where they meet 180C temperature and 150 atm pressure and form ammonia carbamate .This
carbamate dehydrates and forms Urea.The reactions taking place in the reactor are given as:




The predominant rate controlling mechanism is the reaction kinetics.The first reaction occurs
rapidly and goes to completion, the second reaction occurs slowly and determines the reaction rate.
Assuming order of reaction is first order reaction. Then rate of reaction is

-r =kCA


From material balance;

Mole ratio = NH3 =2.55 , H2O =0.37


Assuming overall carbamate conversion to be 42%

Now , = 2.55 3.55 = -0.28


Performance equation of an ideal plug flow reactor


I =

Value of integral is solved by Simpsons 1/3 rule:

S.No. XA (1-0.28XA)/(1-XA)

1 0 1
2 0.05 1.04
3 0.1 1.08
4 0.15 1.13

5 0.20 1.18
6 0.25 1.24
7 0.30 1.31
8 0.35 1.39
9 0.40 1.48
10 0.45 1.59

Using Simpsons rule:

= h/3 [y0 +4 (y1 +y3 + y5+ y7 +.. ) +2(y2 +y4 +y6 + y8 + y10..) +yn]

=0.059/3[1 +4(1.04 + 1.13 + 1.24 + 1.39) +2(1.08 +1.18 +1.31 +1.48) +1.59]


FAO =(4333.91/17) +(14564.96/18)+(120727.34/78)


=2611.85 Kmol/hr

0 = 4333.91 +14564.96 +120727.34

890 1000 910

= 4.87 +14.565+132.667

=152.10 m3/hr

CAO = FAO / 0

= 2611.85/152.10

=17.172 Kmol/m3


Reactor temperature= T2=180C= 453 K

R=1.985 cal K-1 mol-1

At temperature T1=140 C =413 K, K=0.0134 min-1 for 1st order reaction(reference)

From the reaction, E=38.1-7.1= 31 Kcal/mol=31000 cal/mol

ln K2 =E{(1/T1) (1/T2)}

K1 R

Therefore, K2= 0.0378 min-1 =2.27 hr-1

Volume of reactor V = FAO * I


V= 2611.85*0.627 / (2.27*17.172)

V=42.01 m3

Length and diameter of urea reactor

Assuming L/D =20

V=( /4) *D2 *20D

Di =1.39 m

L =27.8 m


Acceptable plant design must present a process that is capable of operating

under conditions, which will yield profit. Since net profit equals total value minus
all expenses, it is essential that the chemical engineer be aware of the many
different types of cost involved in the manufacturing processes. Capital must
allocate for the direct, plant expenses, such as those for raw material, labor and
Besides direct expenses many others indirect expenses are incurred, and these
must be included if a complete analysis of the total cost is to be obtained. Some
examples of these indirect expenses are administrative salary, product
distribution cost and cost for interplant communication. A capital investment is
required for every industrial process and determination of necessary investment
is an important part of a plant design process. The total investment for any
process consist fixed capital investment for practical equipment and facilities in
the plant plus working capital, which must be available to pay salaries, keep raw
material and products on hand, and handle other special items requiring the
direct cost outline.
When the cost for any type of commercial process is to be determined, sufficient
accuracy has to be provided for reliable decision. There are many factors
affecting investment and production cost. These are;
1. Source of equipment
2. Price fluctuation
3. Company policies
4. Operating and rate of production
5. Governmental policies
Before an industrial plant can be put into operation, a large sum of money must
be supplied to purchase and install the necessary machinery and equipment.

Land and service facilities must be obtained, and the plant must be erected completely
with all piping, controls and services.
The capital needed to supply the necessary manufacturing and plant facilities is called the
fixed-capital investment, while that necessary for the operation of plant is termed the
working capital. The sum of the fixed capital investment and the working is known as the
total capital investment. Generally, the working capital amounts 10-20% of the total capital
investment. Following is the breakdown of the fixed capital investment for a chemical

1. purchased equipments
2. purchased equipment installation
3. instrumentation and control
4. piping
5. electrical equipment and material
6. building (including services)
7. yard improvement
8. land

1. engineering supervision
2. construction expenses
3. contractors fee
4. contingency


Order of magnitude estimate (ratio estimate) based on similar cost data;

probable accuracy of this estimate over 30%.

Study estimate based on knowledge of major items of equipment,
probable accuracy of this estimate up to 30%.
Preliminary estimate( budget authorization estimate scope method): based
on sufficient data to permit the estimate to the budget, probable accuracy
of this estimate is within 20%.
Detailed estimate based on complete engineering drawing, specifications
and site survey, probable accuracy of this estimate within 10%.


Urea plant size = 1000 T/day
Fixed capital investment for cost index of 130 = Rs 2.051107
Cost index for 2002 = 402
Therefore present fixed capital investment = 2.051107(402/130)
=Rs 63,42,32,31
Estimation of total investment cost :
1) Direct cost:
a) Purchased equipment cost:(15 - 40% of FCI ) Assume
40% of FCI
=Rs 25369292
b) Installation cost :(35 - 45% of PEC)
Assume 45%
=Rs 11416181
c) Instrument and control installed :(6 -30% of PEC)
Assume 30% of PEC
=Rs 7610787
d) Piping installation cost :(10 -80% of PEC)
Assume 80%
e) Electrical installation cost:(10 - 40% of PEC)

Assume 40% of PEC
=Rs 10147716
f) Building process and auxilliary:(10-70% of PEC)
Assume 70%
=Rs 17758504
g) Service facilities:(30-80% 0f PEC)
Assume 80%
=Rs 20295433
h) Yard improvement :(10-15% of PEC)
Assume 15%
=Rs 3,805,393
i) Land:(4-8% of PEC)
Assume 8%
=Rs 2029543
Therefore direct cost =Rs. 118728282
Indirect cost:
Expenses which are not directly involved with material and labour of actual installation or complete
a) Engineering and supervision :(5-30% of DC)
Assume 30%
=Rs 35618485
b)Construction expenses:(10% of DC)
=Rs 11872828
c) Contractors fee:(2-7% 0f DC)
Assume 7%
=Rs 8310979
d) Contingency :(8-20% of DC)
Assume 18%
=Rs 21371091
Therefore total indirect cost =Rs 77,173,383
Fixed capital investment:

Fixed capital investment (FCI) = DC+IC
= Rs 195,901,665
Working capital investment:
10 -20% of FCI
Assume 18%
=Rs 35262299
2) Total capital investment:
= FCI + WC
=Rs 231163965

Estimation of total product cost(TPC):

Fixed charges:
a) Depreciation :(10% of FCI for machinery)
=Rs 19590166
b) Local taxes :(3-4% of FCI)
Assume 4%
=Rs 7836067
c) Insurances :(0.4-1% of FCI)
Assume 0.9%
=Rs 1763115
d) Rent :(8-12% of FCI)
Assume 12%
=Rs 23508199
Therefore total fixed charges =Rs 52697547 But,
Fixed charges = (10-20% of TPC)
Assume 20%
Therefore Total product cost =52697547/0.20
=Rs 263487735
Direct production:
a) Raw material :(10-50% 0f TPC)
Assume 50%

=Rs 131743867
b) Operating labour(OL):(10-20% of TPC)
Assume 20%
=Rs 52697547
c) Direct supervisory and electric labour:(10-25% of OL) Assume
=Rs 13174387
b) Utilities :(10-20% of TPC)
Assume 20%
=Rs 52697547
c) Maintenance :(2-10% of FCI)
Assume 9%
=Rs 17631149
d) Operating supplies (OS):(10-20% of maintenance) Assume
=Rs 3526229
e) Laboratory charges :(10-20% of OL)
Assume 18%
=Rs 9485558
f) Patent and royalties :(2-6% of TPC)
Assume 6%
=Rs 15809264

Plant overhead cost:

50-70% of (OL+OS+M = 73854925)
Assume 70%
=Rs 51698447
General expenses:
a) Administration cost:(40-60% of OL)
Assume 60%
=Rs 31618528
b) Distribution and selling price:(2-30% of TPC)
Assume 30%
=Rs 79046320
c) Research and development cost
:(3% of TPC)
Rs= 7904632
Therefore general expenses (GE) =Rs 118569480
Therefore manufacturing cost (MC)= Product cost+fixed charges+Plant
overhead expenses
=Rs 367883729
Total production cost:
Total production cost =MC + GE
=Rs 486453209
Gross earnings and rate of return:
The plant is working for say 340 days a year
Selling price =Rs. 15 /kg for a Urea
Total income =100340100015
=Rs 510000000
Gross income =Total income - total product cost
=Rs 23546791
Tax =50%
Net profit =Rs 11773395
Rate of return = net profit/total capital investment


IFFCO( Phulpur unit) manual

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McGraw Hill, Inc. (1980)
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Coulson, J. M. & Richardson, J. F., Chemical Engineering, Volume 6
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Joshi, M.V. and Mahajani, V.V, Process Equipment Design,3rd edition, Macmillan
India ltd.(2007)
McCabe, Warren L., Smith, Julian C., and Harriot, Peter, Unit Operations of
Chemical Engineering, 5th edition, Pergamon Press (1983)
Kern, D.Q, Process Heat Transfer , J. A., 4th Edition , McGraw Hill International
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Hill International Edition .
Sahu, J.N ,Patwardhan,A.V and Meiko, B.C (IIT Kharagpur) Equilibrium and
kinetic studies of generation of urea in areactor