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FUTURE

WAY

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: :

Fan coil unit -1

Terminal units
.


Concealed static head
.

-2 Air handling units


split central AHU
,
.

.
:

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-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7

:
-
.
- .
-
face velocity 2.5-1.5/ 2.2-5
.fps
- wet coils

fins , sensible
dry coil
.
- BPF or by pass factor

.
-

BPF .
- wet coils RH 90%
.
- 1.5-3.3/ fps 5-1
.erosion
wet coils :

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Chillers -3

, :
Vapor-compression refrigeration(VCRS) -1


Air cooled condenser chiller -1
( ) :

Water cooled condenser chiller -2


(
) :

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Cooler Shell and tube


:

chiller
:

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VCRS Chillers

COP -

)Cop=Te/ (Tc-Te

------Te

------Tc

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Vapor-absorption refrigeration(VARS) -2

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% 3

- VCRS 253-153/ .

- VARS 33-11 ,
VCRS 27-23 .

- VARS VARS .

- Crystallization

.

- vaccum leak
Purge
.

-1
-2
-3
-4
-5

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chillers

%73 %53
.

VARS Chillers

COP -

]Cop=[Te/ (Ta-Te)][(Tg-Ta)/ Tg

-------Te
-------Ta
------- Tg

EER -
EER=COP*3.41

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Cooling towers -4

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chillers
.

chillers
.chillers

Sand filter
.

chiller
.

Pump system -5

chiller :

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Positive displacement -

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Roto-dynamic -
Axial pumps .1
Centrifugal .2
.
.1
:

.Mixed or radial or axial

:
Vertical or horizontal
coupling :
Closed coupled -

).(casing
Long coupled -

.
.multi-stages or single stages
casing split case
.hermetic sealed
:

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.2


System and characteristic curve definition

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The system curve -

characteristic curve
.

Bernoulli equation -

- :system curve

K is a constant represents the reset of Bernouli equation

Characteristic curve -


static head
.

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Duty point limit




, %13 %23
.

Parallel pumps connection




.limits of duty point

Series pumps connection



.

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Net positive suction head


Cavitation -

NPSH required -

NPSH available -


.NPSH required

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.1-

H mas is the maximum suction head

H b is atmospheric pressure

NPSH available
, H
H
)(H max=H

Hv is vapor pressure of liquid

)Hs is a safety factor (0.5-1 meter

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:

%73
.%53

.

Expansion tank -6

-


Make up .
-
:

)Expansion Tank Sizing (Diaphragm Tanks


1- Chilled water expansion tank sizing and for system water temp. less than 160 o F
) (1987, HVAC systems & applications Ashrae Hand Book Chapter 13
pf
Vt = e Vs / [1- ] ; Gallons , where
Po
) Vt = minimum volume of expansion tank (Gallons

) Vs = System volume (Gallons

Pf = Intial fill or min. tank pr. (FT) 45 FT .

)Po = Maximum operating tank PR. (FT

e = Net expansion factor for water see table attached .

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Volume of water in standard pipe and tube


Standard steel pipe Type L Copper Tube


Nominal pipe Inside Volume Inside Volume
size Diameter Diameter
In. Schedule In. Gal / ft In. Gal / ft
No.
3/8 - - - 0.430 0.0075
1/2 40 0.622 0.0157 0.545 0.0121
5/8 - - - 0.666 0.0181
3/4 40 0.824 0.0277 0.785 0.0251
1 40 1.049 0.0449 1.025 0.0429
1 1/4 40 1.380 0.0779 1.265 0.0633
1 1/2 40 1.610 0.106 1.505 0.0924
2 40 2.067 0.174 1.985 0.161
2 1/2 40 2.469 0.249 2.465 0.248
3 40 3.068 0.384 2.945 0.354
3 1/2 40 3.548 0.514 3.425 0.479
4 40 4.026 0.661 3.905 0.622
5 40 5.047 1.04 4.875 0.970
6 40 6.065 1.50 5.845 1.39
8 30 8.071 2.66 7.725 2.43
10 30 10.136 4.19 9.625 3.78
12 30 12.090 5.96 11.565 5.46

Net Expansion of water in chilled and dual temperature systems with lowest
)temperature of 40 o F (4o C

Highest Factor
o
Temperature, F e

90 0.0041
100 0.0058
110 0.0077
120 0.0100
130 0.0124
140 0.0150

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150 0.0179
160 0.0209

Water softener -7
-

-
.4gpH / Ton

Air separator -8
chiller .

: :
:

-1 13-12 55-54 .

-2 7 44 .

-3 evaporator or cooler chiller


13 .

: SAT supply air temperature

-1 fan coil units

-2 air handling units


52 .

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: chillers

55 chiller 25 .

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