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Homework 2

Due 25 September 2017 in class

1. The Colorado River Aqueduct provides drinking water to much of Southern California. It runs 390 km
from Lake Havasu on the Arizona-California border to Lake Mathews, south of Riverside, California.
The aqueduct passes through a series of pumps, lifts, tunnels, and other mechanisms to cross the
Mojave Desert.
For this problem, assume the aqueduct is a simple channel, open to the atmosphere along its whole
length. The surface elevation of Lake Havasu is 136 meters, and the surface of Lake Mathews is 424
m. By means of a pump, the water from Lake Havasu is lifted 493 m to flow down the length of
the aqueduct. If the water is in a large reservoir after being lifted out of Lake Havasu, and the flow
experiences a loss of 2.5 kgkm , what is the velocity of the flow entering Lake Mathews? If the channel
is 2 m , what is the volume flow rate?
2. A closed cylindrical tank filled with water has a hemispherical dome and is connected to an inverted
piping system as shown in the figure below. The liquid in the top part of the piping system has a
specific gravity of 0.8, and the remaining parts of the system are filled with water. If the pressure gage
reading at point A is 60 kPa, determine (a) the pressure in the pipe at B, and (b) the pressure head,
in millimeters of mercury, at point C.

3. A falling-sphere viscometer is one of the simplest methods to measure viscosity. A liquid is contained
within a vertical tube, and then a dense solid sphere is dropped into the top of the tube. The sphere
sinks through the tube, and its terminal velocity is measured. The drag force slowing the sphere is
proportional to the viscosity of the liquid.
For laminar conditions, the drag on a sinking sphere is given by FD = 3DV , where D is the diameter
of the sphere, V the velocity, and the absolute viscosity. A 1/8 in steel ball bearing (SG = 7.9) is
dropped into viscous oil. At terminal velocity, the sphere covers 2 ft in 15 s. What is the kinematic
viscosity of the oil if its specific gravity is 0.8?
4. 3 gallons per minute of water enters the tank in the figure below. The inlet line is 2.5 in in diameter.
The air vent is 1.5 in in diameter. Determine the air exit velocity at the instant shown.

5. A jet of water issues from a kitchen faucet and falls vertically downward at a rate of 1.5 fl. oz. per
second. At the faucet, which is 14 in. above the sink bottom, the jet diameter is 5/8 in. Determine
the diameter of the jet where it strikes the sink.

6. A Las Vegas casino is constructing a fountain system for a glamorous water show along the Strip. The
casinos uber-wealthy owner wants water shooting 30 m into the air from the pool. The engineer has
to decide on a pump to produce enough pressure to drive the fountain to that height. He has a choice
of four pumps:

(a) Produces 500 kPa

(b) Produces 400 kPa
(c) Produces 300 kPa
(d) Produces 200 kPa
(e) Produces 100 kPa

In the interest of saving money (which the scrooge-y casino owner is definitely in favor of) the engineer
must select the smallest pump that can produce enough pressure to drive the fountain. Which one
will work? The water in the fountain is going to typically be at 30 C, since Las Vegas is exceedingly
warm during a good part of the year. What will the exit velocity be, if the nozzle for the fountain is 4
cm in diameter?

7. Assume all liquids are at normal temperature and pressure.

(a) Six gallons per minute of methyl alcohol flows in a 2-nominal schedule 40 pipe. Is the flow laminar
or turbulent?
(b) Fifteen liters per second of propane flows through 4 standard type M copper tubing. Is the flow
laminar or turbulent?
(c) One hundred cubic feet per minute of air flows through 2 standard type M copper tubing. Is the
flow laminar or turbulent?

8. A 1/8 nominal schedule 40 wrought iron pipe conveys ethylene glycol at a rate of 0.1 L/s. The pipe is
laid out horizontally and is 30 m long. Calculate the pressure drop.

9. A 1 nominal schedule 40 PVC pipe carries water for a distance of 20 m. The pressure drop is measured
at 10 kPa. What are the average velocity and the volume flow rate?
10. A pump compresses water into a reservoir at 1 MPa, 2 m below the upper fluid surface within the
reservoir. The reservoir discharges into a piping system to feed an industrial spray cooler, with the
discharge occurring 4 m below the fluid surface. The system is copper pipe, 2 nominal schedule 40.
There are 12 90 elbows, 3 gate valves kept fully open, a well rounded inlet from the reservoir, and
an abrupt exit to atmospheric pressure. The copper pipe is 50 m in total length and rises 10 m in
elevation from the reservoir discharge.
Determine the flow rate through the piping system.