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ISBN 978-0-626-26536-6
SANS 4001-BT2:2012
Edition 1

SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Civil engineering test methods

Part BT2: Cutback bitumen

Published by SABS Standards Division


1 Dr Lategan Road Groenkloof Private Bag X191 Pretoria 0001
Tel: +27 12 428 7911 Fax: +27 12 344 1568
www.sabs.co.za
SABS
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SANS 4001-BT2:2012
Edition 1

Table of changes
Change No. Date Scope

Acknowledgement
The SABS Standards Division wishes to acknowledge the valuable assistance of the Committee of
Transport Officials (COTO), the South African National Roads Agency Limited (SANRAL) and the
Southern African Bitumen Association (SABITA).

Foreword
This South African standard was approved by National Committee SABS SC 59E, Construction
standards Pavement materials testing, in accordance with procedures of the SABS Standards
Division, in compliance with annex 3 of the WTO/TBT agreement.

This document was published in January 2012.

This document supersedes SANS 308:2009 (edition 2.2).

Reference is made in 4.1 to the relevant national legislation. In South Africa this means the
Occupational Health and Safety Act, 1993 (Act No. 85 of 1993) and the Environmental
Conservation Act, 1989 (Act No. 73 of 1989).

SANS 4001 consists of various parts under the general title Civil engineering test methods.
Parts BT of the SANS 4001 series contain methods for the testing of bituminous products and
spraying equipment.

Annex A forms an integral part of this document. Annex B is for information only.

Introduction
This standard was revised in 1971 and has now been revised under a new title in order to eliminate
certain shortcomings and to bring it into line with current practice.

Major modifications in the standard, apart from the substitution of metric units for non-metric values,
include the introduction of MC-10 as a new grade and the removal of rapid cure cutback bitumen
and two grades of medium-cure cutback bitumen as they are no longer produced or used. In the
interests of safety a lower limit for flash point has been introduced. The viscosity-temperature
relationships in the original standard have been omitted and guidelines for spraying, storage and
pumping temperatures are given explicitly. The dynamic viscosity (Brookfield) has been included as
an option to enable wider participation of field and third party laboratories. Kinematic viscosity
remains as the reference method for quality control and as the primary requirement for certification.

Viscosity at 60 C on residue replaces the penetration test on residue.
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Contents
Page

Acknowledgement

Foreword

Introduction

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................... 3

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................. 3

3 Definitions and abbreviations ................................................................................................. 4

4 Requirements ......................................................................................................................... 4

5 Packing and marking ............................................................................................................. 5

6 Sampling and compliance with this part of SANS 4001 ........................................................ 6

7 Methods of test ...................................................................................................................... 6

Annex A (normative) Notes to purchasers ............................................................................ 7

Annex B (informative) Appropriate temperatures for spraying, pumping and storing


of cutback bitumen .................................................................................................. 7

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SANS 4001-BT2:2012
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Civil engineering test methods

Part BT2:
Cutback bitumen

1 Scope
This part of SANS 4001 applies to bituminous materials and covers the requirements for three types
of cutback bitumen suitable for road construction and similar purposes.

2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For
dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the
referenced document (including any amendments) applies. Information on currently valid national
and international standards can be obtained from the SABS Standards Division.

ASTM D93, Standard test methods for flash-point by Pensky-Martens closed cup tester.

ASTM D95, Standard test method for water in petroleum products and bituminous materials by
distillation.

ASTM D140, Standard practice for sampling bituminous materials.

ASTM D402, Standard test method for distillation of cutback asphaltic (bituminous) products.

ASTM D2170, Standard test method for kinematic viscosity of asphalts (bitumens).

ASTM D4402, Standard test method for viscosity determination of asphalt at elevated temperatures
using a rotational viscometer.

SANS 4001-BT1, Civil engineering test method Part BT1: Penetration grade bitumen.

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3 Definitions and abbreviations


For the purposes of this document, the following definitions and abbreviations apply.

3.1 Definitions
3.1.1
bitumen
non-crystalline solid or viscous mixture of complex hydrocarbons that possesses characteristic
agglomerating properties, softens gradually when heated, is substantially soluble in trichlorethylene,
and is obtained from crude petroleum by refining processes

3.1.2
cracked bitumen
bitumen that has been treated either thermally, catalytically or by the addition of hydrogen at high
pressure and elevated temperature, resulting in the large hydrocarbon molecules breaking down
into smaller molecules

3.1.3
cutback bitumen
penetration grade bitumen blended with a small quantity of volatile solvents to reduce viscosity for
ease of handling and application, which, after the volatile solvents have evaporated, essentially
reverts to the penetration-grade bitumen base

3.1.4
lot
that quantity of cutback bitumen of the same batch identification, from one manufacturer, submitted
at any one time for inspection and testing

3.2 Abbreviations
AASHTO: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials

ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials

4 Requirements

4.1 General
The cutback bitumen shall be homogeneous, free from visible water and other impurities, and shall
not foam when heated to application temperature. The solvent used in the preparation of cutback
bitumen shall comply with the relevant national legislation (see foreword).

4.2 Base bitumen


The cutback bitumen shall be made from a penetration-grade bitumen base that complies with all
the requirements of SANS 4001-BT1 except that, if cutback bitumen that is made from thermally or
catalytically cracked bitumen is acceptable, the bitumen need not comply with the requirement for
the n-heptane-xylene equivalent.

4.3 Grade requirements


4.3.1 The cutback bitumen shall comply with the requirements relevant to the grade designation
specified by the purchaser (see annex A) and given in the appropriate columns of table 1.

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4.3.2 Consumers whose equipment or conditions of use necessitate a viscosity grade other than
as given in table 1 should consult the supplier of the cutback bitumen, and any specific viscosity
requirement shall be the subject of agreement between the purchaser and the supplier (see
annex A).

Table 1 Cutback bitumen: medium-curing grades

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Requirement
Type and grade designationa
Property Test method
MC-10 MC-30 MC-3000

Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max.

Kinematic viscosity at 60 C, cStb 10 20 30 60 3 000 6 000 ASTM D2170

Dynamic viscosity at 60 C, mPa.s c 10 25 30 70 3000 7000 ASTM D4402

Flash-point, C 38 38 38 ASTM D93

Water, % by mass or volume 0,2 0,2 0,2 ASTM D95

Distillation at 101,325 kPa absolute


Distillate % (by volume) of total
distillate to 360 C

to 190 C 0 20 0 15 d d ASTM D402

to 225 C 20 70 15 60 0 25

to 260 C 60 90 50 85 0 40

to 316 C 80 100 80 100 35 80

Residue from distillation to 360 C


40 50 80 ASTM D402
% (by volume) (by difference)

Viscosity at 60 C on residue from


30 30 30 ASTM D4402
distillation, Pa.s
a
For the guidance of the user the range of temperature application is given in annex B.
b
Primary requirement for certification and reference method in cases of a dispute.
c
Used as a field test to facilitate wider participation of third party laboratories.
d
Value to be reported.

5 Packing and marking


5.1 Packing
The condition of each drum and tanker into which the penetration grade bitumen is packed shall be
such that it will have no detrimental effect on the quality of the product during normal transport and
storage.

5.2 Marking
The following information shall appear in legible and indelible marking on each drum or, when the
bitumen is supplied in tankers, on the relevant consignment documents:

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a) the manufacturer's identification;

b) a description of the contents;

c) the type and grade designation;

d) the batch identification;

e) the quantity; and

f) when relevant, that the product contains cracked bitumen.

6 Sampling and compliance with this part of SANS 4001


6.1 General
This clause applies to the sampling for inspection and testing before acceptance or rejection of
single lots (consignments) in cases where no information about the implementation of quality control
or testing during manufacture is available to help in assessing the quality of the lot. It is also used
as the procedure for adjudicating in cases of dispute.

6.2 Sampling
The relevant sampling procedure as described in ASTM D140 shall be applied in determining
whether a lot complies with the appropriate requirements of this part of SANS 4001. The samples
so drawn shall be deemed to represent the lot.

6.3 Compliance
The lot shall be deemed to comply with the requirements of this part of SANS 4001 if, after
inspection and testing, the sample taken in accordance with 6.2 is found to comply with all the
appropriate requirements of this part of SANS 4001.

7 Methods of test
Use the methods listed in table 1.

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Annex A
(normative)

Notes to purchasers

A.1 The following requirement shall be specified in tender invitations and in each order or
contract:

the grade designation (see 4.3.1)

A.2 The following requirement shall be agreed upon between the purchaser and the supplier:

when relevant, the supply of a special viscosity grade (see 4.3.2)

Annex B
(informative)

Appropriate temperatures for spraying, pumping and storing


of cutback bitumen
Table B1 gives guidance to users on the appropriate temperatures for spray application, pumping
and storing of the various grades of cutback bitumen.

The recommendations on the purpose for which the various grades should be used are indicative
only and where doubt exists, should be confirmed by reference to published guides and manuals.

Table B1 Application temperatures and uses of cutback bitumen

1 2 3 6

Grades MC-10 MC-30 MC-3 000

Spraying temperature range a 10 C 30 C 45 C 65 C 125 C 145 C

Maximum temperature for


b 30 C 30 C 100 C
storage

Minimum temperature for


a 10 C 10 C 80 C
pumping
Priming of non-bituminous Construction of spray
Purpose for which the cutback Priming of non- road bases; laying of dust; seals during winter for
should be used bituminous road bases provision of temporary roads carrying light
surfaces traffic
a
Based on a viscosity range of 40 centistokes to 100 centistokes (spraying) and 750 centistokes (pumping).
b
When cutback bitumen is stored the storage vessel shall be kept closed in a manner that will minimize loss
of volatile fractions.

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