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E201: WORK, ENERGY AND POWER

PALERO JR., Dante M.

OBJECTIVE In the first part of the experiment, which is to


The purpose of this experiment is to understand of determine the force, work, and power of the fan
work, power and energy and its relationship to cart, we used the dynamics track, the fan cart, 2
energy conservation. According to the law of photogates, and weights. To avoid some errors in
energy conservation, Energy is nor created nor the experiment, we the leveled first the dynamics
destroyed but is just changed from one to track so that no other force will be applied in the
another. We know that energy is the capacity to fan cart. After leveling the dynamics track, we set
do work. We can obtain energy in many forms and up the apparatuses as indicated in the picture
transfer it in from object to another through work. below.
Power is used to measure the work done.

In this experiment, there are two activities to be


performed. The main objectives of this experiment
are to determine the power of the fan cart by using
work and the principles of energy conservation
and to compute work of a motion when the motion
is along a curved path.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


These are the materials used in the experiment:
1 set dynamics track with accessories
1 pc fan cart
2 pcs photogates
1 pc protractor
1 pc meter stick
1 set weights
1 pc iron stand
1 pc spring balance Attach the string to the fan cart and pan at one
end and place it in the dynamics track with a pulley
at the end of the track. We determine the force of
the fan cart by putting weight on the pan and
turning the fan cart on. We increased or decreased
the weight on the pan until the fan cart is
stationary in its position. That indicated that the
force is balance and is also the force exerted by
the fan cart. We removed the pan and the weight
and set up the photogate 1 to 20cm and photogate
2 at 70cm in the track. Turning the fan cart on, we
performed several trials and adding 10cm for
every trail. We recorded the time of the fan cart
as is passes from photogate 1 to photogate 2.
On the second part of the experiment, which is the
determination of work by a force on a curved path, OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS
we used the iron stand, meter stick, 300g mass, a
protractor and a spring balance. We tied the 300g Table 1: Part 1. Determining the Force, Work
mass to the iron stand and measured the height and Power of the Fan Cart.
from the table to the center of the mass as its
initial height. We also measure the length of the Force of the Fan Cart = weight of pan + weight
string. Slowly, we pulled the hanging mass by added = 0.294 N
hooking the spring balance to it as shown in the
picture below. Displace
Tria ment, s Time, t Power
l (m) (s) Work (J) (Watts)

1 0.5 0.8470 0.1470 0.1736

2 0.6 0.9758 0.1764 0.1808

3 0.7 1.0667 0.2058 0.1929

4 0.8 1.2467 0.2352 0.1887

The work done increases as the displacement


increase by 10cm. The power has almost the same
value I every trails as to be expected to be
constant.

Sample Computations:
Force of the Fan Cart
= weight of pan+weight added
We reorder the height of the hanging mass from
the table as we apply force on it by pulling. We
=[(0.005kg)(9.8m/s^2 )] + [(0.025kg)(9.8
also recorder the angle from the iron stand to the
m/s^2 )]
string. We performed several trials and recorded
=0.049N+0.245N
the data and compared it to one another.
=0.294N
For trial 1:
Work=(Force of the cart)(displacement)
=(0.294N)(0.5m)
=0.1470 J

Power=Work/Time
=(0.1470 J)/(0.8470 s)
Power=0.1736 Watts

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Work=wL(1-cos)
Table 2: Part 2. Work by a Force on a Curvd =(2.94N)(0.29m)(1-cos22)
Path Work=0.0621 J

Length of the Initial


PE_g=mgh
string, L = Weight of mass, height, ho
0.29m w = 2.94N =0.138m =(2.94N)(0.22m)
PE_g=0.065 J
Gra
Inc
vitio
rea
Fo nal
Final se An Displ DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION
rc Wo pote
heig in gl acem In the first part of the experiment, since the work
Trial e rk ntial
ht, hf hei e, ent, X done is measured by power, results should varies
(N (J) ener
(m) ght (m) to one another. Work is the force applied
) gy,
,h multiplied by the distance the object traveled while
PEg
(m) power is the ratio of work done and the time
(J)
coverage of the work. Work increase as we
0.0 increase the distance traveled by the fan cart
2. 0.0 62 0.06 because work is directly proportional to distance.
1 2 0.16 22 22 0.109 1 5 The power exerted by the fan cart is expected to
be constant because the battery is its power
0.0 source. The batter cannot increase its power
2. 0.0 92 0.09 because it is limited source. It will only decrease
2 6 0.17 32 27 0.132 9 4 its power if it is starting to discharge or drained.
Based on our results, the power exerted by the fan
0.2 cart ranges to 0.18watt. The results we obtained
3. 0.21 0.0 29 0.22 in part 1 of the experiment is accepted.
3 6 5 77 43 0.198 0 6
In the second part of the experiment, the work
0.3
done is almost the same as the increase in
4. 0.1 16 0.30
gravitational energy. Kinetic energy becomes
4 2 0.24 02 51 0.225 0 0
constant as we pulled up the object upward. This
is because when you pulled an object upward, its
gravitational potential energy increases. Thus, the
The work done and the value of gravitational
work done in the curved path should equal to the
potential energy is almost the same as to be
increase in gravitational potential energy. Our
expected.
data agrees with this theory though there are
Sample Computations
discrepancy for only about few decimals but the
For Trial 1:
results are accepted.
h=h_f-h_o
Knowing the relationship between the applied
=0.16m-0.138m
force and the work done, you would be able to
h=0.022m
understand the principles in conservation of
energy. Since we said earlier that wok is directly
X= Lsin
proportional to the displacement where as if you
=(0.29m)(sin22)
increase the distance given constant force, work
X= 0.109m will also increase as well as if you increase force
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given a constant displacement, work will also Principle of Physics 10th edition
increase. By Walker, Halliday, Resnick
Used for discussion and conclusion
Gravitational potential energy is the energy stored
in an object as the result of its vertical position or
height. Due to Earths gravitational attraction to
the object, energy is being stored to it. So to
determine the gravitational potential energy of the
object, you increase the height of it. From this
principle, the work done by increasing the height
of the object is equal to its gravitational stored on
it. We can say that the gravitational potential
energy is directly proportional to the height of the
object so if we double the height, we double the
wok done and its gravitational potential energy.

Some errors might occur during the experiment.


One of this is when the battery of the fan cart is
starting to drain. The power of the cart being
exerted would not be constant. Another is if the
track is not leveled properly. Some unbalance
force will act on the fan cart and you wont be able
to get its true force.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT & REFERENCE

http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/energy/
u5l1b.cfm

Used for discussion and conclusion

Mapua Institute of Technology Physics 11


Laboratory manual

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