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A WEEKLY JOURNAL DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, PUBLISHING THE
OFFICIAL NOTICES AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION
FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE.

FRIDAY, JUNE 8, 1906. Scientific Notes and News .................. 890


University and Educational News .......... 895
CONTENTS.
MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., intended for
Pueblo Environment: DR. WALTER HOUIGH.. 866
review should be sent to the Editor of SCIENCE,Garrison-on-
Nathaniel Soutthgate Shaler. 869 Hudson, N. Y.
Scientific Books:-
Frick's Physical Technique, Milller-Pouil- PUEBLO ENVIRONMENT.1
let's Lehrbuch der Physik: PROFESSOR J. S. THE southern portion of the Rocky
AMES .872
Mountain Highland has two chief geo-
Scientifio Journals and Articles .873 .
graphic features, the one a depression
Societies and Academie8:- called the Great Interior Basin and the
The Torrey Botanical Club: DR. C. STUART other the Pueblo Plateau. The latter may
GAGER. The Philosophical Society of Wash-
ington: CHARLES K. WEAD. The Elisha be subdivided into the Rio Grande Valley,
Mitchell Scientific Society: PROFESSORA. the Colorado Plateau and the Gila Slope,
S. WHEELER. The Missouri Society of
Teachers of Mathematics and Science: DR. lying in the four political divisions named
L. D. AMES.873 Colorado, Utah, Arizona and New Mexico.
Discussion and Correspondence:- This plateau, which contains the bulk of
A Plea to make the Smithsonian Institu- the elevation on the western half of the
tion a National Instituite of Research:
DAVID FAIRCHILD.876 United States, is mainly embraced in the
triangle lying between the eastern side of
Special Articles:-
A Machine for compounding Sine Curves: the Rocky Mountains and the Rio Colorado,
PROFESSOR W. G. CADY.877 the western side being bounded by the Great
Quotations:- Basin. Its slope is from north to south in
The Teachimg Profession; The Geological the eastern portion where the Rio Grande
Survey .881 drains the trough lying just east of the
Astronomical Notes: continental uplift, but the main slope is
Suggestions for a Theory of the Milky Wazy
and the Clouds of Magellan; The Magellanic toward the southwest and is drained by
Clouds; The Solar Origin of Terrestrial the Colorado and its affluents. The plateau
Magnetic Disturbances; Photometric Deter-
minatiozn of the Stellar Magnitude of the lies from four to ten thousand feet above
Sun; Recent and Coming Total Eclipses sea level, but there are great contrasts in
of the Stun: PROFESSOR S. I. BAILEY ...... 884
elevation from 14,000 feet above to 300 feet
Fluid Lenses . 886 below the datum. In this region the north
The International Geodetic Association. 887 and south ranges of the Rockies break up
and form a complex of mountains running
The Congress of the United States . . 887
"Address of the vice-president and chairman of
The California Academy of Sciences . 887
Section H-American Association for the Ad-
The Ithaca Meeting of the American Associa- vancement of Science, New Orleans, December,
tion . 888 1905.
866 SCIENCE. [N. S. VOL.XXIII. No. 597.

east and west, plateaus, plains, basins, Despite the generally adverse conditions
buttes, broad valleys and narrow canyons set forth, there flourishes here a flora of a
giving great diversity of the most remark- peculiar character which forms the basis
able natural features to be found in the of subsistence for an extensive fauna, and
world. also the newcomer, man, who has pinned
The geology is that of later rocks, prin- much of his faith to nature's supply. The
cipally the easily eroded Cretaceous and region is not in any part a desert in the
other Mesozoic formations. Tremendous true sense of the term, which is applied
volcanic activity in former times has to lands deserted because of an inhibition
poured out vast floods of lava which, to- of life, but it is rather a semi-arid environ-
gether with tufas or agglomerated ash, ment, in which a preponderance of desic-
form thle most noticeable physiographic cative and other factors have restricted and
features of the region. minimized life. These restrictions are ob-
Latitude, elevation and natural barriers served in full force among the plants fixed
here conspire to produce modifications in in the earth, and therefore played upon
climate. This is seen in the convolutions by all the natural forces, to which they
of the isotherms of 500, 590 and 68? cross- must adapt themselves by slower changes
ing the region, the scanty rainfall occur- than are required by higher biotic forms.
ring in the winter and summer months, the The characteristic climatic flora is thus
excessive insolation, the extremes of day xerophytic where the leaves are small, with
and night temperature, the high winds and structures for preventing too rapid evap-
rarefied air, which characterize the arid oration, stems contain chlorophyl and act
environments. when leaves fall away, etc.; these are adap-
The fitness of the southwest to sustain tations which give some plants the freedom
biotic forms depends mainly upon rainfall, of the desert. Other plants are succulent
which itself is regulated by cosmic and geo- and spring to quick fruition when rains
graphic conditions. Thus the uprush of occur; other plants have perfected water-
heated air from the sun-baked plateaus dur- storing organs in stem, root and branches,
ing the summer draws in the moisture-laden as the cacti, yucca, atriplex, sarcobatus,
air from the oceans, producing rains which etc., and still others can live in soils con-
are unequally distributed; the higher moun- taining an excess of mineral salts.
tains, acting as condensing centers, receive Most of the desert plants bear witness to
the most, while the plains are scantily the struggle with sun, wind, rarefied air
watered. The receptivity of the land must and inhospitable soil; thus they present a
also be considered, the mountains covered gnarled, wrinkled and bizarre appearance,
with vegetation storing water, and the bare often simulating trees dwarfed by the
land shedding it into the rivers, which must gardener's art. Unlimited opportunity is
carry at times vast floods and during long here for isolation by natural boundaries,
periods remain perfectly dry. Everywhere which, if not a factor in the origin of spe-
is evidence of the colossal agencies which cies, at least powerfully aids in their pres-
are at work reducing the land to sea level. ervation.2
This workshop is littered with the bones of 2 Discussion by Jordan, Bailey and others, in re-
the mountains, and the dust that is sorted
cent numbers of SCIENCE. The Desert Labora-
by water and wind moves freely to lower tory of the Carnegie Institution, near Tucson,
levels or is blown higher to again resume Ariz., is attacking these problems with en-
its gravitational course. thusiasm.
Ju"n 8, 1906.] SCIENCE. 867
Much that is observed as to plant life is adequate to the needs of vast herds of ante-
true also of animal life, giving a facies by lope, elk and deer; rodent animals and
which Merriam's austral regions may be birds were plentiful and carnivores had
characterized. abundance of prey. As a result of vegeta-
In all discussions of this' environment, tion a humus had formed on all protected
little or no attention has been paid to the situations, rainfall was absorbed and equal-
effects of light, which is here at its maxi- ized in distribution and the terrific denuda-
mum. Without entering into detail as to tion which gashes the land at present was
the physiological sequelae of light from not begun.
other parts of the spectrum, the rays from The country was adapted to grazing and
the violet end may be considered. These especially favorable on account of tempera-
rays affect all life submitted to them in a ture and latitude, and at once great herds
harmful manner by checking or prohibit- of cattle, horses and sheep were introduced
ing cell growth or metabolism. It will be from Texas where pasturage had failed.
found that many of the protective features The result was that the range became over-
of xerophilous plants and of animals which stocked, the grass disappeared under the
are attributed to aridity, rarefied air, soil, tongues and hoofs of myriads of domestic
etc., are adaptations duel to avoidance of animals; shrubs and trees were browsed
dangerous rays of light. This is to be and destroyed or swept away by fires; from
noticed in the habit of some delicate plants certain regions species of plants vanished;
which thrive in the shade of hardy plants, and the land lay bare to the augmented
the protective covering and nocturnal hab- winds and torrential rains. Trails became
its of animals, and the architecture and profound arroyos, the humus vanished
shelter instincts, as well as skin color of into the streams and the surface of the
the ancient and modern Indians who lived country was stone, sand and gravel. Not
in caves, cliff shelters or cavate houses, or the least of this baneful influence was the
whose pueblos as a whole or as to the indi- drying up of springs and other sources of
vidual houses were constructed to admit a water, and more than one observer col-
minimum of light, but from far different lected data going to prove the progressive
causes, though still environmental pueblos desiccation of the pueblo region. These
were generally oriented with reference to facts must be borne in mind in discussion
the east; first, for the utilitarian purpose of the environment of the southwest. As
of receiving the early morning sun, grate- an example, it may be stated that in the
ful after the chilly nights of the high exploration of one ancient pueblo at Wins-
regions; and second, on account of the im- low, Ariz., the bones of thirty-seven species
portance of the rising sun in heliolatry. of animals were taken from the house
Such were the general features of the refuse; it is not probable at present that a
great area under consideration and on the naturalist could collect five of these species
whole the characteristics are constant to the from the environment. Wherever the ex-
present time, but it is difficult to realize plorer's spade has been put into the ancient
the immense modification of animal and ruins, facts of this character come to--his
vegetal life which the white man has notice, even if he has not heard the story
wrought in this region during the thirty from the early settlers or Indian tradition-
years of his active occupancy. At the be- ists.
ginning of this period the region was well There is no doubt that cycles of dry and
grassed and supplied with other vegetation wet seasons occur in the southwest, but the
%868 SCIENCE. [N. S. VOL.XXIII. No. 597.

periods have not been definitely observed. suitable for irrigation by canals or warp-
Inferential data have been secured from ex- ing.
ploration in the ancient ruins that render The effect of this environment upon
it possible to explain the migrations of plants is to reduce them to their lowest
early populations. terms; animals, to modify them in impor-
The conditions of the environment briefly tant ways; man, to subject his mind to the
recapitulated are: stress of severe conditions, reacting notice-
1. A plateau of considerable elevation ably on his body, and mightily on his
isolated geographically. thought and material progress.
2. Slight rainfall, locally distributed; The environment was suitable, or extinc-
absence of cloud blanket; excessive light, tion of tribes followed or a movement was
radiation and evaporation; high winds, made to a new subenvironment. Thus the
dust storms; rarefied air. constant and seemingly erratic migration
3. Forested mountains, plains with xero- of tribes which have covered the Pueblo
phytic, hydrophytic and halophytic vege- region with remains of ancient towns may
have been due to natural causes which dis-
tation; plant colonies; desert animals.
environed them, such as earthquakes, fail-
Within this general enclave we have sev-
ure of springs, etc. The final localization
eral subenvironments which may be con-
of the Pueblos is an index, in large meas-
sidered from the point of view of the avail-
ure, of the regional fitness.
ability for habitation by man. It is probable that the tribes coming into
Subenvironments: the pueblo environment were at first con-
1. Prohibitive to man and in great de- fined to mountain regions where there is a
gree to animal and vegetal life. permanent water-supply and natural sub-
2. Precarious except to man in low grade sistence, and that gradually they spread
of culture, as roving, hunting and primi- along the watercourses and into all the
tive tribes. Animal and vegetal life suffi- subenvironments. With the increase of
cient. population, the building of permanent vil-
3. Habitable by man acquainted with lages of stone, the beginning or extension
agriculture, but more or less precarious. of the agriculture of maize, which cereal is
4. Favorable for agriculture and pro- a major factor in the distribution and per-
duction of economic surplus. manency of tribes, the settlement of the
The subenvironments more favoring in Pueblo region went on apace.
the struggle for existence are: It is apparent that in the advanced cul-
1. Mountains at sources of rivers. Here ture stage of the Pueblos the privations
are narrow valleys for agriculture with oc- of environment had less restrictive char-
casional irrigation; game, nuts, fruits and acter than in earlier stages. Gradually
plants; timber, building material, etc. they attained superiority to the environ-
The temperature cold, with short growing ment which had worked on them to the
season. extent of its capabilities, and this has been
2. High plateaus with marshes, lakes, the history of the growth of mankind.
ponds. Land lying well for catchment of Thus the regions least favored, in fact
water. Temperature as in 1. prohibitive to tribes who had not the school-
3. Mesa country, with broad plains and ing of experience, became the seed-fields of
valleys; springs; streams flushed at seasons. advanced tribes. Given unfailing springs
4. Riverain lands in lower stream valleys as a starting point, the waste sand flats of
JUNE 8, 1906.] SCIENCE-. 869 -

streams-occasionally and temporarily filled the last the fullest sway of its causation
with water became corn-fields which yield- is shown.
ed bountiful returns to the Indian agricul- Without doubt the following of these
turist. These regions gave the surplus and other lines of inquiry relating to the
which is necessary for the building of an habits and customs of the Pueblo Indians
advanced civilization and here rather than will be productive of valuable material on
in the favorable subenvironments arose the this subject, necessarily but sketched in
true agriculture of cereals, on which basis this communication.
the civilizations of the world now rest. WALTER HOUGH.
The environment determined largely the
methods of application of water to land.' NATHANIEL SOUTHGATESHALER.1
North of the great ridge which crosses-the IN ever-growing measure for- over forty
southern portions' of Arizona and New years, Nathaniel Southgate Shaler made
Mexico, forming the watershed of the Gila- himself part of our life and gave the serv-
Salt River, are found the more primitive ice of an intensely active personality to
methods of irrigation, that is by simple the college and the country.
canals diverting water from streams to the He had an unusual range of experience
nearest land and by warping or spreading in contact with the world of men and work:
by means of slight temporary barriers a fan a boy in a slave-holding community, a
of water from a point in the stream'where young officer of the Union army in the civil
the bank and bed of the stream are at a war, later the director of a survey in his
uniform level. South of the ridge which native state and member-of various com-
absorbs the cloud moisture and diverts it missions in the state of his adoption, prac-
into the Gila is found a more complicated tised field geologist in many parts of this
system in the trunk and lateral canals of country, observant traveler abroad, expert'
great extent employed by the Indians who in two bureaus of the national government,
inhabited this region. Here the rivers lent adviser of mining enterprises in the south
themselves to irrigation and the agricul- and west, writer in many fields, orator and
tural tribes were led to employ 'the facili- poet on our days of celebration, he thus
ties to their betterment. gained that wide acquaintance with ex-'
The somatology and culture of the ternal affairs which made him so invalu-
Pueblo Indians in ancient times are known able a Harvard man: student at eighteen,
to have presented a remarkable uniformity, lecturer at twenty-three, professor at
and here may be found an argument for the twenty-seven and dean at fifty.
compelling, panurgic foree of the environ- He was impatient of seclusion in his
ment. Time and isolation must be consid- work, and therefore related himself, but
ered as concomitant factors in the forma- without a trace of self-seeking intrusion,
tion of a Pueblo type under the peculiar to all phases of -university life. Confident
transforming character of the environment, and courageous, abounding in initiative, he
which, while it produced uniformity in gave direction to work around him and
many respects, may have tended to per- turned the course of events. Inventive
petuate the five language stocks that pre- and independent, strikingly individualized,
vail in the region. he worked to best advantage as a leader or
The most obvious effects of Pueblc en- alone, not as one of two; if other names
vironment are those connected with irriga- 'Minute adopted by the Faculty of Arts and
tion, architecture, arts and religion, and in Sciences of Harvard University.