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In today's setup it is very difficult task for a teacher to take care of each and every

student in a heterogeneous classroom comprised of many individual differences among the

students. It is impossible for teacher to teach every individual according to their pace of

learning and level of understanding in limited time period.

Computer Assisted Instruction is highly effective and individualised instruction which

is very helpful to eradicate these problems. Computer Assisted Instruction facilitates

divergent approach to the teaching learning process. CAI helps the learner to choose a

programme of their interest, at the same time makes them aware of the different contexts

where a concept can be operationalised. While insights such as these might not be

deliberately taught, continuous learning via computers can "Train" students to this divergent

type of thinking. In computer assisted instruction the computer has been used to present

information to students, receive his response and take appropriate action, such as for remedial

information, cross questioning, help in analysing problem etc. Computer assisted instruction

(CAI) occurs often without the direct intervention of the teacher. It is certain that like other

strategies, several social and psychological variables are involved in this strategy and

researchers became interested in analysing their roles.

Edwards et. al. (1975), 1Tsai- Yun (1994), 2Lajoie et. al. (2001) and many others have

demonstrated the role of social and personal variables in CAI. Even the different subjects

have different type of interactions with the CAI. Biology is not the exception in this regard.
Agarwal (1995) compared CAI & programmed Instruction in Biology. Both were effective

regardless of the sex, intelligence and SES level in concept understanding. 4Lajoie et. al.

(2001) found that in CAI students take less time and learnt to reason scientifically in Biology

course. Such studies demonstrate that there is wide scope of interaction between performance

from CAI and learner's variables.

An analogy was drawn from these studies in formulating the present problem. The

learning & thinking styles, introversion, stability were selected to study their role in CAI. It

was expected to formulate some empirical basis for this relationship.


The main objectives of the study shall be the following:-

1. To study the relationship of student's science performance with their extraversion.

2. To study the relationship of student's Science performance with their neuroticism.

3. To explore the relationship of learning styles of boys and their science

performance from CAI.

4. To compare the CAI performance of boys and girls.

Edwards et. al, (1975): "How effective is CA1 A review of the research"; Educational leadership, 33pp 147-
153, 1975.
Tsai, Yun; (1994): "A mental analysis of effectiveness of computer based instruction in mathematics", Ph. D.
University of Okalahoma, Dissertation abstract international, Vol 56(1) July 1495p125A.
Lajoie, S.P (2001): Constructing knowledge in the contest of bioworld; Instructional Science, 2001 Mar; Vol
29 (2) pp 155-186
Agarwal, R. (1995): "A comparative study of conceptual understanding by programmed instruction and CAI"
Ph.D. Education, Rohilkhand University, Bareilly.

The following will be the secondary objective-

1- To develop a computer software package in Science for Secondary level.


The following hypotheses were tested in the present study-

1. The science performance from CAI is not significantly related with extraversion

of boys and girls.

2. The science performance from CAI is not significantly related with neuroticism

of boys and girls.

3. The science perf6rmance form CAI is not significantly related with any learning


4. CAI performance of boys and girls is not significantly different.


The focus of the present investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of computer

assisted instruction (CAI) programme is Science. Therefore, in this study experimental

method was used. The experiment was conducted to as certain the effect of various learner's

characteristics in computer assisted instruction performance. The learning through CAI

package was the experimental variable. The achievement through CAI program was the

criterion variable. The learning and thinking style, extraversion and neuroticism were taken

up as independent variables. The sex was included as the moderator variable.

The CAI package on "Human diseases" was developed by the investigator for the



The CAI programme was prepared for IX class students, therefore, experiment was to

be conducted on the population of IX class students of Science (Biology). In educational

researches, usually the cluster sampling is used. This involves a complete count of the intact


In present investigation cluster sampling and stratified sampling were used. Group of

250 students (129 boys & 121 girls) of class IX students were selected by cluster sampling


The data were collected by using the following tools:

1. Pre- test developed by investigator.

2. Post- test developed by investigator.

3. Computer assisted Instruction package on "Human diseases" developed by the investigator.

4. Eysenck's MPI, Indian adaptation by Kapoor.

5. Style of learning and thinking Test by D. Venkatraman.


The study was conducted by using the experimental method. The role of learner's

variables in computer assisted instruction was to be analysed. For this purpose, the main

effects and interaction effects were studied by using factorial design.

First of all, the role of personality was studied. Neuroticism and extraversion are the

two dimensions of personality. So, both were considered together. The stratification was done

on basis of these two traits. The high and low groups of the neuroticism and extraversion

were identified by using Kelley's dichotomy. Then four groups were made as stable introvert,

stable extravert, neurotic introvert and neurotic extravert. The students were allocated for

above groups from boys and girls both. Thus 2x2x2 factorial design for the analysis of

neuroticism x extroversion x sex was attempted.

Further, the subjects were identified on the basis of learning style with left

hemisphericity, right hemisphericity & integrated brain from both boys & girls. Thus, 3x2

factorial design was used for the analysis of learning styles x sex (HxS).

The cells of both factorial design were having unequal number of subjects. So,

unweighted means analysis was attempted.


The subjects were identified for each cell of 2x2x2 factorial design and 3x2 factorial

design. The pretest scores (X) and post test scores (Y) of these subjects were taken up for

analysis. The analysis of variance and analysis of covariance was attempted. Further, to

locate actual difference thet test was applied.


The following conclusions seem to be tenable in present study:

- Neuroticism of the subjects appeared to be negatively and significantly related with the CAI

performance. The stable subjects showed significantly higher performance than the neurotic


- Extraversion of subjects appeared to be related with the CAI performance of the subjects.

The introvert subjects showed the higher CAI performance than the extrovert subjects.

- The interaction effect of neuroticism and extraversion was found significant with regard to

CAI performance. The stable subjects showed higher performance at introversion level but

they were not significantly different with neurotic subjects at extraversion level.

- The interaction effect of extraversion and sex was significant with regard at CAI

performance. At extraversion level, boys and girls were not significantly different in CAI

performance but at introversion level, Girls showed higher performance than the boys.

- Subjects with the right hemisphericity showed significantly higher CAI performance than

the subjects with left hemisphericity.

- Girls with integrated brain showed significantly CAI performance than the girls with Left


- The girls were significantly higher on CAI performance than the boys.


The present study was conducted to analyse the effectiveness of computer assisted

instruction in terms of neuroticism, extraversion and learning styles of the subjects -

The role of learner's characteristics varies according to the nature of learning strategy.

Each strategy has their own characteristic which facilitates different type of student abilities.

The first finding of this study was that the stable subjects were significantly higher in

CAI performance than the neurotic subjects. The age of the subjects in this study was

between 13 to 15 yrs. The subjects were preparing for their high schools examination. At this

stage, the anxiety may hinder the learning; therefore, stability might have contributed the

students to learn more.

The introverts are conscientious, acquire condition responses, easily and able to carry

out repetitive task persistently in comparison of extraverts. So, computer assisted instruction

seem to help the introverts by providing the sufficient practice and to carry out the task for

long time. Hence, the introvert subjects appeared to show higher to CAI performance than

extrovert subjects in this study.

The interaction effect of neuroticism and extraversion was significant. The stable

subjects showed higher performance at introversion level but not significantly different with

neurotic subjects at extraversion level. The stability and introversion both appeared to

contribution significantly to the CAI performance. Therefore, this finding appeared.

The interaction effect of extraversion and sex was also significant. The boys and girls

were not significantly different in CAI performance at extraversion level but girls were better

than boys at introversion level. The girls are able to carry out repetitive task easily in

comparison of boys. Therefore this result might have appeared. 5Frances, Katz & Evans

(1996) also found that introverts have positive attitude towards computer than extroverts.

Regarding the learning and thinking styles the subjects were divided into three styles

on the basis of cerebral hemisphericity. The subjects with the left, right and integrated brain

show the different type activities what they can perform in natural way. The finding of this

study indicated that the subjects with right hemisphericity showed the higher CAI

performance than the subjects with left hemisphericity. The study was related with the

computer assisted instruction which is a kind of self-directed learning.

Francis, L; Katz, Y..I. and Evans, T; (1996):"The relationship between personality attitude towards computer
an investigation among female undergraduate students in Israel". British, Journal of Education and technology,
27:3 pp 161-170

Torrance and Reynolds, C.R (1979) developed the rationale that the teacher directed

learning tends to favour students with a left hemisphere style of learning, while self directed

learning favours right hemispheric learners. Moreover, the CAI package was based on

Biology topic which was having more pictorial messages. The interpretation of complex

visual pattern has been found to be pre-dominantly the right hemisphere function. Therefore,

the finding in this study might have appeared.

The girls with integrated brain showed higher performance than the girls with left

brain. The integrated brain indicates the similar functioning of both the hemispheres to

discuss such type of finding more studies are required under different conditions to have

some emperical findings:

The discussion of findings provides some insight into the computer assisted

instruction and contribution of learner's characteristics.


The obtained findings suffer from the delimitations already mentioned in the first

chapter of this report. Besides, this sample of this study was from Almora (Uttarakhand).

The statistical techniques and design used for analyzing the data have their own

limitations. The interpretations and inferences of the study suffer by these limitations.

The Biological (Science ) learning experiences was provided to the subject through

CAI programme on topic " Human disease " of class IX C.B.S.E. Board English medium.

The learning experience may differ form subject to subject and a topic to another topic. The

findings of this study may be applicable to the learning experience of similar nature. These

Torrance, E.P. & Reynolds, C.R. (1979): Norms Technical Manual for your style of learning and Thinking,
Form C.. Athens, Georgia: Gerorgia Studies of Creative Behaviour, Department of Educational Psychology,
University of Georgia.

may not be applicable to other sciences. Thus, the findings of this study suffer from the above

unavoidable limitations.


The findings of this study may be considered to support the view that success of

different type of students in related to the structure of learning strategy. On the basis of the

findings different type of students may be suggested to use learning packages on CAI

programme on 'Human diseases 'Biology of class IX English medium students.

The class room teacher may also make use to the findings of this study to deal with

the class room problems of various types of students. The teacher may provide a CAI

programme learning package to intelligent creative, introvert, extravert stables, Neurotic

subjects and may attend the other students individually.

Biology subjects become very easy and interesting through interactive and realistic

picture & diagrams. The topic of "human diseases "and other topics related to the subject

biology may be taught quite successfully by using this learning strategy.

CAI programme strategy is quite helpful in controlling the individual differences in

teaching learning situation. On the basis of the findings of the study, their strategy further can

be improved by applying other techniques like picture clipping, animation, video related to

the topic, etc. It may be useful to control individual differences to wider extent. So, that all

the type of students may be benefited by a learning package.

In home studies and correspondence course / distance education, this developed CAI

programme can assess to those who are unable to attend regular school, college and other


This programme may be helpful to teach the students effectively where there is a lack

of effective subject teachers.

Where there are large numbers of learners and it is not possible to educate too much

number of learners at a time, this CAI programme may be able to teach the learner through


Where the groups of students are heterogeneous, this programme is able to provide

the subject knowledge to the learner according to their individual differences.

It can be used for further researches in order to compare the CAI programme and

traditional and method and any other type of new method.


The conclusions regarding the CAI performance in relation to some students

characteristics were formulated in this study, Some suggestions with regard to further

possibilities in this field have been offered.

The effectiveness of CAI may be studied by taking up other student characteristics,

not included in this study.

The applicability of CAI in other sciences / subjects may be undertaken

- It should not be confined only to IXth class students, similar study can be conducted

from the different classes of science/Biology stream.

- An experimental study may be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the CAI

programme on different level of intelligence and other psychological levels.

- It will be useful to conduct research over a large sample including students of

different types of schools situated in urban as well as in rural locality.

- It is suggested to evaluate the effectiveness of CAI and traditional method in

retention of acquired knowledge and concepts.