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REA: IDIOMAS

INGLS AVANZADO (C1)


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sin la autorizacin previa

rea: Idiomas
Curso: Ingls avanzado (C1)
Edicin: Diciembre 2011
INDEX

UNIT 1. AUSTRALIA

1.1. Introduction

1.2. Listening
1.2.1. Listening 1
1.2.2. Exercise

1.3. Vocabulary
1.3.1. TV and radio
1.3.2. Topics in the news
1.3.3. Exercises

1.4. Grammar
1.4.1. Past simple
1.4.2. Present perfect
1.4.3. Future continuous, perfect and perfect continuous
1.4.4. Other ways of indicating future
1.4.5. Countable and uncountable nouns
1.4.6. Exercises

1.5. Reading
1.5.1. Text
1.5.2. Reading Comprehension

1.6. Speaking

1.7. Practice
1.7.1. Vocabulary
1.7.2. Grammar

1.8. English World

Ingls Avanzado (C1). ndice I.1


UNIT 2. NEWS ON THE PAPER

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Listening
2.2.1. Listening 1
2.2.2. Exercise

2.3. Vocabulary
2.3.1. Crime
2.3.2. The law
2.3.3. Exercises

2.4. Grammar
2.4.1. Compound adjectives
2.4.2. Reported speech
2.4.3. Conditionals I, II and III
2.4.4. Prepositions
2.4.5. Exercises

2.5. Reading
2.5.1. Text
2.5.2. Reading Comprehension

2.6. Speaking

2.7. Practice
2.7.1. Vocabulary
2.7.2. Grammar

2.8. English World

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UNIT 3. WE HAD BETTER

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Listening
3.2.1. Listening 1
3.2.2. Exercise

3.3. Vocabulary
3.3.1. Learning
3.3.2. Education
3.3.3. Exercises

3.4. Grammar
3.4.1. Structures of wishes about present and past
3.4.2. Passive sentences
3.4.3. Educational idioms
3.4.4. Exercises

3.5. Reading
3.5.1. Text
3.5.2. Reading Comprehension

3.6. Speaking

3.7. Practice
3.7.1. Vocabulary
3.7.2. Grammar

3.8. English World

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UNIT 4. TECHNOLOGY

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Listening
4.2.1. Listening 1
4.2.2. Exercise

4.3. Vocabulary
4.3.1. The sea
4.3.2. The universe
4.3.3. Technology
4.3.4. Exercises

4.4. Grammar
4.4.1. Expressing purpose, result and contrast
4.4.2. Time expressions
4.4.3. Exercises

4.5. Reading
4.5.1. Text
4.5.2. Reading Comprehension

4.6. Speaking

4.7. Practice
4.7.1. Vocabulary
4.7.2. Grammar

4.8. English World

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UNIT 5. TRAVELLING BY TRAIN AND BUS

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Listening
5.2.1. Listening 1
5.2.2. Exercise

5.3. Vocabulary
5.3.1. Travelling by train
5.3.2. Travelling by bus
5.3.3. Exercises

5.4. Grammar
5.4.1. Modal verbs
5.4.2. Relative clauses
5.4.3. Verbs followed by -ing or infinitive
5.4.4. Language functions: advice, directions, invitations and offers.
5.4.5. Exercises

5.5. Reading
5.5.1. Text
5.5.2. Reading Comprehension

5.6. Speaking

5.7. Practice
5.7.1. Vocabulary
5.7.2. Grammar

5.8. English World

Ingls Avanzado (C1). ndice I.5


UNIT 6. TROUBLES WITH MY MOBILE PHONE

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Listening
6.2.1. Listening 1
6.2.2. Listening 2
6.2.3. Exercise

6.3. Vocabulary
6.3.1. In the office
6.3.2. Formal language on the phone
6.3.3. British and American English
6.3.4. Exercises

6.4. Grammar
6.4.1. Connectors
6.4.2. Linking words and conjunctions
6.4.3. Language function
6.4.4. Exercises

6.5. Reading
6.5.1. Text
6.5.2. Reading Comprehension

6.6. Speaking

6.7. Practice
6.7.1. Vocabulary
6.7.2. Grammar

6.8. English World

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UNIT 7. ALETTER TO OUR FRIENDS

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Listening
7.2.1. Listening 1
7.2.2. Exercise

7.3. Vocabulary
7.3.1. Entertaiment and art
7.3.2. Exercises

7.4. Grammar
7.4.1. Inversion
7.4.2. All, no, each, every, either, neither, none
7.4.3. Formal and informal letters
7.4.4. Question tags
7.4.5. Phrasal verbs
7.4.6. Exercises

7.5. Reading
7.5.1. Text
7.5.2. Reading Comprehension

7.6. Speaking

7.7. Practice
7.7.1. Vocabulary
7.7.2. Grammar

7.8. English World

Ingls Avanzado (C1). ndice I.7


UNIT 8. AT THE TRAVEL AGENCY

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Listening
8.2.1. Listening 1
8.2.2. Exercise

8.3. Vocabulary
8.3.1. Travels/ At the travel agency
8.3.2. Money
8.3.3. Exercises

8.4. Grammar
8.4.1. Making comparisons
8.4.2. Expressing reason
8.4.3. Phrasal verbs
8.4.4. Exercises

8.5. Reading
8.5.1. Text
8.5.2. Reading Comprehension

8.6. Speaking

8.7. Practice
8.7.1. Vocabulary
8.7.2. Grammar

8.8. English World

SOLUTIONS

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UNIT 1. AUSTRALIA

1.1. Introduction

I am very glad to meet you in this English course where we will find different
sections.

These sections are: Listening, Vocabulary, Grammar, Reading, Speaking,


Practice, Games and the last one called English world.

In this unit that has the title AUSTRALIA we will revise vocabulary related to:
TV, radio and news. As for the grammar, there will be a revision of different
verbal tenses and the countable and uncountable nouns.

You can practice all this vocabulary and the grammar doing all the exercises in
the Practice section.

The Listening and the Reading sections will help you to practice the listening
and reading skills that are very important to improve more your level!

I am sure you will also improve your English playing some games and learning
a little about the city where Susan and I are spending some days. So enjoy the
games and the English world discovering Australia!

Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia 1.1


1.2. Listening

Listen to the following dialogue. I hope you understand what we are saying if
not, you have the possibility of listening to it as many times as you need!

1.2.1. Listening 1

Since our recent arrival in Sydney the weather has not been too favourable, so
Susan and me have spent a bit of time watching television and listening to the
radio in our hotel rooms. Listen to our conversation while we are having a cup
of coffee in the hotel bar.

Susan: Susan Australian TV seems to have a lot of current affairs programmes,


news broadcasts and documentaries. Last night I watched a doco as
Australians say- on Aboriginal people living in the outback, which was quite
interesting, I thought.

Matthew: I dont know which channel youve been watching, but all Ive seen
is detective shows (like CSI, Crime Scene Investigation), soap operas, such as
Home and Away; chat shows (Oprah is quite popular here!) and game shows,
such as The Wheel of Fortune and Deal or No Deal, to name but a few.
Something I have noticed is the poor quality of commercials here compared to
the ones in Britain. Most commercials are low-budget and they tend to advertise
a particular shop rather than a brand of something.

Susan: Yes, I agree. And sports programmes are quite thorough and
entertaining here in Australia, both on television and on the radio. It must be
because Australians are good at most sports!

Matthew: Id rather watch TV than listen to


radio. Ill be hooked to the radio when I get back
home in London; but over here I prefer TV; it
seems so different. I particularly enjoy the news
broadcasts, even though lately all the topics in
the news appear to be quite negative.

Susan: Yeah, its all about the high prices of


fuel, especially diesel over unleaded gasoline.

1.2 Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia


Most long-haul truck drivers wont be happy about that!

Terrorism is a regular topic. Everyday there is something on Bagdad or on the


Israeli-Palestinian conflict. When is it going to stop? Recession, inflation, and
the dark prognosis of the Western world economy are also important pieces of
news, dont you think?

Matthew: Yes, there has been a lot of


that lately. Climate change and global
warming are other hot topics.

Ok it is great chatting about these


topics but lets have some fun. What
about going on a ferry ride on Sydney
Harbour this afternoon?

Susan: That could be great! The


weather is getting better!

1.2.2. Exercise

After listening to the dialogue write here the uncountable and countable nouns
that you have heard. You have the first letter:

UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS COUNTABLE NOUNS


w p
t d
t c
r s
f c
qu s
t t
r t
i d
e c
w f

Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia 1.3


1.3. Vocabulary

In this unit, we will learn some vocabulary related to TV and radio, and related
to the topics in the news.

After learning this vocabulary, you will be able to speak about news articles and
TV and radio programmes.

1.3.1. TV and radio

TELEVISON

Parts of a television

The following are some of the parts of a television. Perhaps, you dont know
most of them. Here I am to illustrate you.

A blank surface on a television on which


Screen
pictures are shown

Flat screen A television that is flat and thin

A rod linking the piston and the crankshaft in


Connecting-rod
an engine

One or more wires or rods for sending or


Aerial
receiving television signals

An electronic device that is sent into space and


Communications satellite transmits to a place or places television signals
from different places of the world

A system for given written information on


Teletext
many subjects by television

A system which produces very good quality


High definition television television images in greater detail than
ordinary systems

1.4 Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia


A piece of equipment that is used to control the
Remote control TV, to change the channel, turn it on and off, the
image,
Lens that can make things appear much closer
Zoom lens
and larger.

Volume of sound The level of sound produced by a television,

Television images Pictures on television.

A system of hidden cameras that take pictures


Closed-circuit television
of people in public places.

A button on which you push to switch on the


On button
television.

Actions

Now, how about learning vocabulary related to some actions we can do when
we watch TV?

To watch TV To look at the television with attention

To turn on / To switch on the


To turn on electricity the television
television

To turn off / To switch off the


To turn off electricity the television
television

To raise the volume To turn the sound up

To get the volume lower To turn the sound down.

To put into a computer or film facts so that


To record
they will be remembered in the future

To televise To broadcast something by television

Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia 1.5


Professions and programmes

Professions

Lets learn some professions and programmes we can see when we watch
television!

Viewer TV presenter Actor / Actress Director

Production
Scriptwriter Film director Photographer
company
Conductor/
Ballerina Hostess Choreographer
Guiding person

TV cameraman Composer Producer Backing group

Translation:

Viewer Telespectador

TV presenter Presentador

Actor / Actress Actor / Actriz

Director Director de televisin


Production company Productora

Scriptwriter Guionista
Film director Director de cine

Photographer Fotgrafo

Ballerina Bailarina

Conductor Conductor del programa

Hostess Azafata

Choreographer Coregrafo

TV cameraman Cmara

Producer Productor

Backing Group Personal de detrs de las cmaras.

1.6 Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia


Programmes

Now what about revising and learning some words related to TV programmes?
Lets go on then!

Television news-
Breakfast TV Commercial TV Pay-TV
bulletin

Music Animated
Documentary Cartoons
programme television series

Soap-opera TV film Award show Sketch comedy

TV news TV info-
Comedy-drama Police procedural
magazine commercials

Serial drama Medical drama Science-fiction Legal drama

Translation:

Breakfast TV Televisin matinal

Commercial TV Televisin comercial

Pay-TV Televisin de pago


Televisin news-bulletin Telediario
Documentary Documental
Music programme Programa musical
Cartoons Dibujos animados

Animated televisin series Series de televisin

Soap-opera Tele-novelas

TV film Tele-film pelcula

Award show Gala de premios

Sketch comedy Programa de humor

Comedy-drama Tragicomedia

Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia 1.7


Police procedural Programa policaco

TV news magazine Programa de entretenimiento

TV infocommercials Teletienda
Serial drama Drama
Medical drama Serie relacionada con mdicos
Science-fiction Programa de ciencia-ficcin
Legal drama Serie de abogados

RADIO

Now, we are going to learn some words and definitions


related to the radio world.

Person who introduces programmes or news


Radio-announcer
on the radio

Radio-broadcast The way by which radio-waves are emitted

Any of the electromagnetic wave frequencies


Radio-frequency
used for communication signal for radio

A person who operates a radio station as a


Radio-ham
hobby

Radio-link A connection between radio waves

A high metal pole used to support an aerial for


Radio-mast / tower
radio signals

A large system which consists of many parts


Radio network connected together to allow the
communication with the control centre

1.8 Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia


Person who introduces programmes or news
Radio play
on the radio

Radio programme The way by which radio-waves are emitted

Any of the electromagnetic wave frequencies


Radio silence
used for communication signal for radio
A person who operates a radio station as a
Radio station
hobby

Radio transmitter A connection between radio waves

A high metal pole used to support an aerial for


Radio-wave
radio signals
A large system which consists of many parts
Listener connected together to allow the
communication with the control centre
A device which covers each ear through you
Headset
can listen to the radio

OTHER WORDS RELATED TO TV AND RADIO

Now, we are going to learn some other words related to TV and radio.
Lets go on!

A local station owned by a company, or an independent


Affiliate station, both subscribing to some network programming
and producing their own local content
Someone who provides the studio focus for the news but
Anchor calls upon others for different reports such as sports or
weather
A news writer or reporter situated in another place or
Correspondent
country
A segment produced outside the studio or
Clip / Footage
satellite.presentation
A transmission tape in the studio broadcast to add
Insert
swiftness and scope to the news presentation
The information solicited by survey companies that indicate
Ratings
the size of the audience for a particular programme

Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia 1.9


1.3.2. Topics in the news

Now, lets learn some words and expressions related to the topics that appear
in newspapers and TV or radio news bulletins.

As we all know when we watch TV or listen to the radio, or when we read the
newspapers, we can see that there are both serious and amusing topics.

We are going to start with the serious ones. Lets go on!

SERIOUS TOPICS

POLITICS ECONOMY EVENTS EDUCATION

ACCIDENT SCIENCE AND


TERRORISM BUSINESS
AND CRIME TECHNOLOGY

Politics.- News related to the processes of governments.


Economy.- News related to the economic state of the World, or to a
particular country.
Events.- News related to important happenings related to the usual life.
Education.- News related to the way of training, especially children and
young people, in school, collages, universities,
Terrorism.- News related to the use of violence for political aims.
Business.- News related to the transactions that important world
companies do.
Accident and crime.- News related to accidents and assassinations
happened.
Science and technology.- News related to scientific advances.

AMUSING TOPICS

PASTIMES FASHION SOCIETY FUNNY STORIES

TELEVISION
CULTURE EVENTS MUSIC ART
PROGRAMMES

1.10 Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia


Pastimes.- They can be digital games through TV, or
crosswords in newspapers.
Fashion.- News related to the last tendencies of style
and fashion in the world.
Society.- News related to the life of famous people.
Funny stories.- Humorous stories to cause people
amusement.
Culture events.- News related to important events related to the culture
world.
Television programmes.- Descriptions of the programmes and time
these are going to be emitted.
Music.- News related to music events as concerts, new works,
Art.- News related to museums, expositions,

Now, how about learning some words related to other topics in the news?

OTHER TOPICS

HEALTH SPORTS SUBTITLING HOROSCOPE

WEATHER EMPLOYMENT NUTRITION SADVERTS

1.3.3 Exercises

Exercise 1. In the following exercise, you have to choose which of the words
in below you think are related to the radio world:

Anchor Network Footage Headset

Rating Zoom lens Headset Funny stories

Award show Screen Mast Film director

Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia 1.11


Radium Scriptwriter Radish Radio-ham

Intonation Radioactive Correspondent Broadcast

Exercise 2. In this practice, you have to join the words in the left column
with their definition in the right one.

The information solicited by survey companies


Network that indicate the advertisers the size of the
audience for a particular programme
A piece of equipment for broadcasting radio
Radio-ham
signals
A large system which consists of many similar
Radio-wave parts connected together to allow the
communication with the control centre

One or more wires or rods for sending or


Radio transmitter
receiving television signals

A system of hidden cameras that take pictures


Aerial
of people in public places

The form that sounds takes when it passes


Affiliate
through the air

A person who operates a radio station as a


Ratings
hobby

A local station owned by the parent company,


or an independent station, both subscribing to
Closed-circuit television
some network programming and producing
their own local content

1.12 Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia


Exercise 3. In the following exercise, you have to look for an appropriate
topic in the boxes related to the sentences in below:

FASHION NUTRITION ECONOMY

ACCIDENT AND
SPORTS CULTURE EVENTS
CRIME

1. Rescuers seek for signal of life beneath piles of wreckage.


__________________________________________________________

2. He is one of the five active mayor leaguers who have played at least 3,000
games. __________________________

3. His designs express a dualism: the conservative world and the moody
style of the street.__________________

4. The outdoor exhibition of Li Chen shows how the sculptor melds a


contemporary style with Buddhism. ___________________________

5. Probiotics are live microorganisms that work by restoring the intestinal


bacteria. _______________

6. Perhaps, the winded market is going to find setback in January.


________________________

Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia 1.13


1.4. Grammar

1.4.1. Past simple

Lets start revising the past simple tense.

USES

It is used when we want to say that something occurred in the past.

Examples

My parents flew into Sydney yesterday to start their visit to Australia.

John visited me two days ago. I havent seen him for two years.

It is used when we want to express that something was the case at a specific
time in the past.

Examples

On 12 March 1962, they got married.

I remember the time when we went to the cinema every Sunday.

It is used when we want to say that a situation existed over a period of time in
the past.

Examples

She lived in Brazil during her first years of life.

In 1970 he studied Economics.

It is used when we want to talk about something that happened in the past,
and we mention a situation that existed at that time, although this situation
stills exists.

1.14 Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia


Examples

All the buildings in this street looked alike.

Near my cousins house in Netherland was one of the most important


monuments in the country.

It is used when we want to talk about an activity that took place regularly in
the past, but which no longer occurs.

Examples

She contacted her friends every week.

He liked walking through the green forests in Britain.

It is used in structures that express future events, such as be going to, be due
to or be about to. The implication is usually that the expected event has not
happened or will not happen.

Examples

He thought for a second that the baby was going to cry.

Her father was about to raise his voice but suddenly he left the room.

ADJUNCTS OF TIME

When we use past tenses, we normally put an adjunct of time to indicate that
we talk about the past, both to specific and general period of time.

E.g.: It was terribly cold yesterday.


Three weeks ago I stayed in Paris.

The following are examples of adjuncts an time expressions:


recently just subsequently
again since Eventually
earlier previously At one time
Ever since first formerly

Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia 1.15


ADJUNCTS OF FREQUENCY

When we refer to habitual or regular activities, we can use an adjunct of


frequency to specify the regularity of the action.

E.g.: He went for a walk through the forest when he lived in the
countryside.

The following are some examples of adjuncts of frequency:


Often Sometimes Every day
Always Forever Frequently
For years Ever More than once

1.4.2. Present perfect

Present perfect simple

USES

It is used to describe events that have recently happened without a definite


time.

E.g.: My sister has left her bag in the pub we have been having a coffee.

It is used to describe events that have not happened.

E.g.: My boss hasnt found the telephone number for me.

It is used when we talk about an activity or situation that started in the past,
and still happens now.

E.g.: All my adult life I have waited for this.

It is used when we want to describe a habitual action in the past up to the


present.

E.g.: Ive never worked on Sunday, and I refuse to start now.

1.16 Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia


Present Perfect Continuous

USES

It can be also used to describe a state which lasts up to the present.

E.g.: Ive been waiting for you for three hours.

It can also suggest that an action is not finished, or has recently been
completed.

E.g.: The children have been walking for hours! They are very tired!

For and Since

We can not usually use an adjunct which places the action at a particular time
in the past with the present perfect, so we use SINCE and FOR.

We use SINCE when we want to refer to an action that happened in the past
and still happens now.

E.g.: They have come every year since 1950.

We also use FOR to refer to an action that happened in the past and still
happens now, but this one shows a concrete period of time.

E.g.: John and Mary have lived in America for five years.

Adjuncts of frequency

We can also use adjuncts of frequency with the present perfect tense.

Forever Just Already


Yet Frequently Often
Ive often wondered why I didnt work here years ago
We havent gone to watch the most important monuments of the
city yet
Theyve frequently had to go to the doctor with their grandfather
Jim has already started his first article

Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia 1.17


1.4.3. Future continuous, perfect and perfect continuous

Now, lets revise the future tenses. Do you remember them? Come on, lets
start.

Any reference we make to future events is usually an expression of what we


suppose to happen, or what we intend to happen.

Future simple is used when we want to talk about general truths, and if we
want to say something expected to happen if a particular situation arises.

Examples:

Peace will come soon.

This man cant work because of his illness. He wont earn anything, and
his family will go hungry.

Future Continuous

It is used if we are sure something will happen because plans have been made.

Examples:

Ill be waiting for you outside on the bench in the street.

Ill be seeing them tomorrow in the evening.

Future Perfect

It is used if we want to refer to an event has not happened yet but will happen
before a period of time in the future.

Examples:

Well have started the meeting if you come back late.

Maybe, when we go there, theyll have heard it from his friends

1.18 Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia


Future Perfect Continuous

It is used if we want to indicate the duration of an event at a particular time in


the future.

Examples:

By January 2011, she will have been working for this company for
fifteen years.

This house will have been being built since last September.

Adjuncts of time

We can use an adjunct of time when we want to make a general reference to


future time.

E.g.: Sooner or later I will go to visit Sydney.

We can also use an adjunct or an expression of time when we want to indicate


a particular time in the future.

E.g.: Next week my brother will be in Italy enjoying his holidays.

The following are some examples of adjuncts of time that can be


used with future tenses:

Sooner or later Some day In the future

One of these days Sometime Tomorrow

Next week Next year In two days

The week after next After tomorrow Friday next

Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia 1.19


1.4.4. Other ways of indicating future

We can also use other verb tenses to refer to future events or actions. How
about learning them? Lets go on!

Be going to

It is used when we think the situation we refer to will happen quiet soon, or
when we have an intention that it will happen.

Examples:

Were going to see a change in this neighbourhood in one year.

My brother is going to help me with the party Im giving next weekend.

Be about/be due to

They can be used when we want to refer to planned future events we expect to
happen soon.

Examples:

It is due to be finished by next month.

My brother is about to lose his job.

Simple Present/Present Continuous

Both simple present and present continuous can be used to refer to firm plans
we have for the future.

Examples:

The last train leaves Madrid at 12:00 oclock.

Im having a meeting in London next month.

1.20 Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia


Past Continuous

We can use the past continuous tense to refer to something planned in the past
that is going to be in the future.

Examples:

Two of them were coming to next Saturday journey.

Her family was going to an important conference tomorrow.

1.4.5. Countable and uncountable nouns

Now, we are going to learn the features of countable and uncountable nouns,
and the lists of the most common ones that are exceptions to these features.
Are you ready? Lets start then!

Lets see the countable ones.

Countable nouns

Countable nouns are those which refer to people or things that can be counted.
They usually have two forms: the singular and the plural.

We can put numbers and determiners in front of them if they are used in the
singular. We dont usually put a determiner, if we use the plural form, unless
we want to specify a particular instance of something.

E.g.: The rooms at Baths Hotel are much bigger that these.

Some count nouns have the same form for singular and plural. Most of them
refer to animals.

E.g.: a sheep / twenty sheep

However, most of the nouns related to animals have both singular and plural
form, but when we refer to them in a context of hunting, or when we say that
there are a great amount, it is commonly used the form without s.

E.g.: They hunted bison.

Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia 1.21


Sometimes we can use the plural form of the verb if we use the names of
several animals without s as the subject of a sentence.

E.g.: Salmon are more difficult to find in this water.

The following is a list of nouns which have the same form for singular and plural.

reindeer trout crossroads

cod mullet spacecraft

bison fish whitebait

grouse halibut species

reindeer shellfish offspring

sheep goldfish gallows

moose dice fruit

greenfly hovercraft mews

Uncountable nouns

These nouns usually refer to general items as qualities, substances, processes


or topics.

They have only one form, and they arent used with numbers nor determiners.

When an uncountable noun is used as the subject of a sentence, it is used the


singular form of the verb.

We have to notice that there are some words which are uncountable nouns in
English, but are countable in other languages.

The following are some uncountable nouns belonging to this type:

traffic news money furniture

information advice homework spaghetti

research luggage hair knowledge

1.22 Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia


When we want to refer to an amount of something expressed by an
uncountable noun, we can use a general determiner.

E.g.: He gave me little time for doing the work

Or a quantifier:

E.g.: Would you like a cup of tea?

There are some nouns that can be uncountable nouns when they refer to
something in a general view, and countable nouns when they refer to a
particular item.

E.g.: Yesterday, we gained fame in victory.


I am waiting for my first victory.

There are also some uncountable nouns ending in s which appear as they are
plural, but when they are the subject of a verb, we put them in singular.

They are usually nouns referring to activities, study and medicine.

Physics Linguistics

Statistics Genetics

Acoustics Athletics

Mechanics Politics

Aeronautics Economics

Sometimes these nouns can be used as plural, as for example when we talk
about a particular persons activity.

Mass nouns

When we are sure that the person we are talking to will understand the quantity
of something we refer to, we dont need to put a quantifier. These uncountable
nouns are also called mass nouns.

Mass nouns usually refer to substances, materials, drink or food.

Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia 1.23


E.g.: His wife loves wines and liquors.

Examples of mass nouns are:

wood coffe wool yarn ore

soil sherry lager ink cheese

sauce jelly meat glue cotton

claret fertilizer lotion fur curry

1.4.6 Ejercicios

Exercise 1. Choose the most suitable tense:

1. Did you see / Have you seen my coat anywhere? I dont know where it is.

2. Have you given / Did you give your brother my message when you have
seen / saw him yesterday?

3.The police think that they found / have found your money.

4. How was your holiday in Greece last summer? Did you visit / have you
visited lots of important places?

5. John writes / has been writing / has written his article for the last two
months, and he hasnt finished it yet.

6. I dont see / havent seen Tom for a long time. How is he?

7. Deborah has seen / sees his school friends recently.

8. I cant remember when I bought / have bought this wonderful picture.

9. Meg didnt look / hasnt looked well since she went on a diet.

10. I wont go swimming because the weather changed / has changed.

Exercise 2. Fill in the gaps with one of the adjuncts in the box:

1.24 Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia


1. It has been snowing hard _________ , but it hast just stopped five
minutes ago.

2. Weve lived in the same city ____________________ we left London.

3. Two months ________________ our parents went to visit some clients


who worked with them ________________ 1980.

4. It was supposed to finish the magazine ____________________, but


finally it has been presented ____________________.

Since Yesterday morning Ago This evening

Ever since All day

Exercise 3. In the following exercise you have to say which tense is used
in each sentence to indicate the future time:

1. Theyll go there as soon as possible.

F____________

2. Her daughter is going to have a baby.

G_________

3. Our train leaves at half past eight.

P______________

4. Theyre due to be sleeping by tomorrow.

T______________

5. Shell has been living here for five years in September.

F_______________________________

6. My friend Sam will be arriving shortly.

Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia 1.25


F_______________________

Exercise 4. In this exercise you have to say which of the following sentences
are correct.

1. Sorry, I havent many money to lend you.

2. Sorry, I havent much money to lend you.

3. Her hair is hardly ever getting dirty.

4. Her hairs are hardly ever getting dirty.

5. There was a lot of traffic yesterday when I came from work.

6. There were a lot of traffic yesterday when I came from work.

7. Hes making a progress since he has left that school.

8. Hes making a lot of progress since he has left that school.

9. She has great respect for her landlady, Australia.

10. She hasnt got many respect for her landlady, Australia.

1.26 Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia


1.5. Reading

Lets read now! After our conversation about radio and television. Susan and
me have bought a magazine and we were very interesting in reading an article
called: Australian media experience. This article looks like quite interesting.

1.5.1 Text

History of Australian Media

Television. Australias first media broadcast was by way of a news broadcast


presented by Bruce Gyngell on the 16th September 1956, when Bruce said
Hello everyone, and welcome to television.

Interestingly, only 1% of Sydneysiders owned a TV set, while 5% of the


Melbournites owned a box.

The first commercial television licences were issued to the Herald and Weekly
Times (Melbourne), General Television Corporation (Melbourne), Amalgamated
Television Services (Sydney), and Television Corporation (Sydney).

November 1956 saw TCN9 launch Bandstand, hosted by Brian Henderson,


who went on to become a living legend in Australian television. In the same
year, TV Week launched its own annual TV Awards, and GTV9s Graham
Kennedy won the gold award for most popular TV personality.

1959 saw the Australian Broadcasting Service launch Six O' clock with Johnny
OKeefe. In the 60s and early 70s many new programmes appeared (Sesame
Street, Young Talent Time, Hey Hey Its Saturday and A Current Affair) and
stations affiliations changed.

1979 sees SBS screen a series of multi-lingual programs on the ABC, and 60
Minutes commences, and goes on to become the most successful current affairs
program in Australian history.

The 1980s were huge, with many new hit shows, and live television was
elevated with telecasted of the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics and 1986
Commonwealth Games from England.

Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia 1.27


1990 saw Network Seven and Ten go into receivership, with both networks later
being saved.

1991 sees massive coverage of the Gulf War, Glenn Ridge replace Tony Barber
on Sale of the Century, and The Simpsons premier on Channel 10.

Pay TV commences in 1995 with Galaxy, Foxtel and Optus Vision.

The 2000s sees Reality TV and games shows become all the rage with hits like
Big Brother, Temptation Island, The Osbornes and Who Wants to be a
Millionaire break record numbers.

Radio. Radio broadcasting in Australia officially started on evening of 13


November 1923, with a concert.

At 8.00pm on 1 July 1932, the Prime Minister Joseph Lyons inaugurated the
ABC.

Talkback radio started in 1967, with 3AW Melbourne hitting the airways.

Radio has even turned some journalists into broadcasting legends. Examples
include The Human Headline himself, Derryn Hinch and Mike Carlton.

For many years, the wireless was the most important and used form of
broadcasting for news and entertainment, and a weekend sitting around the
wireless was all the rage.

Newspapers. The Sydney Gazette the first newspaper printed in Australia, one
of the earliest pieces of printing in the colony.

Today, Australias most popular newspapers include the Sydney Morning Herald,
The Daily Telegraph, and The Herald Sun is the biggest selling daily, whilst the
Sunday Telegraph is the biggest selling newspaper.

Independent newspapers are making a small dint in the market; however the
big three will continue to dominate for decades to come.

Source part of the reading: http://www.mediaman.com.au/history.html

1.28 Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia


1.5.2. Reading Comprehension

1. Match the TV programmes and the year they were launched:

Bandstand
Six O' clock
The Simpsons premier
Galaxy

1995
1959
1991
1956

2. Name four Australian newspapers:

1.____________________________

2. ____________________________

3. ____________________________

4. ___________________________

Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia 1.29


1.6. Speaking

Answer the following questions about TV and newspapers.

Do you like watching TV? And, do you like reading newspapers and magazines?

Which one do you prefer? Why?

Which is your favourite TV programme? Do you like watching news bulletins?

Have you ever travelled abroad? If yes, have you bought newspapers there?
Did you like them?

What do you think about soap operas? Do you think they are bored, or, on the
contrary, do you enjoy yourself watching them?

When you read a newspaper, are you one of the people who only read the last
page, where you can find TV programmes, or films in the cinema?

Do you think buying magazines is too expensive? Why?

1.30 Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia


1.7. Practice

Now, its turn to check what you have learned in the unit. What about doing
some exercises?

Pay attention while doing them!

1.7.1. Vocabulary

Exercise 1. Match the correct definition related to the words on the left
column:

Aerial Rod for sending or receiving signals.


Surface on a TV.
Button to switch on.

Zoom lens To control TV.


To broadcast by TV.
To make things closer and larger.

Viewer Composer
Backing group
Watches TV.

Sketch comedy Cartoons


Jokes
News

Radio-ham To operate a radio as a hobby.


Broadcast on radio.
Connection

Headset Local station


Sound through the air
To cover ears to listen to music.

Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia 1.31


Exercise 2. Some of the following words are put in the wrong boxes. Can
you order them and put them in their correct group of words:

TV PROGRAMMES

Frequency Sketch comedy Headset

Animal documents Backing group

RADIO

Waves Hostess Productor

Televise Cameraman

PROFESSIONS

Network Record Presenter

Turn off Legal drama

TV ACTIONS

Tower Soap opera To watch

Cartoons Turn on TV

Exercise 3. In this exercise you have to complete the definitions. Its very
easy, come on, lets try it on!

1. A flat ____________is a flat and _________ television.

2. The remote ___________ is a piece of ___________used to control TV


features.

1.32 Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia


3. A radio________ is a performance to__________listeners on the radio.

4. A __________ is a high metal pole used to support an _________ for


radio signals.

5. An _____________is the person who introduces programmes or


________ on the radio.

6. The ____________ are the information solicited by survey companies that


indicate the size of the audience for a particular ______________.

7. A _________ is a segment produced outside the studio.

8. Teletext is a system for given ____________ information by television.

9. Volume is the ___________ of sound produced.

10. To televise means to broadcast something by ______________.

ratings equipment announcer screen


play programme entertain control
mast news aerial thin

Exercise 4. How about guessing what profession I am talking about?

When I get up in the mornings I turn on the TV, and I watch this programme
while I have breakfast.

B __________________

I like watching this kind of TV programmes in which people sit on a chair up on


the scenery and tell jokes and enjoyable stories. Its funny!

S __________________

I dont like those programmes that last months and months and in which we
have to wait until next episode to know what will happen.

S ___________________

Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia 1.33


I hate programmes in which there is a man or a woman who sells some
marvellous product to be perfect forever.

I _____________________

I love watching actors and actresses when are given an Oscar and seem to be
really excited. I also like watching their clothes. It enjoyable.

A _____________________

1.7.2. Grammar

Exercise 5. Past simple or present perfect? Choose the correct tense:

1. Did you see / Have you seen my wallet? I cant find it.

2. Did you guys meet / Have you guys met before?

3. Did you visit / Have you visited many places in Holland last summer?

4. Your neighbour thinks he found / has found your bag, so call him.

5. Did you go /Have you gone to the doctor last week?

6. I worked / have worked in this firm since 2000. I like working here.

7. Excuse me, did you sold / have you sold this picture or is it still available?

8. I didnt see / havent seen your sister for a long time. Is she fine?

9. Sorry but, I cant give you the money I promised / have promised for
today.

10. How long did you have / have you had this watch?

Exercise 6. Write each verb in brackets in the suitable tense:

1. He (go) _______ on a diet last month.

2. Whats the matter? I (have) _______ an accident this morning

1.34 Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia


3. The kids (eat) ________ all the cakes. I have to buy more.

4. When (arrive) ___ he ______? He (arrive) ______ one week ago.

5. The reaction to todays news (be) __________ mixed.

6. Why are you divorced? I (find) ______my husband with another woman.

7. What (do) ______ you ____ this morning in the library?"

8. Jane (work) ____ for them before she came to work for us.

9. (not finish) _______ you _______ reading the newspaper yet?

10. Id love going Rome. I (never be)___________ there.

Exercise 7. Read the text and complete the missing future verbal tenses:

Have you imagine what you _____ (do) tomorrow at this time? Well, my father
told me that there ______ (be) a computer programme by which we ______
(know) our immediate future. For example, it can predict how people ______
(live) when they are older. Also it is said that by the year 2020, this programme
________ (replace) and computer ___________(teach) the students. But do
you know what? I ___________(believe) that nonsense.

Exercise 8. Complete the following sentences with future continuous or


future perfect and one of these verbs:

start study eat stop leave sell perfect wait finish live

1. This time next month we ________ in a new huge house.

2. By the time we get there, the film ____________.

3. In five minutes I ________ my favourite meal.

4. By the time we reach there, the rain ___________.

5. By the time you arrive home, I _________ my homework.

Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia 1.35


6. If we dont get there by 6, Jack __________.

7. _____ you ________ for him when his plane arrives tonight?

8. He _________ at the library all night.

9. You _________ your English by the time you come back from London.

10. Before winter, you ___________your apartment.

Exercise 9. Choose the countable and uncountable nouns:

journey travel beach timetable information

ink cheese curry sheep dice

UNCOUNTABLE COUNTABLE

1.36 Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia


1.8. English World

We were astonished the first day we saw Sydney. I have to say that we like
the country, the people, the weatherWe love the outdoor environment here
and the diversity is amazing. Susan always has the camera with her to take
photographs everywhere. Lets know more about Australia and then listen to
Susan talking about Sydney and our experience on a ship on the Sydney
harbour!

AUSTRALIA

It is in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the continental mainland (the


world's smallest), the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the
Indian and Pacific Oceans.

The continent of Australia is approximately equal in area to the United States.


It is a federal constitutional monarchy under a parliamentary democracy.

The island continent combines a wide variety of landscapes. These include


deserts in the interior, hills and mountains, tropical rainforests, and densely-
populated coastal strips with long beaches and coral reefs off the shoreline.

Isolated from other continents, Australia has an abundance of unique plant and
animal life.

More information:

Full name: Commonwealth of Australia

Population: 21 million (UN, 2008)


Capital: Canberra
Largest city: Sydney
Area: 7.7 million sq km (2.9 million sq miles)
Major language: English
Major religion: Christianity
Life expectancy: 79 years (men), 84 years (women) (UN)
Monetary unit: 1 Australian dollar = 100 cents

Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia 1.37


Sydney and Sydney Harbour

Australias first city, Sydney grew out of a convict settlement founded in 1788.
Since then, Sydney has developed into an exciting cosmopolitan city offering
more entertainment, shopping, and sightseeing than any other place in
Australia. So that the best word describing Sydney is diversity.

Located on a stunning harbour, Sydney has a population of more than 4 million


and is known for its youthful energy and sunny, temperate climate.

Sydneys Aboriginal history dates back more than 22,000 years, perhaps even
up to 50,000 years with over 5,500 known Sydney rock art sites.

Some interesting places to visit are: Sydney CBD (Central Business District)
that is filled with things to do and see, and it goes from Chinatown to Circular
Quay; dont miss Manly Beach, the Sydney Northern Beaches, the Rocks that
provide a fascinating look at Australian history and Sutherland Shire in South
Sydney that has the beautiful Cronulla Beaches and is close to four National
Parks.

We decided to go to Manly Beach. The Manly Ferry is an easy and cheap way
to get there and to take a tour of Sydney Harbour. We were lucky enough to
buy a ticket for an amazing cruise on Sydney Harbour. I recommend trying the
twilight cruise it runs for 2 hours and you can eat as much as you like! Buffet
food is my favourite! You also get a complimentary drink so I chose
Champagne!

It was fantastic, a great afternoon full of fun, laughs and bubbles on board a
magnificent ship on the magic Sydney harbour. The crew was absolutely
fantastic, and the views of the city from the deck are very beautiful and unique,
something that we will remember for ever!

1.38 Ingls Avanzado (C1). Australia