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COST Action E49

Processes and Performance of Wood-Based Panels

SOA: Structural Integrity of WBP and their Connections

Prepared by:
Marija Aleksovska, Kiril Gramatikov, Bruno Dujic



2.2.3. VENEER BOARD 12



3.7. I-JOISTS 17



5.1. NAILS 25
5.2. SCREWS 25
5.3. BOLTS 26
5.4. LAG SCREWS 27

1. Caption
Homes and other buildings are getting larger, and trending toward more open space.
These two factors combined mean longer floor spans and greater loads on those spans.
With the new engineered wood products these two factors are reality. A EWP
(Engineered Wood Product) is a wood product that has a set of design properties assigned
to it. EWPs are also often defined as a combination of smaller pieces of wood that
together create larger high strength structural elements or components.
Engineered wood includes a wide range of products manufactured by bonding together
wood strands, veneers, lumber, or other forms of wood fibre to produce a larger and
integral composite unit. Structural engineered wood products are engineered by virtue
of possessing design values that are confirmed by methods other than simple visual
grading. APA divides structural engineered wood products into four general categories: 1)
wood structural panels, including plywood, oriented strand board, and composite panels;
2) glued laminated timber (glulam); 3) structural composite lumber (SCL), including
primarily laminated veneer lumber (LVL), but also parallel strand lumber and oriented
strand lumber; and 4) wood I-joists. These products are extremely efficient because they
utilize more of the available resource with minimal waste. In addition, in many cases,
they are produced using faster growing and often underutilized wood species from
managed forests and tree farms, thus reducing the industrys reliance on old-growth
forests. EWPs are manufactured by mechanical connecting systems, adding adhesive,
shaping, pressing, curing, finishing.

Engineered wood components include: plywood, oriented strand board, panels, glue
laminated beams, solid sawn lumber, visually graded, machine stressed rated,
machine evaluated lumber, metal plate connected wood trusses, composite
structural lumber which would include laminated veneer lumber and parallel strand
lumber, as well as I-joists.

2. Engineered Wood Products
Engineered wood components can be grouped into linear and panel products. Each of
these products has passed through some manufacturing or other process to determine
numerical engineering property values within a degree of certainty or reliability.

Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) Particle Board Core (PBF)

Sanded for uniform flat surfaces; Ideal for cabinets/countertops;

Uniform Density; Core bonded with synthetic
Core is ground much finer than PBC; resins;
Edges look more like wood; No telegraphing of substrate;

Lumber Core Veneer Core (VC)

Consists of glued solid lumber strips; Most common core;
Strips run parallel to the face for Suited for cabinet & casework;
strength; Cross-ply technique with 3, 5, 7,
Panel edge can be shaped to 9, or 13 plies;
resemble solid lumber;

2.1 Linear products - Structural Composite Lumber - SCL

Structural Composite Lumber differs from other products, in that is made from very small
pieces of wood. Some of the raw material stock is too small, or of improper shape to be
used in either a linear or panel EWP process, and is reallocated to SCL production saving
waste, and the environment.

Structural Composite Lumber- SCL

Laminated Veneer Lumber LVL

Laminated Strand Lumber LSL
Parallel Strand Lumber PSL

2.1.1. Laminated Veneer Lumber-LVL

LVL is quite similar to the vertically laminated glulam beams, but is made in a similar
manner to plywood. Ply material is peeled off good quality logs and vertically laminated
with the grain on each ply running in the same direction. LVL is an engineered wood
product that uses multiple layers of thin wood assembled with adhesives. Laminated
veneer lumber is manufactured using parallel lamination into the veneers.

Phenol formaldehyde or isocyanurate adhesives are used to glue the sheets of veneer
together. The defects that occur in each individual veneer sheet are randomized
throughout the product during the assembly or lay-up process. This gives orthotropic
properties in a similar way to the properties of sawn timber, rather than the nearly
isotropic properties in the plane of plywood.

The resulting composite has a high
strength due to its decreased variability.
It offers several advantages over typical
milled lumber: it is stronger, straighter,
and more uniform. It is much less likely
than conventional lumber to warp, twist,
bow, or shrink due to its composite
nature. Made in a factory under
controlled specifications, LVL products
allow users to reduce the onsite labor.
The end product that is available in the
market place is available in sizes that
are very similar to the sizes that are
available in lumber. Work began on the
development of this material back in the
1940s as it was being used for high-
strength aircraft structures. By the late
1960s and early 1970s, the process
was developed for continuous laminated
veneer lumber manufacturing. They are
typically used for headers, beams, rim
board, and edge-forming material.

Cross-banded LVL

Cross banded LVL is manufactured by including one or two laminations in the cross
section with the grain running perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the sheet.
This product has advantages when used in specific applications:

Short span deep beams produce very high shear stresses compared with the
flexural stresses. The cross-banding removes some of the wood fibre that
contributes to bending strength and stiffness and substitutes it with fibre that
contributes to shear strength.
Elements that are curve or taper cut from sheets have slope of grain that is at an
angle to the flexural stresses. This would normally tend to cause splitting along
the grain lines, but the cross-bands provide fibre with strength in the direction that
will minimise those splits.
Elements that are used in an environment that may have changeable moisture
content may tend to split on wetting and drying. The cross-banding will reduce the
tendency of these elements to split.

Cross-banded LVL has a different set of properties to LVL with all plies parallel to the
longitudinal axis. The shear strength is higher and the tensile strength perpendicular to the
grain is also considerably higher. The flexural strength is marginally lower and the MoE
parallel to grain is also a little lower.

2.1.2. Laminated Strand Lumber- LSL

LSL is manufactured from strands of a single wood species or a combination of wood

species blended with an isocyanate-based adhesive. Shorter strands than used in PSL are

used to manufacture LSL. LSL is an engineered structural material that is manufactured
by bonding wood veneers or strands together with a structural adhesive to form a solid
member of end sections and length limited only by manufacturing, transport and handling
capabilities. The grain direction of each veneer or strand is usually orientated parallel to
the length of the piece but may be cross-banded for speciality applications.

Laminated strand lumber (LSL) transforms plentiful, fast growing aspen or yellow poplar
trees into long, wide billets of high-grade engineered timber with greater strength than
ordinary timber and fewer defects. The billets are precision-cut into standard section
components suitable for use as part of the system in residential applications - including
short and intermediate span beams, lintels and columns.
LSL provides a strong, cost effective alternative to conventional timber or steel beams.
Manufactured to a low, consistent moisture content LSL virtually eliminates the cupping,
bowing, twisting and splitting so common with sawn timber. The workability and high
strength-to-weight ratio of LSL make it a logical alternative to steel beams and lintels.
Laminated strand lumber (LSL) is a structural composite lumber (SCL) first developed in
the late 1960s as an alternative to sawn lumber and other traditional structural wood
products. Its manufacture permits a product with a high degree of consistency and an
efficient use of low-grade fibre. Consequently, LSL is an environmentally positive and
structurally valuable material, providing the structural engineering community with an
alternative to traditional sawn lumber. Having only been available on the market for
approximately 25 years, there is a limited amount of research-based information available
on LSL, especially on connections. The connection rules are based on sawn and glued
laminated lumber research. Tabulated design values are provided for a variety of wood
species and some engineered wood products, with the exclusion of LSL.

Because of its laminated structure, dispersing strength reducing characteristics more

evenly, LSL and LVL have higher bending strength and stiffness than the equivalent solid
timber section of the same species. LVL and LSL are produced in the seasoned condition.
LVL and LSL are usually manufactured as billets, 1.2 m wide for LVL and 2.4m wide
for LSL, in a number of thicknesses (depending on the manufacturer) and in lengths up to
12 m or more from some manufacturers.

Structural member sizes are re-sawn from the production billets in a range of standard
widths, depending on the individual manufacturer. Curved shapes can be manufactured,
provided the curved profile can be cut from the production billets. Commonly available
stock widths and depths are as follows but advice should be sought from individual
manufacturers prior to specification.
LVL and LSL are generally not considered an appearance product, as glue lines are often
quite visible. However, they may be coated with an opaque finish, after a light sanding if
the unfinished appearance is not acceptable in visually exposed applications.

2.1.3. Parallel Strand Lumber- PSL

PSL is manufactured using parallel strands of wood fibre. PSL is made from 1/2 wide
random length strips of veneer that are coated with resin, aligned, and fed into a press.
The strips are compressed, and with the addition of microwave energy to cure the glue,
formed into a large rectangular-section billet. Because the process is continuous, any
length billet can be produced. After cooling, the billet can be sawn into any cross-section
desirable, although standard sizes are produced. Manufacturing process allows production
of large solid cross-sections, as opposed to individual thinner pieces which have to be
attached together.

Small specimens were prepared from commercial southern pine PSL and yellow-poplar
PSL billets and tested for specific gravity, moisture content, dimensional stability,
bending properties, shear strength and compressive strength. Results indicate average
specific gravity of southern pine PSL is higher than that of yellow-poplar PSL, while their
average moisture content and dimensional stability are very similar. Southern pine PSL
has higher average modulus of elasticity but lower average modulus of rupture than
yellow-poplar PSL. While average longitudinal shear strength does not exhibit
differences between southern pine PSL and yellow-poplar PSL, average compressive
strength of southern pine PSL is higher than that of yellow-poplar PSL. There are positive
correlations among modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture and specific gravity. PSL
improves some properties of solid wood from which PSL is made. It is available to the

marketplace in beam and lumber like sizes. It uses strands of veneers that are all oriented
in the same direction. Developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s by MacMillan
Bloedel. It became commercially available in the early 1980s.

The beauty of PSL isnt just how it looks, but how and why it performs better than any
other material for short-span bridges. PSL lumber makes far better use of available timber
resources. High-tech manufacturing processes do not require harvesting of large-diameter
trees from old growth forests as does sawmilling of timbers for ordinary timber bridge
As a wood-based product, PSL comes from a renewable and abundant resource trees.
Wood building materials consume far less energy to harvest, manufacture and deliver
than comparable steel and concrete products, which are derived almost exclusively from
finite natural resources. And consider this PSL is made primarily from small-diameter,
second-growth trees and doesnt rely on the limited supply of high-quality sawn lumber.

2.2. Panel products

A variety of EWP panel products are produced and are structural at different scales.
For structural use in buildings, plywoods and OSB are the accepted standards. The
remaining products serve a variety of uses from furniture, to siding, to trim and moldings,
to underlayments.

Panel products:

o Particleboard;
o Medium density fibreboard-MDF;
o High density fibreboard- HDF;

Flake boards:
o Wafer board;
o Oriented strand board (OSB);

Veneer boards:
o Plywood;

2.2.1 Fibreboard

Fibreboard is a type of engineered wood product that is made out of wood fibres. Types
of fibreboard in order of increasing density include particle board, medium-density
fibreboard and hardboard, also called high-density fiberboard.

Fiberboard is sometimes used as a
synonym for particle board, but particle
board usually refers to low-density
fibreboard. Plywood is not a type of
fibreboard, as it is made of thin sheets of
wood, not wood fibres or particles.
Fibreboard, particularly medium-density
fibreboard, is heavily used in the
furniture industry. For pieces that will
be visible, a veneer of wood is often
glued onto fibreboard to give it the
appearance of conventional wood.

The categories of fibreboard are as follows:

1. "Hardboard" is manufactured in the wet production process in which the wood-fibres
in suspension in water are compressed in the form of a mattress under high temperature
and high pressure on a metallic mesh. In the unworked state this type of fibreboard has
one smooth and one rough surface with a mesh pattern. However, it can sometimes also
have two smooth surfaces obtained by special surface treatment or a special production
process. It generally has a density exceeding 0.8 g/cm. Hardboard is mainly used for
furniture, in the automotive industries, for door skins and for packaging, especially fruit
and vegetable packaging.
2. "Medium board" is also manufactured in the wet production process in a way similar
to the one for hardboard but at a lower pressure. It generally has a density exceeding 0.35
but not exceeding 0.8 g/cm. The main application is in furniture production and for
interior or exterior walls.
3. "Soft board" is also manufactured in the wet production process. However, this
fibreboard is not compressed as the other types of fibreboard. It generally has a density of
0.35 g/cm or less. These boards are used mainly for thermal or sound insulation in
building. Special types of insulating board are used as sheathing or sarking materials.
4. "Medium density fibreboard (MDF)" is manufactured in the dry production process,
in which additional thermalhardening synthetic resins have to be added to the dried
wood fibres in order to assist the bonding process in the press. The density generally
ranges from 0.45 to 1 g/cm. In the unworked state it has two smooth surfaces. It can be
used in lots of different applications such as furniture, interior decoration and in building.
Medium density fibreboard (MDF) of a density exceeding 0.8 g/cm is sometimes also
referred to by trade as "high density fibreboard (HDF)". Hardboard

Hardboard, also called high-density fibreboard, is a type of fibreboard, which is an

engineered wood product. It is similar to particle board and medium-density fibreboard,
but is much harder and denser because it is made out of exploded wood fibres that have
been highly compressed. It is sometimes referred to as masonite because that was the first
brand. Unlike solid wood, it is very homogeneous with no grain. However, a wood veneer
can be glued onto it to give the appearance of solid wood. Other overlays include Formica
and vinyl. It has many uses, such as a substrate, but unlike plywood and solid wood, it has
no structural strength to speak of. It is used in construction, furniture, appliances,
automobiles and cabinetry.

Hardboard is produced in either a wet or
dry process. The wet process only
leaves one smooth side, but dry
processed hardboard is smooth on both
sides. Like other types of fibreboard,
hardboard is susceptible to moisture
damage and is generally not used
outside. Tempered hardboard is made by
adding an oil that becomes a polymer
when the board is formed under high
temperature and pressure. This gives it
more water resistance, hardness, rigidity
and tensile strength. It is used in
construction siding.
Hardboard was invented by Daniel Manson Sutherland in 1898, at Sunbury Common in
Spelthorne near London. He formed the Patent Impermeable Millboard Company to
market and develop his invention. Medium-density fibreboard-MDF

Medium-density fibreboard - MDF is an engineered wood product formed by breaking

down softwood into wood fibres, combining it with wax and resin, and forming panels by
applying high temperature and pressure. It is a building material similar in application to
plywood but made up of sawdust. It is denser than normal particleboard. Large-scale
production of MDF began in the 1980s. Its name derives from the distinction in densities
of fibreboard. MDF typically has a density of 600-800 kg/m. Particle board is a low-
density fibreboard and has a density of 160-450 kg/m, while hardboard, also called high-
density fibreboard, has a density of 500-1,450 kg/m. Similar manufacturing processes are
used in making all types of fibreboard.
New MDF products include generic and
proprietary panels. One example is a super-
refined board in which fine fibres are distributed
throughout the board to facilitate deep routing
and machining. In some countries, panels are
being made from many different hardwood and
soft-wood species as well as from non wood
based lignocelluloses from raw materials such as
bagasse and cotton stalks. In South America and
Australia, hardboard panels have been
successfully produced from a variety of wood
species including Eucalyptus grandis and E.
saligna. In the United States, some panels are
being produced from recycled fibers from
postconsumer wood waste.

9 Particle board

Particle board, also called chipboard, is an engineered wood product manufactured from
wood particles, such as wood chips, sawmill shavings, or even saw dust, and a synthetic
resin or other suitable binder, which is pressed and extruded. Particle board is a type of
fibreboard, a composite material, but it is made up of larger pieces of wood than medium-
density fibreboard and hardboard.

Particle board is cheaper, denser and more uniform than conventional wood and plywood
and is substituted for them when appearance and strength are less important than cost.
However, particle board can be made more attractive by painting or the use of wood
veneers that are glued onto surfaces that will be visible. Though it is denser than
conventional wood, it is the lightest and weakest type of fibreboard, except for insulation
board. Medium-density fibreboard and hardboard are stronger and denser than particle
board. A major disadvantage of particle board is that it is very prone to expansion and
discoloration due to moisture, particularly when it is no covered with paint or another
sealer. Therefore, it is rarely used outdoors or places that have high levels of moisture,
with the exception of some bathrooms, kitchens and laundries, where it is commonly used
as an underlayment beneath a continuous sheet of vinyl floor covering. In such an
installation the edges must be properly coved upward against the wall and joins and non-
coved edges must be properly sealed against moisture penetration. A higher quality
material not subject to expansion is underlayment-grade plywood, which is constructed
without interior voids in its layers to better resist the high local pressure from objects such
as stiletto heels.
For many years, people have desired cheaper alternatives to solid, natural wood. Plywood
was invented during the Second World War and was quickly taken up by the community.
But by the end of the 1940s there was not enough lumber around to manufacture plywood
affordably. Particle board was intended to be a more efficient replacement. While
research had been done on particle board earlier, the first commercial piece was produced
during the war at a factory in Bremen, Germany.
It utilised waste material such as planer shavings, off cuts or sawdust, hammer-milled into
chips and bound together with a phenolic resin. Hammer-milling involves smashing
material into smaller and smaller pieces until they pass out through a screen. Most other
early particle board manufacturers used similar processes, though often with slightly
different resins.
However, it was soon found that better strength, appearance and resin economy could be
achieved by using more uniform, manufactured chips. Manufacturers began processing
solid birch, beech, alder, pine and spruce into consistent chips and flakes. These finer

layers were then placed on the outsides of the board, with the central section composed of
coarser, cheaper chips. This type of board is known as three layer particle board.
More recently, graded density particle board has also evolved. It contains particles that
gradually become smaller as they get closer to the surface.

2.2.2 Flakeboard Oriented strand board-OSB

OSB is an engineered wood-based sheet

material in which rather long strands of
wood are bonded together with a synthetic
resin adhesive. Sometimes in all three
layers, but usually in only the outer layers
of these three-layer panels, the strands are
orientated in a particular direction.
However, there is quite a large degree of
variability in this orientation among
adjacent strands in the panels from any
one production line as well as between
panels from different producers.
Compared with many other types of panel
products, OSB is a relative newcomer,
first developed about twenty-five years
ago.It is manufactured in wide mats from
cross-oriented layers of thin, rectangular
wooden strips compressed and bonded
together with wax and resin adhesives
(95% wood, 5% wax and resin).

The layers are created by shredding the wood into the strips, these are sifted and then
oriented on a belt. The mat is made in a forming bed, the layers are built up with the
external layers aligned in the panel direction and internal layers randomly positioned. The
number of layers placed is set by the required thickness of the finished panel, typically
around a 15 cm layer will produce a 15 mm panel thickness. The mat is then placed in a
thermal press. Individual panels are then cut from the mats in standard sizes. Different
qualities in terms of thickness, panel size, strength, and rigidity, can be given to the OSB
by changes in the manufacturing process. OSB panels have no internal gaps or voids, and
are water-resistant (though they do require additional membranes to achieve
impermeability to water). The finished product has similar properties to plywood, but is
uniform and cheaper. It has begun to replace plywood in many environments. The most
common uses are as sheathing in walls, floors, and roofs. While OSB does not have grain
like a natural wood, it does have a specific axis of strength. This can be seen by looking at
the alignment of the surface wood chips. The most accurate method, though, for
determining the axis of strength is to examine the ink stamps on the wood placed there by
the manufacturer. This is a new type of wood panel that will eventually completely
replace plywood in residential and commercial construction. It is as good as the
equivalent plywood which would have been used in that condition. OSB and similar new
wood products were developed in response to changing resource availabilities and the
desire by manufacturers to improve the efficiency of their operations. This adaptation also

demanded a change in manufacturer's approaches to the design of their product, from one
that focused on process to one that focused on results.

2.2.3. Veneer board Plywood

Plywood was the first type of engineered wood to be invented. It is made from thin sheets
of wood veneer, which are stacked together with the direction of each ply's grain differing
from its neighbours' by 90 (cross-banding). The plies are bonded under heat and pressure
with strong adhesives, usually phenol formaldehyde resin, making plywood a type of
composite material. A common reason for using plywood instead of plain wood is its
resistance to cracking, shrinkage, twisting/warping, and its general high degree of
A vast number of varieties of plywood exist, all manner of conditions and uses. Softwood
plywood is usually made either of Douglas fir or spruce, pine, and fir, and is typically
used for construction and industrial purposes. Decorative plywood is usually faced with
hardwood, including red oak, birch, maple, lauan (Philippine mahogany) and a large
number of other hardwoods.

Plywood meant for indoor use generally uses the less expensive urea-formaldehyde glue
(which has limited water resistance), while outdoor and marine grade plywood are
designed to withstand rot and use a water-resistant phenol-formaldehyde glue to prevent
delamination and to retain strength in high humidity.
The most common varieties of softwood plywood come in three, five or seven plies with
dimensions of 1.2 m 2.4 m. Roofing can use the thinner 3/8-inch plywood. Floorboards
are at least 5/8-inch depending on the distance between floor joists. Plywood is often
tongue and grooved for flooring applications. Two of the edges will have "grooves"
notched into them to fit with the adjacent "tongue" that protrudes from the next board.
High-strength plywood, known as aircraft plywood, is made from mahogany and/or birch.
It was used for several WWII fighter aircraft, including the British-built Mosquito
Airplane plywood was adapted for furniture by Alvar Aalto.
There is always an odd number of veneers and each ply is at a right angle to the one
below, this gives the material it's strength. The more veneers used, the stronger the
plywood becomes. Both the type of glue and veneers determine the suitability of a sheet
for a particular application. The finish quality of plywood varies considerably, some
plywood have attractive grains while others can contain knots.

3. Applications of EWP systems
EWP Systems have been traditionally used
as framing material in the furniture and
cabinet industries. Recent development of
structural panel (i.e., oriented strandboard
OSB) and engineered lumber, including
laminated veneer lumber (LVL), parallel
strand lumber (PSL) and laminated strand
lumber (LSL), provide an efficient and
economic alternative. These products are
manufactured with no core voids,
knotholes and delamination problems.
They can be easily sawn, drilled, nailed,
planed, filed, sanded or painted to meet
design specification. As a result, the
products have been designed for numerous
industrial applications including
RV/campers, truck bodies, pallets, furniture
fames, displays, shelving, construction
barriers, racks, packaging, crating, void
forms, bins and trunks and overlaid core.
Acceptance of new products by the
manufacturers and their customers has
always been a slow process.
A better understanding of reasons for acceptance or rejection of structural panels and
engineered lumber as raw material for furniture and cabinet framing could lead to further
expansion of their uses by manufacturers and better sales and marketing by the raw
materials manufacturers and distributors.
Panel products such as particleboard and medium density fiberboard are important raw
material inputs for the furniture, cabinet and allied industries. However, there are other
wood-based products that are currently used or have the potential to be used in these

EWP Systems are used for:

built-up hybrid components

3.1 Wall Systems

Walls are made up of a combination of panel and linear EWPs connected in a specific
way with fasteners. One of the functions of a wall is to provide in plane racking / shear
Fastener number, size, and
pattern are prescribed by
code tables in order to
properly connect the panel
and linear EWPs together
to develop a measurable
resistance. Walls dont have
to be plane in 2 directions.
One-dimensionally planar
walls allow for curving
forms that still have a
measurable rigidity.

3.2 Floor System

The I-joists are responsible for resisting bending and deflection which is influenced by
their depth. The addition of the sub floor panel EWP adds a measure of T-beam action to
help stiffen the system further. I-joists typically use L/480 deflection criteria because of
long-span capabilities. The wide flanges of the I-joists allow workers to more easily work
on top of the I-joists. However, the I-joists must be secure from tipping over before
workers are allowed to walk on them. This often means the installation of rim boards to
hold the ends in position, or additional x bracing or blocking installed to provide
intermediate lateral support. When framing into other members, preformed sheet metal
hangers specifically made for I-joists are used. Be sure to get the required load capacity
out of the hanger by installing all required fasteners of the required size.

Accompanying the most recent tendencies, new flooring ranges and solutions are being
launched making laminate flooring look more and more like real wood:
Large panels in different patterns representing the newest design tendencies;
the newest solution for commercial areas;
different sound reduction systems with integrated 2mm underlay;
surface finishing similar to traditional wood floors so that nature can go indoors;

These kind of flooring substrates gives a multitude of choices to create in each room,
piece by piece, exclusive tailor made spaces. A wide range of patterns ready to seduce,
and a complete accessories range allowing having the perfect finishing desired.

3.3. Roof systems

Rafters, purlins, ridge boards, and hip or valley members can be sawn lumber, end jointed
lumber, or any one of a variety of prefabricated (engineered) members. Examples of
engineered lumber include wood I-joists or solid rectangular structural composite
members such as parallel strand lumber (PSL), laminated veneer lumber (LVL), or
laminated strand lumber (LSL). Roof beams and blocking can be either sawn lumber or
engineered lumber.
I-joists are excellent for rafter components, especially where energy efficient designs
require depth in the member for insulation and venting requirements. Framing into a ridge
beam is easily made with preformed sheet metal hangers. Plywood blocks prevent
rotation of the I-joist in the hangers.

3.4. Foundation Systems

Preserved Wood Foundations is also a system of EWPs specifically manufactured for

this use. Because of the forces involved, the solution must be engineered. Many homes
are being built with a Preserved Wood Foundation (PWF). A PWF is an engineered load-
bearing wood-frame system designed as a foundation for light-frame construction (single
family homes, room additions etc.). PWFs offer many advantages over other types of
foundations, for both the builder and the home owner. With insulation installed in the stud
wall cavities, the PWF can save energy and heating costs. PWFs are dry, comfortable,
easy to finish, and more economical to convert to fully liveable space than a masonry
foundation. All lumber and plywood used in a PWF, except in limited locations, must be
treated with preservative.
A PWF can be easily constructed in all but the most inclement weather, using standard
sizes of studs and plywood, and can even be factory-prefabricated for added quality

3.5. Hybrid Systems

Entire building systems can be formed from

a collection of EWPs acting as together
forming hybrid components. On large-scale
projects, hybrid systems can represent a
significant savings in time and cost of
erection, while producing a high quality end
product. System-oriented products for timber
construction are an intelligent way of using
wood-based panels: I-joists, OSB, fibreboard
insulation panels, roof and wall panelling for
vapour diffusion MDF or particleboard.
Wood-based construction is an obvious
option. It is natural, beautiful and eco-
And building and construction systems
are cost-effective thermal and sound
insulation solutions that meet all
relevant structural, fire protection,
soundproofing and environmental
requirements. Maximum benefits can
thus be expected from sophisticated
building systems. The new engineered
wood products are used for bridge
designs. One group of engineered wood
products that has been adapted for
bridge applications is structural
composite lumber (SCL),
which includes laminated veneer lumber (LVL) and parallel strand lumber (PSL). LVL is
made from thin sheets of rotary-peeled wood veneer that are glued together with
waterproof adhesive. PSL consists of narrow strips of veneer that are compressed and
glued together with the wood grain direction parallel. There are several characteristics
which make SCL wellsuited for bridge applications.
Because it is a manufactured product, SCL can be produced in a variety of sizes and
shapes. The laminating process disperses the natural strength-reducing characteristics of
wood, which reduces product variability and provides significantly improved design
strength and stiffness compared to sawn lumber. SCL also provides excellent treatability
with wood preservatives, and full preservative penetration is typically achieved.

3.6. Furniture Components
The manufacture of Particle Board began on a large scale after World War II as a low
cost replacement for lumber and plywood in furniture and cabinetry. Some twenty years
later, in 1966, the first MDF plant began production. Used primarily as core material for
doors, furniture, and cabinets, particleboard often is covered on one or both sides with
veneer or another surface finish. In housing construction, particleboard is used under
carpet or other finished surfaces as floor under laymen and stair treads. It is also used as
floor decking in mobile homes. MDF is used as a replacement for wood boards in
furniture, cabinets, moldings, and picture frames. Demand for Particle Board and MDF
has grown dramatically in the past decade, replacing more and more solid wood lumber
and plywood products. Also, hardwood and plywood panels are used in store fixture
manufacturing, cabinets, furniture and some architectural designs.
With quality and competitiveness being the key issues, the range includes all the main
types of prefabricated furniture components, from simply cut and edge banded panels to
soft formed and drilled parts, with grooves or dowels. The versatility of these installations
makes it easy to supply different profiles, slightly shaped, standard or customised.

3.7. I-joists

I-joists began the marriage of linear and panel wood products in a hybrid structural
component. The I-shape has been long known for its efficiency in bending strength and
deflection control. This has led to a new level of structural, material, and environmental
efficiency. The concepts for wood I-joists were developed in the late 1950s. In the mid-
1960s Trus Joist Corporation developed the machinery to mass-produce I-joists. What
this machine basically did was put a route in the lumber or LVL flanges into which the
plywood was forced and adhesive was applied and then cured to provide a very tight and
efficient joint. Market has grown significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s.

Because for the proprietary nature of the I-joist product, a number of styles have been
produced, with different materials in the flanges and webs, as well as different connection
between the web and the flange. I-joists can be deep or shallow, usually in sizes that
match common dimension lumber depths, or other EWPs such as glulam sizes.

4. Applications of the products

LVL and LSL products are used predominantly for residential and industrial structural
building applications such as floor joists, lintels, purlins, roof truss components, etc. The
ability to cut different shapes from productions billets allows for structural innovation
using angular and curved shapes.
While its unfinished, manufactured appearance may limit its use for high quality
appearance applications, the use of opaque finishes will facilitate the use of LVL or LSL
in creating visually exciting structural forms.

LVL Floor System

An LVL floor system is a three-part system designed to replace traditional dimensional

lumber joist systems. Through the use of advanced engineering, lumber is chipped,
structurally aligned and bonded in thin sheets at extremely high pressure. The sheets are
then laminated together (once again at extremely high pressure) to form consistently
stable boards much stronger than typical dimensional lumber. The system components

LVL beams are designed to replace the standard dimensional beams in a traditional
floor system. The high pressure, aggressive adhesive and grain
orientation of the chips makes the layers significantly stronger
than standard lumber of the same size. Their construction also
makes LVL beams straighter, more dimensionally consistent and
less susceptible to warping or compression.
I-joists are designed to replace the dimensional joists used in a
traditional floor system. I-joists resemble traditional steel I-
beams with two flanges and a web. The flanges are laminated
and layered in the same manner as LVL beams. The flanges
provide most of the load carrying capacity in the I-joist. The web
is laminated similar to oriented strand board (OSB), but under
much greater pressure and with stronger, more aggressive
adhesive. The web serves to hold the flanges together and
absorbs vibration in the floor. I-joists can span up to 25 percent
greater distances than comparably sized dimensional lumber
Rim boards are designed to replace the rim joists used in traditional floor systems.
Rim boards are used around the outside of the floor system to stiffen the I-joists.
They also serve to transfer the load to bearing walls or foundations.

When all three parts are used together, they yield a much stronger, more stable floor
system. The stronger floor system results in a more solid feeling in the entire floor with
less chance for squeaks.

PSL products are used for headers, primary carrying members, columns, beams. PSL
products are used for residential, industrial structural building systems and maybe the
most important for bridges.

For example, Parallam PSL bridges offer solutions for todays short-span bridge
projects. Advances in engineered timber materials, bridge design and component
fabrication allow for bridge projects that cost less, save time, require minimal
maintenance and provide long-lasting quality and beauty. Compare PSL to concrete, steel
and other wood-based bridge materials. The unique features of this material lead most
industry experts to assume an effective lifespan of more than 60 years for properly treated

PSL. This lifespan is equal to steel and concrete bridges and substantially longer than
conventional timber bridges. PSL bridges provide an aesthetic quality that blends in with
natural, rural surroundings. PSL also resists warp, thermal expansion, shock and de-icing
saltsfactors that can affect the integrity and long-term durability of other bridge

Installing Parallam PSL bridges takes only a few days, using smaller and less-expensive
erection equipment. These lightweight, prefabricated wood components can be installed
year-round; no curing means no delays or temperature constraints. The Trus Joist bridge
system can be installed directly on the existing abutments if they are in usable condition.

HDF panels are highly recommended

for use in the manufacture of heavy duty
flooring. Its application can be extended
to institutional furniture, doors for
kitchen and bedroom units, staircases,
industrial shelving, moldings, exhibition
stands and displays, classroom and play
area furniture, laboratory and workshop
fittings, hotel restaurant and bar
furniture, office furniture, components
for the transportation industry requiring
rigid and harsh conditions in actual
service life. High density means superior
screw and fastener holding and better
installation of every type of cabinet
hardware. The machined core surface is
ideal for finishes, paints, foils, lacquers,
etc., saving materials, time and labor.
The superior stability and strength lends
itself to manufacturing special shapes
where impact, load and durability are
concerns. The range of size and
thickness, ease of availability and
versatility of the product itself are a
specifiers dream. It is generally
conjectured that wood-based fibreboards
show a greater resistance to decay and
termite damage than solid wood.

MDF panels - In recent years, great changes have taken place in the MDF industry.
Nowadays, we cannot talk about wood-based panels without thinking of MDF. Probably
the most successful substitute for solid wood, the consumption of MDF continues to rise
all over the world. From furniture grade to flooring and HDF types, from moisture
resistant boards to fire retardant grade, from low density to thin boards or moulding
grade. The popularity of this relatively new panel product is due to its ability to be
produced in molded form, as well as in straight-edged flat panels, for a host of industrial
markets. MDF is used extensively in factory-assembled and ready-to-assemble furniture,
as well as in cabinets, underlayment, drawer fronts, molding, and countertops. Finishes
and overlays can be used to provide a grain pattern typical of lumber, and many wood
finishing components such as door edgings, decorative trim, frames, and cornices are
being made from MDF. Moreover, MDF is replacing thin ply-wood and wet-process
hardboard in the production of molded and flush door-skins.

Particleboard-As the most common type of wood-based panel in the world,

particleboard is a very versatile product in terms of its possible uses and applications.
Suitable for all general uses in furniture and construction, in dry or occasionally wet
conditions or for fire retardant applications, the standard particleboard offers a uniform,
smooth and clean surface on a conventional three-layer panel. It can be used raw or
surfaced with wood veneers, melamine decorative papers or even thin foils.
Available in a very wide range of sizes and
thicknesses, particleboard also offers
solutions for flooring (access flooring and
tongue & grooved), doors (homogeneous
and compact) and free-formaldehyde
applications. Particleboard has had an
enormous influence on furniture design. In
the early fifties, particleboard kitchens
started to come into widespread use in
furniture construction. However, in many
cases it remained more expensive than solid
wood. A particleboard kitchen was only
available to the very wealthy. This did not
last long though. Once the technology was
slightly more developed, particleboard
became much cheaper.

Its low price has enabled more furniture
to become available to many more
people. Large companies such base their
strategies around providing well-designed
furniture, at a low price. In almost all
cases, this means particleboard. Ikeas
stated mission is to create well designed
home furniture at prices so low as many
people as possible will be able to afford
them. They do this by using the cheapest
materials possible, as do most other
major furniture providers. As a result,
solid wood furniture has become an
expensive luxury and particleboard the
Particleboards main selling point is its price. However, it has several other significant
advantages. One of these is its stability. Solid wood is prone to warping and splitting with
changes in humidity, whereas particleboard is not. This stability enables new design
possibilities, without having to take into account the seasonal variation. When exposed to
high levels of moisture however, untreated particleboard will disintegrate.

OSB - This engineered wood-based panel is suitable for structural and non-structural use
in the construction industry. The three bonded layers of resinous wood strands arranged at
right angles to one another, give a strong and stable panel free of defects and with high
moisture resistance. The formats of OSB assure a great versatility in wall construction.
The conditioned panels provide exceptional stability and strength and are economical and
easy to use. Resistance to moisture means that OSB is suitable for warm and cold roofs.
The product can take practically all kinds of coverings including bitumen, tiles and slates.
Combined with solid wood to form I-joists, it makes large-scale construction easy and
economical. OSB is also ideal for use in flooring, from dry domestic use to heavy-duty
industrial use in humid conditions, with tongue and groove on 2 or 4 edges for supported
and floating floors. As it has a natural wood-like look and can easily be stained and
varnished, OSB offers many decorative options. Strength combined with lightness as well
as the availability of large sizes allow for many options in industrial packaging. OSB can
be a cost-effective alternative to other panel products for a wide variety of packaging
options for use in dry and humid conditions. Last but not least, OSB is in fact an eco-
efficient option as it presents very good mechanical performances using as raw material
only small diameter round wood from fast growing species.

Plywood is the traditional panel of choice for flooring, sheathing, home remodeling and
industrial applications, such as frames for upholstered furniture. Plywood is used in any
application that needs high quality wooden sheet material. High quality in this context
means resistance to cracking, breaking, shrinkage, twisting and warping. Plywood is also
used as an engineering material for stressed skin applications. In boating and in aviation,
there's a history of using plywood this way going back to the WW-II era. Most notably is
the British De Havilland Mosquito bomber which was primarily made out of wood. Even
nowadays, plywood is used in stressed skin applications quite successfully. Plywood may
be used inside and outside. Plywood is graded for exterior or interior use depending upon
the water resistance of the glue used to stick the plies together. Sheds and cladding are
made from this material. Weather boiled proof plywood requires paint or varnish to
protect the outer veneer from the elements.

Internal plywood does not contain water-resistant adhesive. It may be used for wall
panelling, flooring and furniture. Shuttering boxes are made from shuttering plywood.
Shuttering boxes are used in the construction industry to contain concrete while it sets.
The material is water resistant to a certain extent. The surface of this material does not
have a decorative veneer and is generally not suitable for use where an attractive quality
finish is required. Marine Plywood is made with waterproof adhesive so that it can be
used under water. The material should still be protected with paint or varnish. The
smoothness of the surface and the number of defects in it grade plywood. Plywood can be
nailed and screwed. Thin plywood is flexible and can be formed into curved shapes.

5. Joints and Connectors

Joining EWPs is the same as joining solid timber. Traditional fasteners such as nails,
screws and bolts can be used as well as proprietary metal connectors such as framing
anchors, joist hangers etc. Concealed or exposed plates can also be used to secure butt
connections such as in portal knee joints and joins in curved members. At supports it is
essential that minimum bearing requirements be achieved. This may vary between
different manufacturers.

As for all other building materials, a critical aspect of wood
structures is the manner by which members are connected. Wood
products are building materials which are easily drilled, chiselled,
or otherwise shaped to facilitate the connection of members, and a
number of methods and a wide range of products are available for
connecting wood. The installation of metal fasteners is the most
common method of connecting wood products and a wide range of
hardware is available. These range from the nails and the light
connectors used for light framing construction to the bolts, side
plates and other hardware used for heavy member connections. Each type of fastener is
designed to be used with a particular type of construction. When used appropriately,
metal fasteners provide means of connection which are easy to install and which offer
trouble free performance. Nailing for example, which is a basic means of connection with
which everyone has some degree of familiarity, is an effective means of connection
which, when applied according to specified layouts, results in strong structural systems
which perform well under the most adverse loading conditions such as the effects of
earthquake. The performance of metal fastener connections is based upon the fasteners
being large enough to carry and transfer loads over a large enough area of the wood so
that the wood fibre in contact with the fastener is not deformed.

Timber joinery is a traditional method of connecting wood members without the use of
metal fasteners. Although the use of metal fasteners for connections is almost universal,
timber joinery still offers a unique visual appearance exhibiting a high degree of
craftsmanship. The cellular structures of wood and modern chemistry combine to produce
glue bonds between wood members which are as least as strong as the wood fibre itself.
For this reason, adhesives play a crucial role in the manufacture of wood products such as
plywood and parallel strand lumber (PSL). They are also used structurally, for example,
in improving the performance of floor assemblies.

For many applications, such as nailing for frame wall construction, metal fasteners serve
only a structural purpose, and will be hidden from view by interior and exterior finishes.
In other cases where wood members serve a structural purpose and are left exposed to add
visual interest to a design, as much thought must be given to the appearance of
connections as to the selection and finishing of the wood products themselves. Where
metal fasteners are exposed to view, the designer will in some cases will want them to be
as inconspicuous as possible. This can be done by selecting fasteners such as split rings
and bolts (which are effective means of transferring loads), by reducing the visual impact
of hardware such as steel side plates by recessing them into the wood members, or by
using painting to reduce prominence. In other cases, it may be desired to highlight the
hardware to give a robust appearance to a structure.

5.1. Nails

Nailing is the most basic and most commonly used means of

attaching members in wood frame construction. Usually, nailing
is used as a structural connection and appearance is not a factor.
Exceptions to this are nails used for cladding, decking and finish
work, where care in the selection of the type of nail can lead to
enhanced appearance. Screws rely on their threads to develop
resistance to withdrawal. Nails are faster to install but rely mainly
on friction to resist withdrawal. For this reason, designs should
ensure that nails are loaded laterally and that withdrawal loads are
kept to a minimum.
Nails are manufactured in many types and shapes to suit specific applications.

Common (spike) Eavestrough (spike) Standard or Common Box

Finishing Flooring and Casing Concrete Cladding and Decking

Clinch Hardwood Flooring Roofing Wood Shingle

5.2. Screws

Wood screws are usually used for millwork and finishing rather than for structural
framing. They are used in fastening millwork where resistance to withdrawl is a
requirement. Screws find some applications in structural framing as in the case of floor
sheathing which is glued and screwed to the joists or the positive attachment of gypsum

wallboard to support members. They are higher in cost than nails because of the
machining required to make the thread and the head. Screws are designed to be much
better at resisting withdrawl than nails. However, when used for structural purposes, it is
better that screws not be loaded in withdrawl but rather use the withdrawl resistance
properly to produce and maintain close contact between the elements being joined.
The types of wood screws commonly used are shown below.

Double Lead Single Lead Tapping

5.3. Bolts

Bolts are used with plates, washers, or more efficiently, in conjunction with split rings or
shear plates to connect wood members. They are often used in purlin to beam, beam to
column, or column to base connections of wood structures. When bolts are used alone
with washers or side plates the load transfer area of the wood is the surface area of the
bolt. Timber connectors such as split rings and shear plates are a means of distributing
loads over a larger area of wood and are discussed later in this section. Several types of
bolts are used for wood construction with the hexagon head type being the most common.
Countersunk heads are used where a flush surface is desired. Carriage bolts can be
tightened by turning the nut without holding the bolt since the shoulders under the head
grip the wood.

Types of Bolts for Wood Construction

Finished Hexagon Bolt Square Headed Machine Bolt

Machine Bolt with Countersunk Head Carriage Bolt

Bolts are installed in holes drilled slightly (1.0 to 2.0mm (1/32" to 1/16") larger than the
bolt diameter to prevent any splitting and stress development that could be caused by

installation or subsequent wood shrinkage. Wood shrinkage requires special consideration
in the design of bolted connections for sawn timber because of the potential high moisture
content of the members. It is less important in designing connections for glulam, PSL, or
other wooden products manufactured at low moisture control. As shrinkage across the
grain takes place in timber, movement may be restrained by the steel side plates leading
to splitting of the wood. If steel side plates hold bolts further than 125mm (5") apart
across the width in a splice joint, separate side plates.

Joint Spliced with Wood Side Members

Joint Spliced with Steel Side Plates

Joint Spliced with Multiple Steel Side Plates

5.4. Lag Screws

Lag screws are bolts with sharp

points and coarse threads designed
to penetrate and grip wood fibre.
They are used to anchor metal, or
wood, to wood in areas inaccessible
to the placement of a nut for a
through bolt, or where an especially
long bolt would be needed to
penetrate a joint fully. Although lag
screws do have some unique
applications, through bolts are
considered to be a more positive
means of connection since they are
less dependent on workmanship for
reliable installation.
The resistance of a lag screw generally increases with the length of the embedded thread
portion. However, it is also affected by other considerations such as side plate thickness.
As with other types of metal fasteners, sufficient end and edge distance must be provided
to prevent splitting and to provide sufficient area for shear and bearing resistance in
accordance with engineering design codes.

5.5. Split Rings and Shear Plates

Split rings and shear plates

are load transferring
devices which rely on
bolts or lag screws to
restrain the joint assembly.
They are more efficient
structurally than bolts or
lag screws used alone
because they enlarge the
wood area over which a
load is distributed. Split
rings and shear plates are Bolted Joint
used mainly to transfer
loads in heavy timber or
glulam members as in roof
trusses. These connector
units transfer shear either
between the faces of two
timber members or
between a timber member
and a metal side plate.
They are not usually
protectively coated and
need be galvanized only if Split Ring Connector Joint
used with preservation
treated wood or in wet
service conditions. It is
important that the proper
size of bolt be used with a
connector since it is an
integral part of the
assembly. The bolt clamps
the joint together so that
the connector acts
Shear Plate Connector Joint

5.6. Framing connectors

Framing connectors are made of sheet metal and are manufactured with prepunched holes
to accept nails. They are used to provide a more positive connection between wood
members by allowing the nails securing the framing connector to be loaded laterally
rather than in partial withdrawl as would be the case if the members were toenailed

They are also used in frame construction where additional protection is required against
uplift from seismic or wind induced forces. Framing connectors are suitable for most
joints in wood framing of 38mm (2" nom.) and thicker lumber. These include connections
between joists and headers; rafters and plates or ridges; purlins and trusses; and studs and
sill plates. The load transfer capacity of framing connectors is affected by the thickness of
steel used. Standard duty framing connectors are commonly made of 18-gauge zinc
coated sheet steel. Medium and heavy-duty anchors are made from heavier zinc-coated
steel usually 12 gauges and 7 gauges respectively. They are suitable for similar
connections between larger members where the loads to be carried exceed those
permissible for the light anchors such as: header or beam to post; purlin to beam; and
purlin to truss.

All-purpose framing anchor

Tie-down framing anchor

Framing angle

Joist and purlin hangers

Truss plates

Triple grip framing anchor

5.7. Joist and Purlin Hangers

Framing connectors are manufactured to connect joists and purlins to supporting wood
members. They are generally available for member sizes from 38 x 89mm (2" x 4") joists
to 89 x 377mm (4" x 14") purlins or double joists. Joists and purlin hangers are made
from light gauge galvanized sheet metal and are affixed to wood members with special
nails. As with framing anchors, the required number of nails must be used to provide the
load-carrying capacity. Hangers can reduce the overall depth of a floor or roof assembly
or increase clearance below the framing where joists abut headers rather than rest on top
of them.

Space Advantage of Joist Hangers

Post caps Post anchor

Straps Nail-on plates

H-clip Back-up gypsum wallboard clip

5.8. Adhesives

Adhesives play a prominent role in wood construction. They are used for:

The manufacture of laminated products

As a means of increasing the structural rigidity of sheathing/joist combinations in
floors and of affixing non-structural panel products
End joining dimension lumber

5.8.1. Adhesives Used for Laminated Products

Structural composites such as plywood, oriented strandboard (OSB) and wafer-board,

prefabricated wood I-joists, laminated parallel strand lumber (PSL), laminated veneer
lumber (LVL) and glulam are dependent upon adhesives to transfer the stresses between

adjoining wood fibres. Interior use wood products such as particleboard, which is used for
furniture and for some structural applications such as flooring underlay, and hardwood
plywood, which is used for furniture and decorative panelling, also rely on adhesives for
laminating wood material. The selection, application rate, and curing conditions for
adhesives for these products is controlled at the point of manufacture. A brief discussion
of the principal adhesives used in these products is presented to address questions which
some times arise about permanence of bond, reliability, resistance to environmental
factors, and emission of volatile chemicals into buildings. There are two principle types
of adhesive used for the manufacture of wood products. These are urea-formaldehyde
(UF) which is suitable only for interior use products and phenol-formaldehyde (PF) which
is used for exterior applications.

5.8.2. Interior Wood Products

Urea-formaldehyde adhesive is thick creamy syrup which cures to a colourless solid. UF

adhesives are very economical and fast curing but are not suitable for damp conditions.
For this reason, UF glues are used for panels intended for nonstructural use such as
particleboard and hardwood plywood. UF adhesives are non-staining and therefore have
the further advantage of not blemishing the high quality expensive face veneers used for
hardwood panels for interior finish applications.The raw materials for UF adhesives are
derived from natural gas through the intermediates of ammonia for urea and methanol for

5.8.3. Exterior Wood Products

Phenol-formaldehyde (PF) adhesives are a dark purple-brown colour and give the dark
glue lines associated with products such as plywood and OSB. Known as the phenolics,
they are a derivative of crude oil and the principle resins approved for the manufacture of
wood products intended for exterior applications. PF adhesives are used for the
manufacture of glulam, PSL, LVL, plywood, OSB/ waferboard and for fingerjoining
stress graded lumber. PF adhesives are somewhat more expensive than UF adhesives and
exhibit lower levels of formaldehyde emissions. Various types of extenders such as
walnut shell flour, Douglas fir bark flour, alder bark flour, and wood flour are used to
moderate the cost of PF glues, control penetration into the wood fibre, and moderate
strength properties to suit the materials being bonded.

Resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) adhesive is a phenolic substance which is more reactive

than the PF adhesives. Being more reactive means that curing is faster and takes place at
room temperature and below. Otherwise these glues have the same basic properties as the
PF adhesives. However, high cost of the resorcinols means in practice that they are often
blended with the PF adhesives to moderate the cost.

5.9. General Guidelines for Connections

Standardize fasteners on a project to speen installation and to reduce the chances

of error.
Select a fastener material or finish which suits the moisture conditions.
Design connection details to accomodate seasoning effect as moisture level in the
wood product adjusts to the building environment.
Specify a finished appearance which suits visual prominance of the fasteners.

Connection design must respect wood end and edge distance setbacks to ensure
Connection design must provide stipulated distances between connectors. Ensure
that adequate wood material remains after boring for connectors to transfer forces.
Fastener capacity varies with the inservice moisture content of wood. Most
building applications will be for dry service conditions which give good fastener
capacity values.

6. References
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Xiping Wang, Robert J. Ross, Brian K. Brashaw, Steven A. Verhey, John W. Forsman,
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A. Ramirez-Coretti, C.A. Eckelman, R.W. Wolfe, April 1998, Composites and

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Cranswick, Chad J., McGregor, Stuart I., Dowel Connections in Laminated Strand
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Universidade de So Paulo, So Carlos SP, Brazil Escola de Engenharia de So
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Composites and Manufactured Products, Aldehyde Emissions from Particleboard and
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Trus Joist, A Weyerhaeuser Business, Boise, ID, Structural Composite Wood Bridges
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Green seal, October 2001, Particleboard and Medium-Density Fiberboard;

From Forest to Furniture, march/april 1999, Environmental Design & Construction;

Boxler, The Floor for Life Magazine;

Sonae Indstria, Growing With Market Needs;

Panel guide, annex 2B, OSB (Oriented Strand Board);

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Laminex group, Particleboard, The Tradesmans Essential Guide;

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