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The Observational Method in Geotechnics

La Mthode Observationnelle en Gotechnique

Dinesh Patel
Arup Geotechnics, UK
D Nicholson (Arup Geotechnics) N. Huybrechts ( BBRI, Belgium) , J. Maertens ( bvba,Belgium)

This paper presents the principle features of the Observational Method, lists the shortcomings of OM in EC7,
and summarises how the OM should be applied across Europe within the design and contractual framework of
an engineering project. This paper is based on a detailed study carried out under GeoTechNet, a European
funded geotechnical forum site seeking to set the strategy for the geotechnical engineering sector on key
issues that will affect European economies and businesses in the short, medium and long term. Details of the
work contained in this paper are presented with OM Case Studies of major projects in Europe, on the
GeoTechNet web site ( http://www.geotechnet.org) and in their publication Innovative Design Tools in
Geotechnics Observational Method and Finite Element Method, published as Workpackage WP3.

Cette contribution prsente les aspects principaux de la mthode observationnelle (OM) ; elle donne un aper-
u des manquements de la mthode selon lEC7, et rsume la mthodologie pour son application en Europe,
en considrant tant les aspects de dimensionnement que les aspects contractuels dun projet. Cette contribu-
tion est base sur une tude dtaille ralise dans le cadre dun projet europen de rseau thmatique en go-
technique GeoTechnet. Lobjectif de ce projet, subsidi par la Commission Europenne, tait de dterminer
les priorits de recherches et dveloppements technologiques en Europe et pour diffrents thmes de la go-
technique, et ceci court, moyen et plus long terme.
Le contenu de cette contribution est prsent plus en dtails au travers de cas pratiques dapplication de la m-
thode observationnelle dans des projets majeurs en Europe sur le site internet du rseau GeoTechNet
(www.geotechnet.org), ainsi que dans le rapport Innovative Design Tools in Geotechnics Observational Me-
thod and Finite Element Methods publi sous linitiative du Workpackage WP3.

Keywords: Observational Method, geotechnical engineering, Eurocode 7, European OM Standards, OM Case

Studies, GeoTechNet

1 INTRODUCTION pean projects where OM was implemented are pre-

sented on this website.
In 2002, a European geotechnical forum was set up This study also highlighted the shortcomings in
for the exchange of best practice ideas and innova- the implementation of OM in Eurocode EC7
tions in geotechnical engineering called GeoTechNet (EN1997-2004). It also showed that there was a gen-
(http://www.geotechnet.org). This forum was Euro- eral lack of understanding on the principles of the
pean funded and Workpackage WP3, concentrated use of OM, its use within the contractual framework
on the use and harmonisation of Innovative of an engineering project and the important respon-
Design Tools in Geotechnics across Europe, a sibilities incumbent on the client, designer and con-
document which has recently been published by tracting teams when implementing the OM approach
GeoTechNet, 2006. This publication sets out how on a project.
the application of the Finite Element Method and This paper focuses on the key issues described
Observational Method (OM) can produce savings in above and the reader is also asked to look at the ac-
cost and programme on engineering projects, with- companying Case Studies of the OM applied to
out compromising safety, and how it can also benefit European projects, presented on the website ( but not
the geotechnical community by increasing scientific in this paper), which show the benefits in cost and
knowledge. Seven Case examples from major Euro- programme afforded to Clients.

2 COMPARISON BETWEEN TRADITIONAL et al (2006) provides a structural framework on
DESIGN VS OBSERVATIONAL METHOD how the Best Way Out approach to OM can be
DESIGN used for recovery of deep, multistage excavation
projects when problems occur during construction
Traditional ground engineering projects are usually as that which occurred at Nicoll Highway, Singa-
based on a single, fully developed, robust design and pore, 2004. The Best Way Out approach to OM is
there is no intention to vary the design during con- described in detail in Section 6 of this paper.
struction. Instrumentation and monitoring may also
be carried out but it plays a very much passive role 2.1 Differences between Peck and CIRIA approach
to check original predictions are still valid and pro- to OM
vide confidence to third party checkers eg designers The CIRIA approach to OM is different to Pecks
for adjacent building owners affected by a develop- method and this is explained below as it is an impor-
ment. In recent work on OM, published by Con- tant factor when choosing the OM. Peck adopted the
struction Industry Research and Information Asso- most probable design and then reduced the design
ciations Report 185 (CIRIA, 1999), this traditional to moderately conservative soil parameters, where
design approach is termed predefined design. triggers were exceeded. CIRIA on the other hand
In comparison, in OM the monitoring plays a considers a safer approach to design by adopting a
very much active role in both the design and con- progressive modification of the design starting
struction, allowing planned modifications to be car- with the design based on moderately conservative
ried out within an agreed contractual framework that parameters, and then reverting to most probable
involves all the main Parties (client, designer and conditions through field observations (ref Powder-
contractor). The differences in the two design ap- ham and Nicholson, DP (1996)).
proaches are also illustrated in Table 1 below.
2.2 OM Definition
Predefined Design Process The OM Process The best definition of the OM approach is described
in CIRIA 185 (1999) in Table 2.
Permanent works Temporary works
One set of parameters Two sets of parameters The Observational Method in ground engineering is a
One design / predictions Two designs and predictions
Outline of construction method Integrated design and construction continuous, managed, integrated, process of design,
Contractors temporary works methods construction control, monitoring and review that enables
design /method statement Methods relate to triggers previously defined modifications to be incorporated dur-
Monitoring checks predictions Comprehensive and robust monitoring
not exceeded system ing or after construction as appropriate. All these aspects
If checks are exceeded, consider Review and modify process have to be demonstrably robust. The objective is to
(a) Best Way out approach to Contingency plan
design; or
achieve greater overall economy without compromising
(b) redefine the predefined de- Improvement plan safety. CIRIA 185 (1999).
sign approach reassessing the
geotechnical uncertainties in the Emergency Plan Table 2. OM Definition (CIRIA 185)
ground, see Table 4

Emergency plan
Table 1. Comparison of the predefined design process and the IMPLEMENTATION AND BENEFITS
Observational Method

Peck set out the Observational Method in his 3.1 General

1969 Rankine lecture and defined two OM ap- The implementation of OM in construction requires
proaches:- an integrated approach to the design and construc-
a) Ab Initio approach, adopted from inception tion process as well as close management coopera-
of the project; tion amongst the whole Project Team, including the
b) Best Way Out approach, adopted after the client. This approach is fundamentally different to
project has commenced and some unexpected the traditional design approach where designs are
event has occurred that is different to the pre- based on moderately conservative parameters
defined design or failure occurs, and where (CIRIA 185) or characteristic values of parameters
OM is required to establish a way of getting (defined in Eurocode 7:2004) and where emergency
out of a difficulty. plans are rarely activated, unless an impending fail-
ure is likely.
Case examples presented on the GeoTechNet site In OM, the modification of moderately conserva-
give examples of both the Ab Initio and Best tive predefined design to the most probable (most
Way Out OM approaches. A paper by Nicholson likely situation) reduces the margin against struc-

tural failure and therefore greater site controls are (3)P During construction, the monitoring shall be carried out as planned.
necessary, balanced by rigorous monitoring and es- (4)P The results of the monitoring shall be assessed at appropriate stages and
tablishment of proper contingency plans before the the planned contingency actions shall be put into operation if the limits
OM is implemented. The construction works also of behaviour are exceeded.
has to be flexible and be able to easily accommodate (5)P Monitoring equipment shall either be replaced or extended if it fails to
any changes in design or programme, necessitated supply reliable data of appropriate type or in sufficient quantity.
by any implementation of contingency plans.
Eurocode EC7 does not define the framework to Table 3 Eurocode 7, Table 4 clause 2.7 (2004)
be followed when adopting OM and there are other
drawbacks which if strengthened may result in a 3.3 Operational Framework for following OM
wider use of OM in Europe. This is explored below.
The operational framework for implementing the
3.2 OM drawbacks in Eurocode EC7 (2004) Observational Method (as described in CIRIA 185)
is illustrated in Figure 1.
The OM method described in Table 4 of EC7 has The OM has to be carried out within the frame-
been reproduced in Table 3 below to illustrate the work of any national and corporate policies govern-
main drawbacks, which are as follows: ing design codes, specifications, quality manage-
a) it is primarily aimed at the ab initio approach to ment systems and health and safety ( eg in the UK
OM, although it does not exclude the best way this is Health and Safety (HSE) regulations, and
out application of OM; Construction Design & Management (CDM) Regu-
b) whilst it refers to acceptable limits of behav- lations, 1994). This is represented by the upper box
iour it does not define how these may be de- in Figure 1.
rived, since EC7s premise for design is based on
use of characteristic values or moderately con-
servative geotechnical parameters which present
a lower cautious limit in design, but not the up-
per limit to represent the most likely behaviour
ie most probable case needed to implement the
OM approach;
c) no trigger limits are defined to establish planned
contingency actions to check behaviour;
d) there is no operational framework described to
manage OM within a contract, neither within na-
tional policy or project organisation.

This paper provides details on how to strengthen

the OM method described in EC7 by reference to
published sources such as CIRIA 185.

Observational Method
(1) When prediction of geotechnical behaviour is difficult, it can be appropriate
to apply the approach known as "the observational method", in which the
design is reviewed during construction.

(2) The following requirements shall be met before construction is started:

acceptable limits of behaviour shall be established;
the range of possible behaviour shall be assessed and it shall be shown
that there is an acceptable probability that the actual behaviour will be
within the acceptable limits;
a plan of monitoring shall be devised, which will reveal whether the
actual behaviour lies within the acceptable limits. The monitoring Figure 1. The Observational Method (CIRIA 185, 1999)
shall make this clear at a sufficiently early stage, and with sufficiently
short intervals to allow contingency actions to be undertaken success- The second box defines the structure of the key
fully; players in the stakeholders organisation (the client,
the response time of the instruments and the procedures for analysing designer, contractors, 3rd party checkers and other
the results shall be sufficiently rapid in relation to the possible evolu- inspectors), their roles and responsibilities, and the
tion of the system; relationship between organisations and the individu-
a plan of contingency actions shall be devised, which may be adopted als.
if the monitoring reveals behaviour outside acceptable limits.

This needs to address the culture of each organi- Substructure groundworks contractor (McGee
sation, the level of staff training, experience, open- Ltd)
ness to communication, and management commit- Substructure concreting contractor ( Byrne Bros)
ment to implementing the OM approach. The Instrumentation and monitoring contractor (SES
stakeholders also need to buy-into the technical Ltd)
and commercial risks should any planned contin- It can be seen that the Principle contractor had a ma-
gency or emergency measures need to be imple- jor role in managing the OM process with his trade
mented. This would also include buy-into any over- subcontractors.
all impact on programme or cost, should the planned
contingency measures need to be implemented.
Once the OM is agreed at Project Organisation
level, the remaining boxes describe the management
structure required to implement OM at both Design
and Construction stage and to control the Monitoring
and Reviewing aspects of the Observational Method.
The works have to progress to an agreed plan, with
risks being recognised.
Daily construction progress has to be under the
control of a management structure that ensures any
deviation from the method is fully thought through
and covered by an amendment to the plan. A moni-
toring regime has to be set in place, with competent
staff made available to check, review and respond to
all monitoring results within a given timescale from
when they become available. There then needs to be
clear instructions to all involved for all foreseeable
situations. Finally, contingency plans need to be in
place that can be rapidly implemented should preset
trigger limits be breached or any other unforeseen
situation develop.
Auditing, preferably by an independent geo-
technical firm, is essential as it checks that the OM
designer and Project Team are following established Figure 2 OM management process on site ( ref Fenchurch St,
procedures and reaching the correct technical inter- http://www.geotechnet.org)
pretations. Ideally this should be carried out by a
designer that is unconnected with the OM process. 3.5 Benefits of the Observational Method
The OM offers potential savings of time and money
3.4 OM management process on site and the monitoring provides the needed assurance
At site level, there are usually many layers of con- concerning safety. Some potential benefits of OM
tracting organisations involved in a project and all are illustrated in Figure 3 and seven detailed case
the main players need to (a) buy into the OM proc- examples of the benefits provided to clients is de-
ess and (b) have clearly defined responsibility level. scribed in WP3 http://www.geotechnet.org, and the
An example of the interaction between these organi- accompanying publication of this work by Geo-
sations and the managed reporting of the construc- TechNet.
tion and monitoring process is illustrated in Figure 2.
Figure 2 also shows the traffic-light system of
green, amber and red trigger levels, the interaction
between the various parties within this traffic-light
system, and those tasked with the responsibility for
carrying out the planned modifications or contin-
gency plans. This site management structure illus-
trates that successful OM relies on establishing a co-
ordinated team implementing an integrated process.
On this particular deep basement project the or-
ganisations concerned with implementing OM were
as follows:
OM designers and reviewers (Arup Geotechnics)
Main or Principle Contractor (HBG Ltd) Figure 3 Some potential benefits of the OM (CIRIA 185)


A number of national documents referring to the use

of OM were examined (including EC7) as part of
this study:
a) France - La Methode Observationnelle pour le
dimensionnement interactif des ouvrages
(2005) ;
b) section 4.5 of the German Standard DIN
1054:2005-1 Verification of the safety of earth-
works and foundations; and
c) Dutch CUR document 166: sheet pile construc-
These documents lack details on some of the main
features of the OM process such as an understanding
of contracts, when to use it or not, selection of de- Figure 4 Types of soil strength parameters (CIRIA 185)
sign soil parameters, factors of safety, the concept of
introducing traffic-light system to establish behav- The most probable is a set of parameters that
iour and planned modifications of the design. These represent the probabilistic mean of all the data, al-
issues are discussed below and comparisons are though a degree of engineering judgment must be
made against existing standards and EC7. used in assessing this to take account of the quality
of the data. The most unfavourable parameter
4.1 Uncertainty and serviceability
represents the 0.1% fractile of the data as shown on
The OM is most effective where there is a wide Figure 4, and this represents the worst value that the
range of uncertainty. designer believes might occur in practice.
The following table summarises the types of un- The moderately conservative parameter (CIRIA
certainty that are often encountered in geotechnical 185) or characteristic value of geotechnical pa-
projects:- rameters (defined in cl EC7) represents an
cautious estimate of the value affecting the occur-
Uncertainty Example
rence of the limit state, and should ideally result in
prediction of the upper 5% fractile of the measured
Geological Complex geology & hydrogeology deflections as shown in Figure 5.
The moderately conservative parameter is there-
Parameter and modelling Undrained soil verses drained be- fore not a precisely defined value. It is a cautious
haviour estimate of a parameter, worse than the probabilistic
Ground treatment Grouting, dewatering mean but not as severe as the most unfavourable as
shown on Figure 4.
Construction Complex temporary work
In assessing these parameters the designer should
Table 4. Examples of uncertainty in the ground carefully consider the quality of the site investiga-
tion data and assess its appropriateness for use in the
OM approach. Often the original data may be appro-
The OM approach is not suitable where there is a priate for a more robust predefined design ap-
possibility of a brittle behaviour in the structure or proach but may not be of a higher quality for pur-
rapid deteriation in the materials which does not al- poses of implementing OM.
low sufficient warning to implement any planned
modifications ( ie discovery recovery contin- 4.3 Serviceability and ultimate limit state
gency plans to be used). Examples of such are rapid prediction
deteriation of soils caused by groundwater or non-
ductile failures of structural members (struts/waling When designing to EC7, checks are required to en-
connections) in multi-propped basements. sure that the following ultimate limit states (ULS)
are not exceeded:
4.2 Selection of design soil parameters Loss of equilibrium of the structure or the
Where there is a wide range of uncertainty in the soil Internal failure or excessive deformations of the
parameters the OM process in CIRIA 185, uses the structure or structural elements;
terms most probable and most unfavourable to Failure or excessive deformations of the ground
describe the range of soil conditions as illustrated in due to loss of strength;
Figure 4. Loss of equilibrium of the structure or ground
from uplift water pressures;

Hydraulic heave, internal erosion and piping of plied to characteristic values of the ground but in
ground caused by hydraulic gradients. essence the ULS design values are then similar to
the most unfavourable conditions. Although for ex-
Codes such as EC7 also require checks on ser- ample in retaining walls, the ULS predictions are
viceability limit states (SLS); states which are less used for assessing structural forces, moments and
serious than ULS but which are nevertheless unde- shear, the ULS deformations of the wall can also be
sirable and would need intervention or repair. In a useful guide to determining the maximum pre-
predefined designs, calculations used to check these dicted movements in the red zone. This upper
states use characteristic values. limit of wall deformation (or curvature) can provide
In OM, the acceptable limits of behaviour, is a a useful input when developing emergency plans of
serviceability calculation, made using both the unexpected behaviour in OM and also with the best
most probable and characteristic parameters and way out approach in OM, provided the problem has
conditions. These provide the predictions against been identified in time to implement a disaster and
which the field performance can be monitored and recovery plan well before a ULS condition occurs,
reviewed. Trigger values can be established and and with due regard to safety.
contingency plans introduced as shown in Figure 5
and Table 5.
4.4 Factors of safety
The design values for ULS (stability) calculations
are chosen so that the probability of failure will be
acceptably small. It should be noted that the intent of
OM is to take out uncertainties in the ground (see
Table 4), not reduce factors of safety, when assess-
ing the ultimate limit state condition in design.
UK standards including some European coun-
tries, have traditionally applied factors of safety
on the design soil parameter, which can vary de-
pending on the type of foundation and type of redis-
tribution of load in the ground (eg for piled rafts).
EC7 on the other hand, applies partial factors on the
characteristic value of the ground parameters. Figure
6 illustrates how the two approaches can produce
different factors of safety and how it can vary for
different assumed design soil parameters.
Figure 5. Ideal EC7 Predicted versus Measured Performance

Most Probable 50% likelihood of movement

predictions being exceeded

Characteristic Values (EC7)

or 5% likelihood of movement
moderately conservative predictions being exceeded

Most unfavourable (CIRIA 0.1% likelihood of movement

185) predictions being exceeded
Table 5 Definitions of most probable, characteristic values and
most unfavourable. After CIRIA 185.

The OM approach illustrated in Figure 5 is for a

cantilever wall design. The green, amber and red
zones represent the trigger limits or traffic light con-
trol system used in OM. The precise deflections set
for the trigger values will depend on the discovery Figure 6 Application of factors of safety to different types of
recovery contingency plans being used and not design soil parameters (CIRIA 185)
simply from the calculated values of predictions
In respect to ULS predictions, EC7 identifies 4.5 UK contractual model and safe Design
three sets of partial factors to apply when assessing In the UK, there are essentially two forms of main
the ultimate limit case. These partial factors are ap- design contracts:

4.6 Rapid deteriation
a) The Client appoints a consulting practice to carry In certain engineering situations, rapid deteriation
out the permanent design (Engineer design) can be controlled by modifying the construction se-
and the contractor is responsible for carrying out quence as follows:
the specified works. In this form of contract the 1. Using the multi-stage construction process
contractor is only responsible for any temporary for instance, an example may be embankment
works design required to complete the perma- construction over soft clays. In this situation a
nent works; or rapid deteriation in the factor of safety can be
b) The Client appoints a Design and Build con- controlled by staged filling, between rest peri-
tractor to complete the design based generally on ods, using monitoring to control when the next
an outline or scheme design performed by a con- lift is done (an example of this is given in Figure
sulting engineering firm. 7 ).
Other variations to this also occur where a Con- 2. Using the incremental construction process
struction Manager or Project Manager is appointed for instance, an example may be in NATM tun-
by the Client to provide programme /cost input. nelling work, where the rate of advancing the
The OM process can be applied too both forms of tunnel face and controlling face loss is a critical
contract. In both cases the Design Product com- component in determining how the ground
prises: movements are controlled in the discovery- re-
covery programme, see Figure 8 using the traffic
1. Drawings ; light system described above. This figure shows
2. Work specifications and Bills of Quantities; and that the later the problem is discovered, the
3. Calculations; higher the risk and the longer the structure re-
mains in a state of reduced stability ( in red
In addition to this, the UK Construction (Design zone). Late instigation of decision making and
and Management) (CDM) Regulations (1994) places recovery would also have the same effect.
new duties on the client, designers and contractors to
take health and safety into account in both the design
and construction of the Project. For the designer this
means that the design is no longer a set of calcula-
tions but must also:
address Buildability issues
identify hazards and risks in respect to safety
eliminate hazards through good design or, where
it is not possible, to reduce the risk to a low level
show how this process has evolved in the design
by producing a Risk Register

The new regulations are intended to produce

stronger links between the design and construction
via :
production of Heath and Safety Plans by both
the engineer and contractor; and
appointment of a Planning Supervisor by the cli-
ent, who vets these plans before and during con-

Therefore, the CDM Regulations are in line with

the OM objective of integrating the design and con-
struction process. From work carried under Work
package WP3 of GeoTechNet, the UK contractual
model with appropriate CDM Regulations and risk
assessments do not exist in Europe. It is concluded
that the CDM model adopted in the UK creates a
stronger link between designers and contractors and
reassures the Client of the importance of safe work- Figure 7 Multi-Stage construction trigger values
ing design and might benefit European countries.

Figure 8 Traffic light system for an incremental excavation
process (CIRIA 185, 1999) Figure 9 Example of trigger limits in retaining walls

The importance of early decision making to insti-

gate actions for recovery is an important feature of 5.2 Monitoring systems
the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE, 1996- Monitoring systems will vary depending on the type
Fig 16) Discovery-Recovery model, and is a legal of construction project in which the OM is imple-
requirement for use on all UK construction sites. mented. It is also very important to define both
The use of trigger values described below, an essen- Primary and Secondary monitoring systems in
tial feature of OM, can also be used in the prede- OM. For example in multiprop deep basements, the
fined designs, to allow sufficient time for imple- primary system (eg inclinometers /electrolevels)
mentation of emergency measures when monitoring may be the main instruments relied upon to allow
is being used. implementation of any contingency measures in
OM, whilst the secondary system (eg 3D targets or
leveling at top of walls and surrounding ground)
5 IMPLEMENTATION OF PLANNED might be a more frequent and fast monitoring system
MODIFICATIONS to quickly assess the progress of the excavation
works and aid a broader understanding of the pattern
of ground movements on a site. An essential part of
5.1 Trigger values
OM, is that the primary system needs to be immedi-
The Observational Method uses a traffic light sys- ately repaired if damaged on site, to ensure that OM
tem with green, amber and red response zones: can be continued.

greencontinue construction 5.3 OM Quality Plans

ambercontinue with caution and prepare to im- It is essential to have a Quality Plan before imple-
plement contingency, increase rate of monitoring menting OM on a site. This plan would show the de-
redstop progress, do everything possible to slow signers movement predictions based on the defined
movements, implement contingency construction sequence. Each stage of construction
sequence should also show the acceptable limits of
These are linked to the most probable (green predicted behaviour using the traffic-light system
amber limit) and the characteristic values (amber described above. Simple graphical outputs, that the
red limit) for implementation of the planned modifi- whole Project Team can understand, are essential
cations in OM, as illustrated in Figure 5, 7 and 8. and an example of this is illustrated on Figure 10 for
A further example, for use with cantilever retain- a deep basement excavation in London.
ing wall movements is illustrated in Figure 9 below. This plan informs the Project Organisation and
It can be seen that in this example the measured more importantly the project site team of what is
movements were also well below the most probable likely to happen during each excavation stage and
conditions. aids when implementation of the contingency meas-
ures is required, if any.

5.4 Constructional Control before an emergency condition is reached, see Table
1. This would then trigger an Initial Recovery
Successful construction control is a vital part of the
Decision Making stage as described in Figure 12.
Observational Method; the main process is as fol-
A construction control proforma is used to
record all details of construction operations,
strengths of materials exposed during staged
excavations, the fabric and structure of ex-
posed materials and the deteriation of sur-
faces exposed to water, see example of cut-
ting Figure 11;
This control has to be fully integrated within
the project team and simple easy to read
graphical outputs are essential for informed
decisions to be made;
Each process has to have a process owner,
with certain levels of responsibilities and im-
plementing of actions.

Figure 10 : Example of predicted basement construction

movements at various excavation stages for Quality Plan

Figure 12 Best Way Out Operational Framework

In all cases this will result in stopping work and

/or implementing emergency planned measures to
secure the safety of site staff and the general public
while the unexpected event is fully investigated.
This assessment will inevitably be somewhat
qualitive rather than quantitative as decisions would
need to be made rapidly at this initial stage.
Once the safety of the site has been secured, the
Figure 11 Example of construction control proforma sheets on project team can then turn their attention to recovery
site prepared by a contractor. of the project back to a fully stable condition which
means first carrying out a Design Review Process
of the unexpected event, by backanalysis of the ac-
6 BEST WAY OUT APPROACH IN OM tual conditions and comparison with the original de-
sign. This process can be broken down into four
The best way out is used when monitoring checks processes (RADO) shown in Figure 12 and summa-
in a predefined design exceeds predicted values but rised in section 6.1 below.

Following this design review, the project team OM on major European projects. These show how
can then consider the following two stages: OM should be properly implemented on projects
Whether to initiate OM Best Way Out, in Studies carried out under the European funded
which case this approach would follow the OM GeoTechNet project showed that current codes, in-
framework illustrated in Figure 1 and described cluding EC7, do not describe in detail how the OM
in this paper, or approach should be implemented within the contrac-
Consider a complete redesign based on a tradi- tual framework of a project. The purpose of this pa-
tional, but revised, pre-defined design. per is to inform the reader of this and the fundamen-
tal principles of OM, so that it can be more widely
6.1 Four processes of design review( RADO) used on Europe projects. The most complete guide
on OM is the UK CIRIA guide 185 (1999), and this
6.1.1 Process R- data collection and review was consulted widely in preparing this paper.
This process involves collecting all available data to The paper also highlights improvements to EC7
define the behaviour of the structure for use in the to strengthen the OM approach and to define more
backanalysis. Particular emphasis should be placed precisely the acceptable limits of behaviour which
on understanding the actual conditions and behav- is used in the OM design, see section 4.3.
iour operating in the field, rather than justifying the It is also concluded that European countries could
original design assumptions. Sources of data should benefit from the UK CDM regulations which form a
include: soils data and stratigraphy; construction re- legal requirement for designers to implement safe
cords; actual sequence of events to inform back designs on all construction projects in the UK. Such
analysis process; and observations and physical a framework is not apparent across Europe.
measurements leading up to the unexpected event.
6.1.2 Process A: Backanalysis
1. Nicholson, D, Tse, C and Penny, C. (1999). The Obser-
The purpose of this process is to refine the designers vational Method in ground engineering principles and
understanding of the actual behaviour of the struc- applications. Report 185, CIRIA, London
ture and reduce uncertainty in the design. The proc- 2. Peck (1969) Advantages and limitations of the Obser-
ess involves: establishing most probable parameters; vational Method in applied soil mechanics, Geotech-
developing a satisfactory model using MP parame- nique, 19(2), pp171-187
3. Powderham, AJ and Nicholson, DP (1996) The Obser-
ters; comparing results with monitoring data and vational method in geotechnical engineering ICE,
field observations; reviewing /revising parameters if Thomas Telford, London
good agreement is not achieved; and once a reliable 4. Eurocode 7 (BS EN 1997-1:2004) Geotechnical design
model has been produced, proceeding to design. - Part 1: General rules
5. IREX (2005) 2005 La Methode Observationnelle
6.1.3 Process D Verify/modified design pour le dimensionnement interactif des ouvrages.
Presses de lecole nationale des Ponts et chaussees.
This process involves predicting the future behav- 6. German Standard DIN 1054:2005-1 Verification of the
iour using the realistic model and set of parameters safety of earthworks and foundations.
developed from backanalysis, for the remaining con- 7. Dutch CUR document 166 CUR Publicatie 166 4e druk,,
struction stages, but adopting a level of conservatism deel 2 Damwandconstructies ( translated : CUR-
in to the model. The structure behaviour should Publication 166 4th print part 2 Sheet pile construc-
tions )
adopt moderately conservative ( characteristic) pa- 8. Nicholson D P and Penny C (2005) The Observational
rameters for the serviceability design and Worst Method Application on the Railway , Network Rail
Credible or factored parameters for stability checks. Earth Works Suppliers Conference, Birmingham, UK
9. Chapman,T and Green G (2004) Observational method
6.1.4 Process O: Output plans and triggers looks set to cut city building costs. Proceedings of ICE
If the OM best way out is to be used then the Civil Engineering 157 August 2004 Pages 125133 Pa-
per 13416
process of OM as described in this paper has to be 10. Health and Safety Commission (1994) Managing con-
agreed with all stakeholders in the project, with ap- struction for health and safety, Construction (Design
propriate contingency and monitoring plans and set- and Management) Regulations 1994. HSE Books , Suf-
ting up of trigger values and management teams. folk, England
11. Nicholson, DP, Dew CE, and Grose WJ (2006) A sys-
tematic Best Way Out approach using backanalysis
and the Principles of the Observational Method.
7 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 12. GeoTechNet Project GTC2-2000-33033, WP3: Innova-
tion Design Tools in Geotechnics Observational
This paper provides an overview of the use of the Method and Finite Element Method, editor Noel Huy-
Observational Method in Europe using both the Ab brechts, BBRI. Reference also
Initio and Best Way Out approaches. The reader http://www.geotechnet.org/
is also asked to consult the GeoTechNet web link for
the location of seven case examples of the use of