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GE

9E
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## Index 1. Gas Turbine Principle &amp; General Introduction 2.

Gas Turbine Structure 3. Gas Turbine Accessory Systems
4. Gas Turbine Control System 5. Gas Turbine Shipment Weight &amp;
Dimension 6. Gas Turbine Erection Procedure 7.
Gas Turbine Commissioning Procedure 8. Gas Turbine Performance
Procedure Page 2

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## PhysicsPrinciple of Conservation of Mass: mass in = mass out (Open System)

Principle of Conservation of Energy: energy in = energy out energy may be
transformed from one form to another (Power Plant converts Chemical to Thermal
to Mechanical to Electrical Energy)
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## First Law of ThermodynamicsGeneral Energy Equation energy in = energy out, or

Q = W DHExample: 9FB Energy Balance
: DH = total enthalpy change fluid entering system Q = net thermal energy
flowing into system duhttp://www.51wendang.com/doc/b6158d4f6164e2d1e91b29a6ring
process W = net work done by the system
= 727 MWW= 281 MW
-1 = 446 MW
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## CarnotCycleEntropy:- Amount of energy which is unavailable to do work - A

measure of disorder
TC x 100 TH
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## Ideal Brayton CycleGas Turbine Application

: s denotes entropy
T2 P1 T1

1
T3 3 P4 T4

Cycle

=
Output (MW) Heat Content (Fuel)

(T= 3

T 4 (T

) - (T- T 3 2

T ) 2 1 )Page 6

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## Real Brayton CycleCompression and Turbine Expansion InefficienciesTypical Values

for GE Turbines Compressor Efficiency 0.86-0.89 Turbine Efficiency 0.90-0.93

compressor compressor
Idhttp://www.51wendang.com/doc/b6158d4f6164e2d1e91b29a6eal Work
ActualTemperature
Ideal Cycle With c &amp; t

## (T2 T1 ) Ideal (T2 T1 ) Actual 1

P2 T2Ideal T1 P 1

1
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## Real Brayton CyclePressure Losses - Inlet, Combustor, ExhaustInlet Combustor

Exhaust
Values for Turbine Inlet Pressure Loss 3 H2O Exhaust Back Pressure (SC) 5.5
H2O Exhaust Back Pressure (CC) 15 H2O DLN Combustor 6-7% DP/Pre omp r sso D
ure ress P e arg i sch

## Ideal Cycle With c &amp; t With DPs2

eat A

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DP

sion
DP
Amb ure s Pres
DP

at Rej

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## Real Brayton CycleParasitic Flows for Turbine CoolingLEGENDIdeal

Cyclehttp://www.51wendang.com/doc/b6158d4f6164e2d1e91b29a6 With c &amp; t With
DPs With Cooling Flows
DP

## th stg. Comp. bleed

DP
BleedInlet DP

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1 2 SuckCOMPRESSOR

Exchanger
Temperature

2 1QoutEnt

## TURBINE transforms TURBINE thermal energy into mechanical energy (3 4) used

for driving the Compressor &amp; Generator
n
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## Evolution of GE Gas TurbinesOutput 200MW 9 7 5-6 3-63000 RPM

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## RPM5100-5230 RPM 6900-7100 RPMFiring

T&#176http://www.51wendang.com/doc/b6158d4f6164e2d1e91b29a6; &gt; 1250&#176;C

F 9FA

FA e

FB

F 7FA

FA e

FB

## B 7E 7EA 6FA 6A 6B Aero (CF6) Year 6FA e 6C

A 7B

L 3.2 1960

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## Alstom GT26 Gas Turbine Features

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## Alstom Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (50 Hz&amp;60 Hz)

://www.51wendang.com/doc/b6158d4f6164e2d1e91b29a6rPage 20

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F E 1:F (ISO
) (MW) (%) (kg/s) (kg/s)
(TRIT)() () NOx (
)(ppm) (~t) 15.4 18 1327 3 609 25 240
22.6&#215;5.0&#215;5.4 GE PG9351FA 255.6 37 632.7 SIEMENS V94.3A 267 38.7 645
659 16.9 15 1310 4 576 25 330 12.5&#215;6.1&#215;7.5 17.0 17 1400* 4 586 25 340
17.3&#215;5.8&#215;5.8 MHI M701F 270 38.2 651

*:
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2: F (ISO ) CC
(MW) GT PGT (MW) ST PST (MW) PGT/PST (%)
S109FA 390.8 254.1 141.8 1.792 56.7 1 1 GE S209FA 786.9
508.2 289.2 1.757 57.1 2 1 57.4 1 1 SIEMENS 1S.V94.3A 392
2S.V94.3A 784 513.0 281.5 1.822 57.3 2 1 MPCP1 (M701F) 397.7 266.1
131.6 2.022 57.0 1 1 MHI MPCP2 (M701F) 799.6 532.2 267.4 1.990
57.3 2 1
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## 3:E (ISO ) (MW)

(%) (kg/s) (kg/s) (TRIT)

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() () NOx ( )(ppm) (~t)
(m) 12.3 17 1124 3 538 25 190 20&#215;4.6&#215;4.8 GE PG9171E 123.4 33.79
403.7 SIEMENS V94.2/V94.2A 157/192 34.4/35.8 510/522 519/532 11.1/14.0 17
1105/1290 4 540/572 25/25 295/320 14&#215;12.5&#215;8.4 12.01&#215;6.0&#215;7.4
1 14.0 19 1250* 4 542 25 200 12.5&#215;5.2&#215;5.28 Page 23 MHI M701D 144 34.8
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4: E (ISO )
S109E GE S209E

.V94.2 SIEMENS 2.V94.2 1.V94.2 A 293.5 2.V94.2 A 588 367.0 230.0 1.596 55.1 1 1
55.0 2 1 MPCP1 (M701D) 212.5 142.1 70.4 2.018 51.4 1 1
MHI MPCP2 (M701D) 426.6 284.2 142.4 1.996 51.6 2 1
(MW) GT PGT (MW) ST PST (MW) PGT/PST (%)

1

## .5 304.0 173.0 1.757 51.8 2 1

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GE Gas Turbines

FA at Horizontal AssemblyPage 25

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Air Inlet Fuel
End

End
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## Evolution of Class F Gas Turbines1986 87 88 89 1990 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99

2000 2001 2002 2003

9F1260 Tfire

9FA1288 Tfire

## 9FA e1327 Tfire

9FB1396 Tfire
= 1.2 1986 7F1260 Tfire

## RPM 60Hz Machines

7FA1288 Tfire

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## 7FA e1327 Thttp://www.51wendang.com/doc/b6158d4f6164e2d1e91b29a6fire

7FB1370 Tfire
(Scaling Factor ) Firing Temperature, (Technology, Materials)
= 0.69 1994 6FA1288 Tfire

## 6FA e1327 Tfire 5230 RPM Geared Machines for 50 or 60Hz

Launch Cycles
matures fasterPage 28

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## CompressorMulti-stages, Axial compressor Through Bolted Disc Assy Cast

Compressor Casings IGV for flow control (1 stage IGV for E/F class) Air
discharged to Combustors
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Combustion SystemCan Annular Reverse Flow Chambers Dual Fuel Capability (Gas -
Liquid) &quot;Dry Low NOx&quot; , Standard , or Low BTU Combustion Systems,
Water /Steam injection for emission abatement
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## 3 Stage TurbineTip shrouded Blades

Assembly = Bolted Discs &amp; Spacers
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Siemens SGT65000F
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## Firing TemperatureGE Defined at N1 Trailing Edge

/Wheelspace Cooling Air (Chargeable) Firing Plane N 1 B 1 N 2 B 2

3
3
Exit Flow
&amp; N1 Cooling Air (Non-Chargeable)
/Wheelspace Cooling Air (Chargeable)
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## CYCLECONDENSER Heat Sink

5/
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## Gas Turbine Cycle ConfigurationsSimple Cycle GT-Gen Single-Shaft Combined

CycleMulti-Shaft Combined Cycle GT-ST-Gen Multi-GT-Gen &amp; ST-Gen

## Cycle Installation Smhttp://www.51wendang.com/doc/b6158d4f6164e2d1e91b29a6all

Footprint Peak Power Applications Fast Start Capabilities

Unit Control System Single Generator &amp; Electricals Lower Initial Cost vs.
Separate STG Smaller Footprint than multi-shaft

## Centerline Height / Building Shorter Construction Time Higher Base Load

Efficiency 2x1, 3x1, 4x1 Page

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Power Train Center Line Equipment VariationsHot End Drive (prior to 1990s)
Applied to Frames 51P, 6B,7EA,9E
End DriveApplied to Frames 6FA, 7FA/FB, 9FA/FB,7H,9H

Gen

on the hot (Turbine) side of GT Used prior to 1990s Shaft driven accessories
Complex packaging

## Generator on the cold (Compressor) side of GT Modern F-class arrangement

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Electric motor driven accessory skids Modular packaging
Single-Shaft Power Train://www.51wendang.com/doc/b6158d4f6164e2d1e91b29a6parPage
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## Examples of Combine Cycle Plant Arrangements

shaft CC
shaft CC2 gas turbines 1 steam turbinePage 38

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## Energy Utilization/Loss in Combined Cycle Power Plant

POWER (35.8%)
LOSSES (0.5%)
LOSSES (1%)
(100%) to Gas Turbine
HEAT (62.4%) to HRSG
(54.8%)

(20.9%)
LOSSES (1.8%)
LOSSES (7.1%)
(32.9%)
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## 9FA Gas Turbine Power Plant General Layout

&amp; Controls HRSG Gas Fuel &amp; Water Treatment Yard Power Island
Tower

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Fuel Yard
. Plant

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9FA Gas Turbine Power Plant General LayoutWaste Water Cooling Tower Feedwater
Pump http://www.51wendang.com/doc/b6158d4f6164e2d1e91b29a6Building HRSG
Treatment
/ST/Gen Building Condensate Storage TankElectric &amp; Control Building Main
Transformer
Pretreatment Chemical Area Exhaust Stack Liquid Fuel Yard
MeteringAux Boiler Fuel Heater
. Building
Inlet

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## 9E Gas Turbine General Layout

dobe A croba t D ocument
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## GE Gas Turbine ControlsMark* VIe Control System - Hardware

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MK VIe Architecture
Data Highway (TCP/IP, OPC, GSM, Modbus, PI Server, DNP 3.0)
&amp; Maintenance Stations (HMI)

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1&#174; Condition Monitoring Unit Data Highway (EGD, NTP)

OSI PI
Controller(s)
(s)100MB Ethernet PTP IEEE1588 100MB Ethernet TCP Panel
IEEE1588
I/Ohttp://www.51wendang.com/doc/b6158d4f6164e2d1e91b29a6
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
Machinery Control
ControlPage 44

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## Evolution of Control System

H Combined Cycle
Backplane, Ethernet, WIndows

## FA Gas Turbine Mark V Mark VI

VI e
Steam Governors, Hydro, Wind Turbine Control 1991
Design
/ Plant Control 1997
/ Plant Control 2003
I/O, 100MB Ethernet / Fiber Page 45

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MK VIe Enhancement
Switches &amp; I/O Net Simplex Simplex

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/O Packs1 Pack

## Dual (Process Runs if Controller Fails) Triple (Process Runs if Controller

has Partial or Complete Failure) Distributed / Remote I/O Less Installation
&amp; Maintenance Cost More Flexible ApplicationOn-line Repair
http://www.51wendang.com/doc/b6158d4f6164e2d1e91b29a6/ I/O Packs Hot Swap in
Redundant Systems Improved MTTR / Availability

Triple

Redundancy
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## MK VIe TMR FeaturesTMR configurationController redundancy I/O pack redundancy

Terminal board redundancy local transimit
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## MK VIe HardwareTCP Outline

Wiring Vertical Channels Top &amp; Bottom Cabinet Access Barrier Blocks
Pluggable (2) 3.0mm2 (#12AWG) wires/pt

Supplies
Switches
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MK VIe HardwareTCP Controller Rack
Processor Board Compact PCI QNX Operating System Unit Data Highway,
Ethernet IONet 100MB Ethernet Optional Second Processor Power Supply

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Cache Ram Flash Communication Power

MHz 1.66GHz 256k bytes 1M byte 128M bytes 256M bytes 128M bytes 128M bytes Dual
10/100 Full Duplex Ethernet 18 to 32Vdc
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## MK VIe HardwareTCP I/O Packs

I/O Packs Plug into Mk VITermination Boards Barrier &amp; Box Type TBs

## Cache Ram Flash Communication Power

Bit RISC CPU 266MHz 32k bytes 32M bytes 16M bytes Dual 10/100 Full Duplex
Ethernet 28VdcPage 50

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## MK VIe SoftwareToolboxSTconfiguration software

is the software tool for I/O definition, EGD configuration, and control strategy
programming.EGD ConfigurationControl Logic Sheet
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MK VIe SoftwareCimplicityHMI Display Editor
is the tool used for HMI (human-man interface) display and editor
Mhttp://www.51wendang.com/doc/b6158d4f6164e2d1e91b29a6enu Live Data
Feedback

Window
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9FA Gas Turbine Weight &amp; Dimension9FA Component Weights and DimensionsItem
Lengt h (m)9.4 10.5 10.9
(m)3.5 4.7 5.3
(m)4.2 5.0 4.2
(kg)36,290 288,000 275,108
module Turbine Generator
. Heaviest piece to be handled during erection: kg: b. Heaviest piece to be
handled during maintenance: kg c. Shipping weight of heaviest piece: kg

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## 9E Gas Turbine Weight &amp; Dimension9E Component Weights and Dimensions

(m)
(m)
(m)
(kg)
Turbine

.65

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.03

.98

,000
. Heaviest piece to be handled during erection: kg: b. Heaviest piece to be
handled dhttp://www.51wendang.com/doc/b6158d4f6164e2d1e91b29a6uring maintenance:
kg c. Shipping weight of heaviest piece: kg

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2 (1)

(2)

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## Gas Turbine Erection Procedure2

)()

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(4) , 25.4mm (
)

(5) (6)

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## Gas Turbine Erection Procedure2

(7http://www.51wendang.com/doc/b6158d4f6164e2d1e91b29a6)

(1)

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## Gas Turbine Erection Procedure3

(2)(PEECC)
6 PEECC 8 (3)

(4)

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(5) LCI /

(6)
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## Gas Turbine Erection Procedure4 (1)

(2)

(3)
5

(1)

(2)
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(3)

: 30 Page 59

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## Gas Turbine Erection Procedure6

(1)

(2)

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(3)

(4)

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on-base (
)

8
base ( GE ) GE

GE

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## Gas Turbine Erection Procedure9

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(PEECC)/
10

GE (

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/)

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## Gas Turbine Erection Procedure12 6.6kV VAC (BOP)

, GE .

(6.6kV~4125 VAC):

/ LCI
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## Gas Turbine Commissioning Procedure

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## Gas Turbine Commissioning

Prochttp://www.51wendang.com/doc/b6158d4f6164e2d1e91b29a6edure
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## Gas Turbine Performance Test Procedure1. 2. The Purpose: to measure the

performance of the gas turbinegenerator units in accordance with the purchase
contract. The evaluation procedure: To utilize correction factors to translate
the measured performance at the test conditions to the rated conditions The
performance test international standard: Simple Cycle: ASME PTC 22 Combined
Cycle: ASME PTC 46 4. The performance specifications: Power Output Heat Rate,
LHV Gas Turbine Exhaust Temperature xxx,xxx kW xxx,xxx kJ/kWh xxx.x &#176;C

.
Turbine Exhaust Available Energy xxx.x GJ/hr
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## Gas Turbine Performance Test Procedure5. Rated Conditions Ambient air

temperature http://www.51wendang.com/doc/b6158d4f6164e2d1e91b29a6xx oC Ambient
air relative humidity xx %

pressure x.xxx bar (xx.xx psi)Gas Turbine Shaft Speed xxxx rpm Generator power
factor x.xx (lagging) Gas turbine conditions New and Clean, xxx Fired Hours

## system pressure drop (@ contract rated conditions)

.x mm H2O (x inH2O)
system pressure drop (@contract rated conditions) xxx.x mm Fuel Natural Gas Fuel
supply temperature xxx oC (xxx.x oF) Fuel composition % volume Nitrogen (N2)
xx.xx Methane (CH4) xx.xx Ethane (C2H6) xx.xx Propane (C3H8) xx.xx

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## Gas Turbine Performance Test Procedure6. Division of Test Responsibilities Test

Activity Conducting Party Party Witnessing

## Prepare the thermal performance test procedure Provide special instrumentation

as specified herein Provide suitable containers for
thehttp://www.51wendang.com/doc/b6158d4f6164e2d1e91b29a6 collection of fuel
samples Perform required station instrumentation calibration checks
Witness / Assist station instrumentation calibration checks Install special
test instrumentation Direct the installation of special test instrumentation
Obtain calibration records and/or flow section dimensions for the fuel flow
section Execute of test program Witness execution of test program Provide

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copies of pertinent measured data to involved parties Arrange for third party
analysis of fuel samples Remove special test instrumentation Calculate
corrected performance results and provide preliminary results Issue the final
test reportPage 73

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## Gas Turbine Performance Test Procedure7. Measurement and Instrumentation

Performance test data are of two classes: Primary Data used for performance test
calculations Secondary Data not used for performance test calculations, but
required for reference ohttp://www.51wendang.com/doc/b6158d4f6164e2d1e91b29a6r
diagnostic purposes 8. Pre-Test Prepa
An off-line water wash of the gas turbine compressor The calibration and proper
operation of the control system pertinent station instrumentation and
measurement devices, and recording systems will be verified

. Conducting the Test For each unit, a minimum of three (3) test runs per rated
case listed will be conducted.
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Gas Turbine Performance Test ProcedureIn accordance with paragraph 3.3.4 of ASME
PTC 22-1997: Each test run will be conducted over a thirty (30) minute time
period. Manual data will be recorded at least five (5) minute intervals

Electronic control system and data acquisition data will be recorded at least
one (1) minute intervals As a minimum, a set of two (2) fuel samples will be
taken at the beginning and end of each test run All data files, electronic
and/or copies of the manual data hard
copyhttp://www.51wendang.com/doc/b6158d4f6164e2d1e91b29a6 sheets relevant for
performance testing and evaluation purposes will be given to the witnessing
party immediately after the test.

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Deviations from the procedure in any aspect of the test program should be
discussed by the ConductingParty and the Witnessing Party. 10. Evaluation
formula check and confirmationThe correction curves will be used to account for
the difference between the rated value and the measured value for each parameter
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## Gas Turbine Performance Test ProcedurePerformance Correction Curves Examples

Compressor Inlet Temperature vs. Output Compressor Inlet Relative Humidity vs.
Output Barometric Pressure vs. Output Shaft Speed vs. Output Generator
Power Factor vs. Output Total Fired Hours vs. Output Inlet System Pressure
Drop vs. Output Exhaust System Back Pressure vs. Output Fuel Composition vs.
Output Fuel Supply
Temperhttp://www.51wendang.com/doc/b6158d4f6164e2d1e91b29a6ature vs. Output
Compressor Inlet Temperature vs. Heat Rate Compressor Inlet Relative Humidity
vs. Heat Rate Barometric Pressure vs. Heat Rate

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## Gas Turbine Performance Test ProcedurePerformance Correction Curves Examples

Generator Power Factor vs. Heat Rate Total Fired Hours vs. Heat Rate

Inlet System Pressure Drop vs. Heat Rate Exhaust System Back Pressure vs. Heat
Rate Fuel Composition vs. Heat Rate Fuel Supply Temperature vs. Heat Rate

## Compressor Inlet Temperature vs. Exhaust Temp Compressor Inlet Relative

Humidity vs. Exhaust Temp Barometric Pressure vs. Exhaust Temp Shaft Speed
vs. Exhaust Temp

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Generator Power Factor vs. Exhaust Temp Total Fired Hours vs. Exhaust Temp
Inlet System Pressure Drop vs. Exhaust Temp Exhaust System Back Pressure vs.
Exhaust Temp

## Fuel Composition vs. Exhaust

Tehttp://www.51wendang.com/doc/b6158d4f6164e2d1e91b29a6mpPage 77

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## Gas Turbine Performance Test Procedure11. Comparison to Guarantees Instrument

Uncertainty Test Tolerance GEK 107551a - Standard Field Performance Testing
Philosophy For testing per these guidelines, these uncertainties are expected to
be: Power Output /- 2 % Heat Rat
, Gas Fuel /- 1.7 % Heat Rate, Oil Fuel /- 1.45 % Exhaust Gas Temperature
/- 11F Exhaust Gas Flow /- 3.3 % Exhaust Gas Energy, Gas Fuel /- 3.35 %
Exhaust Gas Energy, Oil Fuel /- 3.1 % The test uncertainties will be considered
to be minimum tolerance bands in the commercial evaluation of the test.
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## Gas Turbine Performance Test Procedure

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Thank You
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