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NASA TECHNICAL NOTE 1 NASA TN D-2395

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STRESS-INTENSITY FACTORS FOR A
SINGLE-EDGE-NOTCH TENSION SPECIMEN
BY BOUNDARY COLLOCATION
OF A STRESS FUNCTION /

by Bernard Gross, John E. Srawley,


and William F. Brown, Jr.
Lewis Research Center
Cleveland, Ohio 20020110 130

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION WASHINGTON, D. C. AUGUST 1964


STRESS-INTENSITY FACTORS FOR A SINGLE-EDGE-NOTCH TENSION

SPECIMEN BY BOUNDARY COLLOCATION OF A STRESS FUNCTION

By Bernard Gross, John E. Srawley,


and William F. Brown, Jr.

Lewis Research Center


Cleveland, Ohio

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION

For sale by the Office of Technical Services, Department of Commerce,


Washington, D.C. 20230 -- Price $0.50
STRESS-INTENSITY FACTORS FOR A SINGLE-EDGE-NOTCH TENSION

SPECIMEN BY BOUNDARY COLLOCATION OF A STRESS FUNCTION

by Bernard Gross, John E. Srawley,


and William F. Brown, Jr.

Lewis Research Center

('/ f{ ''X'"""" SUMMARY


A boundary value collocation procedure applied to the Williams stress
function was employed to determine the elastic stress distribution in the im-
mediate vicinity of the tip of an edge crack in a finite*-width specimen sub-
jected to uniform tensile loading. This type of single-eage-notch snacimen is
V J
- v -1- '.i linn.'1 ^ ; i j.HJi'HJiiii y i'i njinifn n miniiiiin^n lTjr

particularly suitable for determination of plane stfain'"fracture toughness


values. The analytical results are expressed in such a way that tTTe^sTress
intensity factor may be determined from known conditions of specimen geometry
and loading.

As the crack length decreased, the results obtained by the collocation


procedure approached those derived from a closed solution for an edge crack in
a semi-infinite plate. Over a range of ratios of crack length to specimen
width between 0.15 and 0.40 the collocation solution yielded results in very
good agreement with those derived from experimental compliance measurements.! e.

^</

INTRODUCTION

A method for calculating the stress distribution in a test specimen con-


taining a single-edge crack (sharp notch) and subjected to a uniform tensile
load is described herein. The results are particularly useful in determining
stress intensity factors K for given conditions of load and geometry and
therefore permit the use of the single-edge-notch specimen in fracture tough.-
ness testing.

The ASTM Special Committee on Fracture Testing of High Strength Metallic


Materials issued a series of reports describing recent developments in fracture
toughness testing (refs. 1 to 4). It has been shown that the magnitude of the
elastic stress field in the immediate vicinity of a crack but beyond the crack
tip plastic zone may be characterized by a single parameter K, the stress
intensity factor (refs. 1 and 5). For any given material a characteristic
value Kc of the stress intensity factor is assumed to exist that corresponds
to the onset of rapid fracture. Like other mechanical properties, Kc is
dependent on the strain rate, the temperature, and the testing direction. In
the case of sheet and plate materials it is also dependent on the thickness.
The value of Kc may be determined from tests on specimens containing sharp
notches or cracks, provided that suitable expressions are available that give
the stress intensity factor in terms of the specimen geometry and applied loads
at fracture instability.

Approximate solutions for K exist in closed form for a number of speci-


men designs symmetrically notched with respect to the tensile load axis
(refs. 5 to 9). The single-edge-notch tension specimen appears to be more ef-
ficient, however, than symmetrically notched specimens with respect both to the
material and to the loading capacity required (ref. 10). For this reason, the
single-edge-notch specimen may be of considerable importance in the determina-
tion of Kc for plane strain crack propagation where relatively large cross
sections are an inherent requirement of the test. Recent, very careful experi-
mental compliance measurements on the single-edge-notch specimen (ref. 10) pro-
vide values of strain energy release rates as a function of crack length from
which values of K may be derived. An analytical solution is desirable, how-
ever, as an independent check on the experimental procedure; it also has the
advantage that the influence of certain geometrical parameters, such as the
ratio of height to width V/w, may be rapidly determined without resort to
tedious experimental measurements. Furthermore, the method of obtaining an
analytical solution is applicable to all combinations of bending and tension
applied to a single-edge-notch specimen.

An analytical solution to the stress distribution in the single-edge-


notch tension specimen is obtained herein by a boundary value collocation pro-
cedure applied to the Williams stress function (ref. ll), which is known to
satisfy the boundary conditions along an edge crack. The results are in a form
that permits expression of stress intensity factors in terms of the measured
quantities of load and specimen dimensions. In addition, the influence of the
end effect on the stress intensity factor is determined. The end effect de-
rives from the finite distance between the crack and the uniformly loaded
boundary, expressed as V/w. A comparison is made between the present analyti-
cal results and a closed solution obtained by Wigglesworth (ref. 12) for an
edge crack in a semi-infinite plate. Finally, the collocation solution in
terms of the stress intensity factor is compared with experimental results ob-
tained by other investigators for this specimen with strain energy release rate
(compliance measurement) experiments.

SYMBOLS

a crack length in single-edge-notch specimen, in.


dn coefficients of Williams stress function

E Young's modulus, psi

# strain energy release rate with crack extension; or crack extension


force, in.-lb/sq in.
K stress intensity factor of elastic stress 10,000 psi
field in vicinity of border of crack,
psi -\/inT

P load per unit thickness, lb/in.

angular position coordinates referred to


crack tip

V distance (height) between crack plane and


location of uniform stress, in.

w specimen width, in.

coordinate axes with origin at crack tip,


parallel and perpendicular, respectively,
to crack plane

uniform tensile stress applied to specimen,


psi

stress in x- and y-directions, psi


TT~T
x' T xy a0- 10,000 psi

X stress function Figure 1. - Specimen geometry


and loading assumed for
collocation solution.

METHOD

The method of analysis consists in finding a stress function X satisfy-


ing the biharmonic equation V^X = 0 and the boundary conditions at a finite
number of stations along the boundaries of the single-edge-notch specimen shown
in figure 1. For the present purposes use is made of the Williams stress func-
tion (ref. 11) with the correction of a typographical error in that reference:
00

X(r,0)
E
n=l,2,.. .
(-D n-1d2n-lr,n+(l/2) [- COS n
( - I) 2n - 3
6 + -T cos
2n + 1 (" + i>
l)nd
n+1
2T11
- cos(n - 1)0 + cos(n + 1)9 f (1)

Because of symmetry (fig. l) only even terms of the stress function are con-
sidered. The stresses in terms of X obtained by partial differentiation are
as follows:
-\
d2X =- 2X 2 0
cos fl 9 5 X sin 0 cos 0 + 5X sin 0
y * 2 60 dr r dr r
dx dr

9 dX sin 0 cos 0 52X sin20


5? r2 ' 02 r2

j^X ^ sin2 + 2 52X sin 0 cos 0 + dX cos20


-'x d9 dr 5r
y2 dr2
(2)
2 2
dX sm 0 cos 0 +
_L d X cos 0
00 2
? r

d2X = sin 0 cos d2X + cos 20 d2X _ sin 0 cos 0 d2X


-T
xy dx 6
x y N 2 r dr 50 " 2 dr de
dr r

sin 0 cos 0 dX _ cos 20 dX


r dr " 2 50
r ^

The Williams stress function is an Airy stress function, which, besides satis-
fying the biharmonic equation, also satisfies the boundary conditions along the
crack surface, namely, that the normal and shearing stresses be zero. Thus,
when 0 = it, equations (l) and (2) give ay = 0, Txy = 0. The remaining
boundary requirements on the stress function for the specimen having the geom-
etry and tractions shown in figure 1 are as follows:

Along boundary A - B:
dX
X = 0, ^ = 0
5x"

Along boundary B - C:

2
x . . a2\ X
X= o0^ +ax + -j, ^=0^ (3)

Along boundary C - D:

Because of symmetry with respect to the crack plane (fig. l) only half the
specimen need be considered.

For the purpose of determining the stress intensity factor as defined in


reference 13, which characterizes the stress distribution in the immediate
neighborhood of the crack tip (r -> 0), only the first coefficient d}_ of the
Williams stress function is necessary, since this term is dominant. As shown
later, d]_ is proportional to the stress intensity factor K. Values of dj_
as well as of the other coefficients are obtained by satisfying the boundary
conditions (eq. (3)) at a finite number of stations equally spaced along a
given boundary for a specimen with the geometry shown in figure 1 that is
subjected to a uniform stress of 10,000 psi acting at a distance V from the
crack plane. Computations were made for several ratios of crack length to
specimen width a/W between 0.04 and 0.5 and for values of V/W ranging from
0.5 to 1.5.

The collocation procedure requires a matrix solution of twice as many


equations as the number of boundary stations selected for each combination of
the independent variables. This problem was programed for a digital computer
with the use of double precision arithmetic (16 significant figures).

In this solution, the number of boundary stations is increased until the


first matrix coefficient dj_ converges to a sufficiently stable value. Fig-
ure 2, for example, shows the first matrix coefficient as a function of the
number of boundary sta-
tions for configurations
1. 1 1 1 with several v/w ratios
Ratio of height to width a t
which uniform loading
at a value of a/w of
is assumed to occur, l/3. The variation in
7800
V/VV the first matrix coeffi-
<> <- 0.6C 59 cient is not more than
1 4
1 percent when the num-
t

1* 7600 ber of boundary stations


is increased from
.7454 11 to 23.
7400
t
1.0574 The stress-function
y"^^^ v
1.250 1.50(
values at 50 stations
7200
along the boundary were
computed for several
geometries with all dn
7000
coefficients. These
values were in good
6800
agreement with the pre-
11 14 17 20 23 scribed values. The
Number of boundary stations stress-function deriva-
Figure 2. - First matrix coefficient as function of number of boundary stations. tive normal to the bound-
Tensile stress applied to specimen, 10,000 psi; specimen width, 1 inch; ratio ary, however, showed per-
of crack length to specimen width, 1/3.
turbations near the
corners of the specimen.
The effect of this variation in terms of stress distribution throughout the
specimen could be determined only by additional computation. This additional
effort did not appear justified since the first matrix coefficient was, for
practical purposes, insensitive to these perturbations.
RESULTS

Stress Intensity Factors

The stress intensity factor K may be derived in terms of the first co-
efficient of the Williams stress function. The expression for the stress in
the y-direction in the immediate vicinity of the crack tip is obtained from
the dominant term as follows:

-d
= i cos (l + sin - sin 5 (4)
y [ 2 2 ,
V?
The expression for a given in reference 1, based on the Westergaard crack
stress analysis, is as follows:
K
a
y V2 jtr
cos 2 [1 + sin sin
2 ~y (5)

Thus

K = -d-L V2j (6)

As shown in figure 2, small oscillations


sometimes occur in the first matrix co-
efficient. For this reason stress
intensity factors were computed with
values of d1 averaged from 11 to 23
boundary points.

For purposes of fracture toughness


testing the results of the collocation
procedure are conveniently expressed in
the form of a dimensionless parameter
involving K and the measured quantities
as a function of a/W (ref. 10). Thus,

K2W (7)
a2W

where P is the load per unit thickness.


As discussed later, this form is useful
for a comparison of the analytical re-
sults with experimental compliance cali-
.1 .2 .3 .4 bration data. A curve derived from
Ratio of crack length to specimen width, a/W equation (3) relating K2w/P2 to a/w
Figure 3. - Collocation results of a plot of dimensionless is given in figure 3. This curve applies
parameter against ratio of crack length to specimen to any V/W value greater than about
width in single-edge-notch specimen.
0.8 (see fig. 4).
Influence of End Effects

As an aid to optimizing the specimen design, calculations were made to


show how close the assumed position of the uniformly loaded boundary could be
to the crack plane without affecting the stress intensity factor. For a given
value of a/W the position, of course, is a function of the specimen width,
and expressing the first matrix coefficient as a function of the ratio of
height to width (see fig. 1, p. 3) is convenient for various values of a/W.
According to figure 4, the first matrix coefficient at a/W ratios between
0.15 and 0.5 is essentially constant for ratios of height to width V/W
greater than about 0.8.

Ratio of crack length to


specimen width,
a/W
!"
0.500

13,000 Region of convf rgence c f


first m atrix coe fficient

If- 11,000 .450

o.

T
c
ct>
9,000 ann

X
k.

E .350
IS*

LL.
7,000 -.333

.300

5,000 sn
|
.200

3,00o[ .i 50
.5 .7 .9 1.1 1.3 1.5
Ratio of height to width, V/W
Figure 4. - First matrix coefficient as function of ratio of height to width for various
ratios of crack length to specimen width. Tensile stress applied to specimen,
10,000 psi; specimen width, 1 inch.

In a practical test specimen the means by which load is applied introduces


nonuniformly stressed regions at the ends of the specimen. The actual specimen
length must therefore exceed the minimum length determined from figure 4. In
the case of a pin-loaded specimen, for example, the optimum ratio of total
length to width is about 4 (ref. 10).
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

Comparison with Wigglesworth Solution

A check on the validity of the present solution can be obtained by com-


parison with that reported by Wigglesworth (ref. 12) for an edge crack in a
semi-infinite plate. These two solutions should converge as the crack length
tends to zero. In the immediate vicinity of the crack the first term of the
Wigglesworth solution predominates, and a may be expressed in terms of the
coordinate system shown in figure 1 (p. 3) as follows:

a
y
= 0.793 o
o {I <-1 (1: + sin sin
2
(8)

This equation may be compared with the corresponding expression obtained by the
present method:

-d l
G
y =
v;
COS
it1 + sin _ sin 30
2 2
(4)

where the first matrix coefficient d-j_ depends on a and the specimen dimen-
sions. The respective values of ay in any direction near the crack tip may
be compared by considering a single-edge-notch specimen of unit width. For the
same uniform stress in both cases, the ratio of ay obtained from the
Wigglesworth solution (eq.. (8)) to that computed from equation (4) should ap-

1.00

~c

f\J o
IS .96
"__
c o
c
T5
* .92
> '"?
c
S .88

.84
.02 .04 .06 .08 .10 .12 .14 .16 .18
Crack length, in.
Figure 5. - Comparison of stress ratios in immediate vicinity of crack tip obtained by collocation
solution and solution of reference 12.

proach 1 as the crack length decreases, The results presented in figure 5 are
in accordance with this behavior.

Comparison with Experimental Results


Two experimental compliance calibrations of single-edge-notch specimens
loaded in tension are available for comparison, the earlier by Sullivan
(ref. 14) and a more recent one by Srawley, Jones, and Gross (ref. 10). The
design of the specimen of reference 14 was loaded through pins separated by a
distance less than twice the width, which introduced large end effects that
are not accounted for in the analytical solution. The specimen used in refer-
ence 10 was of sufficient length that end effects were negligible, since the
compliance measurements were made over a gage length of 8 inches on a specimen
3 inches wide that was loaded through pins 10 inches apart. The sufficiency of
this gage length was established by preliminary experiments. For this reason
better agreement with the analytical results is to be expected from the experi-
ments of reference 10 than from those of reference 14. Furthermore, as dis-
cussed in reference 10, those data are expected to be more precise than the
data of reference 14 because of differences in specimen size and measurement
techniques.

The experimental compliance procedure gives results in terms of the strain


energy release rate <S. The correct procedure for converting these values of
<3 to stress intensity factors is not yet completely settled (see ref. 10).
For the purposes of comparing the analytical with the experimental results the
most reasonable procedure appears to be a conversion on the plane stress basis.
Thus,

K2 = ESP

or in terms of experimentally measured quantities,

K2W _ E3?W (9)

where 0 is determined by experimental compliance procedures and P is the


load per unit specimen thickness.
The comparison between experi-
Ratio of Dimensionless parameter, mental and analytical results is
crack length K2W/P2 shown in the table. As might be
to specimen
Experimental Collocation expected from the foregoing discus-
width,
a/W results results sion of the compliance calibration
experiments, the results given in
Ref. 10 Ref. 14 reference 14 are consistently high-
er than either those obtained by
0.05 0.314 0.35 0.204 the present collocation solution or
.10 .556 .65 .445 those reported in reference 10. In
.15 .816 1.00 .758 contrast, very good agreement be-
.20 1.180 1.40 1.180
tween the analytical solution and
.25 1.735 1.97 1.768
2.80 2.603
the data of reference 10 is noted
.30 2.571
.35 3.775 4.20 3.813 for values of a/w between 0.15
.40 5.436 6.18 5.596 and 0.40. The differences between
.45 7.641 8.90 8.276 these two sets of results at the
.50 10.477 12.50 12.399 lower values of a/W are probably
associated with uncertainties in
the lower range of the experimental data. For the a/w values above 0.4, dif-
ferences due to bending of the experimental compliance specimen, which are not
taken into account by the analytical solution, become important. This bending
decreases the eccentricity of loading with respect to the uncracked section,
and the compliance for a given slot length is therefore slightly less than if
no bending took place.

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

The results of an analytical investigation of the stress intensity fac-


tors for a single-edge-notch tension specimen obtained by a boundary value
collocation procedure applied to the Williams stress function are as follows:

1. The values of the stress intensity factor were independent of the dis-
tance between the uniformly loaded cross section and the notch plane provided
that this distance was greater than 80 percent of the width.

2. At small ratios of crack length to specimen width the present results


were in good agreement with a closed solution obtained for an edge crack in a
semi-infinite plate.

3. When the analytical results were expressed in appropriate dimension-


less form, very good agreement was obtained with comparable results obtained
from a highly accurate experimental strain energy release rate determination.

Lewis Research Center


National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Cleveland, Ohio, May 5, 1964

REFERENCES

1. ASTM Special Committee: Fracture Testing of High-Strength Sheet Materials,


pt. II. ASTM Bull. 244, Feb. 1960, pp. 18-28.

2. ASTM Special Committee: The Slow Growth and Rapid Propagation of Cracks.
Materials Res. and Standards, vol. 1, no. 5, May 1961, pp. 389-393.

3. ASTM Special Committee: Fracture Testing of High-Strength Sheet Materials.


Materials Res. and Standards, vol. 1, no. 11, Nov. 1961, pp. 877-885.

4. ASTM Special Committee: Progress in Measuring Fracture Toughness and Using


Fracture Mechanics. Materials Res. and Standards, vol. 4, no. 3,
Mar. 1964, pp. 107-119.

5. Irwin, G. R.: Analysis of Stresses and Strains Near the End of a Crack
Traversing a Plate. Jour. Appl. Mech., vol. 24, no. 3, Sept. 1957,
pp. 361-364.

10
6. Sneddon, I. N. : The Distribution of Stress in the Neighbourhood of a Crack
in an Elastic Solid. Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), Ser. A, vol. 187,
no. 1099, Oct. 22, 1946, pp. 229-260.

7. Mendelson, Alexander, and Spero, Samuel W.: Elastic Stress Distribution in


a Finite-Width Orthotropic Plate Containing a Crack. NASA TN D-2260,
1964.

8. Bowie, Oscar L.: Rectangular Tensile Sheet with Symmetric Edge Cracks.
TR-63-22, Army Materials Res. Agency, Oct. 1963.

9. Irwin, G. R. : Crack-Extension Force for a Part-Through Crack in a Plate.


Jour. Appl. Mech. (Trans. ASME), ser. E, vol. 29, no. 4, Dec. 1962,
pp. 651-654.

10. Srawley, John E., Jones, Melvin H., and Gross, Bernard: Experimental
Determination of the Dependence of Crack Extension Force on Crack Length
for a Single-Edge-Notch Tension Specimen- NASA TN D-2396, 1964.

11. Williams, M. L.: On the Stress Distribution at the Base of a Stationary


Crack. Jour. Appl. Mech., vol. 24, no. 1, Mar. 1957, pp. 109-114.

12. Wigglesworth, L. A. : Stress Distribution in a Notched Plate. Mathematika,


vol. 4, 1957, pp. 76-96.

13. Irwin, G. R.: Fracture. Vol. VI - Elasticity and Plasticity. Encyclo-


pedia of Phys., S. Flgge, ed., Springer-Verlag (Berlin), 1958,
pp. 551-590.

14. Sullivan, A. M.: New Specimen Design for Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness
Tests. Materials Res. and Standards, vol. 4, no. 1, Jan. 1964,
pp. 20-24.

NASA-Langley 1964 E-2488 11


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