Molecular Biology (MIC270

)

Group: AS1144A2

Group member:

1) Nur Syaliza Bt. Elias
2) Nurhayati Hasanah Bt. Mohd Akhir
3) Nurul Atiqah Bt. Mohamad
4) Nur Mawar Syafini Bt. Masrum

 Comparison of whole genome sequences provides a highly detailed view of how
organisms are related to each other at the genetic level. How are genomes compared
and what can these findings tells us about how the overall structures of genes and
genomes are evolved?

All information necessary for life is stored in an organism’s genetic material such as DNA. A
genome can be define as an organisms complete set of DNA, including all of its genes, which is
the haploid set of chromosomes in gamete of microorganisms. Each of the genome contains all
the information needed to build an organism and allow it to develop and grow. Human bodies
are made up of millions of cell where each part of it have their own complete set of instructions
that also known as genome. This instruction of genome comes from DNA.

Genomics refer to the computational analysis of the vast amount of data that is
accumulating on genes and genomes (genetic material of an organism). It is a specialist area
used by research workers and such increasing importance to molecular biology, medicine,
biotechnology, and indeed to any biological science.

To elaborate, comparative genome is how to compare two or more genome with the
similarities and differences between individual of organisms. Allignment of two genome
sequence is one of the methods for this comparison. There are several tools that act as genome
aligners such as BLASTN and MEGABLAST. There are three methods to compare genome
which are comparative analysis of genome structure, comparative analysis of coding regions
and comparative analysis of non-coding regions. Analysis of genome structure gives the
information on the organization of genome and characteristics of individual genome. Different
genome compared at three levels which are overall nucleotide statistics, genome structure at
DNA level and genome structure at gene level. Overall nucleotide statistics involve genome size
and overall (G+C) content. These will present the similarities and difference of genome.

Research on smaller genomes have already been completely sequenced including that fruit
fly, Drosophila, which is used extensively in genetic research and that of the favourite eukaryotic
experimental microorganism, yeast. Databases has dedicated to all information of the genome
of particular organisms exist.
Genome evolution is started when there is a changes in structure of genes due to the
growing number of sequence genomes in short period of time. By comparing genome of
relatives and distant ancestors, it can be seen the differences and similiarities between species
began to emerge as well as mechanism by which genomes are able to evolve all over time.

 Purpose/Benefits?

These findings, has reveal to us that it is the part of a family cluster of related genes; its
function associated with determining particular diseases. The informations available from the
databases give the importance to the field of medicine, biotechnology, or basic science to speed
up their research.

Genomics is the partner to proteomics, the two being collectively known as bioinformatics.
As with proteomics the used of the databases requires computational skills and expertise in
molecular biology. The databases are increasingly powerful research tools in molecular biology.
If a research worker has isolated a gene or other section of DNA and has sequence it fully or
partially, this and other information is usually recorded in one of the international database.
Therefore, when an unidentified gene or other DNA sequence is isolated and fully or partially
sequenced, a search of databases for matching sequences will reveal whether information on
that piece of DNA, or closely related one, already exist from the previous work of other
researchers or not. Genbank database (http://www.ncbi.mlm.nih.gov) contains about 5 million or
more DNA sequences.

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