Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 86

# PEMP

RMD510

Design of Hydraulic
Turbines

## Session delivered by:

P f Q.
Prof. Q H.
H Nagpurwala
N l
Dept. of Automotive and Aeronautical Engineering

## Session-15 @ M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru 1

PEMP
RMD510

Session Objectives
To understand the importance of various parameters involved in
the design
g of Pelton,, Francis and Kaplan
p turbines
To discuss the design guidelines and various empirical design
relations
To carry out design of a typical low power Pelton turbine, a
Francis turbine and a Kaplan turbine

PEMP
RMD510

PEMP

RMD510

g jjet

PEMP

RMD510

PEMP

## In practice the penstock is

sized so that at rated power the
net head is usually 85-95% of

PEMP

## Jet Velocity and Energy Transfer

RMD510

(Value of is 165-170
to avoid interference)

## and from Euler turbine equation,

equation the
energy transferred to the wheel is

PEMP

RMD510

PEMP

RMD510

PEMP

RMD510

PEMP

RMD510

M = 1.1 to 1.5d

PEMP

RMD510

PEMP

RMD510

## Fig 5.11 Vertical Pelton Turbine with 6 jets

Session-15 @ M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru 13
PEMP

RMD510

## Time dependent flow visualization

visualization, taken by a high speed camera in
a typical model Pelton turbine
Session-15 @ M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru 14
PEMP
RMD510

## Design of a 1.5MW Pelton Turbine

Given:
Generator power
po er output,
o tp t Pg = 1500 kW
Generator speed, Ng = 750 rpm
Generator efficiency, g = 0.8
Mechanical efficiency, m = 0.85

1. Brake power
p of turbine: 2. Absolute velocityy of jet:
j

PEMP
RMD510

## Design of a 1.5MW Pelton Turbine

3. Velocity of bucket:

= 165,
165 vane angle
l

PEMP
RMD510

## Design of a 1.5MW Pelton Turbine

5. Required flow rate, Q from 6. Nozzle dimensions:
power equation:

PEMP
RMD510

## Design of a 1.5MW Pelton Turbine

7. Diameter of Pelton wheel: 8. Dimensions of bucket
B = 4 Dn = 4 x 0.08367 = 0.3347m
D = 0.9 Dn = 0.9 x 0.08367 = 0.0753m
M = 1.1Dn = 1.1 x 0.08367 = 0.092m
L = 2.4Dn = 2.4 x 0.08367 = 0.2008m

Number of buckets

## Session-15 @ M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru 18

PEMP
RMD510

Choice of Materials

PEMP

1. Manifold
RMD510

PEMP

2. Nozzle
RMD510

PEMP

3. Deflector
RMD510

PEMP

4. Runner
RMD510

PEMP

5. Turbine Shaft
RMD510

PEMP

6. Housing
RMD510

PEMP
RMD510

PEMP

Francis Turbine
RMD510

Guide vanes

Rotation

PEMP

RMD510

## Euler Turbine Equation

If the flow at runner exit is without swirl then the equation reduces to

Hydraulic
y Efficiencyy

If c3 = 0, then

PEMP

RMD510

## Ratio of width to diameter of the runner,

runner n = b2/D2 = 0.1
0 1 0.4
04
Flow ratio, ca2 /sqrt (2gH) = 0.15 0.3
Speed ratio, U2 /sqrt (2gH) = 0.6 0.9

PEMP

RMD510

## The following data is given for a Francis turbine.

Net head, H = 60 m
S d N = 700 rpm
Speed,
Shaft power = 294.3 kW
o = 84% ; h = 93%
Flow ratio = 0.20
0 20
Width ratio n = 0.1
Outer diameter of the runner = 2* inner diameter of runner. The thicknesses of
vanes occupy 5% of circumferential area of the runner, runner velocity of flow is
constant at inlet and outlet and discharge is radial at outlet. Determine:
((ii)) Runner vane angles
g at inlet and outlet
(iii) Diameters of runner at inlet and outlet, and
(iv) Width of wheel at inlet

PEMP

RMD510

PEMP

RMD510

PEMP

RMD510

PEMP

RMD510

PEMP

RMD510

PEMP

RMD510

PEMP

RMD510

PEMP

RMD510

## Session-15 @ M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru 38

PEMP

Choice of Material
RMD510

PEMP

RMD510

PEMP
RMD510

2. Covers

PEMP
RMD510

PEMP
RMD510

4. Draft Tube

PEMP
RMD510

5. Guide Vanes

PEMP
RMD510

6. Runner

## Session-15 @ M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru 45

PEMP
RMD510

7. Labyrinth Seals

PEMP
RMD510

8. Turbine Shaft

PEMP
RMD510

PEMP
RMD510

## Session-15 @ M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru 49

PEMP
RMD510

Design Specifications

PEMP
RMD510

## Power and Specific Speed

Power

= 97.806
97 806 W = 98 kW

Specific Speed

H
Hence, Correlation by
y F. Schweiger
g
and J. Gregory

PEMP
RMD510

Rotational Speed

E = Specific
p hydraulic
y
energy

## This speed is optimal because it

is synchronous to the generator
Therefore
Therefore, speed Thus,
speed. Thus the turbine can be
directly coupled to the
generator.

## Session-15 @ M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru 52

PEMP
RMD510

Runaway Speed
The runaway speed is the max. speed which the turbine can theoretically
attain. It is achieved during load rejection.

turbine,

PEMP
RMD510

Runner Diameter

Hub Diameter

## Session-15 @ M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru 54

PEMP

RMD510

The suction
h d Hs, isi the
h d where
h the h turbine
bi isi installed;
i ll d if the
h
suction head is positive, the turbine is located above the trail water; if it is
negative, the turbine is located under the trail water. To avoid cavitation,
the range of the suction head is limited. The maximum allowed suction
head can be calculated using the following equation:

Where:
patm atmospheric pressure [Pa]
pv water vapor pressure [Pa]
water density [kg/m3]
g acceleration of gravity
c4 outlet average velocity [m/s]
cavitation
it ti coefficient
ffi i t [-]
[]
Session-15 @ M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru 55
PEMP

Cavitation
RMD510

Given:

Therefore,

## Session-15 @ M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru 56

PEMP

Outlet Velocity
RMD510

The outlet velocity c4 can be established via the discharge and the
diameter at the outlet of the water ppassage.g Since the dimensions of
the water passage are not known, the outlet velocity has to be
assumed. An outlet velocity of 2m/s is chosen. Using this velocity, a
ddiameter
a ete ofo 1.38m
.38 would
wou d aarise
se at tthee outlet
out et oof tthee wate
water passage - a
quite realistic value.
As long as the chosen suction head is below the established suction
A suction head of 0.45m is chosen.

PEMP

RMD510

## Session-15 @ M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru 58

PEMP

Velocity Triangles
RMD510

## u tangential velocity [m/s]

c absolute velocity [m/s]
w relative
relati e velocity
elocit [m/s]

## Session-15 @ M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru 59

PEMP

RMD510

To define the twist of the blade, the velocity triangles at six different radii
of the blade are determined. The angle of each radius gives information
on the twist of the blade.

PEMP
RMD510

PEMP
RMD510

Therefore,

PEMP
RMD510

PEMP

RMD510

## Session-15 @ M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru 64

PEMP
RMD510

Step-1
Lift coefficient at each radius is determined by the following equation:

Where
w2 relative velocity at blade exit [m/s] s efficiency of the energy change [-]
[]
w medial relative velocity [m/s] c3 velocity after the runner [m/s]
patm atmospheric pressure [m] c4 outlet velocity [m/s]
Hs suction head [m] K profile characteristic number
pmin minimal water pressure [m]

The values of the following parameters are assumed as per the guidelines:

## pmin = 2 - 2.5, s = 0.88 - 0.91, K = 2.6 - 3

Session-15 @ M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru 65
PEMP
RMD510

Step-2
The ratio l/t is determined using the following relation:

Where:
g acceleration of gravity [m/s2] The angle of slip has to be assumed;
h hydraulic efficiency [-] the range for the assumption is as
cm meridian velocity [m/s2]
= 2.5
2 5 - 3
3
angle of slip []
u tangential velocity [m/s2] Using this assumption, an approximate
(180-) inflow angle [] value of the ratio l/t can be established.

PEMP
RMD510

Step-3

## The ratio of the lift coefficients

a/A can
o from
o thet e
given chart.
Using this ratio the lift coefficient
A can be
b established.
bli h d

## Session-15 @ M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru 67

PEMP
RMD510

Step-4
This figure gives
information on the drag
coefficient W of the
different profiles.
Each of the curves
represents one of the
profiles which are listed
beside the chart.
First, it has to be decided
which of the profiles
should be chosen;
following this, the drag
coefficient of this profile
can be determined by y
using the chart.

## Session-15 @ M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru 68

PEMP
RMD510

Step-5
The angle of slip can be calculated using the following equation:

Check whether the assumed angle of slip and the calculated angle of slip are
similar or not.
If the difference is too great, repeat the procedure using the angle of slip
calculated from the above equation.
Steps
p 2 to 5 must be repeated
p until the angles
g of slipp do not change
g anymore;
y
however, it is necessary to always choose the same profile in Step 4.
When the angle is fixed, it can be assumed that the last calculated values of
Steps 2 to 5 are accurate enough.
Thus, the ratio l/t and the profile are determined.

PEMP
RMD510

Step-6

## The angle of attack of the chosen profile

can now be established using the given
figure.

## Session-15 @ M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru 70

PEMP
RMD510

Lift Coefficient

and

Therefore
Therefore, and = 0.08
0 08

PEMP
RMD510

Ratio 1/t

Reciprocal
ec p oca of
o l/t

PEMP
RMD510

Lift Coefficient
From the graph

Therefore,
h f the
h lif
lifting
i coefficient,
ffi i A

PEMP
RMD510

Drag Coefficient

## Session-15 @ M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru 74

PEMP

Angle of Slip,
RMD510

A l off slip
Angle li

It can be seen that the calculated value (= 2.7o) of angle of slip is fairly close to
the assumed value (= 3o).

PEMP
RMD510

Angle of attack

A l off ttwist
Angle it

## Session-15 @ M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru 76

PEMP
RMD510

The listed values in the Table are obtained using the profile 430

To get the accurate angle of distortion, the angle has to be subtracted from the
angle (180-).

## Session-15 @ M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru 77

PEMP

Choice of Materials
RMD510

PEMP

1. Spiral Casing
RMD510

PEMP

RMD510

PEMP

3. Guide Vanes
RMD510

PEMP

4. Runner
RMD510

PEMP

RMD510

PEMP

6. Turbine Shaft
RMD510

PEMP

## Constructional features of hydraulic turbines are briefly

discussed.
Design guidelines and typical working design proportions of
Pelton Francis and Kaplan turbines are explained.
Pelton, explained
Design examples of the three types of turbines are presented.
Typical materials used in different components of hydraulic
turbines are listed.

PEMP
RMD510

Th k you
Thank