Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 5

FAR EASTERN UNIVERSITY

INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE AND FINE ARTS

THE GREAT
CIVILIZED CITIES
PLANNING 241: FUND OF COMMUNITY
ARCHITECTURE

SUBMITTED TO:

AR. TICAO

SUBMITTED BY:

CALLELERO, RONALYN J.

2014632681
EGYPT CIVILIZATION
Just as life arose from the waters, the seeds of civilization were first sown along the banks of the
Nile. This mighty river, which flows north from the heart of Africa to the Mediterranean Sea,
nourished the growth of the pharaonic kingdom. The long, narrow flood plain was a magnet for
life, attracting people, animals and plants to its banks.

THE NILE RIVER

The Nile was very important as a communication and trade route across a vast and harsh
land. Also, its annual flooding renewed farmlands that would otherwise be arid desert.

Ancient Greeks said that Egypt was the gift of the Nile. The Ancient Egyptians settled
themselves on the narrow strip of alluvial soil along both banks of the Nile. This came
about for two reasons:

Excellent agricultural soil in the thin fertile zone next to the river.
Beyond this was barren land and rugged cliffs, followed by arid desert.

The first communal project of this fledgling society was the building of irrigation
canals for agricultural purposes.

COMMUNITY HOUSES

The physical environment affected the homes. Because of the hot sun, bricks baked hard
outside and did not need to be oven dried. Townhouses were joined together on either
side and were the same in appearance.

COMPONENTS AND FUNCTIONS:

For the homes of the wealthy

Larger and more luxurious. Spacious reception and living rooms opened onto a
central garden courtyard with a fish pond and flowering plants.
Each bedroom had a private bathroom, and the walls, columns and ceilings were
painted with beautiful designs inspired by nature.
Elaborate and highly decorated furniture included beds, chairs, boxes and tables.
Painted clay pots and vessels, as well as alabaster bowls and jars, were also found
in the homes of the nobles.
High walls to keep out noise and intruders.

For the Craft workers

Lived in one- or two-storey flat-roofed dwellings made of mud bricks. The walls and roof
would have been covered with plaster and painted.
Inside, there was a reception room, a living room, bedrooms and a cellar in which food
and beverages were stored.
Food was prepared in an outdoor kitchen equipped with a mud-brick oven. Stairs on the
exterior of the house led to a roof-top terrace.

For the Average class

The windows were little small square holes in the wall that were fairly high. Some
of the houses had brick work grills which softened the suns glare or unpleasant
brightness. They were meant to keep out the dust, heat and glare.
The farmhouse (above) has two floors. The upper floor is used for living space
while the lower floor is used to store crops.
A reed canopy has been made on the roof to provide shade.

MESOPOTAMIA CIVILIZATION

Mesopotamia (from the Greek, meaning 'between two rivers) was an ancient region in the
eastern Mediterranean bounded in the northeast by the Zagros Mountains and in the southeast by
the Arabian Plateau, corresponding to todays Iraq, mostly, but also parts of modern-day
Iran, Syria and Turkey. The 'two rivers' of the name referred to the Tigris and the Euphrates
rivers and the land was known as 'Al-Jazirah' (the island) by the Arabs referencing what
Egyptologist J.H. Breasted would later call the Fertile Crescent, where
Mesopotamian civilization began.
COMMUNITY HOUSES

The rich people, primarily the priests and merchants lived in double stories dwellings, whereas
the trader people and craftsmen had single story houses. The materials used by ancient
Sumerians to build their houses were dried mud bricks. The houses had a central courtyard for
natural light and air while providing the much needed security and protection from bad weather.

The downstairs room for the wealthy was reserved for guests and houses had a kitchen, fireplace
and bathrooms. Bedrooms were located upstairs and opened up to a balcony.

The balcony was made in such a way that one could come down easily to the courtyard. But
natural resources were always the main ingredients for Mesopotamian homes. Most home
owners slept on beds, while some chose to sleep on mats placed on the floor.

Mud walls, reeds, clusters and hearth:


Places of shelter developed into huts in ancient Mesopotamia and they were sunk into the
ground. Houses had an entrance, a mud wall and a hearth, and they played a very important role
in the spiritual life of the communities.

Mesopotamia houses were built from tall reeds placed on the ground in parallel rows where the
tops were tied together and covered with matting. Even to this day, the Marsh house is a
common site in Mesopotamia.

In ancient Mesopotamia, the guest house has long been legendary and was known as the
MUDHIF house. People were so boisterous and noisy that they woke up even the Gods.

According to ancient lore, a God had screamed at a home owner and told him to bring down the
reed house and live in a boat. Houses had shared walls like the townhouses. Homes of the rich
were sometimes three storied and the doors led to a courtyard in Mesopotamia houses.
Sources:

historymuseum.ca

quora.com

sahistory.org.za

reshafim.org

historymuseum.ca