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102086 Designing Teaching & Learning

Assessment 2
Lesson Plan Analysis
By Gillian Lett (18299540)


Lesson Plan Analysis.2

Modified Lesson Plan7
Academic Justification 13
Learning Portfolio Web Link....19

Gillian Lett (18299540) DTL Assessment 2


This evaluation is from the English KLA Lesson Plan provided on VUWS

Evaluation score 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent)

Comments incl. evidence for evaluation score (2 sentences)

1 Know students and how they learn

1.3 Students with diverse linguistic, cultural, religious and socioeconomic backgrounds
1234 Group discussions and class-led Venn diagram give some students
opportunity for extra assistance, however, this is not explicitly described in
the lesson plan. Furthermore, the lesson relies heavily on certain students
knowing the answer and sharing their ideas, rather than allowing students
with diverse linguistic, cultural, religious or socioeconomic backgrounds to
contribute and feel included.

1.4 Strategies for teaching Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students
1 2 3 4 Not mentioned. However, there is scope to allow for this in the lesson when
discussing Martin Luther King Jnrs speech and issues of race. When
creating their own speeches, there is scope for Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander students to explore issues important to them.

1.5 Differentiate teaching to meet the specific learning needs of students across the full
range of abilities
1 2 3 4 Little to no differentiation mentioned in a homogenising LP. The extension
activity does not differentiate, rather is just a completion of the task already
set, which is indicated as homework for all.

1.6 Strategies to support full participation of students with disability

1 2 3 4 No mention of this in the LP. However, there is scope for this depending on
the schools inclusion policy and access to student learning support. The
topic of speeches lends itself to discuss social justice issues and disability
support advocacy.

2 Know the content and how to teach it

2.2 Content selection and organisation
1 2 3 4 One mention of students prior learning of different text types to be built
upon. Lesson is organised in a systematic way where students gather and
expand on unit content to reach the desired lesson outcome. A time break-
down is needed to improve lesson flow.

2.3 Curriculum, assessment and reporting

1 2 3 4 Clear link to the Australian Curriculum objective. Though not specified, the
teacher could conduct informal formative assessment while students are
discussing their answers in small groups and during the class discussion.

2.6 Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

1 2 3 4 Though the LP stipulates students are required to have their own computer,
this lesson could be pen and paper based. Individual ICT use is restricted to
viewing the speeches through YouTube and a short moment of research.

Gillian Lett (18299540) DTL Assessment 2


3 Plan for and implement effective teaching and learning

3.1 Establish challenging learning goals
1 2 3 4 Speech-writing and the Venn diagram would have challenged most students,
however, teacher did not make learning goals clear to all students.
Instruction was not differentiated to challenge gifted/accelerated students,
and worksheet questions did not allow for extension responses or higher-
order thinking.

3.2 Plan, structure and sequence learning programs

1 2 3 4 LP is flexible for double/single periods, however lacks details like students
learn to and students learn about, cross-curriculum priorities etc.
However, the LP builds on prior knowledge and scaffolds new knowledge
and content through group-work and class discussions.

3.3 Use teaching strategies

1 2 3 4 Implements individual and group work throughout the lesson, both in small
groups and class. Most work was teacher-directed, such as the Venn diagram
and worksheets, however, there were opportunities for students to critique
and share individual responses/thoughts to speeches.

3.4 Select and use resources

1 2 3 4 Range of resources used, including pen and paper, worksheets and
computers. However, computers could be better used creatively to engage
students more in their learning.

4 Create and maintain supportive and safe learning environments

4.1 Support student participation
1 2 3 4 Strong/repeated use of peer support to facilitate learning. Volunteer students
asked to participate and share knowledge.
4.2 Manage classroom activities
1 2 3 4 Activities were focused on meeting the lesson outcome and proceeded in an
orderly manner that built on knowledge acquired. However, a sequential
time frame for each activity is crucial for time management. No instruction
was given to explain smooth transitions between activities.

4.3 Manage challenging behaviour

1 2 3 4 No specific mention of addressing challenging behaviour. See whole school
policies on student behavioural management.

4.4 Maintain student safety

1 2 3 4 No specific mention of wellbeing or safety requirements. The schools
wellbeing policies may provide further instruction.

4.5 Use ICT safely, responsibly and ethically

1 2 3 4 Though there is no specific mention of ICT safety in this LP, ICT use for
research purposes promotes the responsible and ethical use of the

5 Assess, provide feedback and report on student learning

5.1 Assess student learning

Gillian Lett (18299540) DTL Assessment 2


1234 Informal formative assessment conducted after each learning activity,

however, the full Australian Curriculum learning objective was not assessed.

5.2 Provide feedback to students on their learning

1 2 3 4 Group work, discussion of group work, and class-based activities allowed
teacher to provide individual and class feedback.

Section 2: NSW Quality Teaching Model

1 Intellectual quality
1.1 Deep knowledge
1 2 3 4 5 Starts by situating lesson in context of prior learning and builds on this.
Lesson is focused on context, techniques, effectiveness and power of
speeches, which meets the lesson outcome.

1.2 Deep understanding

1 2 3 4 5 Though discussion is teacher-led, group/class discussions provide students
with opportunity to show deep understanding. The write your own speech
activity is an excellent way to promote deep understanding.

1.3 Problematic knowledge

1 2 3 4 5 Contexts of the speeches is mentioned as a discussion point, which, when
considering Kings speech, promotes students to question knowledge from
past events and link this to future events. Though this could be further
emphasised in the lesson.

1.4 Higher-order thinking

1 2 3 4 5 The work sheet and research activities promote mostly low-order thinking.
Teacher questions revolve around what students liked about speeches as
opposed to prompting higher-order thinking.

1.5 Metalanguage
1 2 3 4 5 As this lesson was on the verbal use of language and its effectiveness, it
rated high. However, there is scope for the teacher to make clear different
language techniques by defining them at the beginning of the listening

1.6 Substantive communication

1 2 3 4 5 Facilitated class discussions and small group discussions offer times for
substantive communication. However, the Venn diagram and questions on
worksheets limit responses to short answers with no room for different

Quality learning environment

2.1 Explicit quality criteria
1 2 3 4 5 No evidence of explicit statements regarding the quality of work are made.

2.2 Engagement

Gillian Lett (18299540) DTL Assessment 2


12345 The group discussion of answers and the class-led Venn diagram seem
engaging and allow for students to assist the learning of others. There is
potential for disengagement for more advanced students who find the
worksheet and its questions too easy. There is scope to include more
advanced and higher-order thinking questions in the worksheet.

2.3 High expectations

1 2 3 4 5 The LP leaves little room for students to take risks or participate in
challenging work as the worksheet questions are basic and the discussions
of answers based around impressions or initial thoughts or likes about
King and Gills speeches. There is scope for students to engage in a
challenge in the speech-writing component, however, little detail is given to
students on what is expected besides a clear audience and purpose.

2.4 Social support

1 2 3 4 5 Lesson involves class and group learning that should encourage supporting
behaviour among students. However, as answers are based on volunteering,
it is possible only confident students will contribute. As the class
discussions are teacher-led, it is implied that each students contribution will
be valued.

2.5 Students self-regulation

1 2 3 4 5 As students are expected to conduct research, there is room for self-
regulating behaviours while using technology.

2.6 Student direction

1 2 3 4 5 All activities, including the choice of speeches, was decided by the teacher.
However, students do decide on the topic of their speech and the
direction/themes of the class discussion, though this is minimal/trivial to
most of the lesson.

3 Significance
3.1 Background knowledge
1 2 3 4 5 Students are reminded of past text types they have studied at the beginning
of the lesson, but this is trivial for the importance of background knowledge
of speeches.

3.2 Cultural knowledge

1 2 3 4 5 There is a slight scope for the discussion of American culture when
discussing context surrounding Kings speech, although this is not explicitly
mentioned. Besides this, there is no recognition of anything other than the
dominant culture in this LP.

3.3 Knowledge integration

1 2 3 4 5 The topic of speeches gives scope to integrate knowledge learnt in history,
drama, geography or social studies classes, however no mention of this
knowledge integration is mentioned in this LP.

3.4 Inclusivity
12345 The small group discussions and larger class discussions give opportunity

Gillian Lett (18299540) DTL Assessment 2


for people from diverse social groups to participate in the lesson. However,
there is only mention of the class participating, and no mention of the
teacher attempting to involve others despite the volunteers.

3.5 Connectedness
1 2 3 4 5 The topic/study of speeches lends itself to be connected to outside contexts
by exploring the contexts of speeches and comparing that to the current
social climate. Students focus on what makes a speech impactful, and are
encouraged to write their own.

3.6 Narrative
12345 The topic/study of speeches lends itself to narrative- Both Kings and Gills
speeches tell narratives inside them as well as are a performance. However,
narrative could be enhanced through the teacher or students telling their own
memories of powerful speeches.

Section 3: Identifying Areas for Improvement

Identify the two APST standards and two NSW QT model elements you are targeting for

1) 2.6 Information and Communication 1.4 Strategies for teaching Aboriginal and
Technology (ICT) Torres Strait Islander students
QT model
1) 3.3 Knowledge integration 2) 1.4 Higher-order thinking

Gillian Lett (18299540) DTL Assessment 2


Modified Lesson Plan (Simplified plan)

Topic area: Speeches Stage of Learner: Year 10 Syllabus Pages:

(Stage 5) http://syllabus.nesa.nsw.edu.au/english/english-

Date: 18/9/17 Location Booked: Lesson Number: 1-2 /4

E5 (English
Time: Note: this lesson is Total Number of Printing/preparation:
best conducted over two students: 24 -School is 1:1 so Ipads must be
periods. charged overnight.
-Make sure room has a
Smart Board.
-Check with IT that server is
-Upload worksheet and
Assessment task to Google
-Prepare Prezi with
lesson outcomes, assessment
task information, links to
speeches, activity instructions,
lesson re-cap of learning
-Overhead projector on-hand,
printed copies of two speeches and
worksheets in case of IPT fail.

Gillian Lett (18299540) DTL Assessment 2


Outcomes Assessment Students learn about Students learn to

-Introduction of -Speeches as powerful -Evaluate aural texts in
formal summative spoken texts by relation to context.
AUSTRALIAN assessment to be considering two -Identify why speeches are
CURRICULUM (AC) completed by speeches from different effective through
LEARNING lesson #4. contexts. identifying different
OBJECTIVES: -Diagnostic - From AC: choosing techniques.
-ACELY1750: Identify and formative pre- vocabulary and spoken -Compare and contrast
explore the purposes and assessment via text and sentence two speeches from
effects of different text Kahoot quiz. structures for particular different contexts.
structures and language -Informal purposes and audiences. - Syllabus EN5-3B: use
features of spoken texts assessment during -From AC: adapting voice effects, eg tone,
and use this knowledge to group activities voice effects, such as volume, pitch, pauses and
create purposeful texts that through teacher tone, volume, pitch, change of pace, for
inform, persuade and questioning and pauses and change of specific effects such as
engage. Syllabus clarification from pace, for their specific arguing a point of view or
outcomes: students. effects such as putting attempting to persuade an
EN5-3B: Selects and uses -Submission of forward a point of view audience to a course of
language forms, features and worksheets or attempting to action.
structures of texts appropriate to includes informal persuade an audience to
a range of purposes, audiences assessment. a course of action.
and contexts, describing and -Informal
explaining their effects on assessment with
meaning. student volunteer
EN4-5C: Thinks imaginatively, take-home
creatively, interpretively and messages.
critically about information,
ideas and arguments to respond
to and compose texts

Cross Curriculum themes: Explicit subject specific concepts and skills

-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and -Revise knowledge on rhetorical devices.
cultures- through the focus on Rudds Sorry speech, -Deconstruct famous speeches to identify audience,
Australias history with Indigenous culture, with a purpose and techniques used by speakers.
focus on social justice. -Compare and contrast these elements between
General Capabilities: speeches.
-ICT capability Kahoot, YouTube clip, Google -Use higher-order thinking to respond critically to the
Classroom, video recording. messages behind selected speeches, and link this to
-Critical and Creative thinking Creating a TED Australian history.
talk/writing their own speech. Thinking critically -Creatively utilise outlined rhetorical devices and ICT
about history and context. use to create a speech.
-Literacy Writing of own speech and answering
work sheet questions.
-Personal and Social Capability - Self management
during groupwork, Appreciate diverse perspectives
during group discussions on political issues, social
management through respectful interaction with peers.
Intercultural understanding Students learn to
recognise, empathise with and reflect on Indigenous

Gillian Lett (18299540) DTL Assessment 2

Intro Introduction/lesson Teacher: -Reminds students of the range of text types they have studied
5 minutes direction and indicate that this lesson/unit will be focused on speeches as powerful
Prezi: Slide on lesson examples of spoken texts.
outcomes and lesson -Explains how the topic of speeches is important as it incorporates
activities. elements of History, Drama, and Social Sciences subjects, and students
will need to draw from this prior knowledge in this unit.
Students: Settle, unpack/turn on iPad.

Body Recap of language Teacher: -Directs students to appropriate Kahoot PIN and reminds class
5 minutes features used in Speeches that this is revision of prior knowledge.
Kahoot quiz, tests: -Reminds students that summary and examples of rhetorical devices is on
-Rhetorical questions Google Classroom (see attached).
-Rule of threes Student: Accesses Kahoot website and plays quiz.
-Alliteration Resources:
-Metaphor -Kahoot quizzes: https://create.kahoot.it/#quiz/9bcd9ee3-ac77-426b-8d1d
-Hyperbole bbff96313208
-Facts and statistics https://create.kahoot.it/#quiz/1c6ccf31-77cd-4b4f-a409-1dd6c5fa1fa4
-Personal pronouns -Summary of rhetorical devices:

Sorry Speech Activity Teacher: Ask students to access the Sorry worksheet on Google
-Provide students with a Classroom.
20 minutes short amount of time to -Play Kevin Rudds speech (3.12 mins).
draw on knowledge of -Facilitate group discussion and prompts students to consider higher-orde
history and current affairs thinking and extension questions added to worksheet:
and ask volunteer students 1.Why do you think one word, sorry meant so much to our indigenous
to discuss/explain the community?
context/audience/purpose 2.What could Rudd have done to make his speech have more impact?
of Rudds speech as a class 3.Can you remember this speech at the time? What are/were your initial
(teacher to fill in thoughts?
knowledge gaps where 4.What would Australia be like if Rudd did not make this speech? How
necessary) ensuring that has this speech impacted our Indigenous people?
everyone in the class has 5.Is there something else you believe our Prime Minister needs to say
some knowledge. Sorry for? What is it?
- Students access the
Sorry worksheet to look Student: -Reflects on Australian history and Indigenous affairs, speech
over and have the techniques such as repetition, emotive language, emphatic stress etc, and
opportunity to ask impact on Australian political history.
questions before viewing
Rudds speech (3.12 mins). Resources:
Note: make sure your -Smartboard projector to play:
students know that this is https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b3TZOGpG6cM
only part of the speech. -iPads: Worksheet on Google Classroom.
- Students then type their
initial thoughts in answer to
the questions regarding
Rudds speech.
- Teacher facilitates small
group discussions where
students can share their

Comparison Speech Teacher: -Directs students to website.
Activity -Prompts students to pick a speech/topic they are passionate about by
25 minutes -Students use Ipads to directing them to the blurb next to each speech.
access the Power of -Facilitates student-directed learning by encouraging students to choose a
Speech website. speech.
-Students choose one -Goes from group to group during Venn diagram to ensure students are
speech, view speech and on-task and provide assistance when needed. Prompts students with
have time to write down higher-order thinking questions such as what connection do you have to
their initial thoughts in the speech you chose? Or, what drew you to the speech you chose? Ho
answer to the questions on is your speech different to Rudds, in techniques, context and impact?
worksheet, before
discussing these answers in Student: Goes to link, selects speech, listens and fills out worksheet.
small groups. Focus will be Finds students who picked the same comparison speech and works
on comparing and collaboratively to each make an individual Venn diagram.
contrasting this speech to Resources:
Rudds. http://splash.abc.net.au/home#!/digibook/1392049/the-power-of-speech
- In groups (depending on -iPads: Worksheet on Google Classroom.
speeches selected), -Individual workbooks, pens.
construct a Venn diagram
in workbooks which
identifies the similarities
and differences in the
speeches of Rudd and their
selected speech, with a
focus on the language
features used. As more
content is added to the
Venn diagram, continually
highlight the vastly
different contexts of the

TED Talk Task Teacher: - Show student example of mini TED Talk on Indigenous rights
20 minutes Students commence writing on overhead projector.
their own TED Talk using -Encourages students to think about topics that they are passionate about
the Plan Your Own and have meaning in contemporary Australian context. Prompts students
Speech worksheet. with questions: What bugs you about society and why do you think that
Emphasise the importance is the case? Do you think all people in Australia have equal
of students demonstrating opportunities? Explain why/why not Imagine you had 5 minutes with
that they have a clear PM Turnbull to tell him something important about the youth of today
understanding of audience what might you say?
and purpose. -Reminds students of performance techniques they have learnt in drama
-The task is: In response to class, such as clear voice, use of hand gestures, straight posture etc.
the speeches studied in
class, write your own, 1- Student: Works through worksheet. Thinks creatively in response to the
minute speech on a topic speeches they have studied this lesson.
important to you and
relevant to current Resources:
political/topical issues. Example of mini TED Talk:
Students must utilise a https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=50vuembnGKQ
range of persuasive -Worksheet:
language features relevant http://www.capthat.com.au/sites/default/files/Close%20look%20at%
to audience and purpose of 20speeches%20worksheet%202.docx

the speech. The speeches
will be recorded on student
Ipads as mini-TED Talks
and will be compiled into a
25-minute multimodal
presentation and showcased
on the Schools website.
-A marking rubric is
provided as an example of
great speeches.

Conclusion Lesson recap and future Teacher: Explains how the lesson met syllabus outcomes. Prompts
projections students to summarise the lesson in a take-home message. Administers
5 minutes -Lesson aims are revised homework and explains that next lesson students will continue working o
through Prezi slide and their TED Talks.
linked to the syllabus.
Teacher explains what will Student: Volunteers a take-home message. Submits their worksheet via
be covered next lesson. Google Classroom. Packs away iPad.
-Five volunteer students are
asked to explain one key Resources:
take-home message each -Smartboard and projector.
from the lesson. -iPad

How am I measuring the outcomes of this lesson?

Learning Outcome Method of measurement and recording

Understands rhetorical devices Kahoot quiz
Identify and explore the Student worksheets, class discussion and group work.
purposes and effects of
different text structures and
language features of spoken
Create purposeful texts that TED Talk assessment and student worksheet.
inform, persuade and engage.
Thinks imaginatively, Student volunteers with take-home messages
creatively, interpretively and
critically about information

Academic Justification:

According to the eight reasons why teachers plan (Hall & Smith, 2006, p.425), the original lesson

plan was inadequate for novice teachers as it lacked sequential timing, a review of content,

contingencies, and a breakdown of teacher/student responsibilities. Therefore, it was necessary to

re-format the original lesson plan into a detailed template with more comprehensive SMART

outcomes, a mixture of formal and informal assessment, and a range of pedagogical strategies to

ensure and maintain instructional alignment (Berger, 2017, August 29). The inclusion of the

lesson introduction, relevant formal and informal assessments, and conclusion with future

projections and take-home messages, is key to ensure instructional alignment.

ICT use was improved to expand curriculum learning opportunities for students (AITSL, 2011,

p.11). Kahoot was added as form of knowledge revision and a way to immediately engage students

in the lesson. According to Smith and Mader (2015), the integration of ICT quizzes increase and

can be invaluable in evaluating lessons and student progress (p.10). Thus, the Kahoot quiz in this

modified lesson plan would promptly alert the teacher of what needs to be revised. The switch from

worksheet handouts to the utilisation of Google Classroom enhances student-centred learning with

the teacher as more a facilitator in the classroom (Laronde, MacLeod, Frost & Waller, 2017, p.30).

Students are presented with the work online and if they finish early can continue to the next activity

without relying on teacher instruction. Although they are critical of superfluous ICT use,

Livingstone (2012) explains that technologys potential may liberate teachers and pupils from the

rigid hierarchies which have locked them to their desks, curricula and assessment straitjacket,

mobilising multiple activities as mediators of learningnot only reading and writing but also

creating, designing, performing, searching and playing (p.17). Therefore, it is paramount for

contemporary teachers to utilise technology to engage students in fun activities, like a TED Talk

assessment task.

The original lesson plan had to be adjusted to include strategies for teaching Aboriginal and Torres

Strait Islander students, which includes being responsive to the local community and cultural

setting, linguistic background and histories of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students

(AITSL, 2011, p.9). Though Kings speech touched on the theme of racism, Rudds Sorry speech

provides an essential connection to contemporary Australian issues and their connection to history

that remain for Indigenous people. Jackson-Barrett (2011) calls for a culture of relatedness (p.28)

between indigenous and non-indigenous students in the classroom. The TED talk gives Indigenous

students an opportunity to express their own ways of being, doing and knowing (Jackson-Barrett,

2011, p.28), and encourages non-indigenous students to relate and respond accordingly. Small

group discussions following Rudds speech allows Indigenous students the opportunity to critically

evaluate their own history and share this with classmates, encouraging empathy and the ability for

higher-order thinking from all students.

Higher-order thinking is a transformational process, which prompts unexpected concepts, ideas

and products which can take the learning in new directions (NSW DET Professional Support and

Curriculum Directorate, 2003, p.18). Informed by the Quality Teaching (QT) practice guide (2003),

higher-order thinking questions were added to the worksheets and prompted by the teacher to

encourage critical judgements and extend students beyond recall (p.19). Furthermore, students

are required to evaluate, manipulate and transform information (NSW DET Professional Support

and Curriculum Directorate, 2003, p.19) during their TED Talk assessment. It was important to

keep the small group discussions, however, to make sure students interacted with different group

members. Monk-Turner & Payne (2005) explain that group projects are believed to generate

problem-solving skills (p.168) because they force students to discuss ideological differences and

brainstorm various viewpoints. Higher-order thinking was also encouraged during the second

speech task. Rather than being spoon-fed a speech and have a repetition of answers, students were

active in their selection of speeches. They were forced to discern between speeches that mean

something to them, and encouraged to consider why.

As the topic of speeches lends itself to knowledge integration, it was important to alter the lesson

plan to include meaningful connectionsbetween different topics and/or between different

subjects (NSW DET Professional Support and Curriculum Directorate, 2003, p.44). It is

imperative that teachers link new material to other material learnt across the year 10 curriculum, in

this case, Australian history, elements of sociology and performance. Varga and Bauer (2017)

explain the importance for educators to link knowledge across KLAs due to the effectiveness of

cues that enable students to see the connection between related information and that encourage

individuals to flexibly extend knowledge (p.1025-6). By actively encouraging students to link

knowledge from history, English and drama in this lesson plan, the teacher is drawing a connection

to social justice. This integrates ACARAs general capabilities of critical and creative thinking,

personal and social capability, and ethical and intercultural understanding (ACARA, 2013).


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Berger, N. (2017, August 29). DTL Lecture 7: Lesson Planning. Published lecture notes, Western

Sydney University, Penrith, Australia.

[Channel Ten]. (2008, February 12). Sorry, Kevin Rudd's Apology to "The stolen Generation"

[Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b3TZOGpG6cM

Hall, T.J. & Smith, M.A. (2006). Teacher Planning, Instruction and Reflection: What We Know

About Teacher Cognitive Processes. Quest, 58(4), p.424-442, DOI:


Jackson-Barrett, E. (2011). The context for change: Reconceptualising the 3Rs in education for

indigenous students. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 36(12), p.21-32. Retrieved

from https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.uws.edu.au/docview/964180887?


[Joseph Ross]. (2014, October 26). Ted Talk on Inequality of Aboriginals in Australia [Video File].

Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=50vuembnGKQ

Laronde, G., MacLeod, K., Frost, L., & Waller, K. (2017). A case study of the integration of

information and communication technology in A northern ontario first nation community

high school: Challenges and benefits. Journal of International Education Research, 13(1),

p.27-34. doi: http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.uws.edu.au/10.19030/jier.v13i1.9963

Livingstone, S. (2012). Critical reflections on the benefits of ICT in education.

Oxford Review of Education, 38(1), p.9-24, DOI: 10.1080/03054985.2011.577938

Monk-Turner, E., & Payne, B. (2005). Addressing issues in group work in the classroom. Journal

of Criminal Justice Education, 16(1), 166-179,207. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-


NSW Eductation Standards Authority (NESA). (2017). English K-10: Outcomes Linked to Content.

Retrieved from https://syllabus.nesa.nsw.edu.au/english/english-k10/content-and-outcomes/

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Teacher, 82(4), p.10. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.uws.edu.au/login?




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State of NSW, Department of Education and Training Professional Support and Curriculum

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Retrieved from http://web1.muirfield-


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Varga, N., & Bauer, L. (2017). Young adults self-derive and retain new factual knowledge through

memory integration. Memory & Cognition, 45(6), 1014-1027.

Learning Portfolio Web link: http://gelett.weebly.com/