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Singular Plural

watashi I / me watashi tachi we / us


boku (casual)

anata you anatagata you all


watakushi (casual)

kare he / him karera they / them(masculine)


kanojo she kanojotachi they/them(feminine)

Days of the Week

yoobi a suffix used to indicate the day of the week.

Sunday Nichiyoobi
Monday Getsuyoobi
Tuesday Kayoobi
Wednesday Suiyoobi
Thursday Mokuyoobi
Friday Kinyoobi
Saturday Doyoobi

Time Phrases

today kyoo
yesterday kino
the day before yesterday ototoi
tomorrow ashita
the day after tomorrow asatte
by Tuesday Kayoobi made ni

Other Time Phrases (days and weeks)

This week konshuu For one day ichi nichi


Last week senshuu Two days futsuka kan
Next week raishuu For three days mikka kan
For one week isshuukan In one day ichinichi de
For two weeks ni shuukan In two days futsuka de
In one week isshuukan de Three days ago mikka mae
In two weeks ni shuukan de

desu present positive copula deshita past present copula dewa arimasen present negative copula
Sentence structure:

Affirmative Sentence:

Time phrase + wa + day of the week + desu/deshita/dewa arimasen.

Note: The copula used for kino and ototoi is deshita; for kyoo, ashita and asatte is desu.
1. Kyoo wa Getsuyoobi desu. (Today is Monday.)
2. Ashita wa Kayoobi desu. (Tomorrow is Tuesday.)
3. Asatte wa Suiyoobi desu. (The day after tomorrow is Wednesday.)
4. Kino wa Nichiyoobi deshita. (Yesterday was Sunday.)
5. Ototoi wa Kinyoobi deshita. (The other day was Friday.)

Interrogative Sentence:

nan nichi what day

1. Kyoo wa nan nichi desu ka? (What is the day today?)

Ans. Getsuyoobi desu. (Its Monday)

2. Kino wan nan nichi deshita ka? (What was the day yesterday?)

Ans. Nichiyoobi desita. (It was Sunday.)

Note: Deshita was used because kino is already a past tense.

Months of the Year


gatsu a suffix used to indicate the month.

January Ichigatsu July Shichigatsu


February Nigatsu August Hachigatsu
March Sangatsu September Kugatsu
April Shigatsu October Juugatsu
May Gogatsu November Juuichigatsu
June Rokugatsu December Juunigatsu

Other Time Phrases (months)

Two months ago ni ka getsu mae


Three months ago san ka getsu mae
For seven months nana ka getsu kan
By June Rokugatsu made
Days of the Month (Dates)

1st tsuitachi 12th juuninichi 23rd nijuusannichi


2nd futsuka 13th juusannichi 24th nijuuyokka
3rd mikka 14th juuyokka 25th nijuugonichi
4th yokka 15th juugonichi 26th nijuurokunichi
5th itsuka 16th juurokunichi 27th nijuushichinichi
6th muika 17th juushichinichi 28th nijuuhachinichi
7th nanoka 18th juuhachinichi 29th nijuukunichi
8th yooka 19th juukunichi 30th sanjuunichi
9th kokonoka 20th hatsuka 31st sanjuuichinichi
10th tooka 21st nijuuichinichi
11th juuichinichi 22nd nijuuninichi

Counting Days

1 day ichinichi 6 days muika 10 days tooka


2 days futsuka 7 days nanoka 11 days juuichinichi
3 days mikka 8 days yooka 12 days juuninichi
5 days yokka 9 days kokonoka 13 days juusannichi

Counting Weeks

1 week isshuukan 5 weeks go shuukan 9 weeks kyuu shuukan


2 weeks ni shuukan 6 weeks roku shuukan 10 weeks jusshuukan
3 weeks san shuukan 7 weeks nana shuukan
4 weeks yon shuukan 8 weeks hasshuukan

Particles (joshi)

ga subject marker
wa topic marker
o direct object marker
ka question marker
no possessive marker
ni indirect object marker; direction; manner;location; agent; time
e it shows direction of the object
de indicates where an action takes place,instrument or manner of
desu present positive copulative
deshita past positive copulative
dewa arimasen present negative copulative
dewa arimasen deshita past negative copulative

1000 Sen
10,000 Ichiman
100,000 Juuman
1,000,000 Hyakuman
10,000,000 Senman
100,000,000 ichioku
1,000,000,000 juuoku
10,000,000,000 hyakuoku
100,000,000,000 Sen-oku

Arimasu/Imasu Pattern used to tell the presence/absence of something or someone in Japanese

Subject + wa/ga + arimasu/arimasen(things) || imasu/imasen(person)

Ex.
Watashi no Nihongo Hon ga Arimasen
My Japanese book is not there.

Borupen wa arimasen
The Ballpen is not there.

Yamamoto san no Okusan ga imasen.


Mr. Yamamotos Wife is not there.

Positions

Tonari - beside
Mae ni - infront
Shita under
Migi ni right
-No ue above/over