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Well Test Analysis in

Gas/Condensate Reservoirs
Published analyses of well tests in The existence of
gas/condensate reservoirs at pres- the fourth region
sures below dewpoint pressure usu- is important be-
ally are based on a two-zone radial cause it would
composite model. Laboratory exper- counter the reduc-
iments and numerical simulations tion in productivi-
suggest that three different mobility ty caused by liquid
zones could exist: (1) an outer zone dropout. This
away from the well with initial liq- velocity strip-
uid condensate saturation, (2) a ping has been
zone nearer the well with increased inferred from lab-
condensate saturation and lower oratory experi-
gas mobility, and (3) a zone in the ments and numer-
immediate vicinity of the well with ical simulation but
increased gas relative permeability. there has been lit-
The full-length paper investigates tle evidence of it Fig. 1Pressure and derivative composite behavior.
Reservoir Per formance

the existence of the third zone in in published well-


well-test data and discusses an test data.
example of well-test analysis that
illustrates the difficulty of identify- Previous Work
ing such a zone. Because draw-
down data are
Introduction affected by flow-
When reservoir pressure drops below rate fluctuations
dewpoint pressure, retrograde con- and noise caused
densation occurs and three regions by condensate
with different liquid saturations are dropout in the
created around the wellbore. An outer wellbore, buildup
zone has the initial liquid condensate data are used in
saturation. An intermediate zone most published
nearer the well has increased conden- well-test data
sate saturation and decreased gas rela- analyses of gas/
Fig. 2Gas relative permeability during first extended
tive permeability. Closer to the well, condensate reser- drawdown.
an inner zone forms where liquid sat- voirs. Analyses
uration reaches a critical value. A use pressure, sin-
fourth region where low interfacial gle-phase pseudopressure, or two- There has been no published well-
tensions at high rates result in a phase pseudopressure. Two-phase test data analysis that exhibits a
decrease in liquid saturation and an pseudopressure analyses require region of increased gas mobility in
increase in gas relative permeability good relative permeability measure- the immediate wellbore vicinity
may exist in the immediate wellbore ments and result in homogeneous- which should result in a response
vicinity. The first, third, and fourth appearing derivatives. Single-phase similar to Curve b in Fig. 1.
regions should appear as three differ- pseudopressure analyses often result
ent permeability zones in a well test. in composite-shaped derivatives Simulation Studies
below the dewpoint. These usually Before field-data analysis, a number
This article is a synopsis of paper SPE resemble Curve a in Fig. 1 and sug- of simulations were performed by use
62920, Well Test Analysis in gest the existence of two mobility of a compositional simulator to devel-
Gas/Condensate Reservoirs, by A.C. zones, one in the vicinity of the well- op an understanding of derivative
Gringarten, SPE, A. Al-Lamki, SPE, bore with reduced gas effective per- shapes to be expected from well-test
and S. Daungkaew, Imperial College meability because of liquid dropout, data. The simulator calculates pres-
of Science, Technology, and Medicine; and one away from the well with sin- sure/volume/temperature properties
R. Mott, SPE, AEA Technology; and gle-phase gas where reservoir pres- by use of an equation of state and
T.M. Whittle, SPE, Baker Hughes, orig- sure is above the dewpoint. Analysis varies condensate and gas relative
inally presented at the 2000 SPE of this buildup data with a two- permeabilities as a function of the
Annual Technical Conference and region composite model provides capillary number. The simulation
Exhibition, Dallas, 14 October. total skin and a two-phase skin. model represents a single well in a

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NOVEMBER 2000
Fig. 4Analysis of gas/condensate Well C with the
Fig. 3Diagnostic plot for Well C. three-region composite model.

homogeneous radial reservoir of uni- Wellbore Dynamics stabilization, corresponding to the


form thickness. The model consists of One reason few well tests show a mobility of the gas with the initial
40 cells with a 11,950-ft outer radius zone of increased gas mobility condensate saturation, is slightly
to ensure that there are no boundary around the wellbore is that such data below the last data points after 100
effects in the simulated well tests. are difficult to identify with confi- hours. The derivative stabilization
Reservoir Per formance

Cells near the wellbore are small to dence. When the data exists, it is corresponding to the increased con-
simulate the gas/condensate near- likely to be hidden by wellbore densate saturation is at the level of
wellbore behavior accurately. Cell phase-redistribution effects. Phase the derivative hump near 10 hours.
size increases logarithmically away redistribution occurs when different The location of the derivative stabi-
from the wellbore. The model does phases flow in different directions in lization corresponding to the en-
not include wellbore-storage effects the wellbore and results in an hanced gas mobility is more difficult
or mechanical skin. increase in wellbore-storage coeffi- to identify and must be between the
Simulation runs were designed to cient that may be present in draw- other two. The minimum at 1 hour
show gas/condensate behavior under downs or buildups. Phase redistribu- must correspond to wellbore phase-
different production conditions. In tion is different from a phase change redistribution effects.
all cases, initial reservoir pressure which creates a decrease in wellbore- Once the choice of the first stabi-
was set just above dewpoint pressure storage coefficient in buildups and an lization has been made, an analysis
so liquid-phase condensate would increase in wellbore-storage coeffi- can be performed by use of a three-
form at the start of production. A cient in drawdowns. Phase change region composite model. Fig. 4 shows
simulation run consists of 10 periods effects on pressure behavior usually the log-log match for Well C.
of alternating drawdown and are limited to early times but a well-
buildup. The first drawdown is bore storage increase caused by Conclusions
extended (100 days) to allow con- phase redistribution may dominate The full-length paper presents pre-
densate to accumulate in the near- the test for many hours. Recognition liminary results of a systematic study
wellbore region and the following of the existence of wellbore phase of gas/condensate reservoir well
periods are 10 days long. Variations redistribution is important because it tests. The study investigated the
of this production history were run can result in derivative shapes that existence of different mobility zones
with different rates, gas/oil relative could be misinterpreted easily resulting from condensate dropout
permeability models, and fluid com- because they are similar to derivative and velocity stripping. Phase redis-
positions. Capillary number effects shapes resulting from double poro- tribution was found to be a major
reduce condensate saturation around sity, partial penetration, or compos- problem in data analysis because it
the well and in the reservoir. As time ite behaviors. can create drawdown or buildup
increases, the condensate reduction shapes that can be misinterpreted.
is greater in the immediate vicinity of Early Time Well-Test Behavior An example was found that exhibit-
the wellbore. A plot of the corre- One objective of the study was to ed three stabilizations on the deriva-
sponding gas relative permeability confirm the existence of an tive plot corresponding to three
(Fig. 2) has a minimum between 10 increased-gas-mobility zone at high mobility zones. JPT
and 100 ft, a maximum correspond- rates in the immediate vicinity of the
ing to single-phase gas away from the wellbore by use of well-test data.
well, and an intermediate value a few Data for Well C, a North Sea gas/con- Please read the full-length paper for
feet from the well. These represent densate well, (Fig. 3) seem to show a additional detail, illustrations, and ref-
the three mobility regions and three-region composite behavior and erences. The paper from which the
should result in three stabilizations could be interpreted to quantify three synopsis has been taken has not been
on the derivative plot. mobility zones. The final derivative peer reviewed.

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