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30

mathematica -71
+ : 29/01/2012 17/02/2012

- :- 30 .
http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=52&t=22127

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parmenides51

mathematica.gr.

mathematica -72

41
1. f [0, 1] x0 (0,1)
1 1
f (x0 ) .
1 x0 x0
2. f R
1 x f (x) ex , x R . :
. f x 0 0 .
. f R ,
f (x 0 )
x0 ( 1,1) , x0 .
2004
. lim f (x) .
x

:
1. g(x) f (x)x(1 x) x (1 x)
: g(x) [0,1]
g(0) 1 0, g(1) 1 0 g(0)g(1) 0
Bolzano x0 (0,1) : g(x 0 ) 0 f(x 0)x 0(1 x 0) x 0 (1 x 0) 0
x0 (1 x0 ) 0 x0 (0, 1), x0 0,1
1 1
f (x 0 ) .
1 x0 x0

2. . x 0
1 0 f (0) e0 1 f (0) 1 f (0) 1 lim(1 x) lime x 1
x0 x0

limf (x) 1 f (0) , f


x0
.

. o h(x) f (x) 2004x [1,1]


h( 1) f ( 1) 2004 0 x 1
1
0 f ( 1) h(1) f (1) 2004 0 2 f (1) e 2004
e
h( 1)h(1) 0 Bolzano x0 ( 1, 1)
f (x 0 )
h(x0 ) f (x 0 ) 2004x 0 0 x0 .
2004

1 1
. x 0 1 x f (x) e x 0
f (x) 1 x
1
lim lim 0 0 lim f (x) 0 .
x x 1 x x

mathematica -73

42
f : f (x) 2x 5 z x 3 2 z x R z C* .
5

1. f .
2. f .
3. f (x) 0
(0, z ) .
5
f (x) 2 z
4. lim 1 ,
x 0 3 x
z .
http://www.study4exams.gr
:
1. Af R . x1 ,x2 R
x1 x2 x15 x52 2x15 2x52 (1)
x1 x2 x13 x23 | z | x13 | z | x23 (2) .
(1), (2) 2 | z |5

2x15 | z | x13 2 | z |5 2x52 | z | x 32 2 | z |5 f (x1 ) f (x 2 ) , f
R .

2. lim f (x) lim ( 2x 5 )


x x

lim f (x) lim ( 2x ) , f R


5
x x

f (R) ( lim f (x), lim f (x)) ( , ) R .


x x

3. f [0, z ]
f (0) 2 | z |5 0, f (| z |) | z |4 0 ( z 0 ) , f (0)f (| z |) 0
Bolzano f (x) 0 (0, z )
f R (1).



2 | z |5 f (x) 2x 5 | z | x 3 2x 2 |z|
4. lim lim lim | z |
3 x 3 x x0 3 3

x0 x0

x
x
| z | 1 z .

43
R f g : R R
g(x)f 2 (x) e xg(x) 1 x R | f (0) | 1 .
mathematica -74

1. lim f (x) .
x

2. lim g(x) .
x

3. g(0) 1 .
4. (x 1)(ex x)[g(x) ex ] x[f (x 1) x]
[0,1) .
:
1. g(x)(f 2 (x) ex ) 1 0 f 2 (x) e x 0
R
. f 2 (x) ex 0 f 2 (x) e x , x R x 0
f 2 (0) 1 , f (0) 1
f 2 (x) ex 0 f 2 (x) e x , x R
f (x) e x e x f (x) e x lim e x 0
x

lim f (x) 0 .
x

2. g(x)(f 2 (x) e x ) 1
1
g(x) 2 (1) lim (f 2 (x) e x ) 0 f 2 (x) e x 0 .
f (x) e x x

1
lim g(x) lim 2 .
x x f (x) e x

1
3. (1) 1 . f (0) 1
f (0) 1
2

1 f 2 (0) 1 f 2 (0) 0 .

4. h(x) (x 1)(ex x)(g(x) e x ) x(f (x 1) x) .


g R , f (x 1)
R f (x), x 1 , h
R .
h(1) (f (0) 1) 0 f (0) 1 h(0) (g(0) 1) 0 (3)
h(0)h(1) 0 .
g(0) 1 h(0) 0 h(x) 0 0 .
g(0) 1 h(0)h(1) 0 Bolzano h(x) 0
(0,1) h(x) 0
[0,1) .
( ,0] h(x) .
lim (x 1) , lim (ex x) lim (g(x) ex ) , lim x
x x , x x

mathematica -75

x 1 y
lim f (x 1) lim f (y) 0 , lim[f (x 1) x] 0
x y x

lim h(x) xo 0 h(xo ) 0


x
h(0) 0 h 0 .
h(0) 0 h(0) 0
xo ,0 h h(xo )h(0) 0
Bolzano h xo ,0 , 0
h ,0
h .

44
1
f : R R f 1 :
2
3 3
f xy f x f f y f x,y R
y x
1. :
1
. f 3
2
3
. f f x , x
x
1
. f xy 2f x f y f 2 x x R
4
2. f
:
1
1. . x y 1 f (1) 2f (1)f (3) f (1)
2
1
f (3) .
2

3 1 1 3
. y 1 f (x) f (x)f (3) f (1)f f (x) f (x) f
x 2 2 x
3
f ( ) f (x), x R* .
x

. () f (xy) f (x)f (y) f (y)f (x) f (xy) 2f (x)f (y)


3 3 1 1
y f (3) 2f (x)f ( ) () () 2f 2 (x) f 2 (x) ,x 0.
x x 2 4

1 1
2. f 2 (x) f (x) 0 f (x) 0
4 2
mathematica -76

x (, 0) (0, ) f R
1
( ,0) (0, ) . f (3) 0
2
1 1
f (x) 0, x (0, ) f (x) , x ( , 0) f (x) , x ( , 0)
2 2
1
x 0 0 limf
(x) limf (x)
x0 2 x0
1
f (x) , x R .
2

45
f : R R g : R R
x R f (f (x)) 2g(x) x .
1. g R .
2. h(x) f (x) g(x) .
3. x0 R f (x0 ) x0 .
. Cf Cg .
. f (f (x x0 2)) x x0 2f (x x0 2) 2
. f (f (lnx x0 1)) lnx 1 x0 .
: . ( )
:
f (f (x)) x
1. g(x) .
2
x1 ,x2 R x1 x2 (1) f
f (x1 ) f (x2 ) f (f (x1 ) f (f (x2 )) (2)

(1), (2) 2

g(x1 ) g(x2 ) , g R .

2. x1 ,x2 R x1 x2 f (x1 ) f (x2 ) (1)


x1 x2 g(x1 ) g(x1 ) g(x1 ) g(x2 )(2)

(1) (2) h(x1 ) h(x2 ) h


R .

3. . f (xo ) xo f (f (xo )) f (xo ) 2g(xo ) xo x0


2g(xo ) 2xo g(xo ) xo f (x0 ) .

mathematica -77

Cf ,Cg xo . xo
f (x) g(x) f (x) g(x) 0 h(x) f (x) g(x)
R .

. f (f (x xo 2)) x xo 2f (x xo 2) 2
2g(x xo 2) x xo 2 x xo 2f (x xo 2) 2
g(x xo 2) f (x xo 2) (1) 3.
x xo 2 xo x 2 .

. f (f (lnx xo 1)) lnx 1 xo


2g(lnx xo 1) lnx xo 1 lnx 1 xo g(x0 ) x0
1
2g(lnx xo 1) 2g(xo ) lnx xo 1 xo lnx 1 0 x .
e

46
f : (0, ) R x,y 0
x
f (x) f (y) f f (x) 0 .
y

1. f (1).
2. f .
3. f (x2 2) f (x) f (5x 6).
4. f (x) 0 x 1 , f
(0, ).
:
1. x y f (1) 0 f (x) 0
1 .

2. x1 ,x2 0 f (x1 ) f (x2 ) . x x1


x x
y x2 f 1 f (x1 ) f (x 2 ) f 1 0 1
x2 x2
x
f (x) 0 1 1 ' x1 x2 .
x2
f '1 1' .

3. o f (5x 6), f (x) f (x2 2)


5x 6 0, x 0 x2 2 0 x 2 .
f (x2 2) f (5x 6) f (x) x 0 ,

mathematica -78

5x 6
: f (x2 2) f f
x
'1 1' x(x2 2) 5x 6
x 1 x 2 x 3 ' x 2 .

4. x1 ,x2 0 0 x1 x2 . x x2 y x1
x x
f (x 2 ) f (x1 ) f 2 0 2 1 . f (x1 ) f (x2 ) f
x1 x1
.

47
f (x) 2 ln( x 2 1).
1. .
2. f .
3. f f 1 .
4. f 1 (x) 2 .
5. Cf y x .
: . ( )
:
1. f x 2 0 x 2
x 2 1 0 , x 2 f
Af [2, ) .

2. x1 ,x2 [2, ) 2 x1 x2 0 x1 2 x2 2
x1 2 x2 2 x1 2 1 x2 2 1 lnx
ln( x1 2 1) ln( x2 2 1)
2 ln( x1 2 1) 2 ln( x2 2 1) f (x1 ) f (x2 ) f
[2, ) .

3. f 1 1 .
f (x) y, y R ,
y 2 ln( x 2 1) ln( x 2 1) 2 y
x 2 1 e2y x 2 e2y 1 (1) x 2 0
e2y 1 0 e2y 1 2 y 0 y 2 (1)
x 2 (e2y 1)2 x 2 (e2y 1)2 (2) Af [2, ).
f 1 (x) (e2x 1)2 2, x2 .

mathematica -79

4. f 1 (x) 2 f (f 1 (x)) f (2) x f (2) 2.

5. f (2) 2 2 h(x) f (x) x, x [2, )


(2,2) Cf y x .
h(x) f (x) x 2 x1 x2 f
f (x1 ) f (x2 ) x1 x2
f (x1 ) x1 f (x2 ) x2 h(x1 ) h(x2 ) h
, [2, ) 2 .

48
f : R R : f (x f (x y)) f (2x) y
x,y R :
1. f (0) 0.
2. (f f )(x) x, x R.
3. f 1 1.
4. f R.
5. f (x) x, x R.
:
1. x 0 f (f (y)) f (0) y f (f (x)) f (0) x, x R (1)
x y f (x f (2x)) f (2x) x .

g(x) f (2x) x f (g(x)) g(x) (2) f (f (g(x))) f (g(x))


(1),(2) f (0) g(x) g(x) f (0) 0.

2. (1) f (0) 0 f (f (x)) x, x R.

3. x1 , x2 Af f (x1 ) f (x2 ) f (f (x1 )) f (f (x2 ))


(2) x1 x2 f '1 1' .

4. f (x) y, y R
f () y f (f ()) f (y) (2)
f (y) f (f (x)) x, x R f (f (f (y))) f (y)
f '1 1' f (f (y)) y f (y)
f (x) y, y R f R .

f R ,

mathematica -80

f x y x y .

y 0 R x0 R f x0 y 0
x0 f 2 y 0 4
f x0 f f 2 y0 2 2 y0 y0 .

f R .

5. f (x f (x y)) f (2x) y y 0
f (x f (x)) f (2x) f 1-1
x f (x) 2x f (x) x,x R.

49
f (x) ln(1 ex ) ln(1 ex ) .

1. f .
2. f .
3. f .
4. f .
5. m<0 f (m) m .
6. g(x) f (x) x, x 0 , g(x) .
7. f (x) f (1) x 1 .
8. h(x) ln( x) , c R
f (c) h(c) .
f ( 1)x 3 x 2 6
9. : A lim
x f ( 3)x 2 x 2
1
B lim (ef (x) ef (x)
).
x

:
1. f 1 ex 0 x 0 ,
1 ex 0, x R . f A (,0).

1 ex 1 ex
2. f (x) ln x
1, x ( ,0) .
1 e 1 e x

x ( ,0) f (x) 0 .

3. x1 x2 0 ex1 ex2 1 ex1 1 ex2 , 1 ex1 1 ex2

mathematica -81

ln(1 ex1 ) ln(1 ex2 )
ln(1 ex1 ) ln(1 ex2 ) ln(1 ex1 ) ln(1 ex2 ).
ln(1 ex1 ) ln(1 ex1 ) ln(1 ex2 ) ln(1 ex2 )
f (x1 ) f (x2 ) f ( ,0) .

4. f ( ,0) '1 1'


f 1 : f (A) A f
1 ex , 1 ex lnx
f (A) ( lim f (x),limf (x)) .
x x 0

1 e x
1 ex
u lim u lim 1 . limlnu 0
1 ex x x 1 e x u1

1 e x
lim f (x) 0 limu lim 0.
x x 0 x 0 1 e x

limlnu limf
(x) f (A) ( ,0) y ( ,0)
u 0 x0

1 ex 1 ex
y ln x
e
y
ey eyex 1 e x
1 e 1 e x

1 ey 1 ey 1 ey
e e e 1 e e
y x x y x
x ln( ) 0, y 0
1 ey 1 ey 1 ey
1 ex
f 1 (x) ln 0, x 0 .
1 ex

1 ex
5. ln x
x,x ( ,0)
1 e
1 ex
ex 1 ex ex e2x (ex 1)2 2 x ln( 2 1).
1 e x

6. x1 x2 0 x1 x2 f
f (x1 ) f (x2 )
g(x1 ) g(x2 ) g ( ,0) .

7. f(x) f( 1) x 1 f(x) x f( 1) ( 1) g(x) g( 1)


g ( ,0) x 1 .

8. t(x) f (x) h(x) f (x) ln( x) ( ,0) .


ln( x) ,0
lnx , x h ,0

mathematica -82

f ,0 , t(x)
, ,
lim f (x) 0 lim ln( x) lim t(x)
x x x
limf

(x) limln(

x) limt(x)
x0 x 0 x 0

t(x) f (x) ln( x) R


( ,0) .

f ( 1)x 3 f ( 1)
9. A lim lim x f (A) ( ,0)
x f ( 3)x 2 f ( 3) x
f ( 1) 1
0 . B lim (ef (x) ef (x) ) 0 (4)
f ( 3) x

50
f : f (x) x lnx .
1. f .
2. f (x) 1 .
3. f
f (x) 0 .
4. f
f .
5. f 1 (x) x.
6. f 1 (x) x 1.
:
1. H f (0, )
. x1 , x 2 0 x1 x 2 , lnx1 lnx 2 ,
x1 lnx1 x 2 lnx 2 f(x1 ) f(x 2 ) , f
(0, ) .

2. H f (x) 1 x 1
f (1) 1 ln1 1 0 1 , f
(0, ) .

3. f (0, ) ,

: f (A) (lim f (x), lim f (x)) R .


x 0 x

0 f (A) , f (x) 0 f
(0, ) , .

mathematica -83

4. f (0, ) , 1 1
. f f (A) R
f 1 f 1 f(A) R f 1 : R (0, ).

5. f 1 : R (0, ) f 1 (x) 0 f 1 (x) x x 0


:

f 1 (x) x f (f 1 (x)) f (x) x f (x) x lnx x lnx 0 x 1 , .

6. f 1 : R (0, ) f 1 (x) 0

x 1 x 1 0 f 1 (x) x 1
.
x 1, f (0, )
f (f 1 (x)) f (x 1) x x 1 ln(x 1)
ln(x 1) 1 x 1 e x e 1 . 1 x e 1 .

x ,e 1 .

51
f 2f (x) (f (x)) x x
.
1. 2f (x) x f (x) .
2. f (x) x .
(f (x))
3. lim .
x0 f (x)
f (x)
4. lim .
x0 x

:
1. (f (x)) 2f (x) x (f (x) f (x)
2f (x) x f (x) .

2. 2f (x) (f (x) 2f (x) (f (x) x


x 2f (x) (f (x) x
2 f (x) x (f (x) x f (x) f (x) x


2f (x) (f (x)) x
2f (x) (f (x)) x f (x) x f (x) x f (x) x .
mathematica -84

3. f (x) x x f (x) x lim( x ) lim x 0


x0 x0
limf (x) 0 u f (x)
x 0

(f (x)) u
limf (x) 0 x 0 u 0 lim lim 1.
x 0 x0 f (x) x 0 u

4. 2f (x) f (x) x x 0
f (x) 1 f (x) f (x) (f (x))
2 (f (x)) 1 2 1
x x x x f (x)

f (x) (f (x)) (f (x))


(2 ) 1 lim 1
x f (x) x0 f (x)
(f (x))
lim(2 ) 1 0 0
x0 f (x)
f (x) 1 f (x)
lim 1.
x (f (x)) x0 x
2
f (x)

52
3
g(x) 3x2 30x 95 (3x 5),x R, R
4 4
4x 5
h(x) ,x R .
3
1. f goh x R
f (x) (goh)(x) x2 5x 10 x .
2. R lim f (x) .
x

3. R lim f (x)
x

f (x) 2x
lim .
x2 x 4 x 14

3 x
4. R lim .
x f (x) x

:
1. g h x Dh h(x) Dg x R
h(x) R . g h x R

3h 2 x 30h x 95 3h x 5
3
f x g h x
4 4

mathematica -85

4x 5 30 4x 5 95 3 4x 5 5
2
3
3
4 9 3 4 3
3 16x2 40x 25 120x 150 285
f (x) x
4 3 3 3
3 16x2 80x 160
x x2 5x 10 x .
4 3

2. f (x) x2 5x 10 x x 0
5 10 5 10
f (x) x 1 2 x x 1 2
x x x x
5 10
lim x lim 1 2 1 :
x x x x

1 0 1
1 0 1 lim f (x)
x
1 0 1 lim f (x)
x

1 0 1 f (x) x2 5x 10 x
lim f (x) lim
x x
x 2 5x 10 x
lim
x 2 5x 10 x x 2 5x 10 x
x
x 2 5x 10 x
10
x 5
5x 10 x 5
lim lim
x
x 2 5x 10 x x 5 10 2
x 1 2 1
x x

3. 1
f x 2x x2 5x 10 x 2x x 2 5x 10 x
lim lim lim
x2 x 4 x 14 x2 x4 x 14 x2 x4 x 14

lim
x 2 5x 10 x x 2 5x 10 x
x2
x 4
x 14 x 2 5x 10 x
5x 10
lim
x2
x 4
x 14 x 2 5x 10 x

mathematica -86

5 x 2
lim
x2
x 2 x3 2x2 4x 7 x 2 5x 10 x
5 5
lim
x2
x 3
2x2 4x 7 x 2 5x 10 x 124

4. 1
3 x 3 x 1
lim lim lim 3 x
x f x x x
x2 5x 10 x x x x 2 5x 10
1 1
3 x
x2 5x 10 x 2 5x 10
1 1 1
3 x
x2 5x 10 x 2 5x 10 x 2 5x 10
lim x2 5x 10 , lim
x x

x2 5x 10
1 1
lim lim 0.
x
x2 5x 10 x x 2 5x 10
1
lim 3 x 0.
x
x 5x 10
2

53
f : R R f x f y f x y 1
x,y R R . :
1. f .
2. f 2x f x f 1 (x) 1 x R .
3. f .
4. f (1) 0.
:
1. x 0 , f (f (y)) f (0) y 1
y1 ,y 2 R f (y1 ) f (y 2 ) f (0) y1 1 f (0) y 2 1 y1 y 2
y1 ,y 2 R . f '1 1' .

2. y f 1 (x) :
f (x f (f 1 (x)) f (x) f 1 (x) 1 f (x x) f (x) f 1 (x) 1
f (2x) f (x) f 1 (x) 1

3. f R f (0) 0 .

mathematica -87

x y 0 : f (f (0)) f (0) 1 f (0) 0 1
0 1 . f .

4. (2) , x 0 :
f (0) f (0) f 1 (0) 1 f 1 (0) 1 f ( 1) 0 .

54
,
f : R R , : f 2 , f 2 f (x) 2012
xR .
1. 2x f x f
0,
2. f , :
) (,)
f .
) Cf f y 2x
xo ,
xf (x)4x
3. lim
x x2 1
4. h : R R
f (x) h(x) 2004x , x R .
f x 0 1 ,2 .
h x 0 1 ,2 .
:
1. g(x) 2x f ()x f () 2x 2x 2
' :
g(x) [, ] g(0) 2 0
g( ) 2( ) 2( ) 2 2(1 ( )) 0 0
( ) 1 . g(0)g( ) 0 2 :

1 : ( ) 1 g( ) 0
g(x) 0.

2 : ( ) 1 g( ) 0 g(0)g( ) 0
Bolzano xo (0, ) g(xo) 0 .
xo (0, ]
g(xo) 0 2xo f ()x0 f () 0.

mathematica -88

2. )
0 f 2 2
f () f () f .
f () f ()
(, ) f ()
2
. f
f () f ()
f () f () . .
2


g x f x x [,]
f [,]
x1 x2 f (x1 ) f (x 2 )
f (x1 ) f (x2 ) g(x1 ) g(x2 )
g [,]
g [,] .
g f 2 0
g f 2 0
g g 0
Bolzano (,)
g 0 f g ,
.

) (x) f (x) 2x [, ]
[, ] () f () 2 2( ) 0
() f () 2 2( ) 0 ()() 0
Bolzano x0 (, ) (x0 ) f (x0 ) 2x0 .
x1 x2 f [, ] f (x1 ) f (x2 )
x1 x2 f (x1 ) x1 f (x2 ) x2 h(x1 ) h(x2 )
x0 (, ) .

xf (x)x xf (x)x x f (x) 2012x


3. x 0 2
x2 1 x2 1 x 1 x2 1
xf (x)x 2012x 2012x xf (x)x 2012x
2 2 2
x 1
2
x 1 x 1 x2 1 x 1
2012x 2012x 2012x 2012x
lim 2 lim 0 lim
x
lim 0
x 1 x x2 x x 2 1
x
x 2

xf (x)x
lim 0.
x
x 2
1

mathematica -89

4. f 1 0 2
f (1 ) f (2 ) 0.
h(x) f (x) 2004x,x [1 ,2 ]
h [1 ,2 ]
h(1 ) f (1 ) 20041 20041 0
h(2 ) f (2 ) 20042 20042 0
Bolzano (1 ,2 )
h() 0.

55
'1 1' f , g : R R f (R) g(R) R
:
f (x) (fog 1 )(x) 8 3(fog)(x) 2(fog 1 )(x) 10x 7 x R
1. f (x),g(x)
2. h : R R h(g(f (x))) e2x 4x 2, x R
:
. h(x)
. h(x)
e e
. x2 3x 2x 2 6x
e e
h(x) h(x2 1) h 1 (e)x 3 2x 2 3
. : lim , lim x lim
x x x e 1 x x2 5x
3. h(x) ln(x)
:
1. f (x) (f g 1 )(x) 8.. 1
3(f g)(x) 2(f g 1 )(x) 10x 7, x R.. 2 (f g 1 )(x) f (x) 8
(2) 3(f g)(x) 2f (x) 16 10x 7
3(f g)(x) 2f (x) 10x 9, x R (3) x g(x) (1)
f (g(x)) (f g 1 )(g(x)) 8 (f g)(x) f (x) 8 (f g)(x) f (x) 8
(3)
3(f(x) 8) 2f(x) 10x 9, x R 5f(x) 10x 15 f(x) 2x 3 .
(3)
3f(g(x)) 2f(x) 10x 9 3(2g(x) 3) 2(2x 3) 10x 9
g(x) x 4 .

2. . g(f (x)) f (x) 4 2x 3 4 2x 1

mathematica -90

1 e
h(2x 1) 2x
2(2x) 2 2x1 2(2x 1)
e e
e
h(x) 2x.
ex

e e
. x1 ,x2 R x1 x2 2x1 2x2 ex1 ex2 x1
x2
e e
h(x1 ) h(x2 ) h
R 1-1 .

ee
. H x23x
2x2
2(3x) h(x 2 ) h(3x)
e e
h x 3x x2 3x 0 0 x 3 .
2

h(x) e h(x)
. x 2 lim (xex ) lim 2
x xe x x x

h(x2 1) h(x 2 1) x 2 1 x2 1
2 lim x
e x 1 x 1 e x 1 x e 1
h(x2 1) h(u) h(x2 1)
lim lim 2 lim x .
x x 2 1 u u x e 1
h(0) e h1 (e) 0
h 1 (e)x 3 2x 2 3 2x 2 3 2x 2
lim lim lim 2.
x x2 5x x x 2 5x x x 2

3. t(x) h(x) lnx, x (0, )


limln x limh(x) h(0) e 2
x 0 x 0
h(x)
limt(x) . lim 2
x 0 x x

h(x)
lim h(x) lim x lim ln x lim t(x)
x x
x x x

t(x) h(x) lnx R .


(0, ).
56 K
f : 0, 0,
f 2 x lnf x lnx 1 0 .

1. f (1).
f x
2. f 1 .
x
:

mathematica -91

1. x 1
f (1) ln(f (1)) ln1 1 0 f (1)2 ln(f (1)) 1 0 o f (1)
2

g(x) x2 lnx 1 , x (0, ) .


x0 1.

x12 x12
0 x1 x2 x12 ln x1 x 2 2 ln x 2
ln x1 ln x 2
x12 lnx1 1 x22 lnx2 1 g(x1 ) g(x2 )

g 0, x0 1
f (1) 1 .

f x
2. f 1 x0 1 .
x
x1 (0, ), x1 1 f (x1 ) x1 x x1
f 2 x1 lnf x1 lnx1 1 0 x12 lnx1 lnx1 1 0 .
x12 1, x1 0 x1 1 . x0 1.

57
f : R R f (x) 1
(f (x) )(f (y) 3) x, y R R .
1. .
2. f
.
:
1. x,y R :
(f (x) )(f (y) 3) (f (y) )(f (x) 3) .

(f (x) f (y)) 0 .

x,y f (x) f (y) , 0


f (x) 0 , f (x) 1 .

x,y f (x) f (y) c 1 () :


3 2 (1 2c) c2 0 .

mathematica -92

2c 1 (1 2c)2 12c2 2c 1 (1 2c)2 12c 2


,
6 6

2c 1 (1 2c)2 12c2 1 1 1
16c2 4c 1 c , c 1 .
6 6 3 6
1 1 1
g(c) 16c2 4c 1 c , c 1
6 3 6
1 8c 1 1
g(c) 0, c 1
3 16c2 4c 1 3
1 1 1 13 1
g(1) 16 4 1
6 3 6 6
1 13
.
6
c 1
1 13
.
6

1 13
2. 1
6
3 2 (1 2c) c2 0 3 (1 2c) c2 0 c2 2c 4 0
c 5 1, c 1 (1) f (x) 5 1
.

(1) f R f
.

58
f : R (0, ) f (x)f (y) f (x y)
x0 0 f (1) e .
1. : f (0) 1,f ( 1) e1 .
2. N R .
3. f :
.
. lim f (x) lim f (x) .
x x

4. x0 (0,1) : 3f (x0 ) f (21 ) f (31 ) f (41 ) .


f (1 x)
5. : . lim f 1 (x) . lim f 1 (x) . lim
x0 x x 0 f (x)

mathematica -93

6. , 0 , f 1 () f 1 () f 1 () .
f 1 (x 2 )
7. lim 1 .
x f (x)

8. x1 0
f 1 (x1 ) x11 .
f 1 (f (x))
9. lim .
x f (x)
:
1. f (x y) f (x)f (y) .
x y 0 , f (0) f 2 (0) f (0)(f (0) 1) 0 f (0) 0 f(0) 1 .
f (0) 0 (0, ) , . f (0) 1 . x 1,y 1
1
f (0) f (1)f ( 1) 1 ef ( 1) f ( 1) e1 .
e

2. lim f (x) limf (x0 h) lim(f (x0 )f (h))


x x0 h 0 h 0

f (x0 )lim(f (h)) f (x0 )f (0) f (x0 )


h 0

3. . f 1 1
f ( 1) e1 f (1) e f R .

. To , ,
( lim f (x), lim f (x)) . lim f (x) , . ,
x x x

e 1 1 . , f () 1 ,
f (2) f 2 () ( 1)2 , f (2)
, . .
f ( x)f (x) 1 ,
: (limf (x))( lim f (x)) 1 .
x x

4. f [0,1]
f (0) f (x) f (1), x (0,1)
1 1
x [0,1] f (0) f f (1) .
2 2
1 1
x [0,1] f (0) f (1) .
3 3
1 1
x [0,1] f (0) f f (1) .
4 2

mathematica -94

1 1 1
3f (0) f f f 3f (1)
2 3 4
1 1 1
f f f
f (0) f (1) .
2 3 4
3
,.., x0 (0,1)
1 1 1
f f f
1 1 1
f (x0 ) 3f (x 0 ) f f f .
2 3 4
3 2 3 4

5. .. f R , 1 1 ,
. f 1 (0, ) R .,
f 1 f . f 1
(0, ) . lim f 1 (x) lim f 1 (x) .
x0 x

1
. y x f (0) f (x)f ( x) f ( x) .
f (x)
1
e
f (1 x) f (1)f ( x) f (x) e e
lim lim lim lim 2 2 e.
x0 f (x) x0 f (x) x0 f (x) x0 f (x) 1

6. , 0 , f 1 () x f (x) f 1 () y f (y) .
,
f (x)f (y) f (x y) x y f 1 () f 1 () f 1 () f 1 () .

f 1 (x2 ) f 1 (xx) f 1 (x) f 1 (x)


7. lim lim lim 11 2 .
x f 1 (x) x f 1 (x) x f 1 (x)

1
8. g(x) f 1 (x) lim g(x)
x x0

e1
0 g() 0 g(e) 0 ,
e
Bolzano x0 (, e) g(x0 ) 0 .

f 1 (f (x)) x 1
9. lim lim lim (x ) .
x f (x) x f (x) x f (x)
59
f x x3 7x 5 .
1. :
. f 1 1 .
mathematica -95

. f x 0 0,1 .
f x 3
,x 1
2. g x x 1 , R , g x


2 3 ,x 1

xo 1 .
3. . lim f x lim f x .
x x
. xo R
f xo 7.
. , 1 ,
xo R , .
4. :
f x x
. lim .
x x4
. , f 3 5 f 2 6 .
:
1. . x1 ,x2 R x1 x2
x x32 x13 7x1 5 x23 7x2 5 f (x1 ) f (x 2 ), f
3
1
R 1 1 .

. f [0, 1] f (0) 5 f (1) 3 f (0)f (1) 0


Bolzano x0 (0,1) f (x0 ) 0
f '1 1' x 0 .

x3 7x 8
2. limg(x) lim
x1 x1 x1
(x 1)(x 2 x 8)
lim lim x2 x 8 10 .
x1 x1 x1

g x 1
2 3 10 2 3 10 0 ( 2)( 5) 0 2 5 .

3. . lim f (x) lim x3 lim f (x) lim x3 .


x x x x

. f R
f (R) ( lim f (x), lim f (x)) ( , ) R 7 R x0 R
x x
f (x0 ) 7 .

. h(x) f (x) 7 [1, 2]

mathematica -96

h(1) f (1) 7 4 0 h(2) f (2) 7 10 0 h(1)h(2) 0
Bolzano x0 (1, 2) h(x0 ) 0 .
f (x)x (x3 7x 5)x
4. . lim lim
x oo x4 x oo x4
(x3 7x 5) x
lim 0
x oo x3 x

. f (3 5) f (2 6) f '1 1'
3 5 2 6 3 7 6 0 2 3 .
60
f [0, 1]
f 2 (0) f 2 (1) 13 6f (0) 4f (1) .
N :
1. f .
2. x1 x 2 (0,1) :
. f y 3x
x1 .
1 1 1
. 12f (x 2 ) 3f 4f 5f .
e 2
3. f (f 1 (lnx 4) 1) 3 .
4. z f (x) if (x) x [0,1] .
. z .
. | z 5 | .
:
1. ,
f (1) 13 6f (0) 4f (1) f 2 (0) 6f (0) 9 f 2 (1) 4f (1) 4 0
2

f (0) 3
f (0) 3 f (1) 2 0
2 2

f (1) 2

f , 0 1 f (0) f (1) ,
f [0,1].

2. . g(x) f (x) 3x,x [0,1] . g


[0,1] g(0) f (0) 3 0
g(1) f (1) 3 2 3 1 0 Bolzano
x1 (0,1) g(x1 ) 0 f (x1 ) 3x1 .

, [0,1] f () f () 3 3
f () 3 f () 3 g() g() , g
mathematica -97

[0,1] . x1 g(x) 0 .
f y 3x .
. f [0,1]
0 x 1 f (0) f (x) f (1) 3 f (x) 2 2 f (x) 3
1 1 1
x [0,1] 2 f 3 6 3f 9 .
e e e
1 1 1
x [0,1] 2 f 3 8 4f 12.

1 1 1
x [0,1] 2 f 3 10 5f 15.
2 2 2
1 1 1
, 24 3f 4f 5f 36 ,
e 2
1 1 1
3f 4f 5f
2
e 2 3 . ,
12
1 1 1
3f 4f 5f
, x2 (0,1) f (x 2 )
e 2
12
1 1 1
12f (x2 ) 3f 4f 5f . f
e 2
[0,1] , x 2 .

3. f (f 1 (lnx 4) 1) 4 x 0
2 lnx 4 3 2 lnx 1 x [e2 ,e1 ]
0 f 1 (lnx 4) 1 1 1 f 1 (lnx 4) 2 . f 1
[0,1] , f 1 (lnx 4) 1 f (f 1 (lnx 4)) f (1)
lnx 4 2 lnx 2 x e2 x e2 .
.

:
2. 2 f (x) 3 x [0,1] ,
f , f (f 1 (lnx 4) 1) 3 x
, .

4. . z i, , R
f (x)

z f (x) f (x)i i f (x) f (x)i
f (x)

z
y x 2 f (x) 3 , , [2, 3]
mathematica -98

z AB y x A(2,2)
B(3,3) .
. z 5 z 5 0i y
B(3,3)

z
(5,0) 5 0i . A(2,2)

(A) (B) 13
15 10 5 2
d(,) :xy 0
12 ( 1)2 2 x
(5,0)

15 10 5 2
z 5 max (A) (B) 13 z 5 min d(,) .
12 ( 1)2 2

:
z
y x x [2,3] z x yi x xi x [2,3] .
z x xi
z 5 x xi 5 (x 5) xi (x 5)2 x 2
x2 10x 25 x2 2x2 10x 25
2 5 5 5
2 2
5
2
25
2
5 25
2 x 2 x 25 2 x 25 2 x
2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2x2 10x 25 x [2,3]
x g x 2x2 10x 25 .
2 5 5 5
2 2

g x 2x 10x 25 2 x 2 x 25 .
2
2 2 2

2 2
5 25 5 25
g x 2 x 25 2 x
2 2 2 2
5
g x x
x 2 5 3
2
2 .. ..
g(x)
5 25
g . 0 .. 9
2 2
g x x1 2 x2 3
g 2 2 22 10 2 25 13 g 2 2 32 10 3 25 13 ,
x1 2 x2 3 g 2 g 3 13 .

5 25 5 2
z 5 min g(x)min g
2 2 2

mathematica -99

z 5 max g(x)max g(2) g(3) 13

61
x
g y 0 g(x) lim
y e xy x 2 1

:
x 0 g(x) 0 . x 0 ex 1 lim (e )
x y
y

x
lim ((e ) x 1) , lim 0 g(x) 0 .
x y 2
y y (e ) x 2 1
x y

x 0 ex 1 lim ((e ) 0 , lim ((e ) x 1) x 1


x y x y 2 2
y y

x x x
lim 2 g(x) 2 .
y (e ) x 1
x y 2
x 1 x 1
x
g(x) 2 , xR .
x 1

62
f 1,4 :
f (x) 0 x [1,4]
f (1) 0
f (1)f (2) f (3)f (4)
:
1. f (x) 0 x [1,4] .
2. g(x) f 2 (x) f (1)f (2)
(1,2) .
3. f .
:
1. f (x) 0, x [1,4] , f
[1,4] . f (1) 0 f (x) 0,x [1,4] .

2. g(x) f 2(x) f(1)f(2) [1,2] , f


[1,4] g(1) f 2 (1) f (1)f (2) f (1)(f (1) f (2))
g(2) f 2 (2) f (1)f (2) f (2)(f (2) f (1)) .
g(1)g(2) f (1)f (2)(f (2) f (1))2 0 (1) .
f (1) f (2) 0 g(x) 0 1 2 .
f (1) f (2) (1) g(1)g(2) 0 Bolzano
g(x) 0 (1,2) . g(x) 0 ,
x1 [1,2] .
mathematica -100

3. h(x) f 2 (x) f (3)f (4) ,


x2 [3,4] , h(x2 ) 0
f 2 (x2 ) f (3)f (4) (2) f 2 (x1 ) f (1)f (2) .
f (1)f (2) f (3)f (4) f 2 (x1 ) f 2 (x2 ) f (x1 ) f (x 2 )
f (x) 0,x [1,4] . f '1 1' x1 x2 f (x1 ) f (x2 ).

:
f 1,4 , f x 0 (1)
1 , 2 1,2 f 1 m,f 2 ,
0 m f x M x 1,2
x 1

0 m f 1 M ( )
x 2
0 m f 2 M

16 x 9 0, m,M 0
0 m 2 f 1 f 2 M 2 0 m 2 f 1 f 2 M 2
f 1 m ,f 2
0 m f 1 f 2 M 0 f 1 f 1 f 2 f 2
f 1 f 2 f 1 , f 2 .
1 2 f (1 ) f ( 2 ) m M f 1,2
f 1 1
1 2
f 1,2 f 1 , 2 1,2 .
,..,
f 1 , 2 ,
1 , 2 1,2
x1 1 , 2 f x1 f 1 f 2
x1 1,2 f x1 f 1 f 2
x2 3,4 f x2 f 3 f 4
f 1 f 2 f 3 f 4 f 1 f 2 f 3 f 4
f x1 f x2 x1 x2 1 x1 2 3 x2 4 .
f 1 1 .

63
1. x0 0 , lim f x limf xo h
x xo h1

mathematica -101

2. f : 0, R
f xy f x f y , x,y R . :
. A f xo 1 , f 0,
. A f xo , 0,1 1, , f
0,
f x
. A f xo 1 lim 1 ,
x1 x 1

f x f 1
lim , 0,1 1, .
x x
:
x
1. h x xoh . x x0 h 1 .
xo
lim f (x) limf (xoh) .
x x0 h1

2. . x 1 f (1) f (1) f (1) 2f (1) 0 f (1) 0 .


limf (x) f (1) 0 , f 1
x1

lim f (x) limf (x0h) lim[f (xo ) f (h)] f (xo ) limf (h) f (xo ) f (1) f (xo )
x x0 h1 h1 h1

xo 0 . (0, ) .

. xo , 0,1 1, .
limf x f .
x
(2) , f xo 1 .
1 1 1
limf x limf x lim f x f lim f u f
x1 x1
x1 u
1 1
f f f f 1 .

x
f f
f x f
. f xo 0 lim lim L
x x x x


x
h x h 1

f h f f f h f 1
L lim lim .
h1 h h 1 h 1

64
mathematica -102

f : R R : f x y f x f y ,
x,y R , R () .
1. f 0 .
2. f x y f x f y x,y R .
3. f x f x 1 x R , N* .
4. f x R ,
f 1 1 f 1 x y f 1 x f 1 y x,y f R .
5. . x 0 f x , f
R .
. f 1 2f (x2 ) f 1 f (3x 1) .
6. f xo 0 limf (x) .
x
:
:
1. x y 0 f (0) 2f (0) f (0) .

2. x y
f (0) f (y) f (y) f ( y) 2 f (y) (1) .
y y
f (x y) f (x) f ( y) f (x y) f (x) 2 f (y)
f (x y) f (x) f (y) ( (1) ) .

3. 1 f (x) f (x) 0 0 0 , .
f (x) f (x) ( 1)(2) ,
1 .
f[( 1)x] f(x x) f(x) f(x) f(x) f(x) ( 1)
( 1)f () ,
.

4. f (0) , f (x) 0
xo 0 .
x1 ,x2 R f (x1 ) f (x2 ) f (x1 ) f (x2 ) 0
f (x1 x2 ) 0 f (x1 x2 ) ( 2) ,
x1 x2 0 x1 x2 , f 1 1 , .
f 1 (x y ) (x y ) f (), f 1 (x) x f ()
f 1 (y) y f ()
f ( ) f () f () f ( ) x y
f 1 (x y ) f 1 (x y ) f 1 (x) f 1 (y)

mathematica -103

5. . x1 ,x2 R x1 x2 x2 x1 0
f(x2 x1 ) f(x2 ) f(x1 ) f(x2 ) f(x1 ) , f
R . f 1 R .
:
' x1 ,x2 R x1 x2
f 1 (x1) f 1 (x2 ) , f f (f 1 (x1) ) f (f 1 (x2 )
x1 x2 , oo .

. f 1 (2f (x2 ) f 1 (f (3x 1) )


2f (x2 ) f (3x 1) f (x2 ) f (3x 1) f (0) f (x2 )
f (x2 3x 1) f ( x2 ) 2x2 3x 1 0
1
x ( ,1)
2

6. limf (x) f (0) , f 0 .


x 0

xo R limf (xo h) lim[f (xo ) f (h) ] f (x0 ) .


h0 h0

f R .

65
f : R R f 3 (x) 5f(x) x 0
x R .
1. f .
2. f .
3. f R
f 1 .

4. f R.
5. f R.
6. f (x 19) x 1.
f 1 (x)
7. lim .
x 0 x

.:
1. f (x)(f 2 (x) 5) x,x R f 2 (x) 5 0
x
f (x) 2 (1) . x 0 f (x) 0 x 0
f (x) 5
f (x) 0 .

mathematica -104

2. x1 ,x2 R f (x1 ) f (x2 )
f 3 (x1 ) f 3 (x 2 ) , 5f (x1 ) 5f (x2 )

f 3 (x1 ) 5f (x1 ) f 3 (x2 ) 5f (x 2 ) x1 x2 f '1 1' .

3. g(x) x3 5x,x R
x1 x2 x13 x23 x13 5x1 x23 5x2
g(x1 ) g(x2 ).
lim g(x) lim (x3 5x) lim (x3 )
x x x

lim g(x) lim (x 5x) lim (x )


3 3
x x x
g g(R) R g(f (x)) x, x R g
g 1 : R R f (x) g 1 ( x),x R.
f R f 1 : R R x
f 1 (x) f 3 (f 1 (x)) 5f (f 1 (x)) f 1 (x) 0
f 1 (x) x3 5x, x R.

4. g(f (x)) x, x R x1 x 2 , x1 x2
g(f (x1 )) g(f (x2 )) g , ,
f (x1 ) f (x2 ), f R.

5. x x0 f 3 (x0 ) 5f (x0 ) x0
f 3 (x) f 3 (x0 ) 5(f(x) f(x0 )) x x0
(f (x) f (x0 )) f 2 (x) f (x)f (x0 ) f 2 (x0 ) 5 (x x 0 )

x x0
f (x) f (x0 ) 4
1 3 2
f (x) 2 f (x0 ) 4 f (x 0 ) 5

x x0 x x0
f (x) f (x 0 ) 4

1 3 2 5
f (x) 2 f (x 0 ) 4 f (x 0 ) 5

x x0 x x0
f (x) f (x0 ) .
5 5
x x0
lim 0 ,
x x0 5
lim(f (x) f (x0 )) 0 lim(f (x)) f (x 0 ) f R .
x x0 x x0

mathematica -105

6. f(x 19) x 1 x 19 f 1 (x 1) (3)
x 19 (x 1)3 5(x 1) (x 1)3 6(x 1) 20 0 Horner
x 1 2 x 1 (x 1)2 2(x 1) 10 0 .
f 1 (x) x 3 5x x0 x 2 5
7. h(x) limh(x) 5.
x x x x 0

x
66 ghan
f : R R , x R : x2 f (x) x2 1 .
1. Cf y 2x
x0 0,1 .
2. f :
1 1
. g(x) x 1 , x R
f (x) e
. ex f (x) exf (x) 0,2 .
1
3. lim x2f ln x .
x 0
x
:
1. h(x) f (x) 2x x R, ,
, h(0) f (0) 0, h 1 f 1 2 0
Bolzano xo 0,1 f xo 2xo .

2. . f x1 , x2 x1 x2 :
1 1 1 1
x1 x2 f (x1 ) f (x 2 ) , ex1 ex2 x1 x2
f (x1 ) f (x 2 ) e e
1
g(x1 ) g(x2 ) g .

.
exf (x) 0
1 1
e f (x) e f (x)
x x
x 1 0 g(x) 0
f (x) e
g :
1 1 1 (f (2)4) 1 1 3 4 3e2
g(0)g(2) 1 0.
f (0) f (2) e 2 f (0) e 2 4 4e 2f (0)

Bolzano g(x) 0 (0, 2)


g.

mathematica -106

1 1 1 1
3. f 2 1 1 x2f 1 x 2
x x x
2
x
1
lnx 1 lnx x2f 1 x 2 lnx
x
1
lim(1 x2 lnx) lim lnx x2f .
x

x0 x0

67
f : (0,1) R
f (x) 5
lim 3 2(x 1) (x 1)f (x) x2 1 x (0,1) .
x0 x
1. g(x) f (x) lnx 3,
x (0,1).

2. h(x) ef (x)3
,
xo 0,1 .

3. xe 3 e
f x

0,1 , R .

:
f (x) 5
1. k(x) ,x 0 , f (x) xk(x) 5 .
x
f (x) 5
lim limk(x) 3 .
x0 x x 0

lim f (x) lim(xk(x)



5) 03 5 5 .
x 0 x 0

2(x 1) (x 1)f (x) x2 1 , x (0,1)


2(x 1) x2 1
f (x) ,
x1 x1
u x 1, x 1 , u 0
2(x 1) 2u x2 1
lim lim 2 lim lim(x 1) 2 .
x1 x1 u 0 u x1 x 1 x1

lim f (x) 2 .
x1

f (0,1)
A (lim f (x), lim f (x)) (2,5) .
x1 x 0

x1 ,x2 (0,1) x1 x2 f (x1 ) f (x2 ) (1) ( f


) .

mathematica -107

x1 ,x2 (0,1) x1 x2 lnx1 3 lnx2 3 (2) .
(1) , (2) g(x1 ) g(x2 ) . g (0,1)
lim g(x) lim(f

(x) ln x 3) lim g(x) lim(f

(x) ln x 3) 2 3 1 .
x 0 x 0 x1 x1

g B (lim g(x), lim g(x)) ( 1, ) .


x1 x 0

2. (x) ef (x)3 x,x (0,1) .


x1 ,x2 (0,1) x1 x2 f (x1 ) f (x2 ) f (x1 ) 3 f (x2 ) 3 .
ef (x1 )3 ef (x2 )3 , (0,1).
u f (x) 3, x 0 , u 2 lim(e
f (x) 3
) lim eu e2
x 0 u2
f (x) 3
lim (x) lim(e

x) e 0 u f (x) 3, x 1 , u 1
2
x 0 x 0

f (x) 3 1 f (x) 3 1
lim(e

) lim (eu )
, lim (x) lim(e

x) 1 0 .
x1 u1 e x1 x1 e
1
(lim (x), lim (x)) ( 1,e 2 ) .
x1 x 0 e
0 , .
(0,1) . , h(x) ef (x) 3
x0 (0,1) .

3. xe 3 ef (x) xe ef (x)3 h(x) xe 0


s(x) h(x) xe ,x (0,1) .
h (0,1) .
x1 ,x2 (0,1) x1 x2 h(x1 ) h(x2 ) x1e x2e ,
s (0,1) .
1
lim s(x) lim(h(x) xe
) e 2
0 lim s(x) lim(h(x) xe
) e
x 0 x 0 x1 x1 e
1
s (lim s(x), lim s(x)) ( e ,e 2 ) .
x1 x0 e
:
1
1 : e 0 ,
e
1 1
e 0 e e1 1 e 1 e0 1 .
e e
, 0 .
1
2 : e 0
e
1 1
e 0 e e1 1 e 1 e0 1 , 0 ,
e e
.

mathematica -108

68 ghan
f : R R f R R x,y R
1
f (x) f (y) x y , 0,1 . :

1. f .
2. f 1 (x) f 1 (y) x y x,y R.
3. f 1 (x) R .
4. f 1 (x) x R .
:
:
1. x x1 ,y x2 :
1
| f (x1 ) f (x 2 ) | | x1 x 2 | (1)
.
f (x1 ) f (x2 ) , (1) :
1
0 | x1 x2 || x1 x2 | 0 x1 x 2 , f 1 1 .

2. x f 1 (x) y f 1 (y)
1
: | x y | | f 1 (x) f 1 (y) || f 1 (x) f 1 (y) | | x y | (2) .

3. (1) y x0 :

| f 1 (x) f 1 (x0 ) | | x x0 | | x x0 | f 1 (x) f 1 (x0 ) | x x0 | (3) .


: lim | x x0 | lim | x x0 | 0 ,
x x0 x x0

(3) :
lim f 1 (x) f 1 (x0 ) 0 lim f 1 (x) f 1 (x0 ) ,
x x0 x x0

f x 0 , R .

4. f 1 1 1 ,
, x .
.

69

mathematica -109

f ,g : R R
f 2 x g 2 x 1 2xf x 2g x , x R .

f x x g x 1 x2 , x R .
2 2
1.
2. f g xo 0 .
f x
3. lim.
x x 2

4. g R , g x 2x
R .

:
1. ,
f (x) g (x) 1 2xf (x) 2g(x) f 2 (x) 2xf (x) g 2 (x) 2g(x) 1 0
2 2

(f 2 (x) 2xf (x) x2 ) (g 2 (x) 2g(x) 1) x 2 (f (x) x)2 (g(x) 1) 2 x2

f (0) 0

2. x 0 (f (0) 0) (g(0) 1) 0
2 2 2

g(0) 1

(f (x) x)2 (g(x) 1)2 x2 (f (x) x)2 x 2 (g(x) 1)2 x 2
(f (x) x)2 x2 f (x) x x x f (x) x x
x x f (x) x x
lim( x x) 0 lim( x x) ,
x 0 x0
limf (x) 0 .
x0

(f (x) x)2 (g(x) 1)2 x2 (g(x) 1)2 x 2 (f (x) x)2 x 2


(g(x) 1)2 x2 g(x) 1 x x g(x) 1 x
x 1 g(x) x 1
lim( x 1) 1 lim( x 1) , limg(x) 1
x 0 x 0 x0
limg(x) 1 g(0) limf (x) 0 f (0) , f ,g
x 0 x 0
x0 0 .

3. x x f (x) x x , x 0 ,
f (x) 2x 2 2
0 2 2 . lim 0 lim 0.
x x x x x x

f (x)
lim 0.
x x 2

4. h(x) g(x) 2x,x R


1 x g(x) 1 x
mathematica -110

x 2 1 g(2) 3
1 4 g(2) 4 3 4 5 h(2) 1 .
h [2,1]
h(1) g(1) 2 1 2 3 0 h(2) g(2) 4 0
Bolzano x0 (2,1)
h(x0 ) 0 g(x0 ) 2x0 , g(x) 2x
.

70
f ,g f x ln x2 x g x ln x 1 .
1. h
f ,g .
2. h 1 .
3. h1 x 1 h x ln h1 ln2 eh e .
:
1. f Af (,0) (1, ) g
Ag (1, ) . Ah (1, ) .

x 1 f (x) lnx ln(x 1) lnx g(x) h(x) lnx .

h(x) 0 lnx 0 x 1 . ,
x 1 0 h .

2. y h(x) y lnx,x 1 x ey ,x 1 h 1 (x) e x ,x 0 .

3. : ex1 lnx ln(eln2 ) elne ex1 lnx ln2 e .


x 2 0 x1 x2
x1 1 x2 1 ex1 1 ex2 1 lnx1 lnx2 lnx1 ln2 e lnx2 ln2 e
,
ex1 1 lnx1 ln2 e ex2 1 lnx2 ln2 e
P(x) ex1 lnx ln2 e (0, ) ,
.

mathematica -111

mathematica -112

50

mathematica -113
+ : 29/01/2012 17/02/2012

:- 50 .
http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=53&t=22305

:
















parmenides51

mathematica.gr.

mathematica -114

71
f R , x 0
f x 0 2h m
lim m R . f (x 0 ) .
h0 h 2

f x f (x 0 ) m
lim .
x x0 x x0 2

0 h 0 )
x o x xo . .

x0 t f x 0 2h
x 0 2h t h h 0, t x 0 lim m
2 h0 h
f t f t f t m
lim m 2lim m lim 1 .
t x0 x0 t t x0 x t
0
t x0 t x
0 2
2

f t m
g(t) t x0 limg(x) .
t x0 t x0 2

f t
g(t) f t g(t) t x 0 ,
t x0
m
limf t limg(t) t x 0
x 0 x 0 0.
t x 0 t x 0 2
f R, limf (t) 0 f (x 0 ) 1
tx0

f t m f t f (x 0 ) m m
lim lim f (x 0 ) .
t x0 t x0 2 t x0 t x0 2 2
B

f x f (x0 ) x x0 2h f x0 2h f (x0 ) f x0 2h f (x0 )


lim lim lim
x x0 x x0 h0 x0 2h x0 h0 2h

f x 0
x x0 2h f x0 2h
f (x0 ) lim f x limf x0 2h lim h
x x0 h0 h0 h

mathematica -115

f x0 2h f x0 2h
f (x0 ) lim h lim lim h m 0 0
h 0 h h 0 h h 0

f x f (x0 ) f x0 2h f ( x0 ) f (x0 )0 1 f x0 2h m
lim lim lim
x x0 x x0 h 0 2h 2 h 0 h 2

m
f x 0 f x0
2

72
f : R R :
f (x)
f (2) 2 lim 3 f (x) 0 x (0, 2)
x0 3x
1. f (0) 0.
2. f (0) 9.
3. f
A(0,f (0)).
4. f (x) 0
(0, 2).
5. (0, 2) f () 2 .
6. x1 , x 2 (0, 2) f (x1 )f (x 2 ) 1.

: . - . ( )

f x f x
1. lim 3 g x limg x 3 , x
x 0 3x 3x x0

0.

f x 3x g x limf x lim 3x g x 03 0.
x0 x0

f x o 0 ( ) f 0 limf x 0.
x 0

2. f ,
f (x) f (0) f (x) f x 3x g x 3x g x
f (0) lim lim lim
x 0 x0 x 0 x 1 x 0 x
3x
lim g x 3 3 9.
x 0 x
mathematica -116

3x 3x (*) u
lim lim 3 3lim 3 limg x 3.
x0
x x0
3x u0 u x 0

(*) u 3x, limu lim3x 0 .


x 0 x 0

f x f 0
f x x0
lim 3 lim 3 (1).
x 0 3x x 0 3x
3
3x

3x u
lim 3 3lim 3 ( u 3x ).
x0
3x u0 u

f x f 0
( 1) x0 h x limh x 3
3x x0
3
3x
f x f 0 3x
3 hx .
x0 3x

f x f 0 3x
lim lim 3 h x 33 9 . f 0 9.
x 0 x0 x 0
3x

3. Cf A 0, f 0
y f 0 f 0 x 0 y 9x.

4. f x 0 1 , 2
1 2 0, 2 . f 1 f 2 0 f
1 ,2 0, 2 ( f )
. Rolle ,
h 1 ,2 f h 0. . f x 0
x 0, 2 . f x 0 0, 2 .

5. h x f x 2 x,x 0, 2 .
h x 0, 2 f

mathematica -117

h 0 f 0 2 2 0 h 2 f 2 2 2 2 0.
Bolzano , 0, 2
h 0 f 2 0 f 2 .

6. f ...
0, , 2 , , (5)
x1 0, x 2 , 2 :

f f 02 f 2 f 2 2
f x1 f x 2 .
0 2 2 2
2
f x1 f x 2 1.
2

73 )
x3 x2
f x x 1 e x , x R.
6 2
1. , ,
.
2. f .
x3 x2
3. e
x
x 1, x R.
6 2
g x g3 x
4. g : R R lim e g x 1.
x 0 6

limg x 0.
x 0

: . ( )

1. f R
x x x x3 x2
2
x3 x
f (x) e x 1 e x 1 e .
2 6 2 6

mathematica -118

, f x - 0 +
( , 0]
x 3 + 0 -
[0, )
ex + +
x 0 f (0) 1. f (x) + 0 -

f(x) 9 . 0
f R x - 0 3 +
x3 - - 0 +

x 2e x + 0+ +
1 x 2e x
f (x) 2 x 3 x
(3x e x e ) (x 3). f (x) - 0- 0 +
6 6
, f f(x) 4 4.3

( , 3] [3, ) M(3,13e 3 ).

2. 1 ( , 0] f (1 ) ( lim f (x), f (0)] ( ,1] f


x

x3
1 lim ( ) , lim e x
x 6 x

2 [0, ) f (2 ) ( lim f (x), f (0)] (0,1]


x

f 2
x3 x2 x2
x 1 x 1
6 2 2 x 1 1
lim f (x) lim lim lim lim 0.
x x ex DLH x ex DLH x e x DLH x e x

f(R) f(1 ) f(2 ) ( ,1].

3. f f (0) 1
x3 x2 x x3 x2
f (x) 1 ( x 1)e 1 e x
x 1.
6 2 6 2
g 3 (x) g 2 (x)
4. (3) : e g(x)
g(x) 1 1
6 2
g x g3 x
lim e g x 1 lim1 1
x 0 6 x 0

:
g 2 (x) g 2 (x) g 2 (x)
lim 1 1 lim 1 1 lim 0 limg 2 (x) 0 (1).
x0 x 0
2 x 0 2 x 0 2

mathematica -119

(x) g 2 (x) lim(x) 1 | g(x) | ((x), lim | g(x) | 0


x0 x 0

| g(x) | g(x) | g(x) | , limg(x) 0.


x 0

74
f R
f () f ()
f (x) x .
2
1. x1 (,) f (x1 ) 0.
2. f () f () 0.
3. (,) f () 0 .
: . . ( )

f () f ()
1. f (x) , x R.
2
f () f ()
x f () f () f () (1).
2
f () f ()
x f () f () f () (2).
2
(1) , (2) f () f ().
f [,] , R,
f (,) , R,
f () f ()
Rolle x1 (,) f (x1 ) 0.

f () f ()
2. f (x) f () f () , x R (3).
2
(3) f x x .
Fermat f () f () 0.

3. f [,x1 ] f R,
f (,x1 ) f R,
f () f (x1 ) 0.
Rolle 1 (,x1 ) f (1 ) 0.

f [x1 ,] f R,
mathematica -120

f (x1 ,) f R,
f () f (x1 ) 0.
Rolle 2 (x1 ,) f ( 2 ) 0.

1 x1 2 1 2 .
f [1 , 2 ] f R,
f (1 , 2 ) f R,
f (1 ) f ( 2 ) 0.
Rolle (1 , 2 ) f () 0.

75
f R
f 3 (x) 3f (x) x x R.
1. f .
2. f f 1 .
3. f .
4. f ,
.
f () f () f ()
5. 0 , .

6. . g(x) f (x) x.
. f (x 2 x) x x 2 .
: . - . ( )

1. f 3 (x) 3f (x) x


f (x) 30
2
1
3f (x)f (x) 3f (x) 1 f (x) 2
2
f (x) 0
3f (x) 3

f R.

2. f 1 1 , .
f .

f 3 (x) 3f (x) x x R.
mathematica -121

A(x) x 3 3x x R A(x) 3x 2 3 0 A(x)


R 1 1
A 1 (x).

lim A(x) lim x 3 3x


x x

, lim A(x) lim x 3 3x .
x x

A R


A R A , lim A(x), lim A(x) , R.
A9

x x

A 1 (x) R.

f 3 (x) 3f (x) x x R.

A f (x) x f (x) A 1 (x) x R.

f A 1 (x)
A(x) R

f (x) y x f 1 (y) , f 1 (x) x 3 3x,x R.



y o R xo y o 3 3y o
f 3 (x 0 ) 3f (x 0 ) x 0 y 03 3y 0 f 3 (x 0 ) y 03 3f (x 0 ) 3y 0 0

f (x 0 ) y 0 f 2 (x 0 ) f (x 0 )y 0 y 0 2 3 f (x 0 ) y 0 0

f (x 0 ) y 0 f 2 (x 0 ) f (x 0 )y 0 y 0 2 3 0.
f(x0 ) y 0 f 2 (x0 ) f (x0 )y 0 y 0 2 3 0
3y 0 2 12 0. f(x0 ) y 0 f R .
f (x) y x f 1 (y) , f 1 (x) x 3 3x,x R.


y o R . x0 y o 3 3y o , f(xo ) y o .

, A f (x) x x R , :

x0 y o 3 3 A(f (x0 )) A(y o ) f (x0 ) y o

A 1 1. .

mathematica -122

x0 y o 3 3y o ,
f , A . f
R .

, y R , x R , f (x) y.

f 3 (x) 3f(x) x y 3 3y x f 1 (y) y 3 3y y R,

f 1 (x) x 3 3x, x R.

3. x 0
f (0)(f 2 (0) 3) 0 f (0) 0, f 2 (0) 3 0.
x 0 f f (x) f (0) f (x) 0
x 0 f (x) f (0) f (x) 0 f 0.

4. 3f 2 (x)f (x) 3f (x) 1


f
6f (x)(f (x))2 3f 2 (x)f (x) 3f (x) 0 f (x)
3(f 2 (x) 1)f (x) 6f (x)(f (x)) 2 . 3(f 2 (x) 1) 0
6f (x)(f (x))2 6f (0)(f (0))2
f (x) (1) x 0 f (0) 0
3(f 2 (x) 1) 3(f 2 (0) 1)
f (0) 0 (3) (3) x 0 f (x) 0
x 0 f (x) 0 f (x) 0, x ( , 0) f
( , 0] f (x) 0, x (0, ) f
[0, ) , O(0, 0) f .

f () f (0) f () f ()
5. (3).
0
f [0, ] , (0, ) ...
f () f (0)
1 (0, ), ..f (1 ) ... [,]
0
f () f ()
2 (,), ..f ( 2 ) .

f 9
f () f (0) f () f ()
1 2 f (1 ) f ( 2 ) .
0

mathematica -123

1 1 3f 2 (x) 3 3f 2 (x) 2
6. ). g (x) f (x) 1 1 0.
3f 2 (x) 3 3f 2 (x) 3 3f 2 (x) 3
g(x) 0, x R g R.

). f (x2 x) x x2 f (x2 x) (x 2 x) 0

g(x 2 x) g(0) x 2 x 0 ( g R )

x ( ,0) (1, ).

76
f : (0, ) R
x 2x
e y f (x) 2xe y f y y x 0 y ,
e e
f (1) 6,f (1) 3.
1. f (x) x 0.
2. f (x) (0, ).
3. f .
4. f (0, )
f A(1,f (1)).
10
5. ,, R 1 ,
3
2 2 2 1.
: . ( )

1. x 1, y lnx x :
1 1
e lnx e lnx
1 2 x 8
6e lnx 2e lnx f lnx lnx f (x) 2x , x 0.
e e x


8
2. f (x) 2x x 2 8lnx f (x) x 2 8lnx c, x 0
x
f (1) 3 c 2 f (x) x 2 8lnx 2,x 0.

3. .

mathematica -124

2(x 2 4) 2 x 2 x 2 x - -2 0 2 +
f (x) ,x 0
x x x -2 - - - 0 +
x +2 - 0 + + +
f x [2, ) f f (x) + - - 0 +
x (0, 2] f
f(x) 0 . 9

x 2 f (2) 6 8ln2.

8 8
4. f (x) 2x , x 0 f (x) 2 2 0,
x x
f A(1, f (1)) y f(1) f (1)(x 1)
y 6x 9.

5. f
,
y f ( x) y f (x) 6x 9, x R x , ,
f () 6 27
f () 6 27
f () 6 27
f () f () f () 6( ) 27
2 2 2 8 ln ln ln 1 8ln() 1 1.
: 1
: 2 2 2 1.

77
f :[0, ) R ,
f (x) f (f (x)) 2x x [0, ).
1. f (x) 0 x [0, ) f (0) 0.
e f (x ) f (x)
2. 0
f (x) f (x) 1
(0, 1). .
3. f x 0 1
f A(1,f (1)). .
: . ( )

mathematica -125

1. f [0, ) f (f (x))
[0, ) f (x) 0 x [0, ).

f (0) f (f (0)) 0 f (0) 0 f (f (0)) 0


f (0) 0 f (f (0)) 0 f (0) 0.

2. ex (f (x) 1) f 2 (x) 0
(0,1).

g(x) ex (f (x) 1) f 2 (x) x [0,1]



g(0) f (0) 1 f 2 (0) 1 0 g(1) e(f (1) 1) f 2 (1).
f (1) 1 f (1) 1 f (1) 1 f (1) 1 f
f (f (1)) f (1)
f (1) f (f (1)) 2 f (f (1)) 2 f (1)
2 f (1) f (1) 2 2f (1) 1 f (1) . .
f (1) 1 f (1) 1
g(1) f 2 (1) 0. . g(0)g(1) 0 Bolzano
g(x) 0 (0,1).

3. f 1 f (1) 1 f
f (1) h(x) f(x) f(f(x)) 1

h(1) f (1) f (f (1))f (1) f (1) f (1)f (1) f (1) (f (1))2


h(x) 2x h(x) 2 h(1) 2.
f (1) (f (1))2 2 (f (1)) 2 f (1) 2 0
f (1) 1, f (1) 2 f ,
, f (1) 1 (1,f (1))
y x.
78
f , g : 0, R , f , f 1 1
f x g x
f e 0 , e x ce , x 0 , c R.
1. x f x x x ln x
Rolle 1,e .
mathematica -126

2. , f ln.
3. c.
4. f .

1.
H [1, e]
H [1, e]
1
(x) f (x) 1 lnx x f (x) lnx.
x
(1) 1 1 0 0

(e) 0 e e 0
Rolle
(1,e) : () 0 f () ln 0 f () ln.

2. (1).

f x g x
3. . x 0 e x ce , c R ,
(2)
ef () ceg() eln ceg() ceg() c 0 eg( ) 0.

4. . (3) ef (x) x f (x) lnx (xlnx x) , x 0


f (x) xlnx x c, x 0 f (1) 1 c 0
f (x) xlnx x,x 0.

79
1
f (x) xe , x R* .
x

1. f
.
2. f .
3. f .
1

4. e x
,
x
R.
1 ln x 1
5. lim f .

x 0 2
x x
mathematica -127

: . ( )

1
1. e R*
x

1
e x , f
x
*
R

x1 x - 0 1 +
f (x) (xe1/x ) e1/x
,x 0.
x x 1 - - 0 +
f (x) 0 x 1 x - 0 + +
x 0 f , f (x) + - 0 +

f f(x) 0 + O. +
f
- 9 0 e9
x ( ,0), f ,
x (0,1], f ,
x [1, ), f .
1
1 f (1) 1 e e. 1

1
limf (x) lim 0 limeu 1
x x x u 0

1
f (1) 1 e e
1

x 1 .

2. f R* x - 0 +
x3 - 0 +
1
1 ex + +
f (x) e1/x ,
x3 f (x) - 0 +
f (x) 0 x ( ,0), f(x) 4 . 3
f (x) 0 x (0, ).

(0, ) ( ,0).

mathematica -128

1
1/x e1/x ( )
e
3. A lim f (x) lim lim x lim e1/x
x 0 x 0 1 / x DLH x 0 1 x 0
( )
x
1
B lim f (x) 00 0 lim lim eu 0
x 0 x 0 x u

1
C lim f (x) , lim 0 limeu 1
x x x u0

1
D limf (x) lim 0 limeu 1
x x x u 0

f 1 = ( , 0)
f(1 ) (D,B) ( ,0).
f 2 = (0,1]
f(2 ) [e, A) [e, ).
f
3 = [1, ,0) f (3 ) [e,C) [e, ).

f () f(1 ) f(2 ) f( 3 ) ( ,0) [e, ).

1

4. e x
x 0
x
f(x) .

y R .
xx' .
Cf y o f(x)

0 1 .
x

y=<0

6 y
4
0 . 2
y==0 x
-1 1 2
-2

mathematica -129

e . y==e
x

y=<e
0 e . x

y
y=>e
e .
x

1 ln(x 1) 1 x ln(x 1) xe ln(x 1)


x
5. f e .
x x2 x x2 x2

1
xe ln(x 1) e x xe x
1 ln(x 1) x (0/0)
x 1
(0/0)
lim f lim lim
x
2
x 0 x x 0 x2 x 0 2x
1
2e x xe x
(x 1) 2
lim 3 / 2.
x 0 2

80
f R f (0) 0
f (x 0 3h) f (x 0 2h)
lim 10x 0e f (x0 ) x0 R
h0 h
1. f .
2. f .
3. .
: . ( )

f (x 0 h) f (x 0 )
1. f (x 0 ) lim R
h0 h
mathematica -130

f (x0 3h) f (x0 ) (*) f (x 0 u) f (x 0 ) f (x 0 u) f (x 0 )


lim lim 3lim 3f (x0 )
h0 h u 0 u u0 u
3

f (x0 2h) f (x0 ) (**) f (x0 u) f (x 0 ) f (x 0 u) f (x 0 )


lim lim 2lim 2f (x0 ).
h0 h u 0 u u 0 u
2
(*) 3h u , limu lim3h 0 .
h0 h 0

(**) 2h u , limu lim( 2h) 0


h 0 h 0

,
f (x 3h) f (x0 2h) f (x0 3h) f (x0 ) f (x0 2h) f (x0 )
lim 0 lim
h 0 h h 0
h h
3f (x0 ) ( 2f (x0 )) 5f (x0 ).
5f (x0 ) 10x0 e f (x0 ) 2x0 ef (x0 ) .
f (x0 )

f f (x) 2xef (x) .


,
2x
x e

f (x) 2xef (x) f (x) f (x) f (x)e f (x) 2x e f (x) 2 f (x)
x 2 c.
e
x 0 e f (0)
c e0 c c 1.


e f (x) x 2 1 lne f (x) ln x 2 1 f (x) ln x 2 1 f (x) ln (x 2 1)
.

2. . f (x) ln(x 2 1),x R.


2x
f R f (x) 2 , x R.
x 1
2x x - 0 +
f (x) 0 2 0 x 0.
x 1 2x + 0 -
f
x 1
2
+ +
( , 0]
f (x) + 0 -
[0, )
f(x) 9 . 0
f (0) 0.

mathematica -131

2(x 2 1)

f R f (x) , x R.
x
2
2
1
2(x 2 1) x - -1 1 +
f (x) 0 0
x
2
2
1 x2 1 + 0 - 0 +
x 2 1 0 x 1 x 1
2
2 + + +
f
f (x) + 0 - 0 +
( , 1] [1, ) .
f(x) 3 . 4 . 3
[1,1].
3. f x 0 0 f (0) 0
f A( 1, ln 2) B(1, ln2).

81
f (x) (x 2)e x 2x 2 3x 2, x R.
1. f f .
2. f
.
3. f .
4. f .
5. f(x) 0 f .
6. Cf .
: .
(21/5/2008)

1. f (x) (x 2)e x 2x 2 3x 2, x R.
f R
f (x) e x (x 2)e x 4x 3 e x (3 x) 4x 3, x R.
f R
4x x 4 4e x
f (x) e (3 x) e
x x x
4 e (4 x) 4 x 4 .
e ex

x 4 4e x A(x)
2. f (x) x .
ex e
A(x) x 4 4e , x R x 0.
x

mathematica -132

A(x) 1 4ex 0, x R A(x) .

x 0 A(x)
( ,0) , (0, ).
, x 1 , A(1) 1 4 4e1 0 , x (,0)
f (x) 0. x 4 , A(4) 4 4 4e4 4e4 0
x (0, ) f (x) 0.

f ( ,0] [0, ).
O(0,f(0)) (0,0).

3. x (0, ) f (x) 0 , f
f9
[0, ) , x 0 f (x) f (0) 0
f (x) 0, x (, 0) f ( , 0].
x (,0) f (x) 0 , f
f0
( ,0] , x 0 f (x) f (0) 0 f (x) 0, x (0, )
f [0, ) f x 0
R.
f R .

4. f R
f (R) ( lim f (x), lim f (x)).
x x


lim f (x) lim (x 2)e x 2x 2 3x 2 ,
x x



x2 1


lim (x 2)e x lim x lim x 0 lim 2x 2 3x 2 .
x x
e
x e x


lim f (x) lim (x 2)e x 2x 2 3x 2
x x

x 2x 2 3x 2
lim (x 2)e 1 .
x
( x 2)e x

mathematica -133

lim (x 2)e x
x


2x 3x 2
2 4x 3 4x 3
lim lim lim
x (x 2)e x DLH x e x (x 2)e x x (x 1)e x DLH

4 4
lim lim 0.
x e x (x 1)e x x xe x


f f (R) lim f (x) , lim f (x) ( , ).
x x

5. f(0) 0 f R , x 0
f (x) 0.
f9
x 0 f (x) f (0) 0 f (x) 0, x (0, ).
f9
x 0 f (x) f (0) 0 f (x) 0, x ( , 0).

6. f R .

lim f (x) lim f (x) , Cf .


x x

f (x) (x 2)e x 2x 2 3x 2
lim
x x
lim
x x
2 2
lim e x x 2x 3 .
x
ex x
Cf

f (x)
lim
x
x

(x 2)e 2x 3x 2
x 2

lim D
x
x LH

lim (3 x)e x 4x 3
x

4x 3
lim e x (3 x) x x ,
x
e e f (x) (x 2)e x 2x 2 3x 2

mathematica -134



4x 4

3
lim x lim x 0, lim x 0.
x e

x e

x e

Cf .

82
f (x) e x x 1.
1. f ,
.
2. f
3. ex (x 1) ex 1
.
x2
4. x
e 1 x ,x 0.
2
5. f (x) f (x2 ) lnx.

1. f (x) e x x 1,x R . f R

f (x) e x 1
f (x) 0 e x 1 0 e x 1 e x e0 x 0
f (x) 0 e x 1 0 e x 1 e x e0 x 0 x 0.
f ( ,0]
[0, ).
x0 0 f (0) 0.
x R* f(x) 0 f x 0.
0
0
e 1x
e x

2. lim lim .
x
x D LH x 1
e x 1
lim f (x) lim e x 1 lim x(
x
1)
x x x
x

lim f (x) lim e x x 1 .
x x

A1 ( ,0] , f ,
f (A1 ) [f (0), lim f (x)) [0, ).
x

A 2 [0, ) , f ,
f (A 2 ) [f (0), lim f (x)) [0, ).
x

mathematica -135

f f (R) f (A1 ) f (A 2 ) 0,

, :

1
ex (x 1) ex 1 x 1
x
x 1 e x
e
x
e x 1 f (x) (1).
y

x
1 : 0 , (1) . y=<0

2 : 0 , (1)
x 0. y==0 x

3 : 0 , (1) .
y=>0
x

x2
3. x
h(x) e 1 x , x R.
2
h R
h(x) e x 1 x f (x) .
A to , x 0 f (x) 0.
x 0 h(x) 0 , h [0, ) ,
h [0, ). x 0
x2 x2
h(x) h(0) e x 1 x 0 ex 1 x .
2 2

mathematica -136

4. f (x) f (x2 ) lnx (2) , x 0


x 1.
f9
0 x 1 0 x x f (x 2 ) f ( x ). 0 x 1
2

lnx 0 , x (0,1) f (x 2 ) lnx f (x).


f9
x 1 , 1 x x 2 f (x) f (x 2 ). x 1 lnx 0 ,
x 1 f (x) f (x 2 ) lnx.
(2) , x 1.

f (x) f (x2 ) lnx f (x) lnx f (x 2 ) 2lnx


f (x) lnx f (x2 ) lnx2 g(x) g(x2 )

g(x) f (x) lnx x (0, )

f (0, ) f (x1 ) f (x2 )


0 x1 x2 f (x1 ) ln x1 f (x2 ) ln x2
ln x (0, ) ln x1 ln x2

g(x1 ) g(x2 )

g (0, ) 1 1 .
g11 x(0, )
g(x) g(x 2 ) x x 2 x 1.

83
f ,g : R R f (x) ex g(x) x 2 x.
1. f (x)
A(0,1) g(x).
( 1,0), e 2 1 0.

2.
3. h(x) f(x) g(x) , :
. h(x) 2 1 x R ( 1,0).
. h(x) 2012 .

1. f f (x) e x ,
f A
1 : y f (0) f (0)(x 0) y x 1.
g B(x0 ,g(x0 )) g(x) 2x 1.
mathematica -137

1 B g(x0 ) x0 1 g(x0 ) 1.
x02 x0 x0 1 (1) 2x0 1 1 x0 1 (1)
B( 1, 0).

2. (x) ex 2x 1.
(x) 1,0

(0) 2 0
( 1) e 1 1 0.
Bolzano [1, 0].

, (1,0) , () 0 e 2 1 0 (2).
(x) e x 2x 1
(x) e x 2 0
.

3.
) h(x) ex x2 x x - +
R h(x) + +
h(x) ex 2x 1
h(x) - 0 +
h(x) e x 2 0.
h(x) 0 . 9
(2) h() 0.
h , h
.
e 210
h(x) h() h(x) e 2
h(x) 1 2 2 h(x) 2 1.
, h(x) 2 1, x R.


) lim h(x) lim e x x 2 x , lim h(x) lim ex x 2 x
x x x x


lim x 2 x .
x

e 2 1 0
h() e
2
1 2 2 2 1.
() 2 1 [1,0]

[1,0]
() 2 1 0 [1,0] .

mathematica -138

[1,0]

1 0 k( 1) k() k(0) 1 2 1 1 .


h (,] limh(x), lim h(x) 2 1,
h0

x x


2012 2 1, , h
x1 (,] ( h0 ) h(x1 ) 2012.


h (, ] limh(x), lim h(x) 2 1,
h9

x x


2012 2 1, , h
x2 (, ) ( h9 ) h(x 2 ) 2012.
84
f f (x) 2e x 2x ex.
1. f .
2. N f(x) 2 .

1.
1 (2x) 1 2ex ex 1 f (x) 2e x ex 1.
g(x) 2e x ex 1, lim g(x) lim (2e x ex 1) ,
x x

1 1 1 1 1
0 g(x) f (x) , 0 lim 0,
g(x) f (x) f (x) g(x) x g(x)

1
lim 0 lim f (x) f(x) 0
x f (x) x

.
h(x) 2e x ex 1, lim h(x) lim (2ex ex 1)
x x

f(x) h(x) 0
lim f (x) f R
x

f (R) R.


f x R x R
f x 2e x 22x e.
f x 0 x R , e 0
x

1 x 2 2x 0 e 2 e 2x.

mathematica -139

f x R
.


f R lim f x , lim f x , ,
x x

1
lim f x lim 2ex 2x ex lim x 2 ex 2x e
1
x x x
x x
1 1
lim ex 0 lim 2x 0

x x

x x

1 2x 1 1 1
lim lim 0 .
x x x x
x x x

1
lim f x lim 2ex 2x ex lim x 2 ex 2x e
1
x x x
x x
ex 1
lim Hospital lim 2x 0
x
x
x x

1 2x 1 1 1
lim lim 0 .
x x x x
x x x

2. 2 f (R) R f R x0 R
f (x0 ) 2. f f (x) 2ex 22x e
2 22x 2 e 2 e 22x e 2 2ex 0,x R
f (x) 0,x R. xo , f x .

85 .
f : R R R* , :
f x xf 2f f
lim .
x x 2



f x xf f x f f xf
lim lim
x x x x

lim
f x f f x
x x

mathematica -140


lim
f x f f

x
x

x

x
x x
f x f 1 1
lim f f f .
x
x x 2

g(x) f x xf , g() 0

g x0
x0 x0

f
g(x0 ) f x0
2 x
f f f 2f f
g() f 2
2 2 2 2

f x xf g(x) g()0 g(x) g() 2f f


lim lim lim g()
x x x a x x x 2

f x f
lim f
x x

f x f
g x ,x
x

limg x f f x f x g x f x x g x f
x

f x xf x g x f xf
lim lim
x x x x

lim

(x )g(x)


x f ()
lim g(x)
x f ()

x x x x 2 2

x


lim g x

x f
lim g x f
x
x
x x

x

mathematica -141

f f f 2f f
f 2 .
2 2 2 2

86
f : R R g : R R
ln(f(x)) g(x) x R.
1. f R.
2. :
(f (1))x (f (2))x (f (3)) x
. lim 0,
x (f (4)) x (f (2)) x (f (3)) x

(f (1))x (f (2))x (f (3)) x


. lim .
x (f (4)) x (f (2)) x (f (3)) x

(f (1))x f (1)
3. lim 2g(1) f (1) 1,
x1 x1
g(1) ln 2.
4. f(1) 2 lim g(x) ,
x

x0 (1, ) f(x0 ) 2012.



1. ., g , f (x) 0, x R
x1 ,x2 R x1 x2 :
g lnx
x1 x 2 g(x1 ) g(x 2 ) ln(f (x1 ) ln(f (x 2 )) f (x 1 ) f ( x 2 ).
f R.

2. . f R ,
f(1) f(2) f(3) f(4).
f (1) x f (2) x
f (3)
x
f (3) 1
f (1) f (2) f (3)
x x x
f (3)
lim = lim 0,
f (4) f (2) f (3)
x x x x x x x
f (2) f (3)
f (4) 1
x
f (4)
f (4)
x
f (3) f (3)
lim 0 , 1,

x f (4)
f (4)
f (1) x f (2) x f (2) x f (3) x
lim 1 1 xlim 1 1.

x
f (3) f (3) f (4) f (4)
mathematica -142

.
f (2) x f (3) x
f (1) 1
x

f (1) f (2) f (3) f (1) f (1)
x x x

lim = lim .
f (4) f (2) f (3)
x x x x x x x
x f (4) f (3)
f (2) 1
f (2) f (2)

f (1)
x
f (1) f (4) x f (3)
x

lim , 1 , lim 1 1

x f (2)
f (2) x
f (2) f (2)
f (2) x f (3) x
lim 1 1.
x
f (1) f (1)
0

(f (1)) f (1)
x 0
3. 2g(1) lim lim (f (1))x ln(f (1)) f (1)ln(f (1))
x1 x1 DLH x1

2g(1) 2ln(f (1))


f (1)1
2ln(f (1)) f (1) ln(f (1)) ln(f (1))(f (1) 2) 0 f (1) 2.

g(1) ln(f (1)) ln 2.

4. h(x) g(x) ln 2012, x R.


g(x) lnf(x) R lnx f (x) ,

h(x) R .

1
h(1) g(1) ln 2012 ln 2 ln 2012 ln ln1006 0
1006
lim h(x) lim g(x) ln 2012 .
x x

lim h(x) , 1 h() 0.


x

h [1,] h(1)h() 0 ,
Bolzano x0 (1,)
h(x0 ) 0 g(x0 ) ln2012 0 ln(f(x0 )) ln2012 f(x 0 ) 2012.

87
5x 5 x
f f (x) 2x.
ln2 5

mathematica -143

1. f x0 0.
2. N x0 0.

1.
5x 5 x

f (x) 2x, f (x) 5x 5 x 2x x 0.
ln5 ln5
h(x) 5x 5 x 2x h(0) 0 ,
1
h(x) ln5 (5x ) 2x,
5x
2 2x 2,
1 1 1
ln5 (5 x x ) 2 ln5 (5 x x ) 2x 2 ln5 (5 x x ),
5 5 5
1 1
ln5 (5 x x ) 2 h(x) 2 ln5 (5 x x ).
5 5
5 5
2 2
1 ln51 1
x
2 5x 1 x
1
h(x) ln5 (5x x
) 2 1 (5x )2 0.
5 5x 5x 5x
h , x 0
.
f (x) 0 x 0.
h9
x 0 h(x) h(0) 0 f (x) 0 f .
h9
x 0 h(x) h(0) 0 f (x) 0 f .
f x0 0.

2. x0 0
2 ln5 1
y f(0) f (0)(x 0), f (0) 0,f (0) 2 2 ,
ln5 ln5
ln5 1
y2 x.
ln5

88
f : R R
f (x) 6 (6x 30)
lim 0 lim f (5).
x 3 x 3 x5 x5
1. f(x) x 2 (3, 5).
2. f , f (x) 0 (3, 5).

mathematica -144


f x 6
1. x 3 g x limg x 0.
x3 x 3

f x x 3 g x 6.

limf x lim x 3 g x 6 00 6 6.
x 3 x3

f xo 3 , f 3 6 .
6x 30
lim f 5 6x 30 u ,
x5 x5
u u
lim f 5 6lim f 5 f 5 6 .
u0 u u0 u

h x f x x 2, x 3, 5 .
h x 3, 5 , f R
h 3 f 3 3 2 6 5 1 0

h 5 f 5 5 2 6 7 1 0.
Bolzano , xo 3,5
h xo 0 f xo xo 2 0 f xo xo 2.

2.
f 3,5 , f 3,5 , f(3) 6 f(5).

Rolle 3,5 f () 0.

f f 3, 5 .

f .

89

f x x3 3x ln x3 1 ,x 1,
g x x 5 x x ln 2, x R.
1. ,
, .

mathematica -145

2. Cf Cg
.
3. ,
f 1,0 g 0,1 .

1. ln(x3 1) ( 1, )
lnx x3 1 .
f ,g,h
(1, ),R,( 1, )
.

h(x) f(x) g(x) x 3 3x ln(x 3 1) x 5 x xln2

3x2
x 0 h(x) 3x 2 (3x )ln3 1 5 x ln5 ln2 0
x 1
3

, x 0 .
(0,f(0)) (0,g(0)) (0,1) .

2. f A(0, 1)
y f(0) f (0)(x 0) y ln3x 1
g A(0, 1) y g(0) g(0)(x 0) y ( 1 ln10)x 1.

3.
3x2
E f (x) 3x 3 ln3 3 0 , f (x)
2 x

x 1

x1 x

f A lim f (x), lim f (x) A ( 1, ). lim f (x) ,
x1

1 2
lim(x 3 3x ) 1 lim(x3 1) 0 lim ln(x3 1)
x1 3 3 x1 x1

lim f (x) , lim (x 3 ) lim (x 3 1) ,


3 x
x x x

x

lim ln(x3 1) f A lim f (x), lim f (x) ( , ) R.
x1 x

lim f (x) 0 1 0,
x1

f () 0. f(0) 1 0, olzano
f (x) [,0] 1,0 x1 ,0 1,0
f(x1 ) 0 f .
mathematica -146

g(x) g(x) (1 5 x ln5 ln2) 0, g(x)



g R lim g(x), lim g(x) .
x x


lim g(x) lim x 5 x x ln 2 ,
x x


lim g(x) lim x 5 x x ln 2 lim 5 x x(1 ln 2) .
x x x


g(x) g R lim g(x), lim g(x) , R.
x x

4
g(x) 0,1 g(0) 1 0 g(1) ( ln2) 0
5

olzano x2 0,1 g(x2 ) 0


g.

90
1. r 0, lnr r 3 0.
1
2. f :(0, ) R f (x) 1 (lnx 2).
x
. f (x) .
. r (1) :
(r 1)2
i. f (x) 0 x 0,
r
ii. xo r f(xo ) f (xo ) 0.

1. g(x) lnx x 3 , x 0.
g : [1,e]
g(1)g(e) 2(e 2) 0, Bolzano
r (1,e) 0, g(r) lnr r 3 0. g
(0, )
1
g(x) 1 0 x 0 0, ,
x
r.

1 11 1 g(x)
2. . f (x) (lnx 2) 1 2 lnx x 3 2 .
xx x
2
x x
mathematica -147

f (x) 0 g(x) 0 x r ( (1)


0 x r g g(x) 0 f (x) 0,
f (0,r],
x r g g(x) 0 f (x) 0 ,
f r, ,
x r f ()
r 1 (1)
2
1 r 1
f (r) 1 lnr 2 1 r
r r r
lnr r 3 0 lnr 3 r.

r 1 r 1
2 2

. i. x 0 : f (x) f (r) f (x) f (x) 0.


r r

ii. h(x) f (x) f (x).


h [r,e2 ]
r 1
2
e2 1
h r f r 0, 1 r e h e f e 4 0
2 2

r e
h r h e 0.
2

Bolzano

x0 r,e 2 r, h x0 0 f x0 f x0 0.

91
f : R R :
(x 2)f (x) (x2 4)
f(x) 0 , x R lim 2
x 2 x1 1
1. . f(2) 5.
. x0 (1, 2),
1 1 2012
.
x 0 1 x 0 2 f (x 0 )
2. f 2 (x) f (x2 ) 2x2 , x R , :
. f(1) 2.
.
(1,f (1)).
. (1, 2), ( 3)f () f () 1.

mathematica -148


(x 2)f (x) (x 4)
2
1. ) g(x) , x 2
x1 1
x 2
(x 2 4)
f (x)
g(x) x2
x1 1
x2
x1 1 x 11 1 1
lim lim

lim
x 2 x2 x 2
(x 2) x 1 1 x 2 x1 1 2

(x 2 4) (x 2 4)
lim (x 2) 4, u x 4 x 2 u 0
2
lim
x2 x2 x2 x 4
2

(x 4)
2
u
lim lim 1 limf (x) f (2),
x 2 x 4
2 u 0 u x 2

f
f (2) 4
limg(x) 2 2f (2) 8 f (2) 5.
x2 1
2

) (x 2)f(x) (x 1)f(x) 2012(x 2)(x 1) 0


(1, 2).
h(x) (x 2)f(x) (x 1)f(x) 2012(x 2)(x 1)
[1,2]
h(1) f(1) h(2) f(2) 5 f(x) 0
R.
f(2) 5 0 f (1) 0, h(1) f(1) 0
h(1)h(2) 0 Bolzano h(x) 0 (1, 2).

2. ) x 1 f 2 (1) f (1) 2 f 2 (1) f (1) 2 0


f(1) 1 f(1) 2 f(1) 2 1().

) f (x 2 ) R
f (x) x 2 . f 2 (x) f (x2 ) 2

mathematica -149

2f (x)f (x) 2xf (x2 ) 0 f (x)f (x) xf (x 2 ) 0 x 1


f (1)f (1) f (1) 0 f (1) 0, (1,f(1))
y f (1) f (1)(x 1) y 2.

) F(x) (x 3)f(x) x,x [1,2]


F(x) (x 3)f (x) f (x) 1
F(1) 2f(1) 1 3 F(2) f(2) 2 3, F(2) F(1)
Rolle (1,2), F() ( 3)f () f () 1 0,
( 3)f () f () 1.

92
1. f (x) ln(e x x) x. ,
;
2. g(x) ln(e x x), f(x), g(x) ,
x xo 0 , y'y
3. f (x) r1 ,r2
2 r2
: . f (r1 ) ef (r1 ) r1 2 1 r1 , . er1 r2
2 r1

1. f (x) ln(ex x) x x - 0 +
ex x 0. (x) ex x,x R (x) e x 1 - 0 +
A(x) R (x) 0 . 9
(x) ex 1. x 0 e 1
x

A(x) x 0
(0) 1, x R (x) (0) ex x 1 0.
H ln(ex x) x - 1 +
R lnx ex x , f x-1 - 0+
R ex-x + +
f(x) - 0+
ex 1 ex 1 ex x x 1 f(x) 0 . 9
f (x) x 1 x
e x ex x e x

f (1) 0. x 1 f (x) 0,

mathematica -150

f [1, ) x 1

f (x) 0, f ( ,1].
x0 1 f(1) ln(e 1) 1 0,
1 e 1 2 0 ln(e 1) ln2 1 ln(e 1) 1 ln2 1 0.
f(0) 0 0 ( ,1) ( ,1) 0
ex x x
f (x) ln(e x) lne ln x ln 1 x
x x

e e


x 1
lim x
lim x 0 lim f(x) 0 f A [1, )
x e DLHx e x

f (A) [f (1), lim f (x)) [ln(e 1) 1, 0).


x

0 [ln(e 1) 1,0) 0.

2. g R .
O A(x0 ,f(x0 )) B(x0 ,g(x0 ))
y f(x0 ) f (x0 )(x x0 ) (1) y g(x0 ) g(x0 )(x x0 ) (2).
(1) yy x 0 y1 f(x0 ) f (x0 )x0
(2) y 2 g(x0 ) g(x0 )x0 f(x) g(x) x f(x0 ) g(x0 ) x0
f (x0 ) g(x 0 ) 1, y1 f(x0 ) f (x0 )x0
y1 g(x0 ) x0 (g(x0 ) 1)x0 g(x0 ) g(x 0 )x 0 y 2 ,
y y.

x1
3. f (x)
ex x
ex x (x 1)(ex 1) 2ex xex 1
f (x) (3).
(ex x)2 (ex x)2
h(x) 2ex xex 1
h(x) 2ex ex xex ex xex (1 x)ex x - 1 +
h(1) 0 h(x) 0 x 1 1-x +0 -
h(x) 0 x 1 h e x
+ +
(,1] [1, ). (x) +0 -
x0 1 (x) 9 . 0
h(1) 2e e 1 e 1 0
2 2 4
h( 2) 1 1 0
e2 e2 e2
mathematica -151

h(2) 2e2 2e2 1 1 0 h( 2)h(1) 0, ..h(1)h(2) 0.


Bolzano
r1 (2,1),r2 (1,2) h(r1 ) h(r2 ) 0,
h(x) 2ex xex 1 r1 (,1]
r2 [1, )
h(x)
h(x)
f (x) f
(e x)2
x

A(r1 ,f(r1 )), B(r2 ,f(r2 )).

. r1 (,1] r2 [1, )
1
h(x) 2ex xex 1 2e 1 r1e 1 1 0 (2 r1 )e 1 1 2 r1
r r r

er1
1 r1 1 r 1 1
(1 r1 )er1 1 er1 r1 r11 r1 f (r1 ) 2 r1
1 e r1
e e r1 e .
er1 r1
e f (r1 )
e ln(er1 r1 )r1
r1
r1 1 f (r1 )ef (r1 ) (r1 2)(1 r1 ).
e

. (2 r1 )er1 1 (2 r2 )er2 1
(2 r1 )e r1 2 r2
1 er1 r2 .
(2 r2 )e r2
2 r1

93
f (x) , [0,1]
: 2f (x) f 2 (0) f 2 (1) 2 x [0,1].
1. . c (0,1) f (c) f (1) f (0).
. f(0) 1 f(1) 1.
. f (x) f (x) 2
x [0,1].
. 1 f(x) 1 x [0,1].
A t (0,1) , :
2. . r1 (0,t) tf (r1 ) f(t) 1.
. r2 (t,1) (t 1)f (r2 ) f(t) 1.
. f (x) x [0,1].

mathematica -152


1. ) f [0,1] (0,1)
[0,1] , ... f [0,1] c (0,1)
f (1) f (0)
f (c) f (1) f (0).
10

) 2f (c) f 2 (0) f 2 (1) 2


(1) , 2(f (1) f (0)) f 2 (0) f 2 (1) 2
f 2 (0) 2f (1) 1 f 2 (1) 2f (0) 1 0
(f (0) 1)2 (f (1) 1)2 0 (f (0) 1)2 (f (1) 1)2 0
(f (0) 1)2 (f (1) 1)2 0 f(0) 1,f(1) 1.

) 2f (x) f 2 (0) f 2 (1) 2 f(0) 1,f(1) 1


2f (x) 4 f (x) 2 0, f [0,1].


2f '(x) f 2 (0) f 2 (1) 2 2 f 2 (0),f 2 (1) 0 , f
[0,1] .

) f A [0,1]
f(A) [f(0), f(1)] [1, 1], 1 f(x) 1, x [0,1].

2. ) [0,t],t (0,1) ... f


f (t) f (0)
r1 (0,t), f (r1 ) tf (r1 ) f (t) 1.
t
3.
) [t,1] ... f r2 (t,1)
f (t) f (1)
f (r2 ) (t 1)f (r2 ) f (t) 1.
t 1

) (1) f (r1 ) 2,f (r2 ) 2 (2),


f (t) 1 f (t) 1
(2) , 2 f (t) 2t 1 2 f (t) 2t 1
t t 1
t (0,1), f(t) 2t 1,t (0,1) f(0) 1,f(1) 1
f(x) 2x 1, x [0,1].

mathematica -153

94
f , .
f f 0 :
1. : f f 0.
2. f .
3. x0 ,
f x0 f x0 .

1. f f [,].
f [,] , (,) f() f().
Rolle (,)
f () 0.
f , f ,
f () f () f () f () 0 f () f ()f () 0.

2. x f () f (x) f () f (x) 0 , f
(,] ( ) .

x f(x) f() f(x) 0.


x f () f (x) f () 0 f (x) , f
[,).
x f(x) f() f(x) 0.
f(x) 0, x (,), f() 0, f() 0.

3. f(x) f (x) x (,) ,


f (x) f (x) 0 e xf (x) e xf (x) 0 (e xf (x)) 0,
g(x) e xf (x) (,).
g() g() e f () e f () 0 0 , .
xo (,) f(xo ) f (xo ).

95


f (x) ln x x 2 1 .
mathematica -154

1. f '
.
2. Cf
.
f (x)
3. lim .
x ln x

4. f (x) 2x f 3x .


1. x 2 1 x 2 x x. x x2 1 0 (1).

f , x x2 1 0 (1)
x R x2 1 0 x R.
f R.
x2 1 R
x x2 1 . x x2 1 R


. f (x) ln x x 2 1
R lnx x x2 1 .

f R R .

x
1
x2 1 x2 1 x 1
f (x) 0, x R.
x x2 1 x 2 1( x 2 1 x) x2 1

x R f (x) 0 , f
R

2. f R ,
x
f (x) 2
(x 1)

x
f (x) 0 0 x 0 x 0
(x 1)
2

x
f (x) 0 2 0 x 0 x 0.
(x 1)
f ( ,0] [0, ).
x 0 , f(0) 0

mathematica -155

3.

1

ln(x x 2 1)
lim x 1 lim
f (x) 2 x x
lim lim lim 1.
x ln x x DLH x 1 x x
ln x x 1
2
1
x 1 2
x x
4. f(3x) 2x f(x) x 0.
f9 x0
x 0 3x x 0 f (3x) f (x) f (3x) 2x f (x).
f9 x0
x 0 0 x 3x f (x) f (3x) f (x) 2x f (3x).
x 0 .


f (x) 2x f (3x) f (x) x 3x f (3x) g(x) g(3x)

g(x) f (x) x x R

f f (x1 ) f (x 2 )
0 x1 x2 f (x1 ) x1 f (x 2 ) x 2
x x1 x2

g(x1 ) g(x2 )

g R 1 1 .
g11
g(x) g( 3x) x 3x 3x x 0 x 0.

96
1 x 1 x1
f f x ln 1 .
4 2

1. f
x'x.
2. f
.
f x
3. x 1 x 0.
1
4ln
2

mathematica -156


1. f
x x 1 2x x 2
1 1 1 1 1
1 0 2 1 0 x 1 0
4 2 2 2 2
1
x
1 0 2x 1 x 0.
2
f Af , 0 0, ,
1 x 1 x1 1
2
1
f x ln 1 ln x 1 2ln x 1 , x 0.
4 2 2 2

1 1
f (x) 0 2ln x 1 0 x 1 1
2 2
1 1 1 1
x 1 1 x 1 1 x 2 x 0 x 1 .
2 2 2 2
A(1,0) xx.

2
1 x
2. 1 R
2

2
1 x
. ln 1
2

2
1 x
R lnx 1 .
*
2


1
f x 2ln x 1 2
1
1
2 2
x 2x x
x
2 x
2

0 ,
2 1 1 2 2 1
2x
f .

3.
1 2x
2
1
f x 2ln x 1 2ln
2 x
2ln 1 2x 2ln2x 2 ln 1 2x xln2
x 0

mathematica -157

f x
x1
2 ln 1 2x xln2
x1

1 4ln2
4ln
2
x 0 2x 1
ln 1 2 xln2 2xln2 2ln2
x

ln 1 2x xln2 2ln2


ln 1 2x ln2 x ln22 ln 1 2x ln2 x 2 1 2x 1
4 2x


2 2 2
4 2x 4 2x 1 4 2x 4 2x 1 0 2 2 x 1 0
.

97
1. h,g h(x) g(x) x x 0 ,
x0 R { }.
:
. lim g(x) lim h(x) ,
xx0 xx0

. lim h(x) lim g(x) .


xx0 xx0

2. f : R R :
x2
f x 2012 2
x R.
x ex
. f
.
. g(x) f(x) 2011x R.
. f .
. lim f x 2 f x .
x


1. . limg(x) 0. xo h(x) g(x) 0,
x xo

1 1 1
0 lim 0 limh(x)
h(x) g(x) x xo h(x) x xo

h(x) g(x) 0.

. limh(x) 0. xo 0 h(x) g(x)


x xo

1 1 1
0 lim 0,
h(x) g(x) x xo g(x)

mathematica -158

limg(x) 0 h(x) g(x).


x xo

x 2 ex ex ex
2. . f (x) 2012 2011 2 x 0,
x 2 ex x e
R .
ex x(x 2)
f (x) f (x) 0 x 0, x 2 ,
[x2 ex ]2
x - 0 2 +
x 2 - - 0 +
x - 0 + +
f (x) + 0 - 0 +

f(x) 3 . 4 . 3

f (x) (,0],[2, )
[0,2] x 0, x 2.

. g(x) f (x) 2011 0 ( ()) g .

. :

g9
x 2 g(x) g(2) f (x) 2011x f (2) 4022 f (x) 2011x f (2) 4022
E1
lim f (x) lim 2011x f (2) 4022 lim f (x) .
x x x

g9
x 0 g(x) g(2) f (x) 2011x f (0) 0 f (x) 2011x f (0)
E1
lim f (x) lim 2011x f (0) lim f (x) .
x x x

f(( , )) ( , ).

.
... f [x,x 2]
f (x 2) f (x)
x, x 2 , f () f (x 2) f (x).
(x 2) x
f (x) 9
f (x 2) f (x)
x x 2 f (x) f () f (x 2) f (x) f (x 2)
2

mathematica -159




ex ex

lim f (x) lim 2011 2 2011 xlim
x x
x ex DLH x 2 e x DLH



e x e x
ex
2011 lim 2011 lim 2011 lim x 2011 1 2012
x 2x e x DLH x 2 e x DLH x e

lim (x 2) lim f (x 2) .
x x


f (x 2) f (x)
lim[f (x 2) f (x)] lim 2 (2012)2 4024.
x x (x 2) x

98 parmenides51
f : R R f (x) 0 x R ,
lim f (x) 0. :
x

1. f .
2. f(x) 0 x R.
: . ( )

1. x R , f (x) 0 , f(x)
f
, .
f (x) y 1 x R.
xo f (xo ) 0.
xo

y f (x 0 ) f (x 0 )(x x o )
y f (x 0 )x x of (x 0 ) f (x 0 ).

(1) f (x) f (x0 )x xof (x0 ) f (x0 ) 2


lim f (x0 )x xof (x0 ) f (x0 ) lim (f (x0 )x) lim f (x) 0 (2)
x x x

. A x f (x) 0 3 .
f , f
( (3)) ( ),
f .

mathematica -160

.
f , f () f () 0,

Rolle f [,] (,), f () 0


f (x) 0 .

f (x) 0 , (3)

f .

2. x1 R f(x1 ) 0.
f 0R
x x1 1 x1 f (x) f (x 1 1) f ( x1 ) 0

o.
lim f (x) lim f (x1 1) lim f (x1 ) lim 0
x x x x

f 0R
0 f (x1 1) f (x1 ) 0 0 f (x1 1) f (x1 ) 0 0 0 , .

f(x) 0 x R.

99
f : R R f x y 4xy f x f y
x, y R.
1. f 0 1.
2. f 0 0 , :
. f R.
. g : R R g x 2 f x R.
x 2

. f .

1. x y 0
f 0 40 f 0 f 0 1 f 0 .

2. . x 0
f (x0 h) f (xo ) 4x0h f (x 0 )f (h) f (x o ) 4x0h f (h) 1
lim lim f (x0 )lim
h 0 h h0 h h 0 h

mathematica -161

x0h f (h) 1 4x0h 1


f (x 0 ) lim 4 2x 0f (x 0 )ln2.
h0
h h
f (h) 1 f (h) f (0)
lim lim f (0) 0,
h0 h h0 h0
0
0
4 1
x0h
x 0 4x0h ln 4

lim lim x 0 ln 4.
h0 h DLH h0 1
, f f (x) 2xf (x)ln2.

2

g x 2 x f x 2x2 x ln 2f x 2 x f x 2 x 2x ln 2f x f x 0,
2 2 2

g(x) c g 0 1 g(x) 1.

. () g(x) 1 2 x f x 1 f x 2x .
2 2

100
f : (0, ) R f(x) x ln lnx, 0.
1. 0, f(x) 0 x 0.
e :
2. f e x
x e

x 0.
3. e x , x 0.
x e

4. , x x
x x

x 0.
: . ( )

1. f x 0, x 0, f() 0 f x f , x 0,
f f f (
) 0, (
) Fermat : f 0 : 1 .

1
f x ln f ln ln 1 ln 1 0 ln 1 e.
x

mathematica -162

2. e f x x elnx x - 0 e +
e xe x-e - - 0 +
f x 1

x x x - 0 + +
xe f (x)
f x 0 0 x e. - 0 + +
x
f(x) 0 . 9

x 0 x e f o 0,e
0 x e x e 0 0 f x 0 f
x
0,e

f o e,
xe x 0
x e x e 0 0 f x 0 f
x
e, , f e 0

x 0, f x 0 x e lnx 0
ln 9
x e lnx lne lnx e x x e , x 0, .
x e

3. ex xe lnex lnxe xlne elnx f x 0 x e


f e 0
f o 0,e
0 xe f x f e f x 0 f x 0, x 0,e
f o e ,
xe f x f e f x 0 f x 0, x e, .

4. (2) : ex xe : 1 , x 0, .
x x x x : 2 x 0, , x e
e e e e (3) (1) e e e e
e e e e (4).

(3) (4) e e e e e e e e 0.
e e 0 e e 0, e e 0 e e 0
E3 E3
e 0 e e e 0 e e .
e e e e

101
f : R R , :
2f x f x x x R.

mathematica -163

1. f .
2. : f x f y x y , x R.
x1 x 1
3. : f x , x R.
2 2
4. f f 1 f .

1. f (x) R
x f (x) . 2f (x) f (x) x
R

2f (x) f(x)f (x) 1 (2 f(x))f (x) 1
2 f(x) 0 f (x) 0,x R , f
R.

2. x y .
f (x) f (y)
x y x y, 1 1 .
xy
[x,y] f
(x, y)
f (x) f (y) 1
f () f ()
xy 2 f ()
1 f (x) f (y)
. 1
2 f () xy
1
1 2 f () 1 1 f (x) 1 .
2 f ()

3. x 1 2f(x) x 1 x 1 x f(x) x 1,
1 f(x) 1, x R .

4. :
x 1 x1
lim lim
x 2 x 2

x1 x 1
f x , x R lim f (x)
2 2 x

mathematica -164

x1 x1
lim lim
x 2 x 2

x1 x 1
f x , x R lim f (x)
2 2 x

f R
f9
f (R) ( lim f (x), lim f (x)) ( , ) R
x x

f f '1 1' x
1

f 1 (x) 2f (f 1 (x)) (f (f 1 (x))) f 1 (x) 2x x f 1 (x) .

:
x1 x1
lim 0
x 2 2
x1 1 2 2
f (x) 0 0 lim 0
2 f (x) x 1 x x 1

1
lim 0 f (x) 0 lim f (x)
x f (x) x

x1 x1
lim f (x) lim f (x)
x 2 2 x

f R
f (R) ( lim f (x), lim f (x)) ( , ) R f 1
x x

f '1 1' x
f 1 (x) 2f (f 1 (x)) (f (f 1 (x))) f 1 (x) 2x x f 1 (x) .

102
f : 0, R , :
xe f 2 x 2 x 0, .
f x

1. f x f x x 0, .
2. f .
3. f .
4. f 1 .

1. xe f 2 x 2 xe e f 2 x e
f x f x f x
2e
f x f x

x f 2 x e
f x f x
2e . ef (x) (0, )
e x f (x) .

mathematica -165

x f 2 (x)e f (x) 2e f (x) (0, )



1 2f x f x e f 2 x e f x 2e f x
f x f x f x

e
f x
2f x f x f x f x 2f x f x 2
f x
e 2
,
f x 2f x 2
x 0, .
( f 2 x 2f x 2
f 2 x 2f x 2 0 f (x) R x 0, .

e
f x

2. (E1) f x 2 0 x 0, .
f x 2f x 2
f 0,
0, .

e
f x

3. f x
f 2 x 2f x 2
0, ,

e f x 2f x 2 ef x f 2 x 2f x 2

f x 2

f x
f x 2f x 2
2
2

e f x f x 2f x 2 e 2f x f x 2f x
f x 2 f x


f x 2f x 2
2
2

f x 2f x 2 2f x 2 f x 2
2
2

e f x e f x 0
f x f x

f x 2f x 2 f x 2f x 2
2 2
2 2

6
x 0, , x .
e2
x0 (0, ) f (x0 ) 2 xe f 2 x 2
f x

6
x o e 2 22 2 x o .
e2
. f '1 1' .
.(
f ).

mathematica -166

x f 2 x e 2e x 0, .
f x f x

T(x) x 2e x 2e x R

T(x) x 2e x 2e x 2xe x x 2e x 2e x


e x x 2 2x 2 e x x 2 2x 1 1 e x x 1 2

1 0.
T 1 1,
T 1 .

x f 2 x e x 0,
f x f x
2e
x T f x T1 x f x x 0, .
f ( f ) f T 1 ,

T 1 T R .

f(f ) R.

f 1 f 1 R
f ( f 1 ) 0, x f 1 (x) x f 2 x e 2e
f x f x

1 f (f 1 (x)) 1 x2 2
1 1
f (x)e (f (f (x))) 2 f (x)e x 2 f (x) x , x R.
2 x 2

103
1. ex x lnx x 0, .
2. x t, t 0,
f x e x g x ln x A, B .
. AB t 0,
AB d t .
. d t 0
0,1 .
. d t 0 0,1 .

mathematica -167

1. x - 0 +
h(x) e x x,x R h(x) e x 1 . h(x) ex 1 - 0 +
h
h(x) 0 . 9
h x o 0
h(0) 0 x R ,
h(x) h(0) e x x 0 e x x.
x 0, , x lnx e x x
elnx lnx x lnx ex x lnx x 0, .


2. . A t, f (t) A t, e t B t, g(t) B t, ln t .

A d(t) AB x x y y
2 2
(t t)2 ( et ln t)2 e t lnt 0
(1).

. d(t) e t lnt 0 (0, )


1 1
, d(t) e t , d(t) e t 2 0
t t
d(t) (0, ) ..
d'(t) (0,1]
d(1) e 1 0,
limd
(t) 0, 0 0 : d() 0
t 0

olzano, t 0 ,1 0,1 : d(t 0 ) 0


d(t) t 0 .

1 x 0 t0 1
. d(t) e t ,
t 1 + +
d(t) e t 0
t2
t 0 ,1 0,1 1
d(t) e t , - 0 +
t
(2).
d 9
d(t) 0 . 9
x t 0 d(x) d(t 0 ) 0,
d 9
x t 0 d(x) d(t 0 ) 0.
d t 0 0,1 .

mathematica -168

104

1
f f x ln 1 e x x.
3

1. .
2. lim f x lim f x .
x x

3. .
4. Cf .
: Annales corriges 2010 - Mathmatiques - Bac, Vuibert

1. f .
1 e x 0 x R. f R.
1 e x R
. ln(1 e x ) R
ln x 1 e x . f R
e x 1 3e x 1 e x 2e x 1
f (x) , x R.
1 ex 3 1 ex 1 ex
:
2e x 1 1 1
f (x) 0 0 2e x
1 0 e x
x ln x ln 2,
1 ex 2 2
2e x 1 1e x 0 1 1
f (x) 0 x
0 2e x 1 0 e x x ln x ln 2.
1e 2 2
x - ln2 +
f 2e x 1 - 0 +
( , ln 2]
x
[ln 2, ) ]. 1 e + +
f (x) - 0 +
x0 ln 2
h(x) 0 . 9
ln 2 3 ln 2 ln 2 2ln 2
f (ln 2) ln(1 e ln2 ) ln ln 3 ln 2 ln 3 .
3 2 3 3 3

2.
x x ex 1 x x
lim f (x) lim ln(1 e ) lim ln x lim ln(e x 1) x
x x
3 x e 3 x 3

mathematica -169

2x
lim ln(e x 1) .
x
3
3e x

3ln(e x 1)
3e x 3e x
lim e 1 lim x
x 3
lim lim .
x 2x DLH x 2 x 2e 2 x 1
2e x (1 x ) 2
e

x x ex 1 x x
lim f (x) lim ln(1 e ) lim ln x lim ln(e x 1) x
x x
3 x e 3 x 3

2x 2x 3ln(e x 1) 3
lim ln(e 1) lim
x
1 ( ) 1 .
x
3 x 3 2x 2

3. f R , .
lim f (x) lim f (x) , f .
x x


2x ex 2
ln(e x
1)

lim
3
lim e 1 3 1
f (x) x 2 1
lim
x x x x DLH x 1 3 3


1 2x 1
lim f (x) x lim ln(e x 1)
x
3 x
3 3 x

x lim ln(e x 1) x

ex 1

lim ln(e x 1) ln e x lim ln x 0.
x x
e
1
y x .
3
2x ex 2
ln(e x
1)



lim
3
lim e 1 3 0
f (x) x 2 2
lim
x x x x DLH x 1 3 3
2 2x 2x
lim f (x) x lim ln(e x 1)
x
3 x 3

3 x

lim ln(e x 1) 0.

2
y x .
3

4. x 0 :

mathematica -170

1 2x 1
f (x) x ln(e x 1) x
3 3 3
ln(e x 1) x 0 ln(e x 1) ln e x 0
ex 1 ex 1
ln x ln1 x 1
e e
x 0. y
x 0
2
f (x) x
3 1
f x ln 1 e x x
3
2x 2
ln(e x 1) x
3 3
ln(e x 1) 0 x
x 0. y
1
x
f 3 2
y x
3
.

105
ln x
f (x) , x 0.
x
1. f .
2. .
3. R,
x e x , x 0.


(x)x x
x
4. (0, ).
2
5. (0, ),
Cf M(,f ()) y y 2010.
ln2 (x 1) ln 2 x
6. x e f (x 1) f (x).
2
7.
lim ln2 (x 1) ln2 x .
x

: . ( ) . ( )

mathematica -171

1. f 0,
1 ln x 1 ln x
f x 2
. f x 0 0 x e
x x2

f x 0 0 x e , x - 0 e +
1-ln x + + 0 -
f x 0 x e. f x2
+ 0 + +
(0, e] f (x) + + 0 -
[e, )
1 f(x) 9 . 0
x e f e .
e

2. f (0, e]
1 ln x 1
f (0, e] ( lim f x , f e ] ( , ] lim f x lim lim ln x .
x0 e x0 x0 x x0
x
f [e, )


x
1
f [e, ) lim f x ,f e 0, lim f x lim
e x
ln x
x x
1
lim 0 ,
x x

DeLHospital.
1 1 1
f Df f (0,e] f [e, ) , 0, , .
e e e

3. x ekx , x 0 f x k.
lnx
x 0 , x ekx ln x lnekx ln x kx k f (x) k :
x
y
ln x
f (x) , x 0.
x
x

k 0 , y k0

y
1
1 y k, 0 k
0 k , e
x
e lnx
f(x) ,x 0.
x

mathematica -172

y
1
yk
1 e
k , x
e ln x
f (x) , x 0.
x

y 1
y k, k
e
1
k . x
e ln x
f (x) , x 0.
x

4.
x x x ln x x ln x
x x

ln x ln x
f x f x .
x x

x 0, , f , 1 1.
2

f x f x x x, x .
4

5. Cf M , f

ln 1 ln
y f f x y x .
2
0, 2010 :
ln 1 ln ln 1 ln
2010 0 2010 2010 ln 1 ln
2

2ln 2010 1 0.
h x 2ln x 2010x 1, x 0.
2
h x h x 2010 0
x
x 0. h x 0,


h 0, lim h x , lim h x , .
x0 x

mathematica -173

0 h 0, , 0 ,
, h 0 2ln 2010 1 0 .

ln2 x 1 ln 2 x
6. f x 1 f x
2
2f x 1 ln2 x 1 ln2 x 2f x

ln2 x 1 ln 2 x
2f x 1 2f x .
x 1 x

s x ln2 x, x e
ln x
s x 2 2f x . ... s x x, x 1 ,
x
r x, x 1 ,
s x 1 s x ln 2 x 1 ln 2 x
s r 2f r .
x 1 x x 1 x
:
2f x 1 2f r 2f x f x 1 f r f x ,
e x r x 1 f x f r f x 1 f x e.

7. 2f x 1 ln2 x 1 ln2 x 2f x
ln x ln x 1
lim f x lim lim f x 1 lim 0
x x x x x x 1
lim ln2 x 1 ln2 x 0 .
x

106
f f : R R
f(x 1) f(3 x) f (x) 0.
1. f (x) 0.
2. f 0, 3 f(0) f(1) ,
f
0, 3 .
: . ( )

mathematica -174

1. f
f (x 1) f (3 x) f (x 1) f (3 x) 0 x 1

2f (2) 0 f (2) 0, f (x) 0 x 2.


f (x) 0 f 1 1,
x1 x 2 f (x1 ) f (x 2 ) Rolle
f (x) 0 x1 , x 2 .
f (x) 0 x 2.

2. f
[0,3], f (x) 0 f (x) 0 x [0,3].

f (x) 0, f [0,3]
f (2) 0 x 2 f (x) f (2) 0. f
[0,2], f (0) f (1), f (x) 0 x [0,3].
f [0,3], x 2
f (x) f (2) 0 f [0,2] x 2
f (x) f (2) 0 f [2,3].
f x1 2 f (2)
x 2 0,x 3 3 f(1) f(3) f(0) f(1) f (0)
[0,3].

107

f x ln x , R. f x 0 x 0,
x
:
1. R.
:
2. f .
3. f .
4. lim f x lim f x .
x0 x

5. f f x 0.

6.
ln 22 2 1
2 6
ln
2
6
1
22 2
.

mathematica -175

: . . ( )

1. f(x) 0 f (1) 0 f(x) f(1), x (0, )


1 (0, ) f
(0, )
1
f (x) Fermat
x x2
f (1) 0 1 0 1.

2. 1 x - 0 1 +
1 1 x 1 x 1 - - 0 +
f (x) 2 2 2
x x x x + 0 + +
f : f (x) - - 0 +
(0,1]
[1, ), f(x) 0 0 . 9
x 0 1
f (1) 0.

3. x - 0 2 +
1 2 2x 2x + + 0 -
f (x) 3 ,
x2 x3 x x3
- 0 + +
f : f (x) - + 0 -
(0,2]
f(x) 4 3 . 4
[2, )
(2, f (2)) f .

1
4. lim(lnx) lim ,
x0 x 0 x

x ln x 1
f (x) 1
x


1
lnx
1
lim(x lnx) lim lim x 0 lim (x ln x 1) ,
x

x 0 x 0 1 DLH x 0 1 x0
2
x x
1
limf
(x) lim f (x) lim (ln x 1) .
x0 x x x

mathematica -176

5. f 1 (0, 1]
[1, ) f (1 ) [f (1), lim f (x)) [0, )
x 0

f (2 ) [f (1), lim f (x)) [0, ) (E2) (E4)


x

f (1 ) f ( 2 ) 0, .

6. H :
f (22 2) 1 f (2 6) 1 f (22 2) f (2 6)
22 2 1, 2 6 1, R f [1, )
22 2 2 6 2 4 2, 2.

108
f : 1, 2 R , f x 0
x R.
1 if 1
z 1.
2 if 2
:
1. f 1 2 f 2 1.
2. f x x 1, 2 .
3. f x f x x 1, 2 .
: . ( )

1. z , ,
1 if (1) 1 if (1)
z z
2 if ( 2) 2 if (2)
2 f (2)i 2f (1)i f (1)f (2) 2 f (2)i 2f (1)i f (1)f (2)
f (1)f (2) 2.. 1
f (x) 0 , x [1, 2] , f 1, 2 .
f (1) f (2).
(1) f(1),f(2) , f(1) 0 f(2) (2).
z 1 ... f 2 (1) 3 f 2 (2) (3) .
(1), (2) (3) f(1) 2 f (2) 1.

mathematica -177

2. g(x) x f(x) , x [1, 2].


g 1, 2 .
g(1)g(2) 3 0.
Bolzano 1, 2
g() 0 f() 0 f() .
g(x) 1 f (x) 0 g 1 1 .
.

3. h(x) x 2 f 2 (x) x [1, 2].


h 1, 2
h(x) 2 x f (x)f (x) .
h(1) 5 h(2).
. Rolle 1, 2
h() 0 f()f () 0 f()f () .

109
f : 0, R

x 1 f x ln x x x 0.
2

1. f (1).
2. Cf .
3. , R , g
f (x), 0 x 1
g(x)
, x 0
Rolle [0,1].
: . ( )

1. lnx (x)
x 1 f (x) .
x 1 x 1
x 1 f x 1,
lnx (x)
f (1) limf (x) lim 1 ( ) ,
x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1

mathematica -178

0 1
lim
lnx
0

lim
lnx lim x 1
x 1 x 1 DLH x 1
x 1 x1 1
0
(x)
0
(x) (x)
lim lim lim .
x 1 x 1 DLH x 1
x 1 x 1 1

lnx (x)
,x 1
f (x) x 1 x 1
, ..........x 1
2.
(0, )
(x)
0 , limf (x) lim ln x
x0
x 1
x 0 2

(x) (x)
lim(x 1)2 1 lim ln x x lim x ln x 0
x0 x0
x x0
x


lnx (x)
lim(x lnx) lim lim( x) 0 lim 1 limf (x) 0,
x 0 x 0 1 DLH x 0 x 0 x x0

x
f x 0.
(x)
lim f (x) lim ln x .
x

2
x
x 1
1
ln x
lim lim x 0
x x 1 x 1

(x) 1 1 (x) 1 1
lim 0,
x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x x 1

ln x (x)
lim f (x) lim 0
x x 1 x 1
x

(x)
lim 0 lim f (x) 0
x x 1 x

, xx .

3. . Rolle g
0,1 g 0,1 , (0,1)
g(0) g(1)
mathematica -179

limf (x) 0, g x 0 lim( f (x))


x 0 x 0

(1) limf (x)


x 1

limg(x) lim( f (x)) x 1


x 1 x 1

g(1) , g(0) g(1) (2)


(1), ,
Rolle.

110
f,g : (0, ) R f
: | f (x)g(x) x 2 | xlnx x 1.
1. 1 , 2
, 1 , 2 .
f (x 5h) f (x 3h) x 2 1 lnx 1
2. lim f (1) ,
h0 (4h) x 2
2
f (x).
3. g(x) A(1, 2) ,
;

1.
f (x)g(x) x 2 x ln x x ln x f (x)g(x) x 2 x ln x

x lnx x 2 f (x)g(x) x lnx x 2 x 0 x 2


ln x f (x) g(x) ln x
1 1 (1) .
x x x x
1 , 2

f (x) g(x) ln x 1
lim 1 , lim 2 lim lim 0
x x x x x x DLHx x

(1) 1 1 2 1 1 2 1,
.

f (x 5h) f (x 3h) f ( x 5h) f (x) f (x) f (x 3h)


2. lim lim
h0 (4h) h0 (4h)

mathematica -180

f (x 5h) f (x) f (x 3h) f (x)


5
lim 5h 3h

3 5f (x) 3f (x)
2f (x),
h 0 (4h) 4
4
4h

f (x 5h) f (x) t 5h f (x t) f (x)


lim lim f (x)
h0 5h h0 t 0 t 0 t

f (x 3h) f (x) t 3h f (x t) f (x) f (x t) f (x)


lim lim lim f (x)
h0 3h h0 t 0 t 0 t t 0 t
f (x 5h) f (x 3h) x 2 1 lnx 1 ln x
lim 2f (x) 1
h0 (4h) x2 x2

ln x ln x
(2f (x)) x ,x 0 2f (x) x c.
x x

1
f (1) 2f(1) 1 c 1 1 c c 0
2
1 ln x
f (x) x ,x 0.
2 2x

1 ln x ln x
3. f (x) x lim 0, ( (1))
2 2x x 2x

1
lim (f (x) x) 0
x 2
1 1
f y x, 1 (1)
2 2

2 2 g y 2x
A(1,2) 2 2 4. y 2x 4.

111
f : 1, e 1, 4 , 1, 4 ,
f 1 2 f e e 1. :
1. . x1 , x 2 1, e x1 x 2 , f x1 f x 2 0.
. 1, e f 0.
. x o 1, e


f xo f xo 3f 2 xo xo .

mathematica -181

2. . e : x y e 2 Cf
co 1, e .

. 1 , 2 1, e 1 2 1, e , f 1 f 2 1.
: . . ( )

1. . f [1, e] ,
x1 , x 2 [1,e] f (x1 ) 1 f (x2 ) 4 ,
1 4 .
f (1) 2 , f (e) e 1 f(x1 ) f(1) f(e) f(x 2 ) , x1 , x 2
[1, e] .
x1 , x 2 (1,e). f ,
[1,e] Fermat
f (x1 ) f (x 2 ) 0.
f (x1 ) 1, f (x 2 ) 4.

. x1 x 2 (1,e), f [x1 , x 2 ], f (x1 , x 2 )


[1,e] f (x1 ) f (x 2 ) 0.
Rolle (x1 , x 2 ) (1,e),
f () 0. x 2 x1 (1,e).

. h(x) f (x)(f (x) 3f 2 (x)) x, x [x1 , x 2 ].


h [x1 , x 2 ]
h(x1 ) f (x1 )(f (x1 ) 3f 2 (x1 )) x1 1(0 3( 1) 2 ) x1 3 x1 0,
1 x1 e
h(x 2 ) f (x 2 )(f (x 2 ) 3f 2 (x 2 )) x 2 4(0 34 2 ) x 2 34 3 x 2 0,
1 x 2 e.
Bolzano x0 (x1 , x 2 ) (1,e)
h(x0 ) 0 f (x0 )(f (x 0 ) 3f 2 (x 0 )) x 0 .

2. . g(x) f(x) x e 2, x [1,e].


g [1,e],
g(1) f(1) 1 e 2 2 e 1 1 e 0,
g(e) f(e) e e 2 e 1 2 e 1 0.

mathematica -182

Bolzano c0 (1, e)
g(c0 ) 0.
x y e 2 f
c0 (1,e).

. f [1,c0 ], f (1, c0 ).
MT 1 (1, c0 )
f (c0 ) f (1) c 0 e 2 2 (c 0 e)
f (1 ) .
c0 1 c0 1 c0 1
f [c0 , e] , f (c0 ,e).
MT 2 (c0 ,e)
f (e) f (c 0 ) e 1 ( c 0 e 2) c 0 1
f ( 2 ) .
e c0 e c0 e c0
(c 0 e) c 0 1 e c 0 c 0 1
f (1 )f ( 2 ) 1.
c0 1 e c0 c0 1 e c0

112
f [2, 2] ,
( 2, 2) , f(0) 3
f (x)f (x) f (x) x x [2, 2].
z z i 2.
:
1. H f .
2. f 2 (x) 2f (x) x 2 3 0.
3. H g(x) f(x) 1 ( 2, 2).
4. H f .
5. f (x) 1 4 x 2 , x [ 2, 2].
6. f
z z
z , xx.
: 23 xgastone

1. f x 0 f (x0 ) 0
f (x)f '(x) f '(x) x
( 2,2)

mathematica -183

f (x)f (x) f (x)f (x) f (x) 1 x x0


(f (x0 ))2 f (x0 ) 1 (f (x 0 )) 2 f (x 0 ) 1 0,
x 2 x 1 0,x R , .

2. f (x)f (x) f (x) 1 2f (x)f (x) 2f (x) 2


(f 2 (x)) (2f (x) x 2 ),x [2,2],
f 2 (x) 2f (x) x 2 c x 0 f 2 (0) 2f (0) c c 3,
f 2 (x) 2f (x) x 2 3 f 2 (x) 2f (x) x 2 3 0.
x0 ( 2,2) g(x0 ) 0 f (x0 ) 1 (2)
f 2 (x0 ) 2f (x 0 ) x 02 3 0 x 02 4 , g(x) 0,x ( 2,2)
[2,2] .

3. ( 2,2) g(0) f(0) 1 2 0


g(x) 0,x ( 2,2) f(x) 1,x ( 2,2).

4. f (x)f (x) f (x)f (x) f (x) 1


f (x)f (x) (f (x)) 2 f (x) 1 (3) f (x) 1 0
(f (x))2 f (x) 1 0, x R f (x)f (x) 0,
f (x) 0,x ( 2,2) f .

5. (2) f 2 (x) 2f (x) 1 4 x 2 (f (x) 1) 2 4 x 2


4 x 2 0, x [2,2] f (x) 1 4 x 2 (3)
f(x) 1,x ( 2,2)
f (x) 1 4 x 2 f (x) 1 4 x 2 , x [2,2].

6. z i 2 z K(0,1)
=2, x 2 (y 1)2 4 (y 1)2 4 x 2 , x [2,2],
y 1 4 x 2 f
xx z
y y (0,2) f(0) 2
3f (0) f (0) f (0) 0 (0,2)
xx.

113
f , , ,
f() f() 0 f , .

mathematica -184

1. f(x) 0 x (,).
2. . x0 (,) f
x 0 .
4f (x 0 )
. x1 , x 2 (,), f (x1 ) f (x 2 ) .

3. f , ,
(x1 , x 2 )
. f () 0,
2

. f (x) f () .
2
: (2002)

1. f [,] (,)
f () f () , .Rolle (,) f () 0.

x f x
f (x) f () f (x) 0 , f (x) + 0 -
f [, ].
x f(x) f() f(x) 0. f(x) 9 . 0
x f (x) f () f (x) 0 , f . [,].
x f(x) f() f(x) 0. f(x) 0 x (,).

2. . (1) f x o f (x o ).

. f [, x 0 ] , (, x0 ),
f (x 0 )
x1 (,x 0 ) f (x1 ) (1).
x0
f (x 0 )
x 2 (x 0 , ), f (x 2 ) (2).
x0
(1), (2)
f (x 0 ) f (x 0 ) 1 1 1
f (x1 ) f (x 2 ) f (x 0 ) 4f (x 0 ) .
x0 x0 x
0 x 0

mathematica -185

1 1 4 x0 x0 4 4

x0 x0 x 0 x 0 x 0 x 0
4 x 0 x 0 2 2 2 4x 0 4x 02 4 x 0
2

2 2 2 4x 0 4x 02 4x 0 4x 02 0
2

x 0 0.
2

3. . f(x) 0 , f(x0 ) 0, x o
(1) f f (x o ) .

f [,x 0 ] , (,x 0 )
f (x 0 )
1 (,x 0 ), f (1 ) 0.
x0
f (x 0 )
2 (x 0 ,), f ( 2 ) 0.
x0
f 2 , f [1 , 2 ],
(1 , 2 ) ,
f ( 2 ) f (1 )
(1 , 2 ), f () 0.
2 1

. ()
f (1 ) f ( 2 )
f ()
1 2
4f (x o )
2

f ()( 1 2 ) f ( 1 ) f ( 2 )

4f (x o ) 1 4f (x)
f ()( 1 2 ) .

4f (x)
f ()(1 2 ) f ()( 2 1 ) f ()( )

2

f (x) f () .
2
114
1. x 2 ln2x x 0.
2. e x 2x x .
2

3. x e x 1.
2

mathematica -186

4. f : R R f (x) e f (x) x
2

x R. f
Cf x 1.
: . , ( )

1. x - 2
2 0 2
2 +
g(x) x 2 ln2x, x 0
2 x 2-1 +0 - - 0 +

1 2x2 1
x - - 0 + +
g'(x) 2x , g(x) - 0 + 0 - 0 +
x x

g(x) 0 . 9
2
g(x) 0 x , x 0
2
f f
2
x
2
2
2 2 2 1 1
1 1 1 1
g ln 2 ln2 2 ln2 1 ln2 ln e ln2 0,
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

x 0
2 1
g(x) g ln e ln2 0 g(x) 0 x 2 ln2x.
2 2

2.
x 0, x 2 ln2x ex eln2x ex 2x.
2 2

x 0, 1 0 .
x 0 x 0 e( x) 2( x) e x 2x 2x, .
2 2

3. (x) x e x , x R e x
2 2

R e x x 2 . (x)
R
e x2
2x
(x) 1 2xe x 0 ( 2) (x)
2

2
ex
R 1 1.
11
x
x e 1 (x) 1 (x) (0) x 0.
2

mathematica -187

4. f (x) e f (x) x f (x) x . x1 , x2 R x1 x2


2

(f(x1 )) (f(x2 )
(3) f (x1 ) f (x2 ) f
. (f (1)) 1 (f (1)) (0)
'1 1' f(1) 0.

115
f : R R :
f (x) ef (x) x 1 x R.
1. ex (x 1) x R.
x
2. f (x) x R lim f (x ) .
2 x

x
3. f (x) ln 1 x 0
2
lim f (x ) .
x

4. f (x)
.
5. .
6. f (x) f 1 (x).

1. g(x) e x x 1, Ag R.
g(x) 0 e x 1 0 x 0, x - 0 +
g g(x)=ex-1 - 0 +
( ,0], [0, ) g(x) 0 . 9
g(0) 0.

g(x) g(0) e x x 1.

2. (1) x f (x)

x
ef (x) f (x) 1 e f (x) f (x) 2f (x) 1 x 1 2f (x) 1 f (x) .
2

x 0, f (x) 0.

x 1 2
f (x) 0 .
2 f (x) x

mathematica -188

2
lim 0 0 lim 0,
x x x

1
lim 0 lim f (x) , f (x) 0.
x f (x) x

x x
3. f (x) ln(1 ) ef (x) 1 1 f (x) , (2)
2 2
e 1 f (x) (1)
f (x)

x
x ln 1 x x
f (x) ln 1 ,x 0 e e 2 x 1 f (x) 1 f (x)
f (x)

2 2 2

(2).

x
lim ln(1 ) ,
x 2
x
ln(1 )0
x 1 2 1
f (x) ln(1 ) 0
2 f (x )0 f (x) ln(1 x )
2
1
lim 0 lim f (x)
x f (x) x

f (x) 0, x 0.

4. ef (x) R

e x f (x) . f x e x 1
f x

1
f (x) f (x)e f (x) 1 f (x)(1 e f (x) ) 1 f (x)
1 ef (x) (1).
(1) f (x) 0 1 ef (x) 0, f
R.

mathematica -189

2 (1) R
( e f (x)
R.

f (x)e f (x)
f f (x) 0.
(1 e f (x) ) 2

f R.

(2) (3) f R,
f(R) R.

5. f 1 1 ,
Af 1 f (R) R.

f (x) y x f 1 (y)

e y y x 1 f 1 (x) e x x 1, x R.

116
f R, :
f( 1) 1,f() f ( 1) 1 , R.
1. f 1o
3o , .
2. f (x) 1 f (x) x,
( 1, 1).
3. f R
( 1, 1), f () 0.

: 12 xgastone

1. f R R .
[ 1,],[, 1] , Bolzano g(x) f(x) x,

[ 1,],[, 1]
g() f( 1) ( 1) 0,g() f() 0,g( 1) f( 1) ( 1) 0.
Bolzano 1 ,2
[ 1,],[, 1], g(1 ) 0 f(1 ) 1 , g(2 ) 0 f (2 ) 2 .
mathematica -190

2. h(x) (f (x) x)e x [1 ,2 ]



h(x) (f (x) 1)e x (f (x) x)e x h(1 ) h(2 ) 0 (1)
Rolle t (1 ,2 )
h(t) 0 (f (t) 1)e t (f(t) t)e t f (t) 1 f(t) t.

3. ... [ 1,],[, 1] f
f () f ( 1)
1 1, , ..f '( 1 ) f () f ( 1),
( 1)
:
f ( 1) f ()
2 , 1 , ..f ( 2 ) f '( 2 ) f ( 1) f (),
1

... [1 , 2 ] f : (1 , 2 )
f '( 2 ) f '(1 ) f ( 1) 2f () f ( 1)
f () 0
2 1 2 1

f ( 1) 1
2f () 2
:
f ( 1) 1
f ( 1) 2f () f ( 1) 0

117
f : 0, R f 1 0
xf x 2f x x x 0, .
f x
1. h x
x2
x 0, .
2. f.
3. g(x) R
(1, 0) , g(x) f (x) x R. .
g(x)
lim 2 .
x1 ln x

: . ( )

1. H h (0, )

mathematica -191

f (x)x 2 2xf (x) f (x)x 2f (x) x 1


h(x) 0, x (0, ).
x4 x3 x3 x2
h(x) 0, x (0, ), h
(0, ).

2. x 0

x 2f (x) 2xf (x) 1


x 0
xf (x) 2f (x) x x f (x) 2xf (x) x
2 2
2
x4 x

f (x) 1 f (x) 1
2 2 c.
x x x x

x 1 0 1 c c 1.

f (x) 1
2
1 f (x) x 2 x, x 0.
x x
f (x) x x, x 0 , xf (x) 2f (x) x.
2

0
0
g(x) g(x) xf (x)
3. lim 2
lim lim =
x1 ln x DLH x1 2ln x x1 2ln x

x
0
2 0
x(x x)
2
x x 3
3x2 2x 3 2 1
lim lim lim .
x 1 2lnx x 1 2lnx DLH x1 2 2 2
x
118
f : (0, ) R f (1) 1
2f (x)
f (x) x 0.
x
1. f (x) x 2 x 0.
2. M Cf A M
xx. A O(0,0),
2o
. t 0 M 3,
sec
:
. AM OM,
. MOA,
. OB , B Cf

mathematica -192

M xx.
: . ( )

1. x 0 :


2f (x) x 2f (x) x 2 f (x) f (x)

f (x)
f (x) xf (x) 2f (x) 0 0 2 0 2 c

x
2
x x2 x

f (x) cx 2 , c R.

f(1) 1 c 1.

x 0 : f (x) x 2 .

2. x
t, x x(t)
x t 2 /sec .


, . y(t) x 2 (t).

y t 0 2x t 0 x t 0 232 12
/sec.

)
x t 0
d t x t y
2 2
t x t x t x t 1 x2 t .
2 4

1 2x 2 t 19 10
d t x t d t 0 /sec.
1 x2 t 5

) t MOA.

y t t
: t x t x t t 1 2 t x t
x t t
2

1
t 1 x 2 t x t t 0 1 x 2 t 0 2 t 0 rad/sec .
5

) Cf , f :

mathematica -193


y f f x y 2x 2 x'x , 0 .
2
1
x t ,
2
1
x t o 1 /sec.
2

119
P(x) x3 x2 x ,, , R, 0
1 ,2 ,3 :
1. 2 3.
2. .
3. x1 ,x 2 , : P(x1 ) P(x 2 ) 0.
4.
x1 ,x 2 .
5. .
P(x)
6. f (x) 2
x x
y 2x 25 x 1, x 13
P(x) 2x 3 x 2 12x 13.

1. P(x) x3 x 2 x , ,, , R, 0, x R.

P R
P(x) 3x 2 2x , x R.
P R P(x) 6x 2, x R
, ( )
1 2 3
P(1 ) P(2 ) P(3 ) 0 Rolle
[1 ,2 ] [2 ,3 ] x1 1 ,2 x 2 2 ,3
P(x1 ) P(x 2 ) 0 .
P , ,
0 (2)2 43 0 42 12 2 3.

mathematica -194

2. , x1 1 ,2
x 2 2 ,3
x1 , x2 P(x).

2
3. Vietta P' x 3x2 2x S x1 x 2
3
P(x1 ) P(x2 ) 6x1 2 6x2 2 6(x1 x2 ) 4
2
6 4 4 4 0
3

4. P(x1 ) 0 P(x1 ) P(x 2 ) 0 P(x 2 ) 0 ,


P(x) 0 , , P
.

5. P(x1 ) P(x 2 ) 0 , Rolle


P [x1 , x 2 ] x0 (x1 , x 2 )
P(x0 ) 0 .
P(x) 0 ,

P(x) 0 6x 2 0 x
3
P

x0
3

P(x) x3 x2 x
6. f (x) 2
x x x2 x
x 1 x 13 f , x 1
x 13 x2 x .
Vietta 12 13
y 2x 25 f ,
f (x)
lim 2 lim (f (x) 2x) 25
x x x

f (x) x3 x2 x x 3
2 lim lim lim 3
x x x x3 x2 x x x

2x 3 x 2 12x 13
25 lim (f (x) 2x) lim ( 2x)
x x x 2 12x 13

mathematica -195

2x 3 x 2 12x 13 2x 3 24x 2 26x


lim
x
x 2 12x 13
( 24)x 2 14x 13 ( 24)x 2
lim xlim 24
x
x2 12x 13 x2
1 . P(x) 2x 3 x 2 12x 13

120
f(x) : (0, ) ,
1
: x f (x) e x 0 f (1) e, f (1) 0.
3 x

1
1. g(x) xf (x) f (x) e
x

(0, ).
1
2. f (x) xe x 0.
x

3. f (x).
4. :
. f (x) A(2,f(2))
1
y ( e )x ( e ).
2
1
. 2xe (x 2)( e ) x 0.
x


1
1. g(x) xf (x) f (x) e , x 0.
x

g (0, )
1 1
1 1 x 3f (x )e x
1 1 x
xe 1 x1
g(x) f (x) xf (x) f (x) 2 e xf (x) 2 e
x x
e 0.
x x x3 x2
g(x) 0 g(x) c.
2. x 1 g(1) c f (1) f (1) e c c 0.

1
1
xf (x) f (x) e x
1 x 0
xf (x) f (x) e 0 xf (x) f (x) e
x x
2
x2 x

f (x) x
1 1
f (x)
x e x e c1 .
x

mathematica -196

1 1
f (x)
x 1 f(1) e c1 c1 0 , e f (x) xe , x 0,
x x
x
.
1 1
1 (x 1)e
1 x 1 x
e
3. f (x) e x
e (1 )
x
x x x
1
(x 1)e x
f (x) 0 0x 1
x
1
(x 1)e x 0
x
f (x) 0 0 x 1.
x
f (0,1] [1, ).
x 1 f (1) e.
A1 (0,1], A 2 (1, ).
f (0, ) .

f (A1 ) [f (1), lim f (x)) [e, ) f (A 2 ) (limf (x), lim f (x)) (e, ),
x0 x1 x

f f (A1 ) f (A 2 ) e, .

1
(x 1)e
1 x
. f (x) xe f (x)
x
.
x
1
1 2
e e
f (2) 2e 2 e f (2)
2
.
2 2
M(2,f(2))
e e
y f (2) f (2)(x 2) y 2 e (x 2) y x e.
2 2
1
x
e
. f (x) , x 0.
x3
x 0 f (x) 0. f
(0, ). f
, .
x 0
1 1 1
e e
f (x) x e xe
x
x e 2xe ex 2 e 2xe e(x 2)
x x
2 2
.

mathematica -197

mathematica -198

60

mathematica -199
+ : 29/01/2012 17/02/2012

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=54&t=22769
















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erxmer
parmenides51

mathematica.gr.

mathematica -200

121
f : R R , f x 0 x R , :
1
t
f x 1 x 2
f xt dt , x R.
0

1. f x 0 , x R.
2. f .
3.
f x
x
t
4. g x dt , x R , .
x
f t
5. , R , f f
:. ( )
:
1. f R x R
f (x) 0 . f ,
x1 ,x2 R x1 x2 f (x1 )f (x2 ) 0 .
f R , [x1 ,x2 ] .
f (x1 )f (x2 ) 0 . , Bolzano ,
(x1 ,x2 ) f () 0 , , x R f (x) 0 .
f R . , x 0
f (0) 1 0 . , x R f x 0 .

2. xt u xdt du . t 0 u 0 t 1
1 1 x
t tx u
u x . , f (x) 1 x
2
dt 1 xdt 1 du. f
0
f (xt) 0
f (t) 0
f (u)
u
R , R .
f (u)
x x
u u
du R , 1 du
0
f (u) 0
f (u)
R . , f R ,
x x
f (x) . , f (x) f (x)f (x) x 2f (x)f (x) 2x
f (x) f (x)
(f 2 (x)) (x2 ) f 2 (x) x2 c,c R.
x 0 c 1 , f 2 (x) x2 1 . x R
f (x) 0 , f (x) x2 1 , .

3. , y x , R .

mathematica -201

1
x2 1
x 1 x 2 lim 1 1 1.
2
f (x)
lim lim lim
x x x x x x x x2

1 . ,
lim f (x) x lim
x x
x 1 x

x 2 1 x lim
x 1 2
1
lim
x
1
0.
x( 1 2 1)
x
0 , y x f .

x x x
t t t
4. g x dt dt dt
x
f t 0 t 1
2
0 t 1
2

t
R ,
t 1
2

x x
t t
0 t 2 1dt 0 t 2 1dt R . g
x ( x) x x
R , g(x) 0
x2 1 ( x)2 1 x2 1 x2 1
x R g(x) 0 , g .

4.
t t
h(t) . t R t R h(t) h(t).
f (t) t2 1
x

h , h(t)dt 0 g(x) 0 *
x
x x x

* : h(t)dt h(t)dt h(t)dt


x 0 0
t u , dt du . t 0 u 0 , t x u x ,
x x x

h(t)dt h(u)du h(u)du. ,


0 0 0
x x x x x

h(t)dt h(t)dt h(t)dt h(t)dt h(t)dt 0.


x 0 0 0 0

5. f () f ()
f () f ()
( ) , 1.

f () f ()
1 , :

mathematica -202

f [,] , (,) , MT
f () f ()
(,) f ()

f () f ()
f () 1 , 1 2 1 2 2 1,
2 1
f () f ()
. 1 f () f () .

122
x 1

f (x) e dt t 1

1. .
2.
f
3. Cf A(2, f (2))
4. f (x) ex 2e x 1
5. E Cf ,
xx x 2 x 4 , E 2e
: . - . ( K)
:
1
1. g(t) e . g t 1.
t 1

, Ag (,1) (1, ) 2 (1, ) Af (1, )

2. g f
1 1
f (x) e e f
x 1 x 1

1
1

f (x) e 1 0 , f
x
(x 1)2
(1, ) .

3. f (2) 0 f (2) e
y 0 e(x 2) y ex 2e.

4. f , Cf
A(2,f (2)) , A ,
f (x) ex 2e,x 1.

mathematica -203

5. E() ,
1
E() | f (x) |dx (1), (2) f (x) e
4
x 1
0.
2

f (1, ).
x 2 f (x) f (2) f (x) 0 E() f (x)dx
4

2
(4)
f (x) ex 2e f (x) (ex 2e) 0 f (x)dx (ex 2e)dx 0
4 4

2 2
4
ex 2 42 22
E() (ex 2e)dx
4
2ex e( ) 2e(4 2) E() 2e.
2
2 2 2 2

123
f : [0,1] R x [0,1]
x

f (x) xf (x) f (t)dt.


1

1. f
[0,1]
2. x0 (0,1)
1

f (x0 ) f (1) f (t)dt.


0
x

3. f (x) x f (t)dt c c R f (0) f (1)


1

4. f (0,1) ,
f (1)
f () 2 .
1
: . - . ( K)
:
1. f ( ) 0,1 1 0,1 ,
x

f t dt f 0,1 (
1

0,1 ) x,f x 0,1 ( - )


x

f x xf x f t dt 0,1 (
1

) f 0,1
f x 2f (x) xf x .

mathematica -204

x


f x xf x f t dt
0 1

f 0 f t dt f 0 f t dt, 1 .
1
2. x 0
1 0
x


f x xf x f t dt
1

f 1 f 1 f t dt f 1 f 1 , 2 .
1
x 1
1
f 0,1 , MT f 0,1 ,
x 0 0,1 :
1


f 1 f 1, f 0 f t dt
f 1 f 0 1

f x0 f x0 f 1 f t dt .
0


1 0 0

3.

x
x x

f x xf x f t dt f x x f t dt x f t dt


1 1 1

x x
f x x f t dt f x x f t dt c,c R : 3 x 0
1 1

f 0 c . x 1 f 1 c . f 0 f 1 c.

4. f
x

0,1 f 0 f x xf x f t dt x
Fermat

1
f 0

f f f t dt f f t dt 0.
1 1
x

f x x f t dt c x f () f (t)dt c .
1 1

f () f (1)
f (1) c f () f (t)dt f (1) f (t)dt .
1 1

f () f (1) f (1)
f () 2f () f () f (1) f ()( 2 1) f (1) f () 2 .
1

124

f (x) ln x x 2 1
1

0 1 t2
dt x

1. f .
3
1
2. 0 4
dt ln2
0 1 t2

mathematica -205

1
x
3.
0 1 t2
dt x, x R

4. Cf ,
xx x 0, x 1 .
: . ( )
:


x
1
1. f (x) ln x x 1 2
dt.
0
1 t2
x x 2 1 0 , x R , x 2 1 x 2 x x
x
1 1
R , dt
1 t 2
0
1 t 2

R , f R

2x
1
2 x2 1 1 x x2 1 1
f (x)
x x 1
2 1 x 2
x 1(x x 1)
2 2 1 x 2

1 1 x2 1 1
f (x) .
x 1
2 1 x 2
1 x 2

x2 1 1
f (x) 0 0 x2 1 1 0 x2 1 1 x2 0 x 0
1 x 2

x2 1 1 1x 2 0
f (x) 0 0 x2 1 1 0 x2 1 1 x2 0 x 0
1 x 2

x R f (x) 0 , f R

2. f (0) 0
3 3 3

3 3 3
2 4 1 3 5 4 1 4
1
f ln 1
4 4 0 1 t 2 0 1 t 2 dt.
dt ln dt ln 2
4 4 4 0 1 t2

3
4
1 1
t R 0 2 dt 0 .
t 1
2
0
t 1
3

3 4
1
, f ln 2 dt. f R ,
4 0
1 t2
3

3 f
3 3 1 4
0 f (0) f 0 f (0) f ln 2 dt
4 4 4 0
1 t2

mathematica -206

3 3
4 4
1 1
1 t
0
2
dt ln 2. , 0
0
1 t 2
dt ln 2.

x
1 1
3. h(x) 0
1 t 2
dt ,
1 t2
R ,
x
1
1 t
0
2
dt R , h

1 1 1
R h(x) (x) 1.
1 x
2
1 x 2x
2

h(x) 1 h(x) x c,c R .


0 x
1 1
h(0)
0
1 t2
dt 0 . x 0 c 0 , h(x) x
0
1 t2
dt x

x 1
1 1
4. x
4 0
1 t 2
dt x 0 1 t 2 4 .
dt

x [0, ) f (x) 0 ,
1 1
1 1
1
1

E f (x)dx (x) f (x)dx xf (x)0 xf (x)dx f (1) x


1
2 dx
0 0 0 0 x2 1 x 1
1 1 1
x x 1
f (1) 2 dx f (1) x 1 ln(x 2 1)
1
2

0 x2 1 0 x 1 0 2 0


1
1 1 1
f (1) 2 1 ln 2 ln 1 2 dt 2 1 ln 2
2 0
1 t2 2


4
1
ln 1 2 2 1 ln 2 ..
2

125
f R R ,

f (x)
(et 1)dt x.
0

1. f (x) , f 1 (x)
2. N
f x 0,y 0,x e
3. Cf

f (t)dt
2010 2011
4. f (t)dt .
2009 2010

mathematica -207

:
1. ,

f (x)
(et 1)dt x [et t]f0(x) x [ef (x) f (x)] [e0 0] x ef (x) f (x) 1 x.
0

g(x) ex x 1,x R.
g(x) ex 1 . x R g(x) 0 .
g R, 1 1 , .
g(f (x)) x f (x) g 1 (x) .

: f , .
153 164.

e 1 dt 0 (1) . t R
f (0)
x 0 t
0

et 1 0 , (1) f (0) 0
ef (x) f (x) x 1 . x f 1 (x)
f 1 (x) ex x 1, x R

2. f .
x1 ,x2 R x1 x2 f (x1 ) f (x2 ) ef (x1 ) ef (x2 ) .
ef (x1 ) f (x1 ) 1 ef (x2 ) f (x2 ) 1 x1 x2 .
x1 ,x2 R x1 x2 f (x1 ) f (x2 ) .
, f R
f , x 0 f (x) f (0) f (x) 0 .


e
f (x)dx . f (x) u
0

x f 1 (u) x eu u 1 dx (eu 1)du .


x1 0 , eu u 1 0 .
u1 0.
x2 e, eu u 1 e.
u2 1.
, E f (t)dt u(eu 1)du ueudu udu .
e 1 1 1

0 0 0 0
1 1
u 2
u 3 2
E ueu eudu ueu eu ..
1 1 1 1

2 0 2 0 2
0 0 0 0

3. f ,f 1
y x . De LHospital
f 1 (x) ex x 1
lim lim . , f .
x x x x
mathematica -208

f 1 (x) ex x 1
lim lim 1 lim (f 1 (x) x) lim (ex x 1 x) 1
x x x x x x

f 1 y x 1 .
y x y x 1 , f
y x 1.
u

4. F(u) f (t)dt
0
F [x,x 1] , (x,x 1) .
F(x 1) F(x)
, .. x,x 1 F()
x 1 x
x 1 x x 1

f () f (t)dt f (t)dt f () f (t)dt .


0 0 x

(x,x 1) x,x 1
x 1

f () f (t)dt . (2009,2010)
x
1 (2009,2010)
2010

f (1 )
2009
f (t)dt. , (2010,2011) 2 (2010,2011)
2011

f ( 2 )
2010
f (t)dt.

f 2009,2010 , 2010,2011
f 2010 2011

2009 1 2010 2 2011f (1 ) f ( 2 ) . ,


2009
f (t)dt
2010
f (t)dt.

126
f (x) , R x o 0
g(x) : R R , g(x) f (xt)dt,t R,x R
1

z :| z 2 i || z 2 i |, 1 ,:
1. ,
() y 2x.
2. A , Cf ,
1 1
xf ( ) 5x 2
( )
R , lim x x
x 0 1 2 10
f( ) 2
x x
1 x
: g(x) x 0
f (u)du , x 0
3.

f (0) , x 0

mathematica -209

4. g(x) R.
z f (t)dt i f (t)dt 1
2 2
5.
1 0
(1,2) g() f ().
:
1. z x yi,x,y R
z 2 i z 2 i x yi 2 i x yi 2 i
(x 2) (y 1)i (x 2) (y 1)i
(x 2)2 (y 1)2 (x 2)2 (y 1)2 (x 2)2 (y 1)2 (x 2)2 (y 1)2
x2 4x 4 y 2 2y 1 x2 4x 4 y 2 2y 1 4y 8x y 2x.
, () y 2x.

2. () y 2x
f (x)
f , lim 2 lim (f (x) 2x) 0.
x x x

5u 1 1 5u 1 1 1
0
u u 2
lim lim
u2 u2 u2 u2 u2
u 2
u
5u
lim 2 0
u
u
1 1 f (u) 5u
xf ( ) 5x 2 (*) 2
20 2
10 lim x x lim u u
x 0 1 2
f( ) 2
u f (u) 2u 2 0 2 2
x x
2
10 18
2
1 1
(*) u , limu
lim
x x 0 x0 x

3. g(x) f (xt)dt , x 0
0
1 1

g(0) f (0)dt f (0) dt f (0) t 0 f (0).


1

0 0
du
x 0 xt u , dt .
x
t 0 , u 0 . t 1 , u x
1 x x
f (u)du 1
x 0 g(x) f (xt)dt f (u)du .
0 0
x x0

mathematica -210

1 x
g(x) x 0
f (u)du, x 0
,
f (0), x 0

4. f (u) R ,
x
1

0
f (u)du R .
x

( , 0) (0, ) , g ( , 0) (0, ) .
x x
1
g(x) g(0) x f (u)du f (0) f (u)du xf (0) 00

lim lim 0 lim 0
x0 x0 x0 x x0 x2 DLH

f (x) f (0) f (0)


lim .
x0 2x 2
1 x f (x)
2 f (u)du ,x 0
x 0 x
g R g(x)
f (0)
,x 0
2
z f (t)dt i f (t)dt 2i f (t)dt i f (t)dt
2 2 2 2
5.
1 0 1 0
2 2

f (t)dt f (t)dt 2
1 0
2

f (t)dt f (t)dt f (t)dt f (t)dt 2 f (t)dt


0 2 0 1

1 0 1 0
1
g [1, 2] (1, 2) . MT
(1, 2)
g(2) g(1)
2 1
1
g() g(2) g(1) f (t)dt f (t)dt 0
21 20 0

1 f () 1
g() 0 2 f (u)du 0 f (u)du f () 0
0 0

1
0
f (u)du f () g() f ().

127

f , R f
. f
f (x)f (x) [f (x)]2 f (x)f (x),f (0) 2f (0) 1
1. f
mathematica -211

2. 0 x lnf (x)dx 0
2004

3. g 0,1

0,1 2x dt 1 0,1 .
x g(t)
0 1 f 2 (t)

: . ( )
:


1. f x f x f x f x f x 2f x f x f 2 x
2

2f x f x f 2 x c,c R . x 0 1 1 c c 0 . ',

f 2 x 2f x f x f 2 x f 2 x f 2 x e x f 2 x e x 0

f x e

2 x
0 f 2 (x)e x c1 ,c1 R . f (0) 1 c1 1 ,
f 2 (x) ex
x R f (x) 0 .
* f (0) 1 0 ,
x
f (x) 0 x R . f (x) e x e 2 .
(*) , (1)
121.

x
2. h(x) x 2004lnf (x) x 2004
2
x
x R h( x) ( x)2004 h(x)
2

g ,

h x dx 0 **
x x x

** : h(t)dt h(t)dt h(t)dt


x 0 0
t u , dt du . t 0 u 0 , t x u x ,
x x x

h(t)dt h(u)du h(u)du


0 0 0
x x x x x

h(t)dt h(t)dt h(t)dt h(t)dt h(t)dt 0.


x 0 0 0 0

3. g [0,1] : 0 g(x) 1.
1
, 1 f 2 (x) 1 0 1 . ,
1 f 2 (x)
mathematica -212

g(x) g(x)
1
g(x)
0
1 f 2 (x)
1 1
1 f 2 (x)
0 0 1 f 2 (x) dx 0
1
1
g(t)
1 dt 0
0
1 f 2
(t)
x
g(t)
0,1 , r r(x) 2x dt 1.
0
1 f 2
(t)
1
g(t)
r(0) 1 0 r(1) 1 dt 0.
0
1 f 2
(t)
Bolzano, r (0,1)
g(t)
1 0,1 ,
1 f 2 (t)
g(x)
r r(x) 2 1 , r
1 f 2 (x)
, (0,1).

128
f 1,2 R
f (x) 0,x 1,2 , f (1) 0,f (2) 2,f (2) 1
1. f

2. y x
f
3. x0 (1,2)
f (x0 ) 1
4.
f (x) f (1) f (2) f (x)
. ,x 1,2
x1 2x
. f (x) 2(x 1),x 1,2

2
. f (x)dx 1
1

5. : x y 2
f
6. 1 , 2 1,2 , 1 2 ,
f (1 )f ( 2 ) f (1 ) 2
: . ( )
:

1. f x 0,x 1,2 , f

mathematica -213

, f 1, 2 . f
1, 2 ,, , xo 2
f x f 2 1 0 . f 1,2 ,
f 1,2 f 1 ,f 2 0,2 .

2. Cf 2,f 2 2,2
y f 2 f 2 x 2 y x

3. f 1,2 (1,2), ..
f 2 f 1
1,2 f 2 . f ,2
21
(,2), .. x0 ,2 1,2
f 2 f 1
f xo 1.
2 2

4. . f 1,2 (1,2),
.. 1, x x, 2
f x f 1
1 1,x 2 x,2 f 1
x1
f 2 f x
f 2 . . 1 2
2x
f f x f 1 f 2 f x
1 2 f 1 f 2 , f
x1 2x
1,2 .

. f x 2 x 1 x 1 x 2 . x 1,2
f x f 1 f 2 f x
(4..) f x 2 x 1 .
x1 2x

. (4.) f x 2 x 1 f x 2 x 1 0
f x 2 x 1
2 2 2

f x 2 x 1 dx 0 f x dx 2 x 1 dx 1
1 1 1

5. h x 2 x .
s x f x h x f x 2 x,x 1,2 . s x 1,2 f
s 1 1 0 s 2 2 0 . Bolzano

mathematica -214

x1 1,2 ,
s x1 0 f x1 h x1 0 f x1 h x1 .
s x , s x f x 1 0 . x1
.

6. f 1,x1 x1 ,2 ,
(1,x1 ) (x1 ,2) , .. 1 1,x1
f x1 f 1 2 x1
2 x1 ,2 f 1
x1 1 x1 1
f 2 f x1 x1
f 2 .
2 x1 2 x1
2 x1 x1 x 2 x1 x1
f 1 f 2 1 f 1 2 2 .
x1 1 2 x1 x1 1 x1 1 x1 1

129
f ,g, R 0 , f (x) 0 , g x 0 , (x) 0
x

t(t)dt h( 1)

h(x) 0
x
f (x)dx 0.
(t)dt
0
h(2)

1. h x 0 h
x 0 .
2. h 0 0 , h(x) 1 1 R
3. f g(x)

x , , : f g
f (x)dx g(x)dx

o [, ) : f o g o .
4. h 0 0,

g(x )dx
x

h f ( )g()

h




:
:
x

1. h (t)dt 0 .
0

mathematica -215

t R (t) 0 , x 0 (t)dt 0 .
0
0 x

x 0 (t)dt 0 (t)dt 0 . , x 0
x 0
0

(t)dt 0 . x (,0) (0, ). R ,


0
x x

t (t)dt (t)dt
0 0

x

t(t)dt
R. h(x) 0
x
(,0) (0, )
(t)dt
0
,
x x
x x

x(x) (t)dt (x) t (t)dt (x) x (t)dt t (t)dt
h(x) 0 0
0 0 (x)k(x)
2 2 2
x x x
(t)dt (t)dt (t)dt
0 0 0
x x

k(x) x (t)dt t (t)dt,x R


0 0
R ,
x x

t (t)dt (t)dt
0 0
R . k R
x x

k(x) (t)dt x(x) x(x) (t)dt,x R .


0 0
(1) k(x) 0 x 0 x - 0 +
k(x) 0 x 0 k(x) 0 x 0 . k(x) - 0 +
, k
x 0 k(x) 0 . 9
k(0) 0 .
x (,0) (0, ) k(x) 0
x (,0) (0, ) h(x) 0 .
x 0 h , x 0 h
.

2. h(0) 0 , h x 0

mathematica -216

x
t(t)dt 00
limh(x) lim 0x lim x(x) lim x 0.
x0 x0 DLH x0 (x) x0
(t)dt
0
h x 0
h ( ,0)
(0, ) . ,
h 1 1.
h
x 0 h(x) h(0) 0
h ( ,0) A1 ( lim h(x),limh(x)) ( lim h(x),0)
x x 0 x
h
x 0 h(x) h(0) 0 . h (0, )
A2 (limh(x), lim h(x)) (0, lim h(x))
x 0 x x

A1 A2 h 1 1 R

: h R
R

3. f .
f R x R f (x) 0 , f
* R.
* , (1) 121

x R f (x) 0 , h(2) 0 h(1)


h(2) h( 1)

f (x) 0
h( 1)
f (x)dx 0
h(2)
f (x)dx 0 ,. x R

f (x) 0.
s(x) f (x) g(x),x [,] . s [,] ,
.
s() f () g() 0
f () g() , 0 s.
f () g() . x [,]

f (x) g(x) f (x) g(x) 0 f (x) g(x) dx 0 f (x)dx g(x)dx . ,



x0 (,) f (x0 ) g(x0 )
s [,] ,
[x0 ,].

mathematica -217

, s() f () g() 0 s(x0 ) f (x0 ) g(x0 ) 0,


Bolzano 0 (x0 ,)
s( 0 ) 0 f( 0 ) g( 0 ) .
, 0 [,) s( 0 ) 0 f( 0 ) g( 0 )
s , 0 .
f ,g R . f (,)
g (,)
f
x1 ,x2 (,) x1 x2 f (x1 ) f (x2 )
g
x1 x2 g(x1 ) g(x2 ) g(x1 ) g(x 2 )
s(x1 ) s(x2 ) , s
(,) . s [,] s
[,] , 0 .

4. g R x R g(x) 0,
g R .
x

m(x) ( x) g(t )dt (x )f (x )g(x),x [,]


t x

m [,]

, m() ( ) g(t )dt ( ) g(t t )dt m() ( )f ( )g()


t

, m()m() ( ) f ( )g() g(t t )dt 0 f ( ) 0


2

g() g(t t )dt 0 , g(), g(t t )dt . Bolzano



(,)

m() 0 ( ) g(t t )dt ( )f ( )g()




t

t
g(t )gt g(t )gt
f ( )g() f ( )g()
h h



mathematica -218

130
[1,2] f f (x) 0
2x
t t
x [1,2] f ( )dt 1
x
x2 x
1. (1,2)
1
f ()

x x

H(x) f (t)dt f (t)dt


1 2

2. H .
3. x0 (1,2)
x0 2

f (t)dt f (t)dt
1 x0

4. E()
f x 1,x 2 4. ,
2

I H(x)dx
1
: . - . ( )
:
t
1. u t ux . dt xdu .
x
t x u 1 t 2x u 2 .
2 1
u f (u)xdu uf (u)du
2

1 x 1

F(x) uf (u)du, [1,2],x [1,2]


x


xf (x) [1,2] ,


x
uf (u)du [1,2] .

F(x) [1,2] F(x) xf (x) .


F [1,2] (1,2) .
, (1,2)
F(2) F(1) 1
f () F(2) F(1) f () uf (u)du 1 f ()
2
F()
21 1

2. f f (x) 0 , f
1
* , f () 0 . x [1,2] f (x) 0 ,

H(x) 2f (x) 0 . , H [1,2]

mathematica -219

* , (1) 121

3. H(1)H(2) 0 ,
Bolzano c (1,2) H(c) 0 .
H [1,2] , c .

f (x)dx f (x)dx 0
c c

1 2

E 4 f (x)dx 4 H(x)dx (x)H(x)dx


2 2 2
4.
1 1 1

[xH(x)]12 xH(x)dx 2H(2) H(1) 2xf (x) 3 f (x)dx 2 12 2 10.


2 2 2

1 1 1

131
f ,g [1, ) .
f , f (1) 1 . ,
x
f (t)dt
1 ,x 1
x1

g(x)
f (t) 1
lim

t1 t 1
f (t) ,x 1



1. f (1) 0
2. g(1)
3. f ,g .
x2 x 2

4. , x , (x 1) f (t)dt (x 1) f (t)dt
2

1 1
(1, )
: . - . ( )
:
1. g xo 1 . limg x g 1 .
x1

f (t) 1
lim f (t) g(1).
t 1
t 1
x

f , f t dt .
1

mathematica -220

De L'Hospital ,

x
x
1 f t dt

0
0
1 f t dt
limg x lim limf x f 1 1 , f .
lim
x 1 x 1 x 1 DLH x 1 x 1 x 1

f (t) 1
limg x lim f (t) g 1 1.
x1 t 1
t 1
f x 1 f x 1
f x h x limg x f 1 1 , h x f x
x1 x1 x1
f x 1
lim
x1
lim
x1
h x f x f 1 f 1 0 f 1 0 .
x 1

2. ,
x

f t dt x

g x g 1
1
x1
1 f t dt x 1 f x
g 1 lim lim lim 1 lim
x1 2 x 1
x1 x1 x 1
x1 x1 x1 2

1
g(1) f 1 0 .
2

3. f [1, ) , f [1, )
f , x0 1 .
x 1 , x 1 f x f 1 0 . f
[1, ) . f [1, ).
x x

f t dt f x x 1 f t dt
x 1 g x 1
g x 1
.
x1 x 1
2

s x f x x 1 f t dt,x 1.
1
s x 0 xo 1.
s ,
s x f x x 1 f x f x f x x 1 0 , x 1 .
s ,
x 1 s x s 1 0 . , x 1 g x 0.
g , g [1, ) .

4. x 1,

mathematica -221

x2 x 2

x2 x 2 f t dt f t dt
x 1 f t dt x2 1 f t dt 1
1

1 1
x 1
2
x 21
g x 2
g x 2 x 2
x 2 , g .

x2 x 2 x2 x 2 0 x 2.

132
f
x x x
0
2ttf (t)dt t 2f 2 (t)dt 2 tdt x R .
0 0

1. xf (x) x x R .
2. f (x) .
3. , .
4. f (x) f (x 2 ) f (x 8 ) f (x 2009 ) 0, .
5. Cf ,y x1 ,
2 1
xx x 0 ,x , 1 .
2
3x t
2x t dt
6. lim .
x 0 x
:
:

2ttf (t)dt t 2f 2 (t)dt 2tdt


x x x
1.
0 0 0
x

tf t t dt 0 tf t t 0 tf t t 0
2 2

tf t t
2

tf t t 0
2

x 0 .
x
2. xf x x f x ,x 0
x
R 0 ,
x
x ,x 0
f 0 lim f x lim 1. , f x x
x 0 x 0 x
1, x 0

x xx x
x 0 f f x .
x x2
mathematica -222

x 0 0 ,
x 0
f x f 0 1 x x

0
lim lim x lim
x0 x0 x0 x x 0 x 2 DLH
x x 1

x 1 1
lim lim 0 0.


x0 2 2 x0 x 2
x
f 0 f 0 0 .
xx x
,x 0
, f R , f x x2

0, x 0
3. f , .
g x xx x, x , , 0 ,

g 0 0 0 0 0 g x xx x xx.
x 0 g(x) 0 . x 0 g(x) 0 . o
f [ , ]

x 0 x 0
x + 0 - g(x) + 0 -
x - 0 + x 2
+ 0 +
g(x) f (x) + 0 -
- 0 -
f (x) 9 0
g(x) 0 . . .


x , f 0

x [0, ] f .
x 0 f 0 1
x [ ,0] f

x f 0.

4. 0 1
f (x) f (x2 ) f (x8 ) f (x 2009 ).
f f
x 1 x 2009
x f x
2
f x x 1 x x f x f x
2009 2 8 8

f x f x f x f x .
2009 8 2

(1, ] .
f f

0 x 1 x2009 x2 f x 2009 f x 2 0 x 1 x8 x f x8 f x
f x f x f x f x
2009 8 2

mathematica -223

(0,1) .
f (x) f (x2 ) f (x8 ) f (x 2009 ), 0 1 .

5.
x 0,x .
x
y f f (x) , y x1 y xx 0 ( x )
x
x
1 (x) y f y x1 , x 1
x
x xx x f [,]
1 (x) x1 1 f (x) 1 0
x x2 f (x) 0

1 (x) [0, ] .
1,f 1 1,y 0 1, 1 .
x
2 (x) y f y xx [0, ] x
x
f [0, ].

,f 1,y xx ,0 .
3 (x) y y xx x1 [0, ] x 0 .

0, y 0 0, y xx 0 0,0
x
, y f f (x) .
x
, y xx 0.
, y x1 .

y

1,1
1
x
y x 1 yf f(x)
x
E1 E2
, 0 x
(0,0) /5 2/5 3/5 4/5 6/5
y xx 0
(o xx)
x=0 x=1 x=
-1

mathematica -224

x'x , Cf y x 1 ,
E ,
1

E E1 E2 y y xx dx y f y xx dx
0 1
1
x 1 x
x1dx dx dx.
0 1
x 2 1
x

x (0, ) , f ,
f
1 x f 1 f x f f f x f 1

f dt f x dt f 1 dt (-1)f f x dt (-1)f 1
1 1 1 1

x 1
(-1) dt (-1) .
1
x 1

x 1
0 dt (-1)1 .
1
x 2

1 1 x 1 2 1 2 1
dt 1 1 1 1
2 2 1
x 2 2 2

,
y

1,1
1
x
y x 1 yf f(x)
x
E1 E2
, 0 x
(0,0) /5 2/5 3/5 4/5 6/5
y xx 0
x=0 x=1 x=
-1

6. x 0, f . x 0,
0 2x 3x t 2x t 3x :
f (2x) f (t) f (3x) f (3x) f (t) f (2x). ,

mathematica -225

3x 3x 3x 3x

f 3x dt f t dt f 2x dt xf 3x f t dt xf 2x
2x 2x 2x 2x
3x

3x
3x
2x :x0 3x f t dt 2x
f t dt 2x

3 2x
2 3x x 2x

3x 2x
lim 1, lim 1 ,
xx0 3x xx0 2x

3x t
2x t dt
3x

lim
2x
f (t)dt
lim 1 .
x 0 x x 0 x

6.

f x0 0

lim

3x

2x
t
t
dt
f (t)dt 0 lim 0
3x

lim 2x
0

2x
f (t)dt
0
3x
f (t)dt



x0 x x0 x DLH x0
x
2f (2x) 3f (3x)
lim f (0).
x0 1

133
f : 0, R x 0
t1
x

f x

f t
dt.
1 t e 1
1. x 0 ef x f x x ln x.
2. f x ln x x 0.
e
3. g x f x f , x 0.
x
f f f f
4. 0 , : .

:
1. f (0, ) ,

mathematica -226

t1
x

t dt .
1 e f t
1
x1 x 0
f (x) xf (x)e f (x)
xf (x) x 1
x(ef (x) 1)
1
f (x) f (x)ef (x) 1 (ef (x) f (x)) (x lnx)
x
c R,
ef (x) f (x) x lnx c, ef (1) f (1) 1 0 c c 0 , f (1) 0 .
ef (x) f (x) lnx x. (1)

2. k(x) x ex ,x R,k(x) 1 ex 0 , k
R , 1 1 . (1) k(f (x)) k(lnx) f (x) lnx ,
k 1 1.

e
3. g(x) f (x)f ( ) lnx(1 lnx).
x
g (0, ),
1 2lnx
g(x) ,x 0
x
1 2lnx 1 1
g(x) 0 0 1 2lnx 0 ln x x e 2 e
x 2
1
g(x) 0 lnx x e,g(x) 0 x e,g( e) 0 .
2

, , g x 0 e
(0, e] , g(x) + 0 -
[ e, ).
g(x) 9 . 0
x e
1
g( e) .
4

1 1
4. f (x) 2 0 f (0, ) .
f (x)
x x

f [,] , (,),
f () f ()
1 (,) f (1 ) .

, f [, ] , (, )
f () f ()
2 (,) f ( 2 ) .

mathematica -227

f f () f () f () f ()
1 2 f (1 ) f ( 2 ) ( f

(0, ).

134
f :(0, ) R, g : R R
1 x
f (g(x))g(x) x,x R f (g(x))g(x) x ,x R g(0) 1 .
e
1. g
A(1,g(1)) y g(1)x .
ln x
2. f (x) ,x (0, )
x
(0,e e] , g R .
3. f
x 1 .
4.
f ,g x 1,x ln3 .
5. e 6 2e
ln3 .
:
1. x 0 f (g(0))g(0) 0 f (1) 0.

1 x x x
f (g(x))g(x) x f (g(x) x f (g(x)) x c .

e e e
x 0 f (g(0)) c f (1) c c 0 .
x x x 0
, f (g(x)) x . f (g(x))g(x) x x g(x) x g(x) e x .
e e
g(x) g(x) e , g(1) g(1) e .
x

Cg A(1,g(1))
g (1) g(1)
y g(1) g(1)(x 1) y g(1) g(1)(x 1) y g(1)x .

x
2. f (ex ) x
. ex u 0 ex u x lnu .
e
x lnu
f (ex ) x f (u) ,u 0 .
e u
ln x
f (x) ,x 0 , .
x
1 ln x 2ln x 3
f (x) 2
,x 0 f (x) ,x 0
x x3
2ln x 3 3 3
f (x) 0 3
0 2ln x 3 0 ln x x e 2 e 3 e e
x 2
mathematica -228

2ln x 3 x 0 3
f (x) 0 3
0 2ln x 3 0 ln x x e e
x 2
, ,
x 0 e e
f (0,e e]
f (x) - 0 +
[e e, ).
, g(x) ex ,x R. f (x) 4 . 3
g(x) ex ,x R g(x) ex 0. g R.

ln x 1 ln x
3. f (x) ,x 0 f (x) ,x 0.
x x2
f (1) 0,f (1) 1. Cf x 1
y f(1) f (1)(x 1) y x 1 .

4. x (0, ) , f (x) g(x). ,


Cf A(1,0) y x 1 ,
Cg B(0,1) y x 1. f ,g
f(x) x 1 x x 1 g(x).
ln 3 ln 3 y
E g(x) f (x) dx g(x) f (x) dx
1 1

ln x
ln 3 ln 3 ln 3
ln x
E ex dx 1 e x
dx 1 x dx y=ex
1
x
ln 3 1 ln 3 1
E ex ln 2 x 3 e ln 2 (ln 3)
1 2 1 2 1 :x=1 ln x
y
1 x
E 3 e ln 2 (ln 3) . x
2 O(0,0)
2 :x=ln3

1
5. E 0 3 e ln2 (ln 3) 0
2
6 2e ln2 (ln3) 6 2e ln(ln3) e 62e ln3.

135
f : R R , x R ,
f (x)
1
0 1 u2 du x.
1. . : f (0) f (0) 1 .
. f .
. f . .
2. f R :
mathematica -229

. f
g(x) f (x) f (x) .
. f .
:
1 ( u 2 1) u
1. . g(u) g(u)
u2 1 u2 1 (u 2 1) u 2 1
u
g(u) 0 0 u 0 ,
(u 2 1) u 2 1
u
g(u) 0 0u0
(u 1) u 1 2 2

, ,
u 0
g ( ,0]
g(u) - 0 +
[0, ).
g(u) 0 . 9

f (0)
1
x 0 ,
0 u 12
du 0 .

g(u) 0, u R f (0) 0 .
f (0) f (0)
1 1
f (0) 0
0 u 2
1
0 u 2

du 0 f (0) 0
1
du 0

. x 0 f (x) 0 ,
x0 0 f (x0 ) 0 , x0 0 .
1 g(u) 0
0 u x g(0) g(u) g(x) 1 g(u) g(x) .
g(u) g(x) 0
f (x)
1
x 0
1 u2
du x 0
. 0

xo 0 f (xo ) 0
f (x0 ) 0 0 f (x0 )
1 1 1
1 u 2
0
f (x0 ) 1 u 2
du 0
0 1 u 2
du 0

f (x)
1

0 1 u 2
du x 0 x 0 .

xo 0 f (xo ) 0 f (x) 0
x 0 .

x 0 f (x) 0 x 0 f (x) 0.
f (x) 0 ,
mathematica -230

f (x) f (x) f (x) f (x)

1 g(u) du 0 du g(u)du f (x) g(u)du


0 0 0 0

f (x) f (x) f (x) f (x)

g(u) g(x) du 0 g(u)du g(x)du g(u)du f (x)g(x)


0 0 0 0
,
f (x)
1 1 1
f (x) g(u)du g(x)f (x) 0
f (x)
f (x)

g(x)f (x)

g(u)du
0

0
f (x) f (x) f (x) f (x) 1
f (x)
1 (1)
f (x) g(x)f (x) x g(x)
g(u)du
0
1 f (x) f (x) f (0)
lim 1 , , lim 1 lim 1
x0 g(x) x0 x x0 x0
f (x) f (0)
x 0 lim 1 f (0) f (0) 1 .
x0 x0
1.
1 ( u 2 1) u
g(u) g(u) .
u2 1 u2 1 (u 2 1) u 2 1
g ( ,0] [0, ).
f (0)
1
x 0
0 u2 1
du 0 , g(u) 0, u R ,
f (0)
1
f (0) 0 f (0) 0
0 u 1
2
du 0 f (0) 0
f (0)
1

0 u 2
1
du 0. x 0 f (x) 0 ,

x0 0, f (x0 ) 0 x0 0, .


f (x) f (0) f (x) .
lim lim
x0
x0 f (x)
x 0 1
du
0 1 u 2

f 0 limf (x) f (0) 0 x 0
x 0

f (x) 0 , f (x) t t 0 :
0
0 1
lim t
t 0 1
t lim
DLH t 0 1
lim
t 0

1 t 2 1 f (0) f (0) 1 .
2 du
1 t
2
0 u 1
f (0) f (0) 1 .

mathematica -231

. x1 x2 f (x1 ) f (x2 )
f (x1 ) 0 f (x1 ) f (x1 ) f (x 2 )


f (x 2 )
g(u)du 0
f (x 2 )
g(u)du
0
g(u)du 0
0
g(u)du 0
g(u)du

x1 x2 , x1 x2 f (x1 ) f (x2 ) f
R f (0) 0 , x 0
f (x) 0 , x 0 f (x) 0 .

f (x) 1 1 1
. 1 f (x) x, x 0 . 0
x g(x) f (x) x
1
lim 0 , lim f (x)
x f (x) x

x 0 f (x) x lim f (x) .


x
f R .

1..
f (x)
1
x R
0 1 u 2
du x
f ( x)
1 1 1
x 0 0 1 u2
du 0 f (x) x 0
f (x) x
1
lim 0 , lim f (x)
x f (x) x

x<0 f (x) x lim f (x) ,


x
f R.

1
2. . (t) R ,
t2 1
x
dt

0 t2 1
R.
f (x)
dt
f R. ,
0
t 1
2
R.
f (x)
dt
,
0 t 1
2
x ,

f (x)
1 f (x) f 2 (x) 1 (2). f R,
f 2 (x) 1

mathematica -232

f 2 (x) 1 R, f R,
f (x)
f (x) f (x) f (x)
f (x) 1
2

g(x) f (x) f (x) 0 , g(x) 0.

. f (x) f (x) f (x) f (x) (f (x) f(x)) f (x) f(x)


, f (x) f (x) cex , c R , f (0) 0
f (0) 1, c 1.
1
f (x) f (x) ex exf (x) exf (x) e2x (exf (x)) ( e 2x )
2
1 1
exf (x) e2x c,c R. f (0) 0 , c .
2 2
1 1 1 1
exf (x) e2x f (x) ex e x .
2 2 2 2

136
x

f (x) xlntdt
1

1. f (x) .
2. N f '(x),f ''(x) .
3. f '(x) ,
.
1

4. xo f '(x), f (x)dx 0 .
x0

5. B f (x) .
:
1. A(t) lnt (0, )
. 1 (0, ) x (0, ),
f (x) (0, ) .

x x

f (x) xlntdt x lntdt x[tlnt t]1x


1 1

f (x) x(xlnx x 1ln1 1) x2lnx x 2 x x 0

mathematica -233

x x x

f x xlntdt x lntdt (1) . ln tdt


1 1 1
x

0, ln tdt . f x
1
. ,

f x x f x x f x
lntdt
lntdt ln x
x 1 x 1 x

f x f x
xln x x

xln x x c,c R (2) . x 1 (1)
x x
f 1 0 . x 1 (2) c 1 .
f x
xln x x 1 f x x 2 ln x x 2 x,x 0, .
x

2. f x 2xlnx x 1 f x 2lnx 1.

1
1 e
3. f x : f x 0 2ln x 1 0 x e 2

e e
e e x
f x 0 x f x 0 0 x
e
. 0
e
e e
f (x)
, , f x - 0 +

e f (x) 0 . 9
0,
e
e
, .
e
e
[ , ) , f x 0 x 1
e
.
e
f x (0, ] ,
e
e e2
[f , lim f x ) [ ,1).
e x0
e
e
0 , xo 0,
e
e
f xo 0 . xo f x (0, ] ,
e
f x .
mathematica -234

f x dx f x x f 1 f xo 0 0 0 .
1
4.
o
xo

5. f x , x 1 x xo xo 1 .
, 0 x xo f x f xo 0 f x
e e
(0, ] xo (0, ] . xo x 1 f x f xo 0, f x
e e
e e
(0, ] xo (0, ] .
e e
x 1 f x f 1 0 .
e e
f x [ , ) 1 [ , ) .
e e
f : (0,xo ]
A1 (lim f x ,f xo ] (0,f xo ] .
x 0

xo ,1
A2 f 1 ,f xo 0,f xo [1, )
A3 [f 1 , lim f x ) [0, ) .
x
f
f A A1 A2 A3 (0,f xo ] 0,f xo [0, ) [0, ) .

137
f : 0, R :
x2f x 5xf x 4f x 0 x 0 , f 1 1 f 1 3.
1. g x x2f x ln x x 0
.
2. f .
3. f .
ln ln
4. 0 2 f f .
2 2
5. Cf
: y 0, x 1, x e2 .
:
1. g (0, )

mathematica -235

1
g(x) 2xf (x) x 2f (x) (1) . x2f (x) 5xf (x) 4f (x) 0,x 0
x
x f (x) 5x f (x) 4xf (x) 0,x 0 ,
3 2

x3f (x) 3x2f (x) 2x2f (x) 4xf (x) 0,x 0 , (x3f (x)) (2x2f (x)) 0,x 0
(x3f (x) 2x2f (x)) 0,x 0 , x3f (x) 2x2f (x) c,x 0 .
f (1) 1,f (1) 3 c 1 x3f (x) 2x2f (x) 1, x 0
1 1
2xf (x) x 2f (x) ,x 0 . g(x) 2xf (x) x 2f (x)
x x
g(x) 0,x 0 g(x) c,x 0 .

2. g(1) 1 (1) c 1 . x2f (x) lnx 1,x 0.


1 ln x
f (x) ,x 0
x2

3. y
1 ln x 1
limf (x) lim lim 2 (1 ln x) ,

x0 2 x 0 x
x0 x
x 0 f ,

1 1 ln x
f (x) ,x 0
1 lnx x lim 1 0 x2
lim f (x) lim lim
x x x 2 DLH x 2x x 0 2x 2 :x 0
x
y 0 f
:y 0

ln x
3. h(x) ,x [, ] . h
x
[,] ( ) h(x) f (x) ,
ln ln

h() h() ln ln
(,) h() f () .
2 2
, f () f () f ().
x 2x(1 ln x) 3x 2xln x 3 2ln x
f (x)
x4 x4 x3
f (x) 0 2ln x 3 x e e f (x) 0 x e e f
(0,e e] (0,2) (0,e e] ,
f
0 2 f () f () f ().

mathematica -236

e2

5. E f (x) dx.
1
f (x) 0 1 lnx 0 x e f (x) 0 1 lnx 0 x e
e e2 e e2 (4 )
E f (x) dx f (x) dx f (x)dx f (x)dx
1 e 1 e
e2
E [h(x)]1e [h(x)]ee h(e) h(1) h(e 2 ) h(e)
2
.
e2

138

2tf t
f : R R f 0 1 f f t 2 1 dt
, R .
x
2tf t
1. x R f x 1 dt .
0
t 2
1
2. f
3. g : R R
f x g x 2 f x g x
.
4. f x 2ex1 R
.
:

2tf t
1. f f 2 dt , 0

t 1
x
2tf (t) 2tf (t)
f () f (0) 2 dt . x , f (x) f (0) 2 dt (1).
0
t 1 0
t 1

2tf (t)
0 f () f (0) dt . x ,
0
t 2
1
x
2tf (t)
f (x) f (0) dt (2)
0
t 2
1
x
2tf (t)
(1) , (2) x R f (x) 1 dt .
0
t 2
1

2. , f (x)
2xf (x)
, f (x) 2 f (x)(x 2 1) (x 2 1)f (x) 0
x 1

mathematica -237

f (x)
x2 1 0 f (x) (x 1)c .
2


x 0 c 1 , f (x) x2 1 , .

3. f x g x 2 f x g x
f x g x f x g x 2g(x) 0 (f (x)g(x) 2g(x)) 0
h(x) f (x)g(x) 2g(x),x [1,1] .
h [1,1] , ( 1,1)
h(1) f (1)g(1) 2g(1) 2g(1) 2g(1) 0
h(1) f (1)g(1) 2g(1) 2g(1) 2g(1) 0 . Rolle
x0 ( 1,1) h(x0 ) 0 .
f x g x 2 f x g x .

4. x2 1 2ex1 2ex1 x2 1 0
H(x) 2ex1 x2 1,x R .
H R ,
H(x) 2ex1 2x , x R .
H(1) 0 H ,
H(x).
H(x) 2ex1 2 ,
x 1
H(x) 0 2e 2 0 e 1 x 1
x1 x1
(x) - 0 +
H(x) 0 2ex1 2 0 ex1 1 x 1
H(x) 0 2ex1 2 0 ex1 1 x 1 (x) 0 O.E 9

, H(x)
xo 1, H(1) 0.
H(x) H(1) H(x) 0 x 1 H(x) 0 .
H R . H(1) 0
x 1.

139
x
2t 2
f (x) lnx,x 0 , K(x) 0
t 1
2
dt , x 0,
2
h(x) x 1 .
2

1. f (x) x 1 x 0 .
2. K(x)
mathematica -238

K(x) .
3. . g(x) (foh)(x) R .
. E()
g , x'x

x 0,x 0, .
2
. lim E().


2


. E() 2( ) 0, .
2
:
1. x 0
lnx x 1 lnx x 1 0.

m(x) lnx x 1,x 0. m (0, )


1 1 x
m(x) 1 ,x 0.
x x
1 x
m(x) 0 0 x 1 x 0 1
x
1 x x 0 m(x) + 0 -
m(x) 0 0 x 1. m(x) 9 O. 0
x
, ,
m (0,1] [1, ) .
x 1 m(1) 0 .
x 0 m(x) m(1) lnx x 1 0 lnx x 1 .

2t 2
2. 2 (0, ) ,
t 1 2
x
2t 2

0 t 2 1dt (0,
2
) . x (0,
2
),
x
2t 2

0
t 1
2
dt (0, ),
2
x 2
2t
t
0
2
1
dt x. K (0, )
2
2 x 2 x
2x 1 2 2x,x (0, ).
2 2
K (x) 2 (x) 2
x 1 x 1 2

K (0, )
2
4x
K (x) ,x (0, ).
x
2
2

mathematica -239

3. . f (x) lnx,x 0 h(x) x2 1,x R .


x Dh x R

g(x) (foh)(x) x R
h(x) D
x 1 0
2
f

g R
g(x) (foh)(x) f (h(x)) f (x 2 1) ln(x 2 1),x R.

. E()
0
ln(x 2 1) dt . x R

x 0 x 1 1 ln(x2 1) ln1 ln(x2 1) 0


2 2

x 0 , x R g(x) 0 .

E() ln(x 1)dt (x) ln(x 2 1)dt


2

0 0
1
2x 2x 2
xln(x 1)
2
x 2 dx xln(x 2 1) dx
0
0
x 1 0
0
x2 1

x 11
2
1
xln(x 1) 2
2
dx xln(x 2 1) 2 dx 2 2 dx
0
0
x 1
2 0
0 0
x 1
2 x0 2 ln(2 1) 2 2.

xln(x2 1)
0

1
, s() 0 x 1 dx , [0,
2
). 2

s
s() 2
1
1
2
1
1
2 1 1 .

1
s() c,c R. . 0 c 0 , s() x
0
2
1
dx .



. lim E() lim ln( 2 1) 2 2

2 2

2
lim ln( 2 1) 2



2

2
lim 0 , lim lim ln(2 1) .



2 2 2

mathematica -240


. (0, )
2
ln( 1) 2 2 2( )
2

ln(2 1) 2 2 ln(2 1) 2 2
1
ln( ) 2 2 ln( 2) 2 2

2

ln( 2) 2 2 ln( 2) 2 2.
(1) , ln( 2) 2 1 2

(0, ) 2 2 2
2

t() 2 2 2, [0, ] .
2
t
t() 2 2 2( 1) 0 .

t [0, ] . [0, ]
2 2

t() t(0) 2 2 2 0 . (0, ) ,
2
2 2 0.
2

3..

(0, )
2
ln( 1) 2 2 2( ) ln(2 1) 2 2
2

1
ln(2 1) 2 2 ln( ) 2 2
2
ln( 2) 2 2 ln( 2) 2 2
ln( 2) 2 2 2ln() 2 2 ln() 1
2ln() 2 2 ln() 1 (1)
x x (0,1).

140
f : R R x R
f x

e 1 dt x 1.
t

1. f .
2. f .
3. f
x R .
4. Cf ,

mathematica -241

x'x x 1 x e 1 .
x1
5. x 1 f x f x x 1 .
2
: . . ( )
:
1. g(t) e 1 R ,
t

g(t)dt
0
R , f
f (x)

R, g(t)dt.
0
R. x 1 R .
f (x)

e 1 dt x 1 .
t

0
ef ( x ) 1 0 1
, f (x)(ef (x) 1) 1 f (x) 0.
ef (x) 1
f R , 1 1 , .
f (x)

e 1 dt x 1 et x
f (x)
t
x 1 ef (x) f (x) x .
0
0

h(x) ex x,x R . h R h(x) ex 1 0 .


h R 1 1 , .
: lim h(x) lim ex x
x x

lim h(x) lim e x .


x x
x

h R .
h 1 R . h(f (x)) x f (x) h 1 (x) .
f R .
h(f (x)) x f 1 (x) h(x) e x x,x R .

f (x) ef (x)
2

2. f (x)(e 1) f (x) e 0 f (x)


2
f (x) f (x)
0.
(ef (x) 1)
f R.

f (1)

3. f (1) 0 , x 1 e 1 dt 0(1) .
t

t R e 1 0 (1) t

f (1) 0 . , f R
x 1 f (x) 0 .
f f
x 1f (x) f (1) 0 . x 1 f (x) f (1) 0 .

mathematica -242

Cf , x'x
1 e f
x 1 x e 1 E
1
f (x) dx . x 1f (x) f (1) 0
1 e

, E f (x)dx
1


1 e y
E f (x)dx
1
.

:y=1+e B(1,1+e)
f f 1 M(1+e,1+e)
y x A(1,f(1)) ,
B(1 e,f(1 e)) 1
A(0,f 1 (0)) A(0,1) , (0,1) B(1+e,1)
B(1,f 1 (1)) B(1,1 e) x
1 e (1,0)
. E 1
:x=1
f (x)dx
:x=0

1
1 1
x2
E 1 e f (x) dx 1 e e x dx x xe e
1 x x

0 0 2 0
1 3
E 1 e e 1 ..
2 2

f (x) u x f 1 (u) eu u , dx (eu 1)du.


x 1 u 0 x 1 e u 1.

1 e 1
1 1
u2 3
f (x)dx u(e 1)du u(e 1)du ue e .
1 1
E u u u u

2 0 2
0 0
1 0 0

5. x 1 1,x f ,
f x f 1
1,x f .
x1
f , f R . ,
f x f 1
1 x f x f f 1 f x f 1 .
x1
x 1 f 1 0,x 1 0 .

mathematica -243

1
f x
1
f x
f 1 0 f 1 ,
1 e 2
f x f 1 x1
f x f 1 x 1 f x f x .
x1 2
141
x - -2 0 2
+
e (e 3t) -
ln x t t
x -2 - - 0 +
f (x) ex 3x g(x) 1
x +2 dt - 0
et f(x)
3t + -
+ + +
- 0 +
1. f . f(x) 9 0 0 . 9
2. x1 ,x2
e
f (x) 0 , 0, ln 3,2 .
3
3. g.
4. g.
5. g
, Dg
ln
et (et 3t)
e 3 t dt e 3 .
ln
e 3t
: . ( )
:
1. f (x) e 3x f (x) ex 3 f (x) 0 ex 3 x ln3
x

f (x) 0 ex 3 x ln3 . f [ln 3, ).


f (x) 0 ex 3 x ln 3. f (,ln3].
, , x ln 3

f (x) - 0 +

x ln3, f (ln3) 3 3ln3. f (x) 0 . 9

3x
, lim (ex 3x) lim (ex 3x) lim [ex (1 )] .
x x DLH x ex


3x 3 3x
lim x
lim x 0, lim (1 x ) 1.
x e DLH x e x e
f
f ( ,ln 3] [f (ln 3), lim f (x)) [3 3ln 3, )
x
f
f [ln 3, [f (ln 3), lim f (x)) [3 3ln 3, ).
x
f , [3 3ln3, ) .

mathematica -244

e
e
2. f (0) 1 0 f ( ) e e 0,
3
3
e
e e e
e 3 1 e 3 e. f [0, ] f (0)f ( ) 0.
3 3 3
e
Bolzano x1 (0, ) f (x1 ) 0.
3
(,ln3] f
e e
(0, ) ( ,ln 3] , ln 3 e ln 33
3 3
lne ln3 e 3 , e 3 .
e 3 e 3

f (ln3) 3 3ln3 3(1 ln3) 3(lne ln3) 0 e 3


f (2) e2 4 0 e 2 f (ln3)f (2) 0, Bolzano
x2 (ln3,2) f (x2 ) 0. , [ln 3, )
f .

et (et 3t)
ln x

3. g(x)
1
f (t)
dt

e
f (t) 0 t (,x1 ) (x1 ,x2 ) (x2 , ) , 0 x1 1 ln 3 x2 .
3
x 0 x1 lnx x2 ex1 x ex2 3x1 x 3x2 ,
x1 ,x2 f (x) 0 .
, g A (3x1 ,3x2 ) .

4. f (3x1 ,3x2 ) et (et 3t)


et (et 3t)
x
(3x1 ,3x2 ) , dt
1
f (t)
(3x1 ,3x2 ) . , ln x (3x1 ,3x2 ) . g

eln x (eln x 3ln x) 1 x(x 3ln x) x 3ln x

g (x) ,
f (ln x) x (x 3ln x)x x 3ln x
3 3
(1 )(x 3ln x) (1 )(x 3ln x) 6(1 ln x)
g(x) x x
(x 3ln x) 2
(x 3ln x)2
6(1 lnx)
g(x) 0 0 x e (3x1 ,3x 2 )
x 3lnx
2

6(1 lnx)
g(x) 0 0 3x1 x e
x 3lnx
2

mathematica -245

x 3x1 e 3x 2
g (3x1 ,e] g(x) + 0 -
[e,3x2 ).
g(x) 3 . 4
et (et 3t)
1

g(e) t dt 0.
1
e 3t
g(e) 0 g e (3x1 ,3x2 ), g
B(e,0) .

5. (e 3)(g() g()) ( )(e 3).


g(e) 0 g(x) 0 x e , g
(3x1 ,e] . g(x) 0 x e , g [e,3x2 ).
g x 3x1 e 3x 2
e3
g (x) + 0 -
x e g(e) 0,
e3 g(x) 9 . 0
x (3x1 ,3x2 ) g(x) 0,
g (3x1 ,3x2 ).
g [,] (3x1 ,3x2 ) , (,) , ,
g() g() e3
(,) g() . g() g(e)
e3
g() g() e 3
(e 3)(g() g()) ( )(e 3) ,
e3
.

142
f : R R
x 0

f (x) 1 x f (x t)dt x R f (x)dx 2 .


1 1

1. f
f x0 1 .
f (x) 1
2. lim .
x1 (x 1)3

lim ex f (e x ) 1 2 .
3. x
: . , 18/4/2010
:
1. u x t du dt.

mathematica -246

x

t 1 u x 1, t x u 0 , f (x) 1 x f (x t)dt
1
0 x 1

f (x) 1 x f (u)( du) 1 x f (u)du


x 1 0
f
x 1

f (x) f (u)du xf (x 1).


0
f (1) f (0).
1

, f (0) 1 0 f (u)du 1 , f (1) 1 .


0
f

x0 1 .
4

f (x) 1 f (x) f (1) 1


2. lim lim 2
,
x1 (x 1)3 x1
x 1 (x 1)
f (x) f (1) 1
lim f (1) 1 lim .
x1 x1 x1 (x 1)2

e x 1

3. f (e x ) 1 e x 0
f (u)du .

e x 1
e 1
x

g(x) e f x
(e )
1 x
0 f
(u)du . , lim g(x) lim f (u)du .
x x
0
x
e t , x t 0 .
e 1
x
t 1
lim f (u)du lim f (u)du .
x t 0 0
0
t
f R , f (u)du
0
R . t 1 R . g R ,
t 1 1 0
. , lim f (u)du f (u)du f (u)du ( 2) 2 .
t 0
0 0 1

(*)
f .
.
: f : R R
x 0

f (x) 1 x f (x t)dt x R f (x)dx 2.


1 1
f x0 1.
:

mathematica -247

u x t du dt.
x

t 1 u x 1, t x u 0 , f (x) 1 x f (x t)dt
1
0 x 1

f (x) 1 x f (u)( du) 1 x f (u)du


x 1 0
x 1 x 1
1 x f (u)du 1 x f (u)du 0
0
f (x ) f (1)
lim lim 0
lim 0

x 1 x1 x 1 x1 x 1 x1 DLH
x 1

lim f (u)du xf (x 1) f (0)
x 1
0
1

f (1) f (0) . , f (0) 1 0 f (u)du 1 , f (1) 1 .


0

f x0 1 .
4

143
z i f : R R
, : z i f x z i f 1 x z i z i x R
1. z i z i .
2. z .
3. f x 1.
1

4. f x dx 1.
0
2x

5. f t dt 1 xf x
0
.
: . ( )
:
1. z i R, z i R
f (x) f (1 x) ,x R,, R
x 1 x f (1 x) f (x) ,x R ,
f (1 x) f (x) f (x) f (1 x) ( )f (x) ( )f (1 x), x R
, f (x) f (1 x), x R .
x 1 f (0) f (1) , f ,
z i z i .

2. z i z i z AB
mathematica -248

A(0,1),B(0, 1) xx .

3. z i z i z i ,
f(x) f(1 x) 2, x R.

1 1 1 1
x f f 2 f 1
2 2 2 2
1 1
f (x) 1 f (x) f x f .
2 2
1 1
4. f (x) f (1 x) 2 f (x) f (1 x) dx 2dx
0 0
1 1

f (x)dx f (1 x)dx 2x
1
0
0 0
1 x u , dx du . x 0 u 1 ,
1 0 1
x 1 u 0 , f (1 x)dx f (u)du f (u)du
0 1 0
1 1 1 1
f (x)dx f (1 x)dx 2x 0 2 f (x)dx 2 f (x)dx 1 .
1

0 0 0 0
2x
1
5. h(x) f (t)dt 1 xf (x),x [0, ] .
0
2
1
h [0, ]
2
0

h(0) f (t)dt 1 0f (0) 1 0


0

1 1 1
1
1 1
h f (t)dt 1 f 1 1 0
2 0 2 2 2 2
1
Bolzano (0, )
2
2

h() 0 f (t)dt 1 f () .
0
2x

f (t)dt 1 xf (x) .
0

144
f : (0, ) R x 0
x
f (t)
e x dt f (x) 1 . :
mathematica -249

1. f .
2. () Cf
.
3. Cf xx
().
x2
f (x)
4. lim dt.
x1 f (t)
x
x2
1
5. lim dt.
x1
x x 2
x f (t)
:
1. ,
x
f t 1
x x

e x dt f x 1 x e f t dt f x 1 e f t dt xf x x.
x

f , , f t dt
e
(0, ) . ,

x
f t dt xf x x f x f x xf x 1 xf x 1 .

e
1
x 0, f x f x ln x

x
f x lnx c,x 0,c R (1) .
x e , f e 1 .
x e , (1) , c 0 .
f x lnx,x 0.

2. Cf A x o , f x o
1
y f xo f xo x xo y ln xo
x xo .
xo
,
1
O 0,0 ln xo xo xo e .
xo
Cf ,
1 1
A e, lne e,1 y x g x x .
e e
1 1
f x lnx,x 0, f x ,x 0 f x 2 ,x 0 .
x x

mathematica -250

x 0 f (x) 0 , f
(0, ) . f
, y

.
.

x'x , x 1 1
y x
, e

f x lnx

:x=0
f (e,1) , x
:x=e
f x 1 . :x=1
,
1 e

E g x dx g x f x dx
0 1
1 e
1 1 x2 x2 e2
1 e
1
xdx x lnx dx x lnx x ..
0
e 1 e e 2 0 2e 1
2

1 1
3. T(x) ,x 1,
f (x) ln x
1
T(x) 0 , x 0, T
x ln x
2

x 1, t x t x 2 :
T(x) T(t) T(x 2 ) T(x 2 ) T(t) T(x)(*)

x2 x2 x2 x2

T x dt T t dt T x dt x x T x T t dt x x T x
2 2 2 2

x x x x

x 2
x x2

T t dt
x 2
x x 2
x x2

T t dt
x x 1
2

ln x2

x
ln x

2ln x

x
ln x
x 2
x x 2

T t dt
x 2
x x2 x
x
1
2

(1)
2ln x

x
ln x

2
ln x
x
f (t)
dt x 2 x
2
x2 x
x
f (x)
dt x 2 x .
2 x
f (t)
x 2
x 0, lim
lim
x1 2 x1
x 2

x 0
x2
f (x)
lim dt 0 .
x1 f (t)
x
(*) f ,g [,] x [,]

mathematica -251

f (x) g(x) f (x) g(x) 0 f (x) g(x) dx 0



f (x) g(x)dx .

4. 3.
x x
2
x 2

T t dt
x2 x

1
x2

2
1
dt
1
2ln x x
ln x 2ln x x x x f (t) ln x
1 1
lim , lim ,
x1 2ln x x1 ln x
x2
1
: lim dt.
x1
x x 2
x f (t)

145
f ,g R
x
f (t )dt
x10f (t )dt g(t)dt 0 x R {0,1} g(x) g(2 x) 2
g(x) 0 x R .
1. f (t)dt f (t)dt x R 0,1 .
x 1

0 x

2.
1
f (t)dt 0 .
0

3. f 1 0 f 0 0 .
4. f ,
f (x) f (t)dt f (x)f (x) 0,1 .
1

5. f (t)dt xf (x)
1

x

0,1 .
6. f , 2f (x) xf (x)
0,1 .
7.
g(x) xx x 0 x 2.
:
:
1. g x R g(x) 0 ,
Bolzano, g R.
, x 1 2g(1) 2 g(1) 1 0 g(x) 0,x R.

mathematica -252

x 1

F(x) f (t)dt G(x) f (t)dt ,


0 x

F(x)
g(t)dt 0 x 0,1.
G(x)


F(x0 )
x0 R {0,1} F(x0 ) G(x0 ) g(t)dt 0
G(x0 )

x0 R {0,1} F(x0 ) G(x0 ) g(x) 0,x R

F(x0 )
g(t)dt 0,, F(x) G(x) , x R {0,1}.
G(x0 )

2. F(x) G(x) , x R {0,1} F(x) f (t)dt ,


0
1

G(x) f (t)dt R , ,
x
1

limF(x) limG(x), F(0) G(0) 0 f (x)dx


x 0 x 0
0
1

limF(x) limG(x), F(1) G(1) f (x)dx 0.


x1 x1
0


1
, f (t)dt 0 .
0

x x

3. h(x) f (t)dt f (t)dt (1), (2)


0 1
h(x) 0, x R . h(1) h(0) 0 , x1 0,x2 1
h(x) 2f (x) , Fermat ,
h(0) h(1) 0 f (0) f (1) 0 .

f (x) f (t)dt f (x)f (x) 2f (x)G(x) 2f (x)f (x) 0


x
4.
1

2f (x)G(x) 2f (x)f (x) 0 2G(x)G(x) 2f (x)f (x) 0 (G 2 (x) f 2 (x)) 0.

H(x) G 2 (x) f 2 (x), x [0,1]


,
H(x) 2G(x)G(x) 2f (x)f (x) H(x) 2f (x)G(x) 2f (x)f (x).
, H(0) H(1) 0 . Rolle , H(x) 0
(0,1) 2f (x)G(x) 2f (x)f (x) 0 f (x) f (t)dt f (x)f (x).
x

5. f (t)dt xf (x) 0 G(x) xf (x) 0


1

mathematica -253

(x) G(x) xG(x) 0 xG(x) 0.


K(x) xG(x), x [0,1]


x

K(x) G(x) xG(x) f (t)dt xf (x)


1
K(1) K(0) 0 , Rolle ,
x

K(x) f (t)dt xf (x) 0 (0,1) .


1

6. 2f(x) xf (x) 0 2xf(x) x2f (x) 0




(x2 ) f (x) x2f (x) 0 x2f (x) 0
(x) x2f (x),x [0,1]
(x) 2xf (x) x2f (x) (0) (1) 0 , Rolle ,
(x) 2xf (x) x 2f (x) 0 , (0,1) , 2f (x) xf (x) 0 .

7. , g(x) 0,x R
2 2 2 2

E g(x)dx [2 g(2 x)]dx 2dx g(2 x)dx E 4 g(2 x)dx


2

0
0 0 0 0
u 2 x du dx . x 0 u 2, x 2 u 0.
2 0 2

g(2 x)dx g(u)(du) g(u)du E


0 2 0
E 4 E 2E 4 E 2..

146
f R

1 x x dt x 1 x R 0 .
x2 f (tx)
2

x3
1. (x) f (t)dt .
x

2. f 1 1 f -1 1 .
3. (x) x 0
f (0) 0 .
4. f ,
.
:
:

mathematica -254

0 x3 x3 x
1. (x) f (t)dt f (t)dt f (t)dt f (t)dt .
x 0 0 0
x

f R , f (t)dt R ,
0
x3

f (t)dt
0
R , . (x)

(x) 3x2f (x3 ) f (x) .

2. u tx du xdt . . t 1 u x, t x2 u x3
x2 x2 x3 x3
f (tx) f (tx) f (u) 1 1
x 0 , dt 2 xdt 2 du 2 f (u)du 2 (x).
1
xx 1
x x x
x x x x x x x
:
1
x 0 , 3 (x) x2 1 0 (x) x5 x3 0 (1)
x
1
x 0 , 3 (x) x2 1 0 (x) x5 x3 0 (x) x5 x3 0 (2)
x
(x) (x) x5 x3 (1) (x) 0 ,
(0, ) (x) (x) 5x4 3x2 .
(1) (1) 0 , x1 1 .
Fermat, (1) (1) 5 3 0 (1) 2
3f(1) f(1) 2 f(1) 1

, (x) (x) x5 x3 (x) 0, x ( ,0) .


( ,0) (x) (x) 5x4 3x2 . ,
(1) (1) 0 , (x) (1), x ( ,0) .
x2 1 . Fermat,
(1) (1) 5 3 0 (1) 2 ,
3f (1) f (1) 2 f (1) 1 .

3. (0) f (0) . , x 0
(x) x5 x3 0 (x) x5 x3 (x) (0) x5 x3
(x) (0) (x) (0)
x4 x2 lim 0 (0) 0 .
x x 0 x
x 0 , (x) x 5 x 3 0 (x) x 5 x 3 (x) ( 0) x5 x3 .
(x) (0) (x) (0)
, x4 x2 . lim 0 , (0) 0 .
x x 0 x
(0) 0 , f (0) 0 .

mathematica -255

4. H f [1,0] [0,1]. f
( 1,0) (0,1), ,
f (0) f ( 1)
x1 (1,0), x2 (0,1) f (x1 ) 1
0 ( 1)
f (1) f (0)
f (x2 ) 1 .
1 0
f [x1 ,x2 ] , (x1 ,x2 ) f (x1 ) f (x2 ) 1.
Rolle , (x1 ,x2 )
f () 0 . f .

147
xt
f : R R 3f (x)
x
dt x 6x 6
3
f
2x
3
x R .
1. f .
2. f .
3. f 1 1 .
4.
f, Cf 1 , x'x
2
x 2 ,x 2 .
e
: , ( )
:
xt
1. u , dt 3du . t 2x u x
3
xt
x 0 x

t x u 0 . f ( )dt 3f (u)du 3f (u)du.


2x
3 x 0

xt
x

3f (x)
2x
f(
3
)dt x 3 6x 6 ,
x x

3f (x) 3f (u)du x 6x 6 3f (x) 3 f (u)du x 3 6x 6 .


3

0 0
x

f R , f (u)du
0
x

R , x3 6x 6 R , 3 f (u)du x 3 6x 6
0
R , f R .

mathematica -256

2. x 0 3f (0) 6 f (0) 2 .

3f (x) 3f (x) 3x2 6 f (x) f (x) x 2 2 f (x)e x f (x)e x e x (x2 2)

f (x)e e
x x
x 2 2e x .. 1 .

:
, .

x x x x x x

t dt 2 e dt e t dt 2 e

e dt e t 2te dt 2 e tdt
t 2 t t 2 t t 2 x t
0
0 0 0 0 0 0
x x x x

e t t 2 2t e t dt 2 e tdt e t t 2 2te t 2 e tdt 2 e tdt


x x x

0 0 0
0 0 0 0
x x

e t t 2 2te t 2 e tdt 2 e tdt e t t 2 2te t e xx 2 2xe x


x x x x

0 0 0 0
0 0
x
e (x 2) e x x2 2xe x . 2

f (x)e e

x x
(1) , x2 2xe x
f (x)e x e xx2 2xe x c,x R,c R .
x 0 c 2 , f (x)e x e xx2 2xe x 2 f (x) x2 2x 2ex ,
. f (x) 2ex x2 2x,x R .

3. f R f (x) 2ex 2x 2,x R .


f , f .
f R f (x) 2ex 2,x R .
f (x) 0 2ex 2 0 x 0 x 0

f (x) 0 2ex 2 0 x 0 f (x) - 0 +

, f (x) 0 . 9
f (,0]
[0, ) .
x 0 f (0) 0.
x R f (x) 0 x 0 . f
R , 1 1 , .

4. u f 1 (x) x f (u) dx f (u)du .


2 2 11
x 2 f (u) 2 f (u) f ( 2) u 2.
e e
11
x 2 f (u) 2 f (u) f (0) u 0.

mathematica -257

2 0 0 0

f f (f (u))f (u)du uf (u)du u(2e


1 1
E (x) dx u
2u 2)du
2 2 2 2
e2
0
0 0 0
u3 0

2 ue du 2 u du 2 udu 2 ue 2 e du 2 u 2
u 2 u u 0 0

2 2
2 2 2 2 3 2
0
0 u3
0 0
2 ue 2 e 2 u 2
u u
2 2 2
3 2
16 16 10
4e2 2 2e2 4 2 6e2 6e2 ..
3 3 3

148
1 1 x1 x
f (0, ) f (x) 2 2 f dt
2 2x 1 t
t
x 0 .
1. f (0, )
f (x) f (x) .
2. g(x) lnx x2f (x) x 0
(0, ) .
3. f x (0, ) .
4. Cf .
5. E(k)
Cf , x'x x 1,x k k (0,1) .
6. N lim E(k) .
k 0

:
x x x
1. u t dt 2 du .
t u u
t 1 u x , t x u 1 .
1 x x
x 1 x
u f (u)
f dt f (u) 2 du du .
1
t
t x
x u 1
u
x
1 1 f (u)
, f (x) 2 2 du,x 0 .
2 2x 1
u
f (u)
f (0, ) , (0, ) ,
u
x
f (u) 1 1
1 u du (0, ) ,
2 2x 2
(0, ) .

mathematica -258

1 2f (x)
f (0, ) f (x) ,x 0 .
x3 x

2. g(x) lnx x 2f(x),x 0 (0, ) ,



1 1 1 2f (x)
g(x) 2xf (x) x 2f (x) 2xf (x) x 2 3
x x x x
1 1
g(x) 2xf (x) 2xf (x) 0 . g (0, ) .
x x

3. x 1 f (1) 0 . g ,
x1
x 0 g(x) c,c R. , g(x) c ln x x f (x) c c 0
2

ln x
ln x x2f (x) 0 f (x) ,x 0
x2
ln x
f (x) ,x 0 .
x2

4.
ln x
lim f (x) lim 2 . x 0 Cf
x0 x0 x

-


1
ln x 1
lim f (x) lim 2 lim x lim 2 0.
x x
x DLH x 2x x 2x

xx Cf . Cf
, .

lnx 1
2


f (x) lnx
1
lim lim x lim 3 lim x2 lim 3 0.
x x x
x
x
x DLH x 3x x 3x

1
0

ln x

1
lim f (x) x lim f (x) lim 2 lim x lim 2 0 .
x x x
x DLH x 2x x 2x

mathematica -259

0
y x 0x 0 0 , xx
Cf . , 1.
y y

ln x
ln x f x
f x 2 x2
x
x
x
x=k x=1

1 2

5. x (0,1] f (x) 0 .
1 1
( 2), E() f (x) dx f (x)dx

1 1 1
1 lnx
1 1 1
lnx 1 lnx 1 ln 1
2 dx lnxdx 2 dx 1 .


x x x x x x

ln 1 1 ln
6. E() 1

1 ln 1
lim E() lim lim ( 1 ln) .
0 0 0

149
f : (0, ) R x 0
1 2f (t)
x

f (x) 3 dt.
1 t t
ln x
1. f (x) ,x 0.
x2
2. f .
3. E() Cf ,
1
x'x x x 0 ,
e
lim E() lim E().
0

4. , R
x3 x 2 ln x
lim
x 2 0.
x
: . ( )
mathematica -260

:
1 2f t
1. (0, ),
t3 t
x
1 2f t
3 dt (0, ) .
1
t t

x 1 2f t 1 2f x 1
f x 3 dt f x 3 f x x 2 2xf x
t t
1 x x x



f x x2 ln x f x x2 ln x c,x (0, ),c R .

f 1 0
ln x
f x x2 ln x f x 2 ,x 0 . .
x

2. f (0, )
ln x x 2xln x x 1 2ln x

f x 2 .
x x4 x4

f x 0 x e f x 0 x e f x 0 x e.
f . ,
, f
x 0 e
f (x) + 0 -
(0, e] [ e, ) .
f (x) .

1
A1 (lim f x ,f e ] ( , ]
x0 2e
1
A 2 ( lim f x ,f e ] (0, ] .
x 2e
1 1 1
f A A1 A 2 ( , ] (0, ] ( , ] .
2e 2e 2e

3. f f x 0 x 1
f x 0 0 x 1 . ,

mathematica -261

1 y
0
e :x=0
1 1
x
e
ln x
e
E f x dx 2 dx


x f x
lnx
1 1 x2
1

e
1 ln x 1 e e
E ln xdx dx

2

x x
x :x
1
ln 1 ln
e 1 :x=1/e
e e e
x
ln 1
E .

y
1
1
e x
1
e
ln 1
E f x dx f x dx . :x=1/e
ln x

f x
1
e x2
:x=

y
ln x
f x
1 x2
1

E f x dx f x dx x
1 1
e :x=1/e
:x=

ln x
1
ln x
2 dx 2 dx
1 x 1
x
e

1
ln x 1 ln x 1 ln 1 ln 1
1 1 2 .
x x 1 x x 1
e

mathematica -262

ln 1 1

, 0
e

ln 1 1
E , 1 .
e
ln 1
2 , 1

ln 1 1
, lim E lim lim ln 1
0 0 0
ln 1 ln 1
lim E lim 2 lim 2 2

ln 1 lim 1 0.

ln 1
lim lim

x3 x2 ln x ln x
4. lim lim x 2 lim f x x .
x x
x 2 x
x
, R ,

,
ln x
f x

2 ln x ln x 1
lim lim x lim 3 lim lim 3 0
x3 x 3x
x x x x x x
x

lnx lim 1 0.

lim f x x lim f x lim 2 lim


lnx

x x x x x x 2x 2
x2

150
g : R R f :
R R . , x R f (x) 0 g(x) 0 .
t
xg( x)

F(x) 0
f
g(x) dt .

x

1. x R F(x) g(x) f (u)du .


0

2. F , f (x) e x
g(x) ex .
3. x R F(x) x , g(0)f (0) 1 .
4. F(1)g(2) F(2)g(1) .
: . ( )

mathematica -263

:
t 1
1. u du dt t 0
g(x) g(x)
u 0, t xg(x) u x
t t 1
xg(x) xg(x) x

F(x) 0
f dt g(x)
g(x)

0
f dt g(x) f (u)du .
g(x) g(x) 0

2. f (x) e x ,g(x) ex . ,
x
1
e dt e [e
t x
F(x) e x
t
x
] ex (e x 1) 1 ex . F(x) ex 1,x R.
0
0
x

3. x R F(x) x g(x) f (u)du x.


0
x
x
x R g(x) 0 f (u)du
0
g(x)
.
x
x
h(x) f (u)du ,x R . x R
0
g(x)
x

h(x) 0. f R , f (u)du
0
x
R . , R ,
g(x)
x
x
. h(x) f (u)du ,x R
0
g(x)
g(x) xg(x)
R h(x) f (x) ,x R .
g 2 (x)
h(0) 0 . x R h(x) h(0) ,
g(0)
Fermat , h(0) 0 f (0) 2 0
g (0)
g(0) 0
f (0)g 2 (0) g(0)
0 f (0)g 2
(0) g(0) 0 g(0) f (0)g(0) 1
0
g 2 (0)
f (0)g(0) 1 .


F(x)
x
F(x) F(x)
4. f (t)dt f (x) 0.
g(x) 0 g(x) g(x)
F(2) F(1)
R, F(2)g(1) F(1)g(2).
g(2) g(1)

mathematica -264

151
f : 0, 2 R f (x) x2


x 0, 2 g :[0, 2] R g(x)
f (x)
x
,x 0, 2
[0, 2 ) . f ( ) f ( ) 0.
1. g(0).

2. : f (x)
x 2
2x
x 0, 2 .

1
3. : xf (x)dx .
0
6
:
1. g ,
0

f (x) xf (x) f (x) f (x) xf (x) f (x)
0
g(0) lim g(x) lim

lim lim
x x0 DLH x0
x0 x0 2
x 2x
xf (x) x2 1
lim lim .
x0
2x x0 2 2

2. t (0, 2) ,
x x

f (t) t 2 2tf (t) 2tt 2 2tf (t)dt 2tt


2

2tf (t) 2f (t)dt t 2 2xf (x) 2 f ( ) 2 f (x)


x x x

x 2

x2
2xf (x) 2f (x) x2 xf (x) f (x) .
2
xf (x) f (x) x2
x (0, 2) g(x)
x2 2x 2
x(0, 2 )
x2
g(x) 0 0 x 0 x
2

2x2
0 x 0 x2 x2 0 g(x) 0

x 2 x2 2 x2 0 g(x) 0

mathematica -265

, ,
, g
x 0 2
g(x) + 0 -
(0, ]
[ , 2]. g(x) 9 .M 0
x g( ) 0.

x(0, 2 )
f (x)
x (0, 2) g(x) g( ) 0 f (x) 0.
x
2xf (x) x2 2f (x) ,
x(0, 2 )
x2
f (x) 0 2f (x) 0 2xf (x) x 0 2xf (x) x2 f (x)
2
.
2x

3. 2xf (x) 2f (x) x2 2xf (x) 2x2f (x) xx2 . ,



1
2xf (x)dx 2x f (x)dx xx dx 2x f (x) 4xf (x)dx x 2
2 2 2

0 0 0
0
0
2 0


1 1
6 xf (x)dx x2 6 xf (x)dx ( 1 1)
0
2 0
0
2

1
6 xf (x)dx 1 xf (x)dx 6 .
0 0

152 erxmer
f : R R
f (x) 0 x R f (0) 1.
2x f (t)
g(x) x t
dt ,x 0
ln2 ,x 0
g(x)
1. N f (x) f (2x) x 0
ln2
g(x)
f (2x) f (x) x 0.
ln2
2. g x0 0.
3. g
: . ( ...)
:
1. f(x) 0 x R f
R. x 0 x t 2x, f R,

mathematica -266

f (x) f (t) f (2x)
f (x) f (t) f (2x) . , (*)
t t t
2x 2x
2x f (x) f (t) f (2x)
dt dt dt. ,
x t x
t x
t
2x 2x 2x
1 f (t) 1 f (t)
f (x) x t dt f (2x) x t dt f (x)[lnt]x
2x
dt 2x
dt f (2x)[lnt]2x
x
x t x
t
2x
f (t)
f (x)ln 2
x
t dt f (2x)ln 2 .

x 0 2x t x 0, f R,
f (2x) f (t) f (x)
f (2x) f (t) f (x) . ,
t t t
x x x x
x f (2x) f (t) f (x) x 1 f (t) 1
2x t dt 2x t dt 2x t dt f (2x)2x t dt 2x t dt f (x)2x t dt
x x
f (t) f (t)
f (2x)[ln t ] x
2x dt f (x)[ln t ]2x
x
f (2x)ln 2 dt f (x)ln 2
2x
t 2x
t
2x
f (t)
f (2x)ln 2
x
t
dt f (x)ln 2.

(*) f ,g [,] x [,]


f (x) g(x)

f (x) g(x) 0 f (x) g(x) dx 0 f (x) g(x)dx.


2. x 0 f (x)ln2 g(x) f (2x)ln2


f f (0)1
lim(f

(x)ln 2) lim(f

(2x)ln 2) f (0)ln 2 ln 2.
x 0 x 0 0

limg(x)

ln 2.
x0

, x 0 f (2x)ln2 g(x) f (x)ln2.


limg(x)

ln 2 , limg(x) ln2 g(0) ,
x0 x0

g x0 0.

f (t) 2x f (t) x f (t)


g(x)
dt dt
2x
3. dt
x t 0 t 0 t
f (t)
(,0) (0, ) ,
t
f (2x) f (x) f (2x) f (x)
(,0) (0, ), g(x) 2 .
2x x x
x 0 2x x f (2x) f (x) ( f )

mathematica -267

g(x) 0 . g 0, .
x 0 2x x f (2x) f (x) x 0
( f ) g(x) 0 g(x) + 0 +

g ,0 g(x) 9 9

, .
g x0 0, g ( , ).

153
4
f : R R f x
x
dt , x R.
0 1 f 2 t

1. f R .
2. Cf
.
3. f
Cf , Cf 1 .
4. Cf , Cf 1 .
:
4
1. f R , R
1 f 2 (t)
x
4
. 0 1 f 2 (t) dt
R , f R
4
f (x) .
1 f 2 (x)
4
x R 0 , x R f (x) 0 . f
1 f 2 (x)
4
R , R
1 f 2 (t)
.
8f (x)f (x)
f R f (x) .
1 f (x)
2
2

4
2. f (x) 0 x R f
1 f 2 (x)
R

8f (x)f (x) f (x) 0 f 11


f (x) 0 0 f (x) 0 f (0) x 0
1 f (x)
2
2

mathematica -268

8f (x)f (x) f (x) 0 f
f (x) 0 0 8f (x) 0 f (x) 0 f (0) x 0 .
1 f (x)
2
2

f (x) 0 x 0 .

, f
x 0
( ,0] [0, ) . f (x) + 0 -
M(0,f(0)) (0,0)
f (x) 3 . 4
.

3. x R f (x) 0. f
R , 1 1 , . f (0) 0 ,
x 0 f (x) 0.
f9 f9
x 0 f (x) f (0) f (x) 0 , x 0 f (x) f (0) f (x) 0.

4
f (x) f (x) f (x)f 2 (x) 4
1 f (x)
2

1 1
(f (x) f 3 (x)) (4x) f (x) f 3 (x) 4x c .
3 3
f (0) 0
1 3 1
x 0 f (0) f (0) 40 c c 0 . f (x) f 3 (x) 4x.
3 3
f ,
f (x) x f 1 (x) f (x) B A f (A) . (*)
1 1 1
f (x) x f (x) f 3 (x) x x 3 4x x x 3 12x 3x x 3
3 3 3
x 9x 0 x(x 3)(x 3) 0
3

x 0 x 3 x 3.
Cf ,Cf 1 A(3,3),O(0,0),B( 3, 3) .

(*) x0 B f (x) f 1 (x). x 0


f 1 (x) x, f 1 (x0 ) x0 . f (x0 ) f 1 (x0 ). (1)
f 1 (x0 ) x0 f 1 (x0 ) x0 f 1 (x0 ) x0 .
f 1 (x0 ) x0 (2) , f
f f 1 (x0 ) f (x0 ) x0 f (x0 ) (1),(2) .
f 1 (x0 ) x0 (3) , f
f f 1 (x0 ) f (x0 ) x0 f (x0 ) (1),(3) .
, f 1 (x0 ) x0 .

mathematica -269

x0 B f 1 (x) x, f 1 (x0 ) x0
f f 1 (x0 ) f (x0 ) x0 f ( x0 ). f (x0 ) f 1 (x0 ). f (x) x
f 1 (x) f (x) B A f (A).

f (x) f
1
4. E (x) dx
3
Cf ,Cf 1 . f [0, )
y x A(3,3),O(0,0) Cf
y x [0, ) , f 1 y x
[0, ) .
3 3

f (x) f (x) dx 2 f 1 (x) x dx.


1
y x ( ), E
3 3

, f R , f 1
R.

x x3 x2 1
g(x) ,x R , g R g(x) 0.
4 12 4 4
x R g(x) 0 , g R,
1 1.

g lim g(x), lim g(x) ( , ).
x x

f (x) f 3 (x)
, x , g(f (x)) x f (x) g 1 (x).
4 12
f g , R. .
f (x) f 3 (x) f (f 1 (x)) f 3 (f 1 (x)) 1 1 x x3
x f (x) f (x) ,x R.
4 12 4 12 4 12
1
f
y
y=x
1 x ( x) 3
x x 3
1
f ( x) f (x)
4 12 4 12 :x=0
x R
x
:x=-3 :x=3
( ),
y=f(x)
x x3
f 1 (x)
4 12

mathematica -270

3 3 3
x x3
3

E 2 f (x) x dx 4 f (x) x dx 4 x f (x) dx 4 x dx


1 1 1

0
3 0 0
4 12
3
3x x 3
3
3x 2 x4 3 3 34 27 27 427 27
4 dx 4 4 4 ..
0 4 12 8 48 0 8 48 8 16 16 4

154
f ,g : R R :
f g R.

f t dt g t dt
2 2

0 0
2 x
f t dt g t dt x2 2x , x R.
x

0 2

1. : f ,g
(0,2).
2. f(0) f(2) g(0) g(2).
3. x 0 0,2 f x0 g 2 x0 .
4. 0,2 f g 2 2.
:
x x

1. F(x) f (t)dt,x R G(x) g(t)dt,x R.


0 0
2 2

F(0) G(0) 0 F(2) f (t)dt g(t)dt G(2).


0 0
o H(x) F(x) G(x),x [0,2].
H [0,2] .
H (0,2) .
H(0) H(2) 0 , Rolle x1 (0,2)
H(x1 ) 0 F(x1 ) G(x1 ) 0 f(x1 ) g(x1 ) 0 f(x1 ) g(x1 ).
f
h(x) f (x) g(x) . , R f () f ().
g
g() g() g() g(). ,
h() h() , h R . h(x) 0
. x1 (0,2), h(x1 ) 0 , x1
h(x) 0 .
, f ,g
(0,2) .

:
x x1

mathematica -271

f
x x1 f (x) f (x1 ) g(x1 )
g
g(x) g(x1 ) f (x1 ) f (x)
x x g(x) g(x ) f (x )
1 1 1

x x1
f
x x f (x) f (x1 ) g(x1 )
g(x) g(x1 ) f (x1 ) f (x)
1
g
x x g(x) g(x ) f (x )
1 1 1

x x1 (0,2) f (x) g(x) 0 ,


f g .
x 2 x

2. k(x) f (t)dt g(t)dt x


2
2x,x R.
0 2
x R k(x) 0 . k(0) 0
2 0 2 2

k(2) f (t)dt g(t)dt f (t)dt g(t)dt 0.


0 2 0 0
Fermat k(0) 0 k(2) 0.
k(x) f(x) g(2 x) 2x 2,x R
k(0) 0 f(0) g(2) 2 0 (1) k(2) 0 f(2) g(0) 2 0, (2)
(1) (2)
f(0) g(2) f(2) g(0) 0 f(0) f(2) g(0) g(2).

3. s(x) f (x) g(2 x),x [0,2].


s [0,2]
(1) (2)
s(0) f (0) g(2) 2 0 s(2) f (2) g(0) 2 0.
Bolzano x0 (0,2)
s(x0 ) 0 f(x0 ) g(2 x0 ) 0 f(x0 ) g(2 x0 ).

4. s [0,2] .
s (0,2) . MT
s(2) s(0) (1),(2) 2 ( 2)
(0,2) s() 2.
20 2
s(x) f (x) g(2 x) , s() 2 f () g(2 ) 2.

155
f [0,1]
f (x) 1

g(x) t t 2dt f(x)dx 0. :


2

0 0

1. f (x) f (x) 2.
2

mathematica -272

2. (0,1] f (t)dt 6 2 3.
2

0
x02

3. x0 0,1 f(t)dt 2x f(x ). 0


2
0
0
:
:
1. t 2 t 2 t [2,1]
f (x)

0 [2,1] g(x)
0
t 2 t 2dt

x [0,1] 2 f (x) 1 f (x) 2 0, f (x) 1 0,


(f (x) 2)(f (x) 1) 0 f 2 (x) f (x) 2.

2. h(x) f 2 (t)dt x 2 6x 3, x [0,1]


0
1

h , h(0) 3 0 h(1) f 2 (t)dt 2 0.


0
(1)
f 2 (x) f (x) 2 f 2 (x) f (x) 2 0 ,
1 1 1 1

f (x)dx f (x)dx 2dx f 2 (x)dx 2 ,


2

0 0 0 0
1

f (x)dx 0.
0
1 1

f (x)dx 2 h(1) 0 1 ,
2
f
2
(x)dx 2
0 0
1

f (x)dx 2 0 h(0)h(1) 0 Bolzano


2

0
(0,1) h() 0 . h(x) 0 (0,1].

x2
x2

x2 2xf (x )e e f (t)dt
2 x x
f (t)dt
3. 2xf (x 2 ) f (t)dt 0 0
0 0 x 0
e 2x e
0



x2

f (t)dt
(x) 0
, x [0,1]
ex

mathematica -273

x2 x2

exf (x 2 )2x ex f (t)dt 2xf (x 2 ) f (t)dt


[0,1] (x) 2x
0
x
0
e e
(0) (1) 0 , Rolle ,
x0 2

x0 (0,1) (x0 ) 0 2x0f (x0 2 ) f (t)dt 0.


0

156
x 0 f f (x) 0
x 0 , ,

0
f [f (x) 4]dx 6x
0
x f (x t)

et
dt x 0 .
:
1. f [f (x) 4]dx 0 .
1

2. f (x) 3x2 6x x [0, ) .


3. f .

9
4. f 1 (x)dx 5 .
0
:
:
1. x t u , dt du .
t 0 u x t x u 0
f (x t) f (u) e f (u)
x 0 x u x
1 u
x
dt xu du x
du x e f (u)du .
0
e x
e 0
e e 0
1 x
1
f ( (f (x) 4)dx) 6x x euf (u)du
0
e 0
1 x

e f ( (f (x) 4)dx) 6xe euf (u)du.


x x

0 0
1 0 1

x 0 e f ( (f (x) 4)dx) e f (u)du f ( (f (x) 4)dx) 0.


0 u

0 0 0

1 x

2. f ( (f (x) 4)dx) 0 euf (u)du 6xex .


0 0

mathematica -274

6xe x [0, ) euf (u) [0, ) ,
x

e f (u)du [0, ) .
u

0
ex 0
f (x)e 6e 6xe f (x) 6 6x f (x) 6x 3x 2 c,c R.
x x x

x 0 f (0) c. f (x) 0, c 0. ,
1 1

0 f (f (x) 4)dx f (6x 3x 2 c 4)dx f 3x 2 x 3 cx 4x
0 0
1

0
0 f (3 1 c 4) f (c).
c 0
x c f (c) 0 6c 3c2 c 0 c(3c 7) 0 c 0 .
f (x) 3x2 6x,x 0 , .

3. x [0, ) f (x) 6 6x 0 .
f [0, ) , 1 1 ,
. f (0) 0 lim f (x) lim 3x2 .
x x
f [0, ).
f 1 [0, ).
y
f (x) y 3x2 6x y x 2 2x 1 1
3
x 0

y3 y3
y0
y3
x 1
2

x 1 x 1,y 0
3 3 3
x3
f 1 (x) 1,x 0 .
3

9
x3 9
9
x3
4. , f (x)dx
1
1 dx x 0
9
dx
0 0
3 0
3
9
3 2 (x 3)3
9 9
3
0 f (x)dx 9 3 0 x 3dx 9 3 3
1

0
2 3( 123 33 ) 2 3(24 3 3 3)
9

f (x)dx 9
1
9
0
9 9
9
423 42
f
1
(x)dx 9 9 9 14 5.
0
9 3
4. ,
125 147.

157
mathematica -275

x 2
et
f : R R , f (x) t dt,x R.
x
10 1
1. f R f (x).
2. f (x) 0 R .
3. f
.
4.
z z i z 1 ,
Cf .
f (x)
5. lim .
x 0 3x

: . - . ( )
:
x t2 x 2 x 2
e et et
1. f x t dt t dt 0 10t 1 dt .
x
10 1 0
10 1
2
et
g t t R ,
10 1
x 2
et
F x t dt R.
0
10 1
h x x R
x 2
et
0 10t 1 dt R, F x x , f
R,

x et x

2 2 2 2
et ex ex
f x t dt t dt x .
10 1 10 1 10 1 10 x 1
0 0
2 2
ex ex
2. f x x
0 . x R
10 1 10 x 1
f x 0 , f R . ,
0 2
et
f 0 t dt 0 , x0 0 f x 0
0
10 1
( ).

3. ,
x2 2 2 2 2 2
e ex ex ex ex ex 10x
f x x x x
10 1 10 x 1 10x 1 1
1 10 1 10 1
10x
mathematica -276

ex ex 10x 10 1e
2
2 x 2 x

f (x) e x2

10x 1 10x 1
f R ,

2xe
2
2e x 0
f x e x2 x2
. f x 0 2xe 0 x 0. x2

f 0, f 0,
2
2ex 0,xR
f x 0 2xe 0 x2
x 0 f ,0 f
,0 .
, x 0
f (x) - 0 +
x0 0 ,
f (x) 4 . 3
O 0,0
f .

4. f O 0,0 Cf
f 0 0,f 0 e0 1
y f 0 f 0 x 0 : y x .
z
z i z 1 z i z 1 z i z 1 z i z 1
AB A 0, 1 B 1,0
: y x.

5. limf x lim 3x 0 f ,h x 3x
x 0 x 0
R
f x
2
ex e0 1
De L'Hospital : lim lim ,
3x x0 33x 30 3
x0

f x f x 1
lim lim .
x0 3x x0 3x 3

158
f : R R R f g
g(x) f (xt)dt.
1

x f (t)dt
0 , x0
1. g g(x) x

f (0), x0
2. g .

mathematica -277

3. g R f 0 R .
4. x 0 0
x f (t)
f dt.
0 x

5. g .
x0 0,1
x0
6. f (t)dt 2x0f (x0 ).
1
:
:
1. u xt du xdt t 0 u 0, t 1 u x .
1 x
1 1
x 0 g(x) f (xt)(xdt) g(x) f (u)du
x0 x0
x f (t)dt
0
1

x 0 g(0) f (0)dt f (0), g(x) , x0.


x
0
f (0), x0

2. x 0 , g x
x

f (u)du f
0
. x 0 ,
x

f (u)du
f (x)
0

0
g(0) f (0) limg(x) lim 0 lim
f (0) g(0).
x0 x 0 x DLH x 0 1

g x 0 , R.

3. x 0, g
x x

f (t)dt xf (x) f (t)dt


g(x) 0 0
.
x x 2



x
1
x 0
f (t)dt f (0)
g(x) g(0)
x 0, lim lim
x 0 x x 0 x
x

f (t)dt xf (0) 0

0 f (x) f (0) 1
lim 0 2
lim f (0) , x 0.
x0 x DLH x0 2x 2

mathematica -278

x

xf (x) f (t)dt
0
,x 0
g(x) x 2

f (0)
,x 0
2

4. F(t) f (u)du [0,x] x 0 ,


0
(0,x), F(t) f (t) ,
F(x) F(0)
x
F(x) f (u)
(0,x) F() f () du.
x x 0
x

xf (x) f (t)dt
5. x 0 g(x) 0
2
.
x
x

(4) f ()x f (u)du , ,


0
xf (x) xf () f (x) f ()
g(x) 0 x f .
x2 x
g [0, ).
x

xf (x) f (t)dt
x 0 g(x) 0
2
.
x
x x
f (u)
(x,0) f () du xf () f (t)dt
0
x 0
xf (x) xf () f (x) f ()
g(x) 0. x f .
x2 x
,
x 0
, g ( ,0] g(x) + 0 -
[0, ).
x0 0 g(0) f (0).
g(x) 9 .M 0

x x x
x
6. f (t)dt 2xf (x) f (t)dt 2xf (x) 0 f (t)dt 2x f (t)dt 0
1 1 1 1
1
x
x x
x
x
2x 1
f (t)dt f (t)dt 0 2
f (t)dt x f (t)dt 0
1
2 x 1 1

mathematica -279


x x

x x x
1
2 x 1
f (t)dt x f (t)dt 0 x f (t)dt x f (t)dt 0 x f (t)dt 0
1 1 1 1
x

q(x) x f (t)dt,x [0,1].


1
q [0,1] , (0,1)
x
1
2 x 1
q(x) f (t)dt xf (x) .

q(0) q(1) 0 , Rolle


x0 x0
1
x0 (0,1) q(x0 ) 0
2 x0 f (t)dt
1
x 0 f (x 0 ) 0 f (t)dt 2x 0f (x 0 ).
1

159
x

f x t t dt x 0,
7

0 2

1. f 0.
2
2. f , ,
.
1 f 1
3. n 1 , f .
n n
:


2
1. f (t t)7 dt u t du dt .
2 0 2

t 0 u ,t u 0
2 2


0
2
f (( u) ( u))7 ( du) (u u)7 du
2 2 2 0
2


2
f (u u)7 du f , f ( ) 0 .
2 0 2 2

2. (x x)7 0, ,
2

mathematica -280

x

f x t t dt 0, ,
7

0 2

f (x) (x x)7 . f ( ) 0 . f (x) 0, ,
4 2

f (x) 7(x x)6 0, x .. f [0, ].
4 2

x f (x) f ( ) 0 . x
0

4 4 4 2

f f . f (x) - 0 +

f (x) . 0 . 9 .
f [ , ]
4 2

x f (x) f 0. f [0, ] .
4 4 4

x1 0 x 2 f (0) f 0
2 2

4
x f ( ) (x x)7 dx.
4 4 0

f (x) 7(x x)6 0, x f [0, ]
4 2
.

1 1
3. f 0, , 0, , ,1
2 n n
1 , , f
1 1
, , x1 0, ,x 2 ,1
n n
1 1 1
f f (0) f (1) f f (1) f
1
f (x1 ) n n n.
n
nf f (x 2 )
1 n 1
1 n1
n n
f
1
f (1) f n
f 9
1
x1 x 2 f (x1 ) f (x 2 ) nf n
n n1
1 1 1 1
nf f f (1) f nf f (1).
n n n n

mathematica -281

160

f : R R
x

f x 5x 1 f u x u du , x R.
0

1. f
f x f x , x R.
x

2. f t f t e dt 0 x R.
t

3. f x f x e 4. x

4. f .
5. f 1 1 .
:
x x x

1. f x 5x 1 f u x u du f x 5x 1 x f u du uf u du.
0 0 0

f 0 1 . f R , f u du.
0
x

R . , uf u du R
0

5x 1 . R . f R
x

f x 5 f u du.
0
f 0 5 . f R ,

f u du R . f R f x f (x).
0
x f t f t x x
2. f t f t e dt f t f t e dt 0 e dt 0 .
t t t

0 0 0
x
f t f t e dt 0 .
t

3. g(x) (f (x) f (x))ex ,x R.


f (x)f (x)
g R g(x) (f (x) f (x))ex (f (x) f (x))e x 0.
g . x R g(x) c,c R.

mathematica -282

x 0 g(0) c (f (0) f (0))e0 c c 4.
g(x) 4 (f (x) f (x))ex 4 .

4. (f (x) f (x))ex 4 ,

f (x) f (x) f (x)

f (x)
2x 2x
4e x 2e 2e2x c,c R.
e
x x
e e
f (0)
x 0 0 2e0 c 1 2 c c 3 .
e
x
f (x) 2e 3ex . .

5. f R f (x) 2e x 3ex .
x R f (x) 0 . f
R , 1 1 . .
f , f 1 .

lim f (x) lim 2e x 3ex lim f (x) lim 2e x 3ex .
x x x x

f R.

2
f (x) y 2e x 3ex y x
3ex y 3e2x ye x 2 0 .
e
e t 3t yt 2 0. y 2 24 0 .
x 2

y y 2 24 y y 2 24
t1,2 . e x
.
6 6
y y 2 24
x R e 0 , e
x x
,
6
y y 2 24 y y 2 24 y y 2 24
0 . e x
x ln .
6 6 6

1
x x2 24
f (x) ln ,x R .
6

161
f :[,] R f () 2f () :
f (x) 2f 2 (x) 4f (x) 4 x [,] . :
1. H f .
2. f () 0 .

3.
f (x)dx ln2 .
4. f () 1 , :
. f

mathematica -283

. f ,
.
: 67 xgastone
:
, f x f 2 x f x 2 ,
2
1.
x , f x 0, f , .

f
2. f f f 2f f 0.
f
3. x f x f 0 . f x 0.

f x f 2 x f x 2 , x ,
2

f x f x
f x f 2 x f x f x 0.
f x f x
,


f x
f x

f x f x dx 0 f x dx f x dx 0 lnf x f x dx

lnf lnf f x dx ln 2f lnf f x dx ln 2 f x dx.


. f x f 2 x f x 2 , x ,
2
4.
f x 2f x f (x) 2 f x 2 f (x) 2f (x)(2f (x) 2) 4f (x)(f (x) 1).

x [,] f () 1. , f
f
, , x f x f 1 .
f (x) 1 0, 4f (x)(f (x) 1) 0. , x [,]
f x 0, f [,].

. 3 A x1 ,f x1 ,B x2 ,f x2 , x3 ,f x3 Cf
x1 x2 x3 .
f [,] (,),
x1 ,x2 x2 ,x 3 , x1 x2 x3 .
1 x1 ,x2 2 x2 ,x3 :
f x2 f x1 f x3 f x2
f 1 AB f 2 B
x2 x1 x3 x2
mathematica -284

AB B f 1 f 2 , , f
f 1 f 2 .
f ,
.

162
f 0,1 0,1 .

f t dt 1.
1
1.
0

f t dt 2x 1
x
2.
0

x0 0,1 .
3. x 0 (2)
Cf , x'x
x 0 x x0 0,5 ..

f t dt 2x x 0,1 .
x
4.
0

:
1. f (x) 1 f (x) 1 0,x [0,1] .
f ,
1 1 1 1

f (x) 1 dx 0 f (x)dx dx f (x)dx 1.


0 0 0 0

2. f [0,1],
x

f (t)dt [0,1]. , 2x 1
0
x

[0,1], g(x) f (t)dt 2x 1, x [0,1]


0
1

[0,1]. , (.1) . g(1) f (t)dt 1 0. ,


0
0

g(0) f (t)dt 1 1 0, g(0)g(1) 0.


0
Bolzano (0,1)
g(x) f (x) 2 0 , f (x) 1, x [0,1] ,
, (0,1) .

x0 f (x) 0 x0
1
3. E f (x) dx
0
f (x)dx 2 . , (2)
0

mathematica -285

x0
1 3
g(x0 ) 0 f (t)dt 2x 0 1 , 2x0 1 x0 .
0
2 4

4. f [0,1], f (t)dt
0

[0,1]. h() f (t)dt , [0,x], 0 x 1


0
[0,1]. h [0,x] 0 x 1,
(0,x), (0,x)
h(x) h(0) h(x)
h() f () f (x) 1 2, x [0,1]
x x
h(x)
2 h(x) 2x x (0,1).
x

163
1. x 0
x xlnx 0.
2. f (x) x lnx, x 0 0 , ()
f , f ,
() .
ln x

3. F(x) (e et)dt.
t

1

e
4. 0 (et et)dt 1 .
1
2
:
x0
1. x xlnx 0 x 1 lnx 0 lnx 1 x e.
x xlnx 0 x e.

2. f x x lnx,x 0

f x 1 f x 2 0 x 0.
x x
x 0, f
,
( ).

3. et et R, .

mathematica -286

x

1 R, e et dt R.
t

1
x

e et R, e et dt
t t

1
R. lnx (0, ) ,
ln x

F x e et dt
t

1
x

e et dt lnx . ,
t

1

ln x t 1 x eln x
F x e et dt eln x eln x ,x 0 .
1 x x
g x x elnx,x 0.
g x e
e xe
g x 1 . g x 0 x e
x x
g x 0 x e . , x 0 e
g(x) - 0 +
g (0,e]
[e, ) . g(x) 0 .M 9

x e g e e elne 0
x 0 . g x g e 0.
x 0 F x 0 x e. , F
0, .

4. 0 0 e e0 e 1 F e F 1
F . ,
lne ln1 lne 0

F 1 e
F e t

et dt e et dt
t
e
t

et dt e t et dt
1 1 1 1
lne 0
et 2 e
e
e t et dt e t 1 0 e 1 .
1 2 1 2 2

164
f : R R x R
x
4
f x 2 dt.
0
f t 1

mathematica -287

1. f R
2. f ,
.
3. f 3 x 3f x 12x.
4. f x x.
3
x - -2 0 2
5. f x dx. +
0
x -2 - - - 0 +
: x +2 - 0 + + +
x
4 f (x) + - 4 - 0 +
1. R, f (x) 2 dt
f 2 (x) 1 f (t) 1
f(x) 9 0
0 0 . 9
4
f (x) 2 f
f (x) 1
4(f 2 (x) 1) 8f (x)f (x)
f (x) 2 .
(f (x) 1)2 (f 2 (x) 1)2

4
2. x R f (x) 0 , f
f (x) 1
2

R .
8f (x)f (x) f ( x) 0

, f (x) 0 2
0 8f (x)f (x) 0 f (x) 0 (1) .
(f (x) 1)2
f (0) 0 f (x) 0, x0 0
f (x) 0. f (x) 0 x0 0.
f
f R , x 0 f (x) f (0) 0.
f
x 0 f (x) f (0) 0.
,
8f (x)f (x) f (x) 0 f

f (x) 0 2 0 8f (x)f (x) 0 f (x) 0 f (0) x 0.
(f (x) 1)2

f (x) 0 x 0.

, f
x 0
( , 0] [0, ) .
f (x) + 0 _
x0 0
f (0) 0 . f (x) 3 . 4

O(0,0)
f .

mathematica -288

4
3. f (x) f 2 (x)f (x) f (x) 4
f (x) 1
2

3f (x)f (x) 3f (x) 12 (f 3 (x) 3f (x)) (12x), x R


2

f 3 (x) 3f (x) 12x c,c R f (0) 0 , c 0 .


f 3 (x) 3f (x) 12x, x R.

4. f (x) x x 0, x0 0
f (x0 ) x0 f 3 (x) 3f (x) 12x
f 3 (x0 ) 3f (x0 ) 12x0 x03 3x0 12x0 x03 9x0 0 x0 0,
x02 9 0 , f (x) x
x 0.

5. g(x) x3 3x f 3 (x) 3f (x) 12x, x R


g(f (x)) 12x g(x) 3x2 3 0 g R

g(R) ( lim g(x), lim g(x)) ( , )
x x

R g(f (x)) 12x f (x) g 1 (12x) f


g 1 g R ,
f ( )
f 1 R f 3 (x) 3f (x) 12x, x R
f 3 (f 1 (x)) 3f (f 1 (x)) 12f 1 (x), x R
1 1
x 3 3x 12f 1 (x) f 1 (x) x 3 x, x R.
12 4

6. Cf ,Cf 1 . f
[0, ) , Cf y x [0, ) ,
f 1 y x [0, ).
1, 2
Cf ,Cf 1 y x.
y y
y=x

y=x
:x=0

x x3 x
f 1 (x)
4 12 :x=-3 :x=3

y=f(x)
:x=0 x x x3
f 1 (x)
4 12

:x=3

1 2

mathematica -289

3 3
x x3
3 3
3x x 3
E 4 f (x) x dx 4 x f (x) dx 4 x dx 4
1 1
dx
0 0 0 4 12 0 4 12
3
3x 2 x4 3 3 34 27 27 427 27
4 4( ) 4 ..
8 48 0 8 48 8 16 16 4
3
E 27
f (x)dx ..
0
4 16

165
f : , R 0 ,

z1 if z 2 if w 1 R .
z
z2
1. z1 iz 2 z1 iz 2 .
2.
f x
Rolle g x , .
x
3. f
.
x
f x t
4. lim dt 1 ,
x a
x x t
f x 1 , .
:
z1 z
1. z1 iz 2 z1 iz 2 i 1 i wi wi wi wi
2 2

z2 z2
2i(w w) 0 w w, .

(1)
z1 iz 2 z1 iz 2 if () i if () if () i if ()
if () i f () if () i f () .
, f () i(f () ) f () i(f () )

f () (f () )2 f () (f () )2
2 2

f () (f () )2 f () (f () )2
2 2

2f () 2f () 2f () 2f () f () 2f ().
, z1 iz 2 z1 iz2

mathematica -290

z1 z1
2. wR w w z 1 z 2 z 1z 2
z2 z2
if () if () if () if () f () f (). H
f (x)
g(x) ,x [,],0 , [,]
x
, x (,)
f () f ()
g() g() .

f () f ()
f () f () g() g().

g Rolle [,] .
(,)
f () f () f ()
g() 0 0 f () , (,).
2

3. f ,
f () xf ()
(2), y f () f ()(x ) y f () (x ) y

O(0,0) ,
f
.

4. x t u , dt du . t u x

f (x t)
x x
f (u) f (u)
t x u . , dt du du.

(x )(x t) x
(x )u
(x )u
g , ,
x

h(x) g(u)du , .

x

, lim g(u)du h() 0.
x

x


f (u) g(u)du 0

0
, 1 lim du lim lim g( x) g().
x (x )u x ( x ) DLH x
a
f ()
g() 1 1 f () f () f () f () .

h(x) f (x) x,x [,].

mathematica -291

h [,] , (,) h() f () 0 ,


h() f () 0 . Rolle x0 (,)
h(x0 ) 0 f (x0 ) 1 0 f (x0 ) 1 .
f (x) 1 (,).

166
f : (0, ) R
f (x) 0 x 0 .
1 1
1,1 , ,2 g(x)
f (x)
dt :
2 2 1 f (t)
1. g(x) .
2. g(x) .
3. x 0 f (f (x)) x , :
. f '(1) 1.
2
. xo (0,1) g'(xo ) .
xo 1
3
. (0,1) f '() .
2
:
1. x 0 f x 0 f ,
x 0 .
* (1) 121.
f x 0 x 0 f x 0 x 0 .
f x 0 x 0 f 0,
1 1
1 f 1 f 1 2 , .
2 2
f x 0 x 0 f 0, .

1 11
h t . h t 0 f t 1 f (t) f (1) t 1
1 f t
Dh 0,1 1, . 2 1, f x (1, ),
f
f x 1 f x f 1 x 1. Dg 0,1 .

1
2. x 0,1 0,1 ,
1 f (t)

mathematica -292

1

x
dt
2 1 f (t)

0,1 . f 0,1 , g 0,1 ,


,
f x
g x h f x f x 0
1 f f x
f
f x 1 f f x f 1 f f x 1 f (x) 0
g 0,1 , .

3. . x 0 f f x x f f x f x 1
f (x) 0
x 1 f (f (1)) f (1) 1 f (1) 1 f (1) 1.
2

. F x f x 2x , x 0 .
1
F ,1 .
2
1
F ,1 F x f x 2.
2
1
F 1 3 F .
2
1
Rolle , x0 ,1 0,1 :
2
f x0 2
F x0 0 f x0 2
1 x0 x0 1
f f x0 x0
f x0 2 2
g x0 .
1 f f x0 x0 1 x0 1

3
. f x0 ,1 f x0 2 1 f (1) .
2
, ... ,
3
x0 ,1 0,1 f .
2

167
f R , :
f (0) 1 f (x) f (x) x [0, ).
1. x (0, ) f (x) ex .

mathematica -293

2. x (,0) (0, ) f (t)dt 2 x ex 3,


0
(0,1) (1, ).
x

3. f (t)dt ex x 2
0
(0,1).
:
1. x (0, ) f x f x f x e x f x e x
f x e x f x e x 0 , f x e x 0 .

g x f x e x x [0, ).
g [0, ) . x (0, )
x 0 g x g 0 f x e x f 0 e0
f x e x 1 f x ex .

2. x 0
x

x x x 0 f (t)dt 3 2 x ex
f (t)dt 2 e 3 f (t)dt 3 2 e .
x x x x 0

0 0
x x
x

f , . h(x) f t dt
0

x
R , . lim f (t)dt h(0) 0.
x0
0
x

f (t)dt 0

0
, lim 0
lim f (x) f (0) , f .
x0 x DLH x0
0

3 2 e x
2 x ln ex
x 0
, lim
DLH x0
lim 2 ln 1
x0
x 1
f (0) 2ln 1 (1).
x 0 ,
x

x x x 0 f (t)dt 3 2 x ex
f (t)dt 2 e 3 f (t)dt 3 2 e .
x x x x 0

0 0
x x
x

f , . h(x) f t dt
0

mathematica -294

x
R , . lim f (t)dt h(0) 0 .
x0
0
x

f (t)dt 0

0
, lim 0
lim f (x) f (0) , f .
x0 x DLH x0
0

3 2 e x x
2 x ln ex
0
, lim DLH xlim
0
2 ln 1.
x0
x 1
f (0) 2ln 1. (2)
(1) , (2) f (0) 2ln 1. f (0) 1,
1
2 ln 1 1 2ln 2 ln 1 e 1 .
e
x

3. G x f t dt ex x 2 x 0,1 .
0

G 0,1
0

G 0 f t dt e0 0 2 1 0
0
1 1

G 1 f t dt e 1 2 f t dt e 3 . (.1)
0 0
1 1

f t e f t dt etdt et e 1
t 1

0
0 0
1 1

f t dt e 1 f t dt e 3 2e 4 0
0 0

G 0 G 1 0 , Bolzano x1 0,1
x1 x1

G x1 0 f t dt e x1 2 0 f t dt e x1 x1 2.
x1

0 0

168
f : [0, ) R ,
f (x) f (x) f (1) f (1) e
1

f (0) 1 0 ex dx
e
.

1. f (0) 0 .
2. x (0, ) f (x) 1 .
1
3
3. f (1) 2 , 1 f (x)dx .
0
2

mathematica -295

4. g(x) f (t) ln f (t) dt,x [0, ) .


1
. g .
. x (0, ) ef (x) ef (x) .
2 2

. e dx ln f (x) dx .
f (x)1

1 1
: . ( , )
:

f (x) f (x) f (x) f (x) f (x) f (x)


1 1

1. 0 ex dx 0 ex
dx

f (x) f (x) f (x) f (x) f (x) f (x)


1 1 1 1

0 ex
dx 0 ex dx ex ex
0 0
f (x) f (x) f (1)
1 1
f (1)

ex ex f (0) f (0)
0 0 e e
f (x) f (x) f (1) f (1) e
1

x
dx ,
0
e e

f (1) f (1) f (1) f (1) e f (0)1
f (0) f (0) ., f (0) f (0) 1 f (0) 0.
e e e

2. f , f .
x 0 f (x) f (0) 0
x 0 . f [0, ) . x 0
f (x) f (0) 1

3. (2)
1 1

f (x) 1 f (x) 1 0 (f (x) 1)dx 0 f (x)dx 1


0 0
0 x 1 . f [0,x] , (0,x) ,
MT 1 (0,x)
f (x) f (0) f (x) 1
f (1 ) .
x0 x
, f [x,1] , (x,1) , MT
f (1) f (x) 2 f (x)
2 (x,1) f ( 2 ) .
1 x 1 x
0 1 x 2 1 f ,
f (x) 1 2 f (x) x(0,1)

f (1 ) f ( 2 )
x 1 x
mathematica -296

(1 x)(f(x) 1) x(2 f(x)) f(x) 1 xf(x) x 2x xf(x)
f (x) x 1 0 x 1 f (x) 0.
1 1 1

x 1 f (x)dx 0 x 1dx f (x)dx 0


0 0 0
1
x 2
1
3
1 1
3
2 x f (x)dx 0 f (x)dx 2 . 1 f (x)dx 2 .
0 0 0 0

4. . g(x) f (t) ln f (t) dt,x [0, ).


1
f [0, ) f (x) 1 , ln(f (x))
.
x
f (t) ln f (t) [0, ) , f (t) ln f (t) dt
1
[0, ) , g [0, )
g(x) f (x) ln(f (x)),x 0. g(x)
f (x) f (x) 1
g(x) f (x) f (x) 0.
f (x) f (x)
g [0, ).

. g [0, ) g
[0, ) . x 0 g(x) g(0) f (x) ln(f (x)) f (0) ln(f (0))
f(x) ln(f(x)) 1 f(x) 1 ln(f(x)) f(x) lne ln(f(x))
f (x) ln(ef (x)) ef (x) ef (x).

ef (x)
. e f (x)
ef (x) f (x) ef (x)1 f (x) ef (x)1 f (x) 0.
e
2 2 2

e f (x) dx 0 e dx f (x)dx.
f (x)1 f (x)1

1 1 1
g , x 0,
g(x) g(0) 1 . g [0, ).
g 2

1 2 g(1) g(2) 0 f (x) ln f (x) dx


1
2 2 2 2

0 f (x)dx ln(f (x))dx ln(f (x))dx f (x)dx.


1 1 1 1
2 2 2

ln(f (x))dx f (x)dx ef (x)1dx.


1 1 1

mathematica -297

169
f : (0, ) R
f (1) 1 x2 (f (x) 1) lnx 1 x 0.
ln x
1. N g(x) f (x) , x 0
x
(0, ).
2. N f .
1
3. x e1 x x 1.
x 1

4. Cf ,
x'x x 1,x e.
: . - . ( )
:
1. x2 (f (x) 1) lnx 1,(1). g (0, )

1 ln x x 2f (x) 1 ln x

g (x) f (x)
x2 x2
x2f (x) (ln x 1) (1) x 2f (x) x 2 (f (x) 1)
g(x) 1.
x2 x2
g(x) 1 x (0, ) g(x) x c,c R .
ln1
x 1 g(1) f (1) g(1) 1.
1
, x 1 c 0 . g(x) x,x 0.

ln x ln x
2. g(x) x f (x) x f (x) x ,x 0 ,
x x
.

3. x 1
1 1
1
x e ln(x ) lne1 x
x 1 1 x x 1
ln x (1 x)lne
x1
lnx (1 x)(1 x) lnx 1 x2 x2 1 lnx 0 (x 1)(x 1) lnx 0
, x 1 x 1 0,x 1 0 lnx 0.
1
x 1 x x 1
e1 x x 1 .
x2 1 ln x
4. x 1 f (x) 0
x2
x 1 3.

f [1, ) .
f
x 1 f (x) f (1) 1.
mathematica -298

y
f x x
lnx
x

ln x
e e e

E f (x) dx f (x)dx x dx
1
1 1
x
x - -2 0 2
e
1 1 1 +
E x2 (ln x) ln xdx x 2 ln 2 x x -2
e e e

2 1 2 1 2 1 - - - 0 + x
1
x +2 :x=1
- 0 + :x=e
+ +
1 e2 2
E e 1
1 2 f (x)
.. + - - 0 +
2 2 2
f(x) 9 0 0 . 9

170
f (x) ln(ex 1) lnx,x 0 .
1. x 0 f (x) 0.
2. f .
x 2
3. lim f (t)dt .
x
x 1
x2

4. lim xf (t)dt 0.
x
1
x
:
ex 1
1. x 0 f x ln e 1 ln x ln
x
.
x
g x ex x 1,x R. g R,
, g x ex 1,x R.
g x 0 ex 1 0 ex 1 x 0
g x 0 ex 1 0 ex 1 x 0
, g x 0
( ,0] g(x) - 0 +
[0, ). g(x) 0 . 9
x 0, g(0) 0.
x 0
ex 1 ex 1
g x 1 e x 1 0 e 1 x
x x
1 ln 0 f x 0 .
x x
ex 1 xex ex 1
2. f x
ex 1 x x e x 1

x 0 x ex 1 0, f ,
.

mathematica -299

h x xex ex 1,x 0. h [0, ),


, h x xex ,x 0.
x 0 h x 0 . h [0, ),
h
h [0, ), x 0 h(x) h(0) 0.

x 0 h x 0. , f x
h( x)
0.
x ex 1
f 0, .

3. x 1 t x 2 f
x 2 x 2 x 2

f x 1 f t f x 2 f x 1 dt f t dt f x 2 dt
x 1 x 1 x 1
x 2

f x 1 f t dt f x 2 .
x 1



e 1 x ex 1


lim lim lim ex .
x x DLH x x x

e x 1
u
e 1 x
lim f x lim ln
x

x x
ulim
lnu .
x
, lim f x 1 , lim f x 2 .
x x
x 2

, lim
x f t dt .
x 1
1 2
4. x 0 t , f ,
x x
2 2 2

1 2 1 x
2 x x
f f t f xf dt xf t dt xf dt
x x 1 x 1 1 x
x x x

e x 1
2 0

1 x
2 e 1 x 0
f xf t dt f . lim lim lim ex 1.
x 1 x x0 x DLH x0 x
x0

x
1 e u 1
u w
1 e 1 2
u
, lim f lim f u lim ln
x u
limln w 0 lim f 0.
x
x u0 u 0
u w 1 x
x
2
x
, lim xf t dt 0.
x
1
x

mathematica -300

171
f [1, ) , f (x) 0
x

x 1 . G(x) t 2f (t)dt,x 1
1
x

H(x) tf (t)dt,x 1.
1
G(x)
1. F(x)
H(x)
(1, ).
2. P(x) xH(x) G(x),x 1. :
. x 1 P(x) 0.
. P [1, ).
x2

H(x) lntdt
3. lim 1
.
x1 G(x)(x 1)2
: . ( )
:
x

1. G x t 2f t dt [1, )
1

t f t .
2


x 2 x

G x t f t dt x f x . H x tf t dt
2

1 1

[1, ) , tf t

x
. H x tf t dt xf x .

1
G x
F x ,x 1 1, .
H x
,

G x G x H x G x H x x 2f x H x G x xf x
F x
H x H 2
x H 2
x
xf x xH x G x xf x x x

F x
H 2 x 1 1
x tf t dt t 2
f t dt
H2 x
xf x x
xf x x x

F x 2
H x 1 xtf t t 2f t dt 2
H x 1
x tf t dt t f t dt
2

1
mathematica -301

xf x x xf x x
F x 2
H x 1
xtf t t f t dt F x H2 x tf t x t dt (1).
2

xf x
f x 0 0 x 1. .
H2 x
x

1 t x tf t x t 0 tf t x t dt 0 .
1

(1) x 1 F x 0.
F x 1, .

2. . P x xH x G x ,x 1
[1, ) . ,
P x xH x G x H x xH x G x

x x

P x tf t dt x f x x f x tf t dt 0 x 1 ,
2 2

1 1

1 t x tf t 0 . P x 0 P x
[1, ) .
x [1, ) x 1 P x P 1 0.

. P x tf t dt tf t
1

x
. P x tf t dt xf x 0 x 1.
1
P [1, ).

x2
2
x

H x ln tdt ln tdt
lim
H x (2)
3. , lim 1 1
x 1 G x x 1
2

2
x1 G x x 1



De LHospital ,

mathematica -302


x
x
1 tf t dt 0
1 tf t dt
H x lim xf x 1.

0
lim lim x lim
x1 G x x1 x f x
2
x1 DLH x1

1 t f t dt
x

t f t dt
2 2

1

x
2
x2

1 ln tdt 0 1
0 ln tdt

ln x 22x 2xln x
lim lim lim lim
x 1
x1 2 x 1

2 DLH

x1 x1
x 1 x1 x 1
2

xln x

2 lim 2 lim ln x 1 2.
x 1

x1 x1

(2)
x2
2 2
x x

H x ln tdt ln tdt ln tdt


lim 1
lim
H x 1 lim H x lim 1 12 2.
x1 G x x 1 x1 G x x1 x 1
2

2 2
x1 G x x 1


172
f : R R f x 1 2x f 1 x , x R
f (1) 0.
1. f 1 x f 1 x x2 , x R.
1 x
x3
2. g x f t dt .
1 x
3
3

3. I f x dx.
1

:
1. f x 1 2x f 1 x f x 1 f 1 x 2x
f x 1 f 1 x x f x 1 f 1 x x

2 2
c,c R.
x 0 2f (1) c c 0 . f (x 1) f (1 x) x2 .

x 1 x 1 1 x
x3 x3
2. g(x) f (t)dt f (t)dt f (t)dt ,x R .
1 x
3 0 0
3

mathematica -303

f R . x 1
x 1

R , f (t)dt
0
R . , 1 x
1 x

R , f (t)dt R .
0
3
x
R. . g
3
g(x) f (x 1) f (1 x) 2x 2x 2x 0.
x R, g(x) c,c R.
1 x 1
x3
x 0, g(0) f (t)dt 0 0. g(x) 0 f (t)dt .
2

1 1 x
3
3 2 1
23 8
3. x 2 f (t)dt f (t)dt .
1 1 2
3 3

173
x

f x u 2 udu .
2

1. f .
2. f ,
.
t t 2


x
3. g x e u u du dt
3 2
.
4. 1 , 2 1,3
3

e f 1 e
1 2
2 etf t dt.
1

f t
x
5. : et 3 dt x 3 x 2, .
3
f 3
:

1. (u) u2 u , u2 u 0 .
u2 u 0 u (,0] [1, ) . (u) u2 u
(,0] [1, ).
f .
x

f (x) u 2 udu. 2 [1, ) , x [1, ).


2

mathematica -304

Df x [1, ).

2. f (x) u 2 udu, Df x [1, ).


2
f (2) 0 x 2 f (x) 0.
x

u u [1, ) , u 2 udu
2

2
[1, ) .
f [1, ) f (x) x2 x,x [1, ) .
x [1, ) f (x) 0 x 1

f [1, ) .
1 2

x 1 f (1) u udu u 2 udu.


2

2 1

: , ,
.

x 2 f (x) 0.
f f
x 2 f (x) f (2) 0 1 x 2 f (x) f (2) 0.

t t 2
x
x
t x
3. g(x) e u udu dt e u udu dt etf (t)dt,x 1.
t 2

3 2 3 2 3

f(t) [1, ) , e [1, ) .


t

e f (t)dt [1, ) g(x) exf (x),x 1.


t

3
(.2) x [1,2) f (x) 0 , x (2, )
f (x) 0 . , f (2) 0.
x [1,2) g(x) 0 , x (2, )
g(x) 0 .
, ,
g [2, ) x 1 2
[1,2] . g(x) - 0 +
,
2 3
g(x) 0 . 9
x 2 g(2) etf (t)dt etf (t)dt
3 2
.

mathematica -305

4. g(x) etf (t)dt 0,x [2, ) , g(x) e xf(x),x [2, )


3

g(x) e (f (x) f (x)).


x

g [1,2] , (1,2) , MT 1 (1,2)


g(2) g(1)
2 1

g(1 ) g(2) g(1) etf (t)dt e tf (t)dt


21 3 3
3 2 2

g(1 ) e f (t)dt e f (t)dt etf (t)dt.


t t

1 3 1
g [2,3] , (2,3) , MT 2 (2,3)
g(3) g(2)
3 2

g( 2 ) g(3) g(2) etf (t)dt e tf (t)dt


32 3 3
2 3

g( 2 ) 0 e f (t)dt etf (t)dt.


t

3 2

2 3 3

g(1 ) g( 2 ) etf (t)dt etf (t)dt e1 f (1 ) e2 f ( 2 ) e tf (t)dt.


1 2 1

5. g(x) ex (f (x) f (x)).


x (2, ) g(x) 0 . g (2, ) .

g .
g(3) 0 g(3) e3f (3) .
A(3,0) y g(3) g(3)(x 3) y e3f (3)(x 3).
x f (3) 0
x (2, ) g(x) e f (3)(x 3) e f (t)dt e f (3)(x 3)
3 t 3

3
x x t x t3
1 e f (t) e f (t)
e f (3) 3 3 e f (3) 3 f (3) dt x 3.
3
e t
f (t)dt x 3 3
dt x 3

174
f (x) 3x g(x) x2 9x 5 .
1. Cg
A(1,4).
2. f (x2 5x 6) g(x)4x. .
f (x 1) 5f (x) 2x
3. : A lim
x f (x 1) f (x) 2 x

mathematica -306

x - -2 0 2
f (x 1) f (x) 2x
B lim . +
x f (x 1) f (x) 2 x
x -2 - - - 0 +
4.
x +2 - 0 + + +
f g . f (x) + - - 0 +
x 2 1
5. I() f(x) f (x)91dx 0 0R.. 9
:
1. g x 2x 9.
Cg M(x0 ,g(x0 ))
y g(x0 ) g(x0 )(x x0 ) .
A(1,4)
4 g(x0 ) g(x0 )(1 x0 ) x02 2x0 0 x0 0 x0 2 .
A(1,4).
M(0, 5) y 9x 5 M 2,5
y 5x 1.

2.

h x f x 5x 6 g x 4x 3x 5x6 x2 5x 5.
2
2

h 2 h 3 0
h x 2x 5 3x
2
5x 6

ln 3 2x 5 2x 5 3x
2
5x 6

ln 3 1 .


h x 0 2x 5 3x
2
5x 6
5
ln 3 1 0 2x 5 0 x .
2
h x 0 2x 5 3
x2 5x 6 5
ln 3 1 0 2x 5 0 x .
2
, h
5 x 5
,
2
2
h(x) - 0 +
5
, .
2 h(x) 0 . 9

5 5 401
x , h 0.
2 2 324
lim x 2 5x 5

h x
x

x 5x 6
xlim
lim 3
2
u
lim 3
x u
5 5
A1 , A 2 , .
2 2

mathematica -307

,
h
5 401 h
5 401
h A1 [h ,limh(x)) [ , ) h A 2 [h ,limh(x)) [ , ).
2 x 324 2 x 324
2 A1 h(2) 0, x 2 h(x) 0. h
A1 , x 2
h(x) 0.
3 A2 h(3) 0, x 3 h(x) 0. h
A 2 , x 3
h(x) 0.

3. f (x) 3x , f (x 1) 3x1 3 3x.


x
2
8
f x 1 5f x 2 x
33 5 3 2
x x x
83 2
x x
3 2
A lim lim lim lim
x f x 1 f x 2 x x 33 3 2
x x x x 43 2
x x x
x
2
4
3
x
3
8 1
f x 1 5f x 2x 33x 5 3x 2x 83x 2x
lim x
2
B lim lim lim 1
x f x 1 f x 2 x x 33 3 2
x x x x 43 2
x x x
3
4 1
2

4. w x f x g x 3x x2 9x 5,x R .
w x R, w x 3x ln3 2x 9,x R. w
x R, w x 3x ln 3 2 0.
2

w 1 w 2 0.
w(x) 0 2 . w(x) 0 3 .
w R, .
w(1 ) w(2 ) w(3 ) 0. Rolle
w(x) 0 2 .
Rolle w
w(x) 0 , .
w(x) 0 , Cf ,Cg E(1,3)
Z(2,9).


x2 1
5. I() x dx

3 1

mathematica -308


x2 1 x2 1 x
I() x x I() 1 dx x 3 dx.

3 x 1
3 1

x 1 2
x 1
2
, 2I() 3

x
1
dx x 3x dx

3 1
x - -2 0 2

3 3
2I() x 1 dx 2 I()
2
. +
3 3 x -2 - - - 0 +
x +2 - 0 + + +
f (x)
175
+ - - 0 +
.
f
f(x) 0.
9 R0 f0 09

F x f t dt.
x

1. F x R.
2. F x .
3. F(x) 0. .
3x 1 x 1
4. 1 f t dt x f t dt
0 0

0,1 .
:
x

1. f R , f (t)dt R ,
0
x

F(x) f (t)dt R , F(x) f (x),x R.


0

2. F(0) 0 , x 0 F(x) 0 .
f (0) 0 f R ,
f f
x 0 f (x) f (0) 0 x 0 f (x) f (0) 0.
x 0 F(x) f (x) 0 x 0
F(x) f (x) 0 .
, , F x 0
( ,0] F(x) + 0 -
[0, ).
x 0 F(x) 9 . 0
F(0) 0.

3. ( 2) , x R
F(x) F(0) F(x) 0.

3x 1 x 1

4. H(x) 1
0
f (t)dt x f (t)dt.
0

mathematica -309

x 1

f(t) R , f (t)dt R
0
3x 1


0
f (t)dt R , 1 x R ,

H R , .
1 1

H(0) 1 f (t)dt 0 f (t)dt 1 0


0 0
4 2 4 2

H(1) 1 f (t)dt 1 f (t)dt f (t)dt f (t)dt


0 0 0 0
2 4 2 4

H(1) f (t)dt f (t)dt f (t)dt f (t)dt.


0 2 0 2
4

x 0 f (x) 0 , f (x)dx 0 . ,
2
4

H(1) f (t)dt 0.
2
, Bolzano (0,1)
H() 0 . H(x) f (3x 1) f (x 1) 1,x (0,1) .
x (0,1)
f
x 1 3x 1 f (x 1) f (3x 1) f (3x 1) f (x 1) 0
f (3x 1) f (x 1) 1 1 0 H(x) 0. H
(0,1) , . , (0,1)
3 1 1

H() 0 1
0
f (t)dt f (t)dt.
0

176
1. f : R
. f
( ) f x 0 , ( f x 0 )
x .
2. f ,g : 0, R
f (t)dt g(t)dt , f 0, g 0, .

0 0
:

mathematica -310

x

f t dt
. F x 0
,x 0,
x
x

g t dt
G x 0
.
x
x x

. f t dt g t dt x 0, .
0 0

. x,y [0,] x g(t)dt y f (t)dt.


y x

0 0

:
1.
f . x0 ,x x0 x
f (x) f (x 0 )
0.
x x0
f (x) f (x0 )
lim 0.
x x0
x x0
f (x0 ) 0 . x 0 ,
x f (x) 0 .

x f (x) 0 .
x1 ,x2 x1 x2 ( x1 x2 ) :
f [x1 ,x2 ] , (x1 ,x2 ) , MT
f (x2 ) f (x1 )
(x1 ,x2 ) f () .
x2 x1
f (x 2 ) f (x1 )
f (x) 0 , 0 , f .
x2 x1
f .

2. . f [0,] f (t)dt
0
x

f t dt
[0,] . F x
0
x
0,
xf (x) f (t)dt
x

F'(x) 2
0
x

mathematica -311

. H(x) f (t)dt x [0,],


0
f [0,] , H(x)
[0,] ,
MT H(x) (0,x)
x

H(x) H(0) f (t)dt 0 x

H() 0
f () f (t)dt xf (),
x0 x 0
x

xf (x) f (t)dt
xf (x) xf () f (x) f ()
F'(x) 0
2
0,
x x2 x
f () f (x) 0 x f .
F'(x) 0 (.1) F
(0,].
G (0,] .

x x

. f t dt g t dt x 0 .
0 0
F (0,]
x

f t dt f t dt
0 x F(x) F() 0
(1). 0
x
G (0,]
x

g t dt g t dt
0 x G(x) G() 0
0
(2)
x

f t dt g t dt
f t dt g t dt 0
0
(3)
0 0

x x

f t dt f t dt g t dt g t dt
(1),(2),(3) 0
0
0
0
x x
x x

f t dt g t dt x x

0
0
f t dt g t dt x (0,] , x 0.
x x 0 0

mathematica -312

y x
. x g(t)dt y f (t)dt(4) x,y [0,].
0 0
x 0 y 0 .
0 x,y .
y x y x

x g(t)dt y g(t)dt g(t)dt g(t)dt


x,y 0 (4) 0

G(y) F(x)
0
0
0
xy xy y x
0 y G [0,] G(y) G()
0 x , F [0,] F(x) F()

f t dt g t dt
f t dt g t dt
0 0

G() F( )
0
0

G(y) G() F() F(x) 0 x,y .

177
f 0,e
f 0 0 .

xf x dx ef e f e .
e
1.
0

2. 0,e

xf x dx e f e f .
e

3. 1 ,e

xf x dx ef 1 e .
e

2 0,e xf x dx e 2f 2 .
x
4.
0

:
e e e

xf x dx x f x dx f x f x dx
e
1. 0
0 0 0
e

xf x dx ef e f x 0 ef e f e
e

0
e

xf x dx ef e f e , , f e ef e xf x dx, (1).
e

0
0

2. f [0,e] (0,e).

mathematica -313

.. 0,e
f e f 0 (1) e

f ef f e ef ef e xf x dx
e0 0

e
xf x dx e f e f .
0
e

xf x dx ef e f e
f e f 0
. (2).
e e

3. f [,e] (,e).
f e f
.. 1 ,e f 1
e
(2) f e
e f 1 f e f e f 1 f e

e
(1) e

e e f 1 ef e f e e e f 1 xf x dx .
0

4. f 0,e , tf (t)
x

0,e tf t dt 0,e ,
0
x x

g x tf t dt g x xf x . g x tf t dt
0 0

0,e . .. 2 0,e

e

g e g 0 tf t dt 0 e

g 2 2f 2 0
e 2f 2 xf x dx.
e0 e0 0

178
f R f (1) 2 f (x) 0
x R . :
H g x f t dt R
x
1.
1
A(1,g(1)).

1 1 f t dt f t dt.
1
2.
0 1

3. x 1 :
mathematica -314

u f t dt du x 1 2 .
1
x
.
1

1 x t f t dt x 1
x 2
. .

:
1. f R .
x

f (t)dt
1
R. g

x
R, g (x) f (t)dt f (x).

1

f R , g R
g(x) f (x).
x R f (x) 0 , x R
g(x) 0 . g R.
1

g(1) f (1) 2 g(1) f (t)dt 0 .


1
g A(1,g(1))
y g(1) g(1)(x 1) y 0 2(x 1) y 2x 2.

2. 1 :

1 1 f t dt 1 g t dt
1 f t dt f t dt f t dt 1
g t dt 1

0 1 0
1 0
1

g t

g 1 g 0 g g 1
g t 0
1
1
.
a1 1 0 1
g R [0,1] , [1,]
(0,1),(1,) .

.. p 0,1 q 1,
:

g 1 g 0 g g 1
g p g q .
1 0 1

g R , g(x) 0 x R.

mathematica -315

g g 1 g 0 g g 1
, p q g p g q .
1 0 1

3. . g R ,
g
g , . , x R
x

g(x) 2x 2 f (t)dt 2(x 1),(1).


1


x u

h(x) f (t)dt du (x 1)2 ,x R.
1 1
x

f R f (t)dt
1
R

(x 1)2 R , h R
x

h(x) f (t)dt 2(x 1) g(x) 2(x 1) . x 1 h(x) 0


1

x 1 , h [1, ) .
h(1) 0 , x 1
u x

x u

h(x) h(1) f (t)dt du (x 1) 0 f (t)dt du (x 1) 2 .
2

1 1 1 1

x x

. H(x) x f (t)dt tf (t)dt (x 1)2 ,x R


1 1
f R .
x x

f (t)dt R , tf (t)dt R
1 1
x

x f (t)dt (x 1)2 R
1
x x

H(x) f (t)dt xf (x) xf (x) 2(x 1) f (t)dt 2(x 1) 0 , (1).


1 1

x 1 H(x) 0 x 1 ,

H [1, ) , x 1

mathematica -316

x x

H(x) H(1) H(x) 0 x f (t)dt tf (t)dt (x 1)2 0


1 1
x

(x t)f (t)dt (x 1) .
2

179
f f x
3
x 2
2 t 2 t dt .
1. Df .
2. f .
3. f .

t 2 tdt f x 2 2.
3
4. x Df
1

5. 3,5
2 2 f x
2 3 2
2

:
x 2

1. f (x) (
3
2 t 2 t )dt.

t 2 t t 2 t 0 t (, 1] [0, ).
f .
2 t 2 t (, 1] [0, ) . 3 [0, ) ,
x 2 [0, ) x 2 0 x 2 .
f Df [2, ).
x 2 x 2
x 2
f (x) ( 2 t t )dt 2t t 2 tdt
2
3
3 3
x 2 x 2

f (x) 2(x 2) 3 2 t tdt 2x 5 2 t 2 tdt,x 2.


2

3 3

2. t 2 t [2, ) x 2
x 2

[2, ) ,
3
t 2 tdt [2, ).

2(x 2) [2, ) , f
[2, ) f (x) 2 (x 2)2 x 2 2 x2 3x 2,x 2
x 2
f (x) 0 2 x2 3x 2 0 x 2 3x 2 2 x 2 3x 0 x 3

mathematica -317

f (x) 0 2 x2 3x 2 0 x [2,3)
, ,
x 2 3
f
f (x) - 0 +
[2,3]
[3, ) . f (x) 0 . 9
x 3
1 3

f (3) 2 2 t tdt 2 2 t 2 tdt .


2

3 1

: , ,
.

2x 3
3. f (x) . x [2, ) f (x) 0 .
2 x 3x 2 2

f [2, ) . f .

4. f (3) 2 2 t 2 tdt f (3) 0 .


1
3

A(3,f (3)) y f (3) f (3)(x 3) y f (3) y 2 2 t 2 tdt


1
f ,
f .
3 3

2 2 t tdt f (x) t 2 tdt f (x) 2 2 .


2

1 1

5. f [3,5] , (3,5) . MT
(3,5)
3 3

0 2 2 t tdt 2
2 2 t 2 tdt
f (5) f (3)
f () 1
1
53 2 2

f () 2 2 3 2 ,

2 2 t 2 tdt 3

2 3 2
2 1
2 2 2 3 2 2 2 t 2 tdt
2

2 1

mathematica -318

3

t 2 tdt 3

3 2 . (4) t 2 tdt f (x) 2 2 ,


2 1
2 1
3

t 2 tdt
f (x) 2 2
2 3 2 1
.
2 2

180 .
2x

z1 ,z 2 C f R f x z 1 t z 2 dt
0

x R f x x . :
1
1. z2 .
2
2. f x 2020 0, .
x z2 x
3. x R 0
z1 t
2
dt .
4
:
2x

1. z1 t z 2 R, z tz
0
1 2 dt

R, f R f x 2 2z1x z 2 .

g x f x x 0 g 0 . g
R, Fermat , x0 0
g 0 0. , g x f x 1 2 z12x z 2 1
1
g 0 0 2 z 2 1 0 z 2 .
2

2. f x 2 z12x z 2 0 x 0, f
0, .
.
1 1
f x x 0 0
f (x) x
1
lim 0 0 lim 0
x x x

1
lim 0 f x x 0 lim f x
x f (x) x

mathematica -319

f 0 z1t z 2 dt 0.
0

f 0, , 2020 0, ,
, .., f , ( )
x0 0, f x0 2020.

2x

3. , f x z t z
1 2 dt x
0
, t 2u dt 2du
t1 2x u1 x t 2 0 u2 0 ,
2x x

f x z t z
1 2 dt 2 z12u z 2 du. x R f x x,
0 0
x x x
z z x
2 z12u z 2 du x 4 z1u 2 du x z1u 2 du
0 0
2 0
2 4
x R .

mathematica -320

mathematica -321

mathematica -322