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Banda Aceh, 22-24 November 2012

Wall with Openings: Studies in Australia

Meillyta

Banda Aceh, Indonesia. Corresponding address: meillyta20@yahoo.com

Abstract. Unreinforced Masonry (URM) wall is vulnerable in resisting horizontal load such

as wind and seismic loading. It is due to the low tensile strength of masonry, the mortar

connection between the brick units. URM structures are still widely used in the world as an

infill wall and commonly constructed with door and window openings. This research aimed

to investigate the behaviour of URM wall with openings when horizontal load acting on it

and developed load-drift relationship of the wall. The finite element (FE) method was

chosen to numerically simulate the behaviour of URM with openings. In this research,

ABAQUS, commercially available FE software with explicit solver was employed. In order to

ensure the numerical model can accurately represent the behaviour of an URM wall, the

model was validated for URM wall without openings using available experimental results.

Load displacement relationship of numerical model is well agreed with experimental results.

Evidence shows the same load displacement curve shape obtained from the FE model. After

validating the model, parametric study conducted on URM wall with openings to investigate

the influence of area of openings and pre-compressive load on the horizontal load capacity

of the wall. The result showed that the increasing of area of openings decrease the capacity

of the wall in resisting horizontal loading. It is also well observed from the result that

capacity of the wall increased with the increasing of pre-compressive load applied on the

top of the walls.

Keywords: URM wall, openings, horizontal load, displacement, ABAQUS.

Introduction

It has been decades that masonry material used for infill walls, retaining walls,

monuments and bridges. Although this material has been replaced by steel and concrete in

the 20th century, masonry buildings are still mainly used now for residence, educational

buildings, and industrial constructions (Hendry, 2001). As a result, it is needed to identify

much further behaviour of masonry wall. Masonry is a composite material consists of clay

brick or concrete block and mortar. There are many advantages of using it as building

materials. They are heat resistant and sound insulation. Masonry wall also has a good

behaviour under vertical compression loading. However, despite of those advantages,

masonry construction is vulnerable at resisting in-plane lateral loading such as seismic

loading which caused by earthquake and wind loading (Zhuge et al., 1998). It is due the

weakest element in masonry, the mortar connection between the brick units. Consequently,

further research requires investigating the complex behaviour of masonry wall subjected to

lateral in-plane loading.

A commonly typical structure of masonry wall is frames with masonry infill wall

which is still used around the world even in the highly seismic regions. It is essential to

conduct a study of masonry panel itself to investigate the maximum capability of the wall to

resist lateral horizontal loading before its failure. This research on masonry panel will be

useful to evaluate the seismic vulnerability for the whole buildings or structural frames with

masonry infill wall. Furthermore, this study can lead to the development of proper

retrofitting measures for masonry buildings and can be applied to new construction to

expand design guidelines (Pandey and Meguro, 2004). It became an urgent need as

existing masonry structures especially ancient building which collect the cultural heritage

located on the seismic region around the world (Giambanco et al. 2001).

There has been 40 years ago that many researchers have conducted on study of

masonry panels subjected to lateral loading (Basoenondo, 2008), but it is still limited

236

Volume 2 Number 2, 2012

The Proceedings of 2nd Annual International Conference Syiah Kuala University 2012

& 8th IMT-GT Uninet Biosciences Conference

Banda Aceh, 22-24 November 2012

research on unreinforced masonry (URM) wall with more than one opening. As masonry

building typically constructed with door and window openings, it is also need to identified

behaviour of the wall between two openings. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct

numerical research of identifying behaviour of URM wall with openings under lateral in-

plane loads

The aim of this research is to comprehensively investigate the behaviour of URM wall

with openings by identification of crack propagation on the wall during the analysis and

investigation of load drift relationship of the wall by the following objectives: (1) simulating

three dimensional finite element model of URM wall panel with openings using a FE program

ABAQUS, (2) developing load and drift relationship, (3) investigating the failure crack

pattern of the wall, (4) investigating the influence of opening area and pre-compressive

load on URM wall with openings.

Modelling condition

A commercially FE software, ABAQUS, was used in this research to develop FE model

of URM wall. Generally in FE models, important behaviour of the real structure should be

speculated with considering limitation of the applied model created in each numerical

research. Therefore, it should be mentioned that there are some limitations applied in

modelling URM wall in this research which are: (1) No cracking was allowed in bricks units

with the increasing of the loading. Consideration was taken at the uncertainty of cracking

location in the unit. Therefore, all units considered as the full continuum bricks and mortar

with no crack consider in their meshing. However, the inelastic behaviour of continuum part

will be model so that they can absorb some energy from the applied load, that can be seen

on their deformed shape. (2) Tension behaviour of mortar is assumed to be zero in this

analysis.

Material model

A micro modelling technique proposed by Loureno (1996) and Loureno et al.

(2007) were adopted to model URM walls in this research. Unit of the bricks are expanded

in both direction of mortar thickness and are modelled using continuum elements. Whilst,

the interaction between the brick were modelled as interface. The adopted strategy can be

seen in Figure 1.

Explicit solver in ABAQUS was chosen to model URM wall. This method is a

computationally efficient and capable to simulate quasi static loading which including in this

study. Moreover, it can avoid the convergence problem which can be highly occurred in

implicit. Bricks and mortar will be modelled using C3D8R element. They were treated as a

continuum element and modelled using inelastic constitutive model available in ABAQUS

named Drucker Prager plasticity model. This model chosen due to it can be used to model

frictional materials, which are typically granular-like soils and rock and exhibit pressure-

dependent yield (the material becomes stronger as the pressure increases); to model

materials in which the compressive yield strength is greater than the tensile yield strength,

such as those commonly found in composite materials; allow a material to harden and/or

soften. Normal and tangential behaviour interactions available in interaction module in

ABAQUS were used to model the interaction between the bricks. It is assumed that when

237

Volume 2 Number 2, 2012

The Proceedings of 2nd Annual International Conference Syiah Kuala University 2012

& 8th IMT-GT Uninet Biosciences Conference

Banda Aceh, 22-24 November 2012

two surfaces in contact, they usually transmit shear as well as normal forces across their

interface. A general relationship between these two force components is known as friction

between the contacting bodies. In this research test data points were chosen as input data

for the interaction.

Material properties

Material properties for continuum bricks and mortar both for elastic and inelastic

behaviour can be seen in Table 1. Compression hardening masonry used for continuum

bricks and mortar can be seen in Figure 2.

Parameter Value

Elastic properties:

- Density (kg/m3) 2000

- Modulus elasticity (N/m2) 16700

- Poisson ratio 0.15

Inelastic properties:

- angle of friction () 46

- flow stress ratio (K) 0.8

- 20

The behaviour of interface interaction between bricks was simulated by normal and

tangential behaviour. Friction between contacting bodies was chosen to define the

tangential behaviour in this research. Based on Martini (1997) study on finite element

model in the out-of-plane failure of unreinforced masonry using ABAQUS, sliding in

masonry can be prevented by using higher friction coefficient (10). However in Bekloo

study (2008) on numerical analysis of masonry panel using ABAQUS, it was found that

friction coefficient of masonry at the value of 5 and 10 did not give any significant

differences on the result. Then, it was decided static friction coefficient using in this

research is 5. Whilst the chosen kinetic friction coefficient is 0.75 which come from cohesion

data available in Loureno and Rots (1997).

Methods

Validation of FE model of URM solid wall was conducted by comparing load

displacement relationship of the wall with available experimental result. The validation

model dimension of 800x900 mm2 was used here. The wall consists of 16 courses high and

4.5 courses long. The dimension of clay bricks is 195x100x45 mm 3 with 10 mm mortar

thickness. The geometric of the model and brick dimension can be seen in Figure 3.

There are two kind of loads were applied on the model. The first load is pre-

compressive load ('v) of 0.3 N/mm2 applied on the top of the wall constantly during the

analysis. The second load is the horizontal load in term of displacement which applied

monotonically from the top side of the wall. The scheme of those two applied load can be

seen in Figure 4. Furthermore, during the analysis, the bottom face of the masonry was

restraint for all translating DOFs and the top side of wall where the horizontal displacement

applied is in the free condition.

238

Volume 2 Number 2, 2012

The Proceedings of 2nd Annual International Conference Syiah Kuala University 2012

& 8th IMT-GT Uninet Biosciences Conference

Banda Aceh, 22-24 November 2012

'v

Figure 3. Geometry of the adopted URM wall (Loureno and Rots 1997).

Applied Load

Applied

Load

Time Time

Figure 4. Loading Scheme.

Once the validation model successfully represented the behaviour of URM masonry

wall without opening, URM wall with openings model based on the model was developed.

Then, the parametric of studies carried out to investigate the influence of area of openings

and pre-compressive load applied on the top of the wall. There are three type of opening

chosen for parametric studies which can be seen in Table 2. Two value of pre-compressive

load of 0.3 N/mm2 and 1.21 N/mm2 applied on the top of the wall to study their influences.

Door= 0.65 m x 0.3 m

Type II Pier 1

Pier 2

Opening area = 0.195 m2

Type III Opening area = 0.105 m2

Pier 1 Pier 2

239

Volume 2 Number 2, 2012

The Proceedings of 2nd Annual International Conference Syiah Kuala University 2012

& 8th IMT-GT Uninet Biosciences Conference

Banda Aceh, 22-24 November 2012

Influence of Area of Openings

It can be seen in Figure 5 that with the decreasing of opening area, the capacity of

the wall to resist the horizontal load is increasing. In observing the crack propagation on

URM wall with openings type I with door and window opening, initial diagonal crack

appeared from the top and bottom of window openings. Those crack accompanied by sliding

of brick components above door opening (see Fig. 6b). With the increasing of the load,

diagonal opening appeared at pier 1 and propagated to the support direction (see Fig. 6c).

At the end of analysis, another diagonal shear opening formed above door which

propagated to the top direction of the wall and accompany by sliding at bottom of pier

3(see Fig 6d). It is likely the final collapse mechanism of the wall is caused by the extension

opening of diagonal shear crack at above the window followed by the compressed toe at the

bottom side of pier 3 (see Fig. 6a).

Moreover, In Magenes and Calvi (1997) URM wall with failure mechanism of diagonal

shear cracking resulted in 0.87 % drift From Figure 5, the drift resulted for URM wall give a

good agreement for type I, II and III which are 0.78 %, 1 % and 1.1% respectively. It

shows no significant differences of drift between the walls with the same failure mechanism.

Load (KN)

90

80

70

60

50

40

Type I

a b

30

Type II

20 Type III

10

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Drift (%)

relationship of URM wall with various areas

Figure 6. Type I wall at the end of analysis

of openings.

(misses stress), (b) Wall at d= 5 mm, (c)

Wall at d= 15 mm), (d) Wall at d= 22 mm).

Influence of Pre-compressive load

In Observing Figure 7a and Figure 7b, it can be concluded that both for URM wall

type I and II, with the increasing of pre-compressive load, the capacity of wall in resisting

horizontal load will slightly increase.

F (KN)

70 Load (KN)

60 80

70

50

60

40 50

30 40

Type 1 with p=0.3 Type II with p=0.3

N/mm2 30 N/mm2

20

Type I with p=1.21 20

N/mm2 Type II p=1.21

10 10 N/mm2

0 0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Drift (%) Drift (%)

compressive loading (left), Comparison of load-drift relationship of URM wall Type II with

different compressive loading (right).

240

Volume 2 Number 2, 2012

The Proceedings of 2nd Annual International Conference Syiah Kuala University 2012

& 8th IMT-GT Uninet Biosciences Conference

Banda Aceh, 22-24 November 2012

type I, evidence shows that with the increasing of pre-

compressive loading, reclosing of diagonal crack is

founded in observing the crack pattern at the end of

analysis. It is also noted that under the same model

a condition, the response of the wall type I with pre-

compressive loading of 1.21 N/mm2 resulted on falling

condition of some bricks below the opening. It is likely

caused by the modelling condition of the wall which

only relies on normal and tangential behaviour of

b interface interaction between the bricks.

Figure 8. Crack behaviour of URM wall

with opening Type 1 under different

pre-compressive load; (a) 0.3

N/mm2, (b) 1.21 N/mm

Conclusions

It can be concluded from parametric studies that the capacity of wall with less

opening area in resisting horizontal loading are increased. Moreover, higher pre-

compressive load applied on the top of the wall resulted on the slightly increasing capacity

of the wall. It is also noted that with higher pre-compressive load on the top of the wall

resulted on reclosing of diagonal shear crack which is observed from crack pattern at the

end of analysis. Moreover, it can be concluded from crack propagation observation on the

wall that the collapse mechanism of the wall caused by diagonal shear failures located at

piers and the compressed of the toe at the bottom right pier. It shows that this finite model

can well capture the behaviour of URM wall with openings.

Acknowledgements

The author would like to thanks Prof. Dr. Michael Griffith for his guidance, and

discussion during the research to develop my understanding to the key of this research.

Moreover, sincere gratitude goes to Prof. A. Hamid Sheikh, for having an open door

particularly in the final stage of the research and helping hand to understand the concept of

FE program used in this research.

References

Bekloo N.M. 2008. A new approach to numerical modelling of masonry structures using explicit

dynamic finite element method. World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China.

Giambanco G., Rizzo S., Spallino, R. 2001. Numerical analysis of masonry structures via interface

models. Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering, 190:49-50, 6493-6511.

Hendry E. 2001. Masonry walls: materials and construction. Construction and Building Materials,

15(8):323-330.

Loureno P. 1996. Computational strategies for masonry structures, Delft University of Technology,

Delft.

Loureno P., Milani G., Tralli A., Zucchini, A. 2007. Analysis of masonry structures: review of and

recent trends in homogenization techniques. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering,

34(11):1443-1457.

Loureno, P., and Rots, J. (1997). "Multisurface interface model for analysis of masonry structures".

Journal of engineering mechanics, 123, 660.

Martini, K. 1997. An Investigation of Seismic and Volcanic Structural Response. Proceedings of the 7th

International Conference on Computing in Civil and Building Engineering, Seoul, Korea, 179-

184.

Pandey H., Meguro K. 2004. Simulation of brick masonry wall behaviour under in-plane loading using

applied element method. 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, B.C.,

Canada.

Zhuge Y., Thambiratnam D., Corderoy J. 1998. Non-linear dynamic analysis of unreinforced masonry.

Journal of Structural Engineering.

241

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