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International Journal of Pavement Engineering


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Simulation of tyrepavement interaction for predicting


contact stresses at static and various rolling conditions
a a b
Hao Wang , Imad L. Al-Qadi & Ilinca Stanciulescu
a
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at
UrbanaChampaign, Urbana, IL, USA
b
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA

Version of record first published: 11 Apr 2011.

To cite this article: Hao Wang, Imad L. Al-Qadi & Ilinca Stanciulescu (2012): Simulation of tyrepavement interaction for
predicting contact stresses at static and various rolling conditions, International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 13:4,
310-321

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International Journal of Pavement Engineering
Vol. 13, No. 4, August 2012, 310321

Simulation of tyre pavement interaction for predicting contact stresses


at static and various rolling conditions
Hao Wanga*, Imad L. Al-Qadia and Ilinca Stanciulescub
a
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA;
b
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA
(Received 3 November 2010; final version received 19 February 2011)

This paper describes the development of a 3D tyre pavement interaction model to predict the tyre pavement contact stress
distributions for future use in the mechanistic analysis of pavement responses. The ribbed radial-ply tyre was modelled as a
composite structure (rubber and reinforcement), and the tyre material parameters were calibrated through load-deflection
curves. The steady-state tyre rolling process was simulated using an arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation. The model
Downloaded by [University of California, Berkeley] at 13:00 16 October 2012

results are consistent with previous measurements and validate the existence of non-uniform vertical contact stresses and
localised tangential contact stresses. The analysis results show that the non-uniformity of vertical contact stresses decreases
as the load increases, but increases as the inflation pressure increases. However, vehicle manoeuvring behaviour
significantly affects the tyre pavement contact stress distributions. For example, tyre braking/acceleration induces
significant longitudinal contact stresses, while tyre cornering causes the peak contact stresses shifting towards one side of the
contact patch. The model results provide valuable insights into understanding the realistic tyre pavement interaction for
analysing pavement responses at critical loading conditions.
Keywords: tyre pavement interaction; contact stress; static; free rolling; braking; cornering

Introduction Tyre pavement contact stresses can be measured


Tyres serve many important purposes for a travelling using various experimental devices, including pressure
vehicle including cushioning the vehicle against road cells, tri-axial pressure transducer, piezoelectric sensors,
roughness, controlling stability, generating manoeuvring pressure-sensitive films and ultrasonic waves (Tielking
forces and providing safety, among others. Tyre type and and Abraham 1994; De Beer et al. 1997; Douglas et al.
configuration also affect pavement performance because 2000; Pau et al. 2008). However, these measurement
the tyre imprint area transmits contact stresses to the methods are expensive and time consuming. In addition,
pavement surface. Many studies have shown that the the accuracy of the measurement depends on the interface
assumptions of contact stress distributions between tyres friction between the tyre and measurement sensors, the
and pavement have significant effects on the prediction of size and resolution of measurement sensors, the space
pavement responses and performance (De Beer et al. 2002; interval of measurement sensors in the contact area, the
Elseifi et al. 2005; Al-Qadi and Yoo 2007; Al-Qadi et al. loaded surface characteristics, the rolling speed and the
2008; Wang and Al-Qadi 2010). applied driving force. During experiments, it is generally
Previous researches have already proved that vertical difficult to consider all the tyre loading and operating
contact stresses under a loaded tyre are non-uniform, and variables because of the extensive large testing matrix and
tangential contact stresses are developed at the tyre the measurement difficulties associated with a rolling tyre.
pavement interface (Tielking and Abraham 1994; De Beer Therefore, development of a theoretical approach to
et al. 1997). However, the exact distributions of these simulate tyre pavement interaction would provide sig-
contact stresses are complex and depend on many factors, nificant benefits. The simulation would show the
such as tyre type (bias-ply or radial-ply, dual tyres or single comparative interface stress distributions under various
wide-base tyre), tyre structure (geometry, tread pattern, tyre loading and rolling conditions. These analyses would
rubber and reinforcement), pavement surface condition provide valuable insights into the load distribution
(texture and roughness), loading condition (wheel load and mechanisms at the tyre pavement interface, especially
inflation pressure) and tyre rolling condition (free rolling, from a pavement design/analysis point of view. The
acceleration, braking and cornering). research presented in this paper describes the development

*Corresponding author. Email: hwang.cee@rutgers.edu


Present address: Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 623 Bowser Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.
ISSN 1029-8436 print/ISSN 1477-268X online
q 2012 Taylor & Francis
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10298436.2011.565767
http://www.tandfonline.com
International Journal of Pavement Engineering 311

of the aforementioned type of model and details the non-isothermal or thermo-mechanical). Such tyre models
insights this theoretical approach can provide into tyre allow one to analyse the energy loss (rolling resistance),
pavement interaction. tyre terrain interaction, steady-state or transient responses,
vibration and noise, and tyre failure and stability.
From a pavement perspective, the contact stresses
Background on tyre models developed at the tyre pavement surface have been studied
The two main types of tyres are bias-ply and radial-ply because they determine the stresses caused in the
tyres. The radial-ply tyre has become more popular pavement structure. Tielking and Roberts (1987) devel-
because it causes less rolling resistance and heat oped an FE model of bias-ply tyre for analysing the effect
generation compared to the bias-ply tyre. The typical of inflation pressure and load on tyre pavement contact
structure of a radial-ply tyre is shown in Figure 1. The stresses. The pavement was modelled as a rigid flat
radial-ply tyre has one or more layers of radial plies in the surface, and the tyre was modelled as an assembly of
rubber carcass with a crown angle of 908. The crown angle axisymmetric shell elements positioned along the carcass
is defined as the angle between the ply and the mid-ply surface. Zhang (2001) built a truck tyre model
circumferential line of the tyre. In addition, several layers using ANSYS and analysed the inter-ply shear stresses
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of belts are laid under the tread rubber at a low crown between the belt and carcass layers as a function of normal
angle. The radial ply and belt layers enhance the rigidity of loads and pressures. Shoop (2001) simulated the coupled
the tyre and stabilise it in the radial and lateral directions. tyre terrain interaction and analysed the plastic defor-
The tread layer of the tyre is usually patterned with mation of soft soil/snow using an ALE adaptive mesh
longitudinal or transverse grooves and serves as a wear- formulation. He suggested that the assumption of a rigid
resistance layer that provides sufficient frictional contact tyre might be suitable for soft terrain analysis. Roque et al.
with the pavement and minimises hydroplaning through (2000) used a simple strip model to simulate the cross
good drainage of water in wet conditions (Wong 1993). section of a tyre and concluded that the measurement of
The tyre industry developed many simplified physical contact stresses using devices with rigid foundation was
models to predict tyre performance. These include the suitable for the prediction of pavement responses. Meng
classical spring-damper model, the tyre ring model and the (2002) modelled a low-profile radial smooth tyre on rigid
membrane and shell model (Knothe et al. 2001). However, pavement surface using ABAQUS and analysed the
these models are usually unsuitable for quantitative vertical contact stress distributions under various tyre
prediction of tyre pavement contact stresses. General loading conditions. Ghoreishy et al. (2007) developed a
purpose finite element (FE) software programs developed 3D FE model for a 155/65R13 steel-belted tyre and carried
in the mid-1990s, such as ABAQUS, ANSYS, ADINA, out a series of parametric analyses. They found that the
provide more tools to simulate 3D tyre behaviour with belt angle was the most important constructional variable
rolling contact. A survey of existing literature reveals many for tyre behaviour, and the change of friction coefficient
published works on an FE modelling of a tyre by computer had great influence on the pressure field and relative shear
simulation. The complexity of tyre models varies, between tyre treads and road.
depending on the features built into the model, including
FE formulation (Lagrangian, Eulerian or arbitrary Lagran- Objective and scope
gian Eulerian, ALE), material models (linear elastic, This paper presents the development of a 3D FE model of an
hyperelastic or viscoelastic), type of time domain air-inflated ribbed tyre and the simulated interaction
(transient or steady state) and type of analysis (isothermal, between this tyre and a non-deformable pavement surface.
Initially, static vertical and transverse contact stresses at the
tyrepavement interface were analysed and compared with
Ribs Grooves
the previously collected experimental measurements. Upon
the validation of the developed model, tyrepavement
Sidewall
contact stresses at various rolling conditions (free rolling,
braking/acceleration and cornering) were investigated.
Steel belts
These predicted contact stresses provide the realistic loading
input for the mechanistic analysis of pavement responses.

Simulation of tyre pavement interaction


Beads Radial ply
Descriptions of tyre model
Figure 1. Schematic illustration of a radial-ply tyre (from Theoretically, a tyre model should consider three main
Michelin Website dated on 27 July 2010). characteristics: (1) the composite structure and the
312 H. Wang et al.

anisotropy due to the significant difference in stiffness the bead at the end of sidewall. To optimise computation
between rubber and reinforcement, (2) the relatively large speed and resolution, a finer mesh was chosen for around
deformation due to flexibility of tyre carcass during contact the tread zone, and a coarse mesh was used in the sidewall.
with pavement surface and (3) the near-incompressibility The FE tyre model was built in two steps. First, a 2D
and the non linearity of rubber material (Wong 1993). axisymmetric tyre model was built with four-node
The tyre models commonly used for tyre design purposes axisymmetric continuum elements for rubber. These
must accurately predict the deformation of the whole tyre bilinear elements allow for the consideration of twisting
and the interaction of internal components as well. This the rubber-cord composite that generally takes place in
study focuses on tyre deformation with respect to the tyres during loading. The radial ply and layered steel belts
contact region and the resulted contact stress distributions were modelled as surface membrane elements with
at the tyre pavement interface. This focus allows for the embedded rebar layers. These reinforced surface mem-
development of relatively simple models to ensure high brane elements were embedded in host continuum
computational efficiency. elements. Then, the 3D tyre model was generated by
The cross-sectional views of the modelled radial-ply revolving the 2D mesh around its symmetric axis using
tyre having five longitudinal ribs are shown in Figure symmetric result transfer and symmetric model generation
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2(a),(b). The outer radius of the tyre is 506 mm, and the tyre capability in ABAQUS (2007).
height is 220 mm. The wall-to-wall tyre width is 275 mm
and the contact width, including ribs and grooves, is
approximately 200 mm. The tyre thickness in the tread area Modelling tyre pavement interaction
is 18 mm with 13-mm tread depth. The width of each rib is The tyre pavement interaction is essentially a rolling
around 30 mm with 10-mm grooves between adjacent ribs. contact problem. Several challenges exist when modelling
The tyre model comprises one radial ply, two steel belts and the tyre pavement interaction via a two-solid contact
a rubber carcass (sidewall and tread). The two steel belts are mechanics approach, such as nonlinear material properties
oriented at 208 and 2 208 with respect to the hoop of pavement layers, transient contact conditions, large tyre
(circumferential) direction, while the radial ply is deformation, intricate structure of the tyre and nonlinear
perpendicular to the circumferential direction of the tyre. frictional interface (Laursen and Stanciulescu 2006). Due
The two steel belts are located approximately 15 and 17 mm to the complexity of the problem, it is difficult to solve the
away from the outer surface of the tread, respectively. tyre pavement contact problem via a two-solid contact
The rim was modelled as a rigid body and in contact with mechanics approach. In this study, the pavement was

(a) (b)

Tread
Belt
Radial ply

Sidewall

Bead

(c) (d)

Figure 2. Simulation of tyre pavement interaction: (a) cross section of tyre structure, (b) cross section of tyre mesh, (c) inflating tyre
with internal pressure, and (d) applying load on tyre and rolling.
International Journal of Pavement Engineering 313

modelled as a non-deformable flat surface to achieve better This model assumes that the resistance to movement is
computation efficiency. This assumption is considered proportional to the normal stress at an interface. In this
reasonable because the tyre deformation is much greater case, the interface may resist movement up to a certain
than the pavement deflection when wheel load is applied level; then the two contacting surfaces at the interface start
on the tyre and transmitted to the pavement surface. to slide relative to each another. If the relative motion
The tyre pavement interaction was simulated in three occurs, the frictional stress remains constant and the stress
progressive steps, as shown in Figure 2(c),(d). First, an magnitude is equal to the normal stress at the interface
axisymmetric tyre model was loaded with uniform multiplied by the friction coefficient.
inflation pressure at its inner surface. Second, a 3D tyre
model was generated and simulated in contact with
pavement under the applied vertical load. To consider the
large tyre deformation, large displacement formulation Contact stress verification
and geometry nonlinearity in ABAQUS were used. The study focuses on the contact patch shape and stress
Finally, the tyre was rolled on the rigid flat surface at distribution at the tyre pavement interface rather than the
various angular velocities and transport velocities. The tyre internal stresses in the tyre structure. Rubber is a near-
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rolling process was modelled using the steady-state incompressible and hyperelastic material with viscoelas-
transport analysis in ABAQUS. The steady-state transport ticity. However, tyre manufacturers usually do not reveal
analysis utilises implicit dynamic analysis and considers information on material properties and tyre structure.
the tyre inertia and the frictional effects at the tyre Hence, the rubber was simulated as linear elastic material
pavement interface (ABAQUS 2007). with a Poissons ratio close to 0.5. Different parts of rubber
In the steady-state transport analysis, the ALE elements (sidewall, shoulder, belt rubber and tread) were
formulation was used rather than traditional Lagrange or modelled having variable elastic stiffness. The steel
Eulerian formulations (Nackenhorst 2004). The ALE uses reinforcements (radial ply and belts) were modelled as a
a moving reference frame, in which rigid body rotation is linear elastic material.
described in an Eulerian formulation and the deformation is Tyre load-deflection curves from experimental
described in a Lagrange formulation. This kinematic measurements were used to calibrate the tyre model
description converts the steady-state moving contact parameters. The elastic properties of rubber and ply/belt
problem into a pure spatially dependent simulation. Thus, reinforcement were adjusted to obtain deflection values
the mesh needs to be refined only in the contact region. close to experimental measurements provided by tyre
Hence, a mesh convergence analysis was performed with a manufacturer. The initial elastic modulus of each
series of progressively finer FE meshes. The predicted component was based on tyre models in the literature
contact stress results were compared for each mesh until (Zhang 2001; Ghoreishy et al. 2007). Sensitivity analysis
changes in numerical results were , 5% (Figure 3). showed that tyre deflection is primarily affected by radial
The contact between the tyre and pavement surface ply, sidewall stiffness and the steel belt crown angles.
consists of two components: one that is normal to the Good agreements were achieved between the predicted
surfaces and the other that is tangential to the surfaces. The and measured deflections under various loading and tyre
treatment of the normal contact condition is to enforce pressure levels as shown in Figure 4. The final selected
impenetrability in the normal direction using the penalty elastic material properties of each tyre component are
method or Lagrange multipliers method. However, for the presented in Table 1.
tangential interaction between two contacting surfaces, the To examine the accuracy of the developed model, the
typical Coulomb friction law is used (Wriggers 2002). predicted contact stresses at the tyre pavement interface

(a) (b)
1000 200
Vertical contact stress (kPa)

Longitudinal contact stress

900
150
800
(kPa)

100
700

600 50

500 0
0 20 40 60 80 0 20 40 60 80
Circular sectors in contact area Circular sectors in contact area

Figure 3. Mesh convergences of (a) vertical and (b) longitudinal contact stresses.
314 H. Wang et al.

(a) (b)

30

25

Load on tire (kN)


20

15

10 Measurement at 828kPa
Calulation at 828kPa
5 Measurement at 414kPa
Calculation at 414kPa
0
0 20 40 60 80
Deflection (mm)
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Figure 4. Comparisons between measured and calculated tyre deflections.

were compared to the experimental measurements condition (17.8 kN and 724 kPa) is showh in figure
provided by tyre manufacturer. Measurements were Figure 6. In these plots, zero values were assigned to the
collected as the tyre rolled over the instrumentation at a groove areas between adjacent ribs. As the tyre is pressed
close to static condition. Therefore, the static loading against a flat surface, the tread rubber is compressed in the
condition of the tyre was simulated in the comparison. It is flattened contact patch and the sidewall of the tyre is in
noted that the friction between the tyre and instrumentation tension. The bending stress in the sidewall causes the non-
depends on the geometry and interval of sensors used in the uniform distribution of vertical contact stresses in the
measurement. A friction coefficient of 0.3 was selected contact patch, particularly at the edge of the contact patch.
through a sensitivity analysis because it provides the best At the same time, the Poissons effect and the restricted
match between the predicted and measured contact stresses. outward movement of each tyre rib lead to the
The data from Figure 5 compare the transverse development of tangential stresses. The plots clearly
distributions of contact stresses from model predictions show that the vertical and transverse contact stresses have
and experimental measurements (17.8 kN and 724 kPa) a convex shape along the contact length, while the
provided by tyre manufacturer, for the vertical and transverse longitudinal contact stresses have a reversed pattern with
contact stresses, respectively. In general, the predicted backward stresses in the front half and forward stresses in
contact stresses agree fairly well with those measured by the rear half.
experiments. Although some variations were observed, the The data from Figure 7(a),(b) show the distributions of
tyre model captured the non-uniform distribution of vertical vertical contact stresses under high load and high inflation
contact stresses and the localised asymmetric distribution of pressure, respectively. The results show that as the load
transverse contact stresses under each individual tyre rib. increases, the peak contact stress tends to shift towards
outer ribs and the convex shape of the vertical stress tends
to flatten in the middle section. This trend likely happens
because a heavier load causes greater bending deformation
Analysis of tyre pavement contact stresses
of the sidewall, which mainly affects the contact stresses
Static loading condition under the outside ribs. As the inflation pressure increases,
A typical plot of the 3D contact stress field predicted from the vertical contact stress increases the most in the
the tyre pavement interaction model at static loading centre region of the tyre contact area and the stress

Table 1. Material property of each tyre component.

Tyre components Material Elastic modulus (MPa) Poissons ratio Density (kg/m3)
Tread Rubber 4 0.49 1100
Belt rubber Rubber 12 0.49 1100
Sidewall Rubber 0.5 0.49 1100
Shoulder rubber Rubber 8 0.49 1100
Radial ply Nylon 9000 0.3 1500
Belt Steel 170,000 0.3 5900
International Journal of Pavement Engineering 315

(a) (b)
1500 Prediction
400

Vertical contact stress (kPa)


Measurement

Transverse contact stress


1000 200

(kPa)
0
500
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Prediction
Measurement 200
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Points at each rib 400
Points at each rib

Figure 5. Predicted and measured (a) vertical and (b) transverse contact stresses.
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(a)
Max: 1234 kPa
Vertical contact stress (kPa)

1500

1000

500

300
0 200
)
200 100 (mm
150 100 50 0 0
t l e ngth
tac
Contact width (mm) Con

(b)
Max: 345 kPa
Transverse contact stress (kPa)

400

200

200
300
400 200
100 m)
200 150 100 0 th (m
50 0 leng
tact
Contact width (mm) Con

(c)
Longitudinal contact stress (kPa)

200 Max: 154 kPa

100

100
300
200 200
100 )
200 150 100 0 ( m
m
50 0 length
tact
Contact width (mm) Con

Figure 6. Predicted (a) vertical, (b) transverse and (c) longitudinal contact stresses at the static condition.
316 H. Wang et al.

(a)
1500 Max: 1239 kPa

Vertical contact stress (kPa)


1000

500

400
0 200
200 150 100 ( m m)
50 0 0 gth
l e n
Contact width (mm) tact
Con

(b)
Max: 1565 kPa
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1500
Vertical contact stress (kPa)

1000

500
300
200
0 100 m)
200 150 100 0 gth (m
50 0 ct len
Contact width (mm) nta
Co

Figure 7. Predicted vertical contact stresses under (a) high load and (b) high inflation pressure at the static condition.

non-uniformity along tyre contact width becomes more velocity is equal to the transport velocity divided by the
significant. The changing trends of tyre contact stresses as free rolling radius. For a specific transport velocity, the
the load or pressure increases are consistent with the angular velocity at the free rolling condition can be found
observations from experimental measurements (De Beer through trials until the state that the longitudinal reaction
et al. 1997; Douglas et al. 2000; Wang and Al-Qadi 2009). forces acting on the tyre from the pavement surface
As expected, the contact length and area increases as becomes zero. Partial braking occurs when the angular
the load increases, but decreases as the inflation pressure velocity of the tyre is less than the angular velocity at the
increases. The authors concluded that the increase in free rolling condition such that some of the contact points
contact length is more significant than the increase in between the tyre and the pavement are sliding. On the
contact width due to the relatively high lateral tyre other hand, partial acceleration occurs when the angular
stiffness. These observations indicate that, instead of the velocity is greater than the angular velocity at the free
conventional uniform contact stress assumption within rolling condition. Full braking or acceleration occurs at a
circular contact area, the realistic tyre pavement contact very slow or fast angular velocity when all the contact
stress distribution and contact area should be considered points between the tyre and the pavement are completely
when evaluating the pavement responses under truck sliding in the backward or forward directions.
loading with heavy load or high tyre inflation pressure. The data from Figures 8 and 9 show the predicted 3D
contact stress fields at the tyre pavement interface, at the
free rolling condition (n 10 km/h, v 5.6 rad/s) and the
Free rolling and braking conditions full braking condition (n 10 km/h, v 3 rad/s), respect-
Tyrepavement contact stresses are affected by various tyre ively. The applied tyre load is 17.8 kN and the tyre
rolling conditions such as acceleration, braking or free inflation pressure is 724 kPa. The effect of weight
rolling. To simulate various tyre rolling conditions, the redistribution between the different truck axles due to
steady-state transport analysis requires the transport velocity braking was not considered in the simulation at this point.
(n) and the angular velocity (v) to be specified separately. It is expected that a rolling tyre could induce local
At the free rolling condition, no additional driving/ stress fields that differ from those at a static loading
braking torque is applied on the tyre, and the angular condition. Static and rolling tyres experience different
International Journal of Pavement Engineering 317

(a)
Max: 1056 kPa

Vertical contact stress (kPa)


1500

1000

500
300
0 200
100 m)
200 150 100 50 0 0 eng th (m
t act l
Contact width (mm) Con

(b)
Max: 223 kPa
Transverse contact stress (kPa)

400
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200

200
300
400 200
200 100 m)
150 100 50 0 ngt h (m
0
ta ct le
Contact width (mm) Con

(c)
Max: 65 kPa
Longitudinal contact stress (kPa)

200

100

100

300
200 200
100 m)
200 150 100 50 0 0 e n g th (m
l
tact
Contact width (mm) Con

Figure 8. Predicted (a) vertical, (b) transverse and (c) longitudinal contact stresses at the free rolling condition.

loading histories for a given contact point at the tyre When a tyre is in free rolling condition, the resulting
pavement interface. Compared to static condition, both longitudinal contact stresses (frictional forces) at the tyre
free rolling and braking conditions result in 10 20% less pavement interface are negligible due to low-rolling
vertical contact stress except at the outermost edge of the resistance of the tyre as shown in Figure 8(c). However,
contact area. Centrifugal forces of a rolling tyre could the frictional forces become significant when tyre braking
result in tyre diameter increase, which is restricted by or acceleration occur with sliding contact at the tyre
pavement surface. This could cause a vertical axle lift pavement interface. Tyre braking induces one-directional
and decrease tyre pavement contact stresses. This longitudinal contact stresses as shown in Figure 9(c) , and
variation in contact stresses due to changes from static to these stresses are much greater than the longitudinal
rolling conditions is consistent with reported measure- contact stress at static condition. The longitudinal contact
ments (Pottinger 1992). In addition, the transverse contact stresses on a pavement surface during braking and
stresses at the free rolling condition were found to be lower acceleration have similar magnitudes but opposite
than those at static condition; the lowest transverse contact directions with forward stresses at braking and backward
stresses were found at the braking condition. stresses at acceleration. These longitudinal contact stresses
318 H. Wang et al.

(a)

Max: 1053 kPa

Vertical contact stress (kPa)


1500

1000

500

300
0 200
200 100 m)
150 100 50 0 0 ng th (m
tact le
Contact width (mm) Con

(b)
Transverse contact stress (kPa)

100 Max: 14 kPa


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50

50

100 300
200 200
150 100 100 )
50 0 mm
0
ct le ngth (
Contact width (mm) Conta

(c)
Longitudinal contact stress (kPa)

Max: 316 kPa


400

300

200

100
300
0 200
100 )
200 150 (mm
100 50 0 0
t length
Contact width (mm) Co ntac

Figure 9. Predicted (a) vertical, (b) transverse and (c) longitudinal contact stresses at the full braking condition.

400
Longitudinal contact stress (kPa)

may lead to severe pavement deterioration, such as 300


shoving/corrugation and slippage cracking, at pavement Exit (slide region)
intersections or the pavement sections with great 200 Entrance (stick region)
longitudinal slopes.
The level of braking/acceleration can be defined using
100
the slip ratio, as shown in Equation (1) (Henry 2000). The
longitudinal contact stress distributions along tyre contact
0
length due to tyre braking at different slip ratios are shown 150 100 50 0 50 100 150
in Figure 10. It shows that the longitudinal contact stress Longitudinal contact length (mm)
increases as the slip ratio increases until the peak friction
Slip ratio = 1.8% Slip ratio = 3.6%
force is achieved at the full braking condition. For partial
Slip raito = 5.4% Full braking
braking, the contact patch can be divided into two regions: a
forward stick region in the entrance part and an aft slide Figure 10. Longitudinal contact stress distributions at different
region in the exit part. In the slide region, the longitudinal slip ratios.
International Journal of Pavement Engineering 319

contact stresses on pavement surface are approximately Cornering condition


equal to the vertical contact stresses multiplied by the As the tyre is cornering, the friction between the tyre and
friction coefficient. It indicates that as the tyre is sliding at road surface restricts the lateral movement of the tyre and
high slip ratios, the longitudinal contact stresses can be
results in lateral deformation of the tyre tread elements
estimated from the vertical contact stresses and the
within the contact patch while the wheel is steering away
pavement surface friction coefficient.
from the straight-ahead direction. Therefore, a slip angle is
induced between a rolling tyres actual direction of motion
n 2 vR and the pointing direction. The slip angle is a measurement
Slip ratio ; 1
n of the extent the tyres contact patch has twisted (steered) in
relation to the wheel (Wong 1993).
where n is the vehicle velocity, v is the angular velocity and The predicted 3D contact stress fields at the tyre
R is the rolling radius at free rolling condition. pavement interface for cornering condition (n 10 km/h,

(a)
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1500 Max: 1157 kPa


Vertical Contact Stress (kPa)

1000

500

300
0 200 )
100 (mm
200 150 gth
100
50 0 0 tac t len
Contact width (mm) Con

(b)

Max: 277 kPa


400
Transverse contact stress (kPa)

200

200
300
400 200
m)
200 100 th (m
150 100 leng
50 0 0 tact
Contact width (mm) Con

(c)
Longitudinal contact stress (kPa)

200 Max: 73 kPa

100

100
300
200 200 m)
200 100 th (m
150 leng
100 50 0 tact
0 Con
Contact width (mm)

Figure 11. Predicted (a) vertical, (b) transverse and (c) longitudinal tyre pavement contact stresses at the cornering condition.
320 H. Wang et al.

(a) (b)

Maximum transverse contact stress (kPa)


2500 800

Maximum vertical contact stres (kPa) 2000


600

1500
400
1000

200
500

0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10
Slip angle () Slip angle ()
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Figure 12. Predicted (a) vertical and (b) transverse contact stresses with different slip angles at the cornering condition.

free rolling, slip angle 18) are shown in Figure 11(a) distribution at the tyre pavement interface and to predict
(c). The applied tyre load is 17.8 kN and the tyre inflation 3D contact stress distributions at various loading and
pressure is 724 kPa. The results show that tyre cornering rolling conditions. The analysis resulted in the following
causes concentration of contact stresses shifting towards conclusions, which are important factors to consider in
the right side of the contact patch, which lies on the inner pavement design and analysis:
side of the right turn. This indicates that the right tyre
shoulder is more strongly compressed to the road surface (1) Measured and predicted vertical contact stresses and
than the left one during cornering. Hence, the contact localised tangential contact stresses at the tyre
stress distribution is no longer symmetric with respect to pavement interface are non-uniform. The non-
the centre plane, and the contact patch at the right side is uniformity of vertical contact stresses decreases as
longer than the one at the left side. Similar to the free the load increases, but increases as the inflation
rolling condition, the longitudinal contact stresses at the pressure increases.
tyre cornering condition are negligible. However, tyre (2) Compared to static condition, free rolling and braking
cornering causes greater vertical and transverse contact conditions cause slightly lower vertical contact
stresses compared to the free rolling condition; the peak stresses. The transverse contact stresses at free
contact stresses are concentrated locally at the edge of tyre rolling condition are lower than those at static
ribs. Localised contact stress concentration at tyre condition. Braking causes the least transverse contact
cornering could be affected by the tread pattern of the stresses.
tyre (such as tread depth, tread profile, arrangement of ribs (3) Longitudinal contact stresses increase as a tyre
and grooves). motion changes from free rolling to braking. When a
The variation of maximum contact stresses with the tyre slides at full braking, significant one-directional
slip angle at the cornering condition for the vertical and longitudinal contact stresses are induced on the
transverse contact stresses, respectively, are shown in pavement surface compared to the reversed distri-
Figure 12(a),(b). As the slip angle increases, the maximum bution of longitudinal contact stresses at static
contact stresses increase until the slip angle reaches 58 and condition.
then become relatively constant. It was found that the (4) For cornering condition, both vertical and transverse
localised stress concentration became more significant as contact stresses could become greater than those at
the slip angle increased. The relatively high vertical and the free rolling condition. The peak contact stresses
transverse contact stresses at tyre cornering could explain at the cornering condition shift towards one side of
the accelerated pavement deterioration at the curved road the contact patch and increase as the slip angle
sections, where frequent vehicle manoeuvring behaviour increases.
occurs. It is clear from the analysis results that the tyre
pavement contact stress distributions are significantly
affected by tyre loading and rolling conditions. The
Conclusions predicted contact stress distributions presented in this
The developed tyre pavement interaction model shows paper will be used in future research to analyse pavement
the potential to evaluate the mechanism of load responses and damage at critical loading conditions.
International Journal of Pavement Engineering 321

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