Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 18

Basic Design Guidelines for Mechanical

Engineering Systems
Saturday, February 5, 2011

A BASIC DESIGN GUIDELINE FOR MECHANICAL


ENGINEERING SYSTEMS COULD BE CATEGORISED INTO
FIVE (5) SECTIONS SUCH AS;
A) SANITARY AND SEWERAGE PIPE MANHOLE SERVICES
All design guideline for Sanitary and Sewerage Pipe Manhole Services are based on Guide to Sewerage Systems - Malaysian
Water Association (MWA)/(BS5572:1994)
Make sure all proposed design calculations and drawings documentation to be prepared earlier and need to be endorsed & sign
by the Clients before doing any final Building Submissions to the authorities. (e.g. Majlis Perbandaran Selayang, Majlis
Perbandaran Kelang, Majlis Perbandaran Shah Alam, Dewan Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur and etc. Those approval processes would
take around three (3) to four (4) months from the date of submission.

B) HOT & COLD WATER PLUMBING SERVICES AND SUCTION & ELEVATED ROOF WATER TANK & PUMPING SYSTEM

All proposed design guidelines are based on Guide to Water Supply System JKR/MWA
Make sure all proposed design calculations and drawings for Hot & Water Plumbing and Suction/Elevated Roof Water Tank
and Pumping System need to be prepared for Tender for Construction purposes and JBA/Syabas and District Council
Authorities submission and approval.
The Size of Elevated Storage/Domestic Water Tank is based on the number of population per sq.ft. (100 sq.ft/ 1 person) or
Specified Required Gallons of Water Demand per sq.m (2.2 Ig/ 1 sq.m) this case would be direct tapping from the Main
Bulk Water Meter to the Elevated Storage/Domestic Water Tank. Hence, under Penang Water Authorities (PBA) the total
Water Demand would be around 5.5 Igals/ 1 sq.m.
In any special case if there is a very low pressure from the Main Bulk Water Meter to the Elevated Water Tank, it is required
to have One Suction Tank that would be *1/3 of Storage/day from the total water demand and balance 2/3 of Storage/day is
for the Elevated Roof/Storage Tank. It is noted that all final selection of Water Tank Size is depends upon on the incoming
size of the pipe from the Water Reticulation (e.g. Size of Ductile Iron Pipe = 65 mm, need to consider the free board of 10
from the surface of sitting ball valve to the inner surface of the tank height and the balance bottom height
of 3 where from the height of the water outlets to the inner surface of the bottom water tank.
A Suction Pump (Booster Multistage Vertical Type) need to be analysed and designed for 6 to 8 hours Operation/day in a
proper way by considering all water supply from the Suction Tank to be controlled by On/Off Procedures (Pressure Regulating
Control Valves) where could be read off by the Motorised Valve at Roof Storage Tanks. The effective capacity (KW) of the
Suction Pump would be considered by the following criterias:
- Design flow rates (Q Igpm) = Total Water Demand / 8 X 60 min.
- Total Pump Head (ft.) = Highest Static Head + Pipe Friction Head Loss
(Pipe friction head loss = s.factor, 20% X Pipe friction factor [Equivalent Pipe Length + Straight Pipe Length]
- Min. Pump Cap. = 1.2 X Pump B.H.P X 0.746; i.e. Pump B.H.P = TPH X Q / 3300 X Pump effieciency (60% to 65%)

The location of the Suction Tank would be at the Ground or Lower Ground Floor depends upon S.O Architects requirements.
Material of Suction Tank shall be FRP Fibre Reinforced Plastics or R.C Reinforced Concrete.
A Booster Pump for Roof Tanks calculations could be determined by considering the number and type of fittings to be used
and its individual loading units factor. So, by totaling up the number of loading units factor then only the required Design Flow
Rates (Igmin. Imperial Gallon/min.) could be determined by referring to CP310:1965 Graph Fig.1 (Water Supply Rules
JKR)
All Total Pump Head need to be considered by estimating the Total Pump Head (TPH) would be considered same like determining
the Suction Pump.
A Break Tank for Cold Water Plumbing Services only needed as per SYABAS requirement if the High Rise
Apartment/Condominium level height above 75 m.
Below table is a sample plant room & risers that for High Rise Apartment/Condominium that need to be clarified with S.Os
Architects;
Sample Plant Room for Cold water:
Roof tank room 10m x 10m x 4.6m (H) Centre roof area

Roof pump room 4m x 2m x 3m (H) Shall be attached to


roof tank room
Suction tank room 10m x 5m x 3.5m (H) Within apartment
footprint
Suction pump room 4m x 3m x 3.5m (H) Shall be attached to
suction tank room
Cold water riser 1.2m x 0.75m Required near
staircase 1, 2 & 3
Cold Water Break Tank (if Building height > 75m)
(TANK TYPE : FRP)
a) Tank Sizing 4m(W) x 4m(L) x 2m(H) For the building
height above 75m.
Within 1 no. of
C) AIR CONDITIONING
apartment unit for
& MECHANICAL VENTILATION
Block A & B. At Level
SERVICES
17th. Sharing with the
apartment unit of Wet
All proposed design guidelines are
Riser break tank.
based on HVAC and Air Conditioning
System b) Tank & Pump
Room 4m(W) x 7m(L) x 2m(H)
Swimming Pool Requirement
a) Swimming Pool 6(W) x 5(L) x 5(H) Within apartment
Balancing Tank footprint
Room
(TANK TYPE : RC)
Swimming Pool 5(W) x 5(L) x 5(H) Shall be attached to
Balancing Tank swimming pool
Pump Room balancing tank room

ASHRAE/MASHRAE or SMACNA
Make sure all proposed design calculations and drawings for Air - Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System need to be
prepared for Tender for Construction purposes.
The selection of Chiller Unit is firstly to Determine the tentative heat loads for Chiller Condensing unit by doing the estimation
on the Average between maximum and minimum of Grand Total Cooling Load/effective area, Sq.Ft. as can be referred to Table
1 Design and Cooling Load Checks (e.g. GTC Hospital = 80 Btuh/Sq.Ft. Factories = 80 Btuh/Sq.Ft., Offices = 75 Btuh/Sq.Ft.,
Shopping Complexes = 60 Btuh/Sq.Ft. Houses, Condominiums & Apartments = 65 Btuh/Sq.ft. and etc.).
Then only the Chiller Cooling Load in Btuh Unit need to convert into Ton of Refrigerant - T.R (1 T.R = 12,000 Btuh) and not to
forget by adding up the Safety factor of 10 to 15 percent.
Smoke Control System for the Air Handling Unit for all types of buildings should consider the Suction Air and Return Air. A
basic rule of thumbs as referred from below formula;
CFM (Suction Air) = RSH (Room Sensible Heat)/1.08 X 15 and CFM (Return Air) = 0.8 GTC
Cooling Tower Unit need to be determined by adding up 25% (i.e. multiply by factor of 1.25) from the total Chiller Cooling
Unit. (T.R unit)
The Size of Make Up Water Tank need to be determined by considering below formula;
Total Size of Cooling Tower (CT-T.R) X 3.0 U.S Gallons X 8 hours of pump operations. (convert to Ig Imperial Gallons, multiply
by factor of 0.833)
Sub total capacity of Chilled Water Flow Rates - for individual AHU Units (m/h) = (GTC, KW)/1.16 X (7C - different of temp.
on the refrigerating effects)
Total Capacity of Chilled Water Flow Rates (m/h) = 7% of Sub total capacity of Chilled Water Flow Rates
Total Condenser Water Flow Rates (m/h), as at 30C-32C = 25% of Total Chilled Water Flow Rates(m/h), as at 24C-26C
Chilled/Condensing Water Pump Capacity = Total Flow Rates,igpm (Condenser/Chiller) X total pump head (ft)/3300 X Pump
effieciency; considering 1 unit each on standby and 2 units each on duty (total overall = 6 units of Condenser/Chilled Water
Pumps)
Chilled/Condenser Water Pipes could be determined same like the Cold Water Pipe Calculations but the only difference is to
take care any heat/cold losses from those piping works by considering the fire rated pipe insulations.
Condenser Water flow rates for Water Cool Package Unit (l/min) = (GTC + Input) KW / (7C - different of temp. on the
refrigerating effects) X 0.07
Fan Coil Unit Power Consumption; for Air Cooled Package = 1.5KW/ton and Water Cooled Package = 0.9KW/ton
Exhaust/Fresh Air Fan for Gen-set and Electrical Switch room; the Air Change/hr (ACH) = 15, Toilet = 10, Kitchen= 20,
Basement = 6, Restaurant = 15 to 20 (depends on the heat loads of the restaurant), Car-park = 12, Lift Motor Room = 12,
Auditorium = 0.14 cmm/seat, Canteen = 0.28 cmm/seat and the Air Flow Rates can be calculated, CFM = Room Volume (m) X
ACH / 60
Total Pressure Losses for AHU Ducting Lines; Pressure Duct Losses = ( ? ft. X 0.1wg/100ft) + fan losses = 0.2wg + Grille
Losses = 0.1 wg
AHU Fan Power Rated; Air Flow Rates (m/s) X Total Pressure Losses (mm wg)/102 X motor effieciency (65%)
The Air Cooled Supply Velocity from the AHU Air Handling Unit could be determined by using the Ductulator (e.g. TRANE,
YORK DUNHAM BUSH)
Air Fan Capacity for Kitchen Area (m/hr) = Kitchen Room Size (m) X 25 ACH / 1 hr.
Kitchen Hood Size = W (m) X L (m) X 1.02 (h)
Suction Air Fan at the Kitchen Hood (CFM) = (1.4 X 0.4m/s X 2(W+L) X 1.02, by converting to CFM) X Grille losses, 0.5wg

D) FIRE PROTECTION SERVICES & FIRE ALARM SYSTEM

All proposed design calculations and drawings for Fire Protection Services & Fire Alarm System need to follow a design
guidelines that based on the book title; Guide To Fire Protection in Malaysia 2nd.edition, March 2006 (Active Submission, by
refer to Chapter 5 to 13 Portable Fire Extinguisher, External Fire Hydrant System, Hose Reel System, Dry Riser System,
Wet Riser System, Downcomer System, Automatic Sprinkler System, Automatic CO2 Extinguishing System, and Automatic
Fire Detection & alarm System)
Pressurisation System in Building, Smoke Control System Using Natural Displacement or Powered Extracted Ventilation, Fire
Lift, and Emergency Power System would be put under separate submission due to the building requirements (by refer to
Chapter 14 to 17)
All Passive Submission and Performance Base would be under Architectural and C&S Scope of Works Only. (Chapter 4 and 18
only)
Make sure all proposed design calculations and drawings for Active Fire Protection Services need to be prepared for Tender
for Construction purposes and BOMBA submission and approval.

Portable Fire Extinguisher

It could be categorised into different types of Media and Application/Classes by following its Colour Coding;
Water Suit for *Class A fires (in red colour code)
Foam Suit for Class A & B fires (in cream colour code)
Dry Chemical Powder Suit for Class A, B, C and E fires (in blue colour code)
Carbon Dioxide Suit for Class B & E fires (in black colour code)
Halon Suit for Military, Aviation or Special Application (in golden yellow colour code)
Wet Chemical System new requirement by BOMBA that need to be installed at all Kitchen Areas. suit under Class F
Selection of the P.F.E Potable Fire Extinguisher; e.g., at the floor area of 1600m:
0.065 X 1600 = 104A
104A = 13A X 8 Units of PFE Cylinders X 4 Kg; or
108A = 27A X 4 Units of PFE Cylinders X 6 Kg

External Fire Hydrant System

Design Standard MS1489 Part 1 (Hydrant System, Hose Reels and Foam Inlets)
- MS1395 Part 1 (Pillar Hydrant)
Design Method could be categorised into two types of external fire hydrant systems;
Direct from main intake to all the pillars
Pressurised by Fire Pumps
Pillar Hydrant Location is < 30m from the breeching inlet at the building
Hydrant Pillar System location 6m from the building if it is a High Rise Building
Hydrant Pillar Spacing 90m in between and each location has a min. 6m (width) that could withstand 26 tons.
Each Hydrant Pillar should be provided with 30m of 65mm dia. Canvas Hose, Coupling and Nozzles that to be placed in the special
cabinets nearby.
In any special case for Pressurised Installation (used Pumps) each Hydrant Pillars (twin outlets) need to have a Water Supply at
the minimum flow rates of 1000 lit./min (1m/h) and at Working Pressure of 4 Bar (58 Psi/9m head/30ft. head).
Each outlets from the Hydrant Pillars 500 lit/min (0.5 m/h) and at min. Working Pressure of 2 Bar (29 Psi/4.5m head/15ft.
head)
Pressure Regulating type of outlet valve need to be introduced if ever the outlet pressure from the fire mains boost to 7 Bar
(101.5 Psi/16m head/53ft. head)
Pipe Material of the Hydrant Systems could be categorised into two (2) types that approved by BOMBA;
Cement Lined Steel Pipe
ABS (anti corrosion pipe)
Hydrant Pump Specifications; One (1) Unit Standby 3 m/min (3000 lit./min) Electrical/Diesel Engine driven, One (1) Unit On
Duty - 3 m/min (3000 lit./min) Electrical driven and One (1) unit of Jockey Pump To maintain system pressure and as a
Start Up for On Duty/Standby Pumps and usually an electrical motor driven with a capacity of around 120 lit./min (0.12
m/min)

The Flow rates for both Standby/On Duty Hydrant Pumps could be increased depends upon the number of Pillar Hydrants to
be installed

because the limitation for the flow rates of 3000 lit/min each pumps are only limited to 3 n.o.s of Pillars hydrant only; i.e. 1 n.o.s
of Pillar Hydrant = 1000 lit. /min and as example if 6 n.o.s of Pillars Hydrant = 6000 lit. /min and so forth.
The Hydrant Pump - Set should be protected from weather (i.e. effect by flooding season)
The Fire Water Storage Tank should be sized for a minimum effective capacity of 135, 000 lit. /min (Approximately: 35,000 to
36,000 Imp. Gallons) that would consider the Upper Level height (free board) and bottom level height (600mm/0.6m)
Before doing any testing on the Hydrant Pumps all procedures below need to be followed;
Starting the duty pump-set at 80% of the system pressure;
Starting the standby pump set at 60% of the system pressure; and
Starting and Stopping the jockey pump set at 90% and 110% of the system pressure.

Hose Reel System

Design Standard
M.S.1489 Part 1: Hydrant System, Hose Reels and Foam Inlets;
M.S.1447 - Hose Reels with semi rigid hose;
M.S.1488: Semi rigid hoses for first aid fixed installations.

Design Method of Hose Reel System;


It should be complied with M.S.1447 and stated detailed under the 10th.Schedule (refer to UBBL)
The location for each hose reel are usually to be placed where could cover 30 meters of hose coverage between the hose reels
stack.
Each hose reel outlet to discharge a minimum of 30 lit/min (1.8 m/min) of water within 6 meters of all parts of the space
protected.
The rubber hoses should comply to M.S 1488 (min: 30 m in length)
Size of Hose Reel Pipe is 50mm (nom. dia.) and the material is Galvanised Steel Medium Grade Class B for above ground but
for Underground G.I Pipe -Heavy Grade Class C & to be feed to individual hose pipe size 25mm dia.
The pipe shall be painted with primer and finished with red paint or may be identified with red bands.
Hose Reel Pumps 1 (One) unit on Duty and 1 (One) unit on Standby
Pump Flow Rates 120 lit/min@ operating pressure at 2 to 3 bars (4 Hose Reels could be activated at one time)
The Standby Hose Reel Pump Set should be supplied with power from the emergency generator or diesel engine driven (fuel
supply should be adequate for min. 1 hour of operation)
Starting and Stopping the Duty pump-set need to be set at 80% and 100% of System pressure respectively;
Starting and Stopping the Standby pump set need to be set at 60% to 100% of system pressure respectively.
Diesel pump set should be capable of automatic starting but should only be stopped manually.
If the total hose reel < 4 Units than no need to use emergency power; i.e Electrical Generator or Diesel Engine Driven.
All hose reels system shall not be tapped off from Automatic Sprinkler System
Min. Floor Size Area of Hose Reel Stacks : 1200mm - Length X 800mm - Depth (mm)
Minimum Effective Capacity of Fire Water Storage Tank should be sized based 2275 litres (500 Ig) for the first hose reel and
1137.5 liters (250 Ig) for every additional hose reel. The maximum effective capacity is approximately 9100 litres (2001 Ig).
The Material used for the Fire Tank is either made from Pressed Steel (hot dipped galvanised and coated internally with
Bituminous paints for corrosion protection), FRP Fiberglass Reinforced Plastics or R.C Concrete.
This Hose Reel Tank need to be refilled with 50mm Supply pipe and at the min. flow rates of 150lit/min (33 Igpm)
Pump Rooms would be located at the Ground Floor or Roof Floor Level and the min. Fire Protection Plant Room Size as following
below table;

Plant Room for Hose Reel Tank


Hose Reel Tank 3(W) x 2(L) Within apartment footprint and could be
Room x 5(H) shared with Wet Riser Tank Room if
(TANK TYPE :
RC) Required.

If the location of hose reel tank at roof


top than it is advisable to combine with a
Roof Storage Water Tank (i.e Shopping
Complexes like Carrefour, Tesco or Giant)

Ventilation slots should be provided with


insect screen to prevent entry of vermin

Dry Riser System

Design Standard
M.S.1489 Part 1: Hydrant System, Hose Reels and Foam Inlets;
M.S.1210 Part 2: Landing Valves for Dry Risers;
M.S 1210 Part 3: Inlet Breeching Inlet for Risers Inlet
M.S 1210 Part 4: Boxes for Landing Valves for Dry Risers

Design Method of Dry Riser System;


It should be complied with UBBL 1984, the by Laws 230 and 232
Dry Risers are a form of internal hydrant and are only required for buildings where the topmost floor is higher than 18.3 meters
and less than 30.5 meters.
Dry Risers are basically dry and all depends upon the Fire Engine to pump water into the system by considering the Breeching
Inlet to be located about 30 meters from the External Hydrant System.
Landing Valves are provided on each floor and should comply with M.S 1210: Part 2.
Those Landing Valves would be located within the fire access lobbies, protected staircases or other protected lobbies at not
more than 0.75 meters from the floor level.
To protect the landing valves, boxes may be provided and these should comply with M.S.1210 Part 4.
Fire Hose Reel Pipings > 38mm dia., 30 meters in length, complete with 65mm dia. Quick Coupling and nozzle should be provided
at each landing valve.
Breeching Inlet would be installed at the bottom of the riser and should comply with M.S. 1210: Part 3. The breeching inlet is
enclosed within a box, the enclosure should comply with M.S.1210 Part 5 and labeled Dry Riser Inlet and a typical drain should
be provided at the bottom of the riser to drain the system after used.
2 Way Breeching Inlet should be provided for a 100mm dia. Of dry riser pipes but 4 Way Breeching Inlets : 200mm dia. Of
Dry Riser Pipes and should be located 18 meters from the fire appliance access road. (the distance of fire fighters truck to
be placed)
The riser pipe diameter size 150mm usually located within the fire access lobby or staircase if the highest outlet is more than
22.875m above the breeching inlet. Otherwise the riser pipe diameter size 100mm.
The material of the Riser Pipe shall be Galvanised Iron to B.S. 1387 (heavy gauge) or Class C, tested to 21 Bars (305 Psi)
All feeding Pipe-works that runs horizontally need to be sloped to enable proper draining after used and also an Air Release Valve
should be installed at the top of the riser to relief air trapped in the system.
The riser pipe should be electrically earthed or connected to the building earth to achieve equipotential.
The riser to be hydraulically tested to a pressure of 14 Bars for 2 hours that to be measured at the Breeching inlet and not
forget to check all leakage at the joints and landing valves connections.

Wet Riser System


Design Standard
M.S.1489 Part 1: Hydrant System, Hose Reels and Foam Inlets;
M.S.1210 Part 2: Landing Valves for Dry Risers;
M.S 1210 Part 3: Inlet Breeching Inlet for Risers Inlet
M.S 1210 Part 4: Boxes for Landing Valves for Dry Risers

Design Method of Wet Riser System;


It should be complied with UBBL 1984, the by Laws 231, 232 and 248
Wet Risers are a form of internal hydrant and are always charged with water. The topmost floor is higher than 30.5 meters and
less than 70.15 meters for each stage of Wet Risers. If > than 70.15 meters, so a Break Tank is required.
Wet Riser System comprises duty fire pump with standby pump discharging into a 150mm diameter riser pipe with landing valves
at each floor and to which canvas hose with nozzles can be connected to direct the water jet at the fire.
The function of a Jockey Pump is to maintain system pressure.
Landing valves that usually being installed at each floor should comply with M.S. 1210: Part 1 and located within fire fighting
access lobbies, protected staircases or other protected lobbies.
The height of the landing valves should be < 0.75 m from the floor level and for the safety purposes this landing can be protected
by providing boxes and need to comply with M.S 1210: Part 4
Recommended pressure for each landing valve should be in between 4 to 7 bars (58 to 102 Psi)
Landing Valve could be categorised into two types : -
Pressure reducing type with relief outlet require a wet
riser return pipe
Pressure reducing type without relief outlet

Size of the Fire Hose Canvas type 38mm and the required length is 30m. complete with 65mm dia. Of quick coupling and jet and
spray nozzle should be provided in a hose cradle beside each landing valve.
Breeching Inlet for the Wet Riser System is normally same with the Dry Riser System where the firemen could usually pump the
water from the water source (External Fire Hydrant Pillar located < 30m from the breeching inlet) into the Wet Riser
Storage Tank to make up for water used.
These breeching inlets need to be located < 18m from the fire appliance access road.
The Breeching inlet should be a 4 Way type complying with M.S 1210: Part 3 and enclosed within a box that also complies with
M.S 1210: Part 5. These box enclosures need to be labelled as Wet Riser Inlet and to provide a drain at the bottom of the
riser to drain the system after use.
Wet Riser Main Pipeline usually located within the Smoke Lobby or protected areas and such that all spaces are to be within 45m
coverage from a Landing Valve and more than one riser is required for each floor.
Distance between the risers should not exceed 60m and also where between the lowest and topmost landing valve in any upper
stage risers.
The Size of the Pipe Riser should be 150mm dia. (Galvanised Iron to B.S. 1387 Heavy Gauge or Class C)
The Size of Relief Pipe shall be at min. of 100mm dia. (Galvanised Iron to B.S. 1387 Medium Gauge or Class B, where discharging
back to the Wet Riser Tank whenever possible and all air relief need to be installed at the top of the riser to relief any air
trapped in the system).
The Wet Risers pipe should be coated with primer and finished with red gloss paint or any special condition those wet riser pipes
can be colour coded with red bands of 100mm width but only at the elbows & tees need to be fully painted in red.
All Wet Riser Pipe should be electrically earthed to achieve equipotential with the building.
There two sets of Wet Riser Pumps One (1) unit is on duty and One (1) unit on standby and both pump capacity are usually sized
to deliver 1500 l/min at a running pressure in between 4 to 7 Bars that would cater for three (3) landing valves at one time of
operation during building in fire.
All Standby Wet Riser Pump-set should be supplied with power from the emergency generator set or otherwise by using a Diesel
Engine Driven.
All Fuel Supply should be adequate for minimum 2 hours of continuous mode of operations.
Batteries for the Diesel Engine driven type of Standby Pump should maintenance free type.
All electrical cabling to Supply Power the Wet Riser Pumps should be of MICC or Fire Rated Cable Type.
All Wet Riser Pump Sets should be protected away from fire and flooded areas.
A Sump Pump need to be considered for any special case of that Wet Riser Pump Sets to be located at the basement below the
external drainage levels. This Wet Riser Pump Sets room also need to be naturally or mechanical ventilated with a necessary
signage and to provide a CO2 Portable Type of Fire Extinguisher for any case of fire.
Effective Capacity of the Wet Riser Tank need to be sized up to minimum capacity of 45,500 liters (10,009 Imp. Gallon) c/w
automatic refill rate of 455 lit/min (100.1 Igpm).
The Intermediate Break Tank for upper stages of the Wet Riser should be sized up to a minimum effective capacity of 11,375
liters (2503 Imp. Gallon) c/w automatic refill rate of 1365 lit/min (300.3 Igpm).
Wet Riser Tank Materials are usually from a Pressed Steel, Fibre Reinforced Polyester (FRP) and Reinforced Concrete (R.C)
Pressed Steel Wet Riser Tank should be Hot Dipped Galvanised and Coated Internally with Bituminous paint for corrosion
protection.
Both Pressed Steel and FRP Wet Riser Tank need to be compartmented unless they are Reinforced Concrete (R.C) and all
compartmented wet riser tanks need to provide with a separate Ball Float Valves, Overflow Pipes, Drain Pipes and Water Level
Indicator.
All Wet Riser Tank need to be painted red or else a red band of minimum 200mm should be painted to indicate that this is a fire
tank.
All Wet Riser Tank could located on the Ground Floor, 1st.Lower Ground Floor or 2nd.Lower Ground Floor level.
Wet Riser Tanks are usually separated from the Domestic Water Storage/Suction Tanks but however could be combined with
Hose Reel Tank and need to be compartmented.
Pump Starter Panel should be complete with indicator lights as shown at the appendix a.
All types of ventilation slots should be provided with insect screen to prevent entry of vermin (small insects; i.e. ants, spiders
and etc.)
Power Supply cables to the panel should be of mineral insulated copper cable (MICC) or fire rated type of cables within areas
with low risk.
The Fire Pump Starter panel should be placed within the same room as the fire pumps it controls.
Wet Riser Pumps need to be automatically started upon actuation of the pressure switches but should only be stopped manually.
Usually three pressure switches are provided with the following suggested pressure settings:
starting the duty pump set : 80% of the system pressure
starting the standby pump set: 60% of the system
pressure
starting and stopping the jockey pump set at 90% and
110% of the system pressure respectively.

Testing requirements for the Wet Riser System are the following;
Static Pressure Test to clear up the debris from the inside of Those main wet risers and hydraulically the
pressure to be tested up to 14 Bars or 150% the Working Pressure, whichever is the
higher for 2 hours, measured at the lowest landing valve and a check is carried out for
leakage at all joints and landing valve connections.
.
Flow Test A three way of landing valve should be provided on the roof or topmost floor for testing purposes
where the main motif is to measure the water flow rates

Downcomer System

Design Standard
M.S.1489 Part 1: Hydrant System, Hose Reels and Foam Inlets;
M.S.1210 Part 2: Landing Valves for Dry Risers;
M.S 1210 Part 3: Inlet Breeching Inlet for Risers Inlet
M.S 1210 Part 4: Boxes for Landing Valves for Dry Risers

Design Method of Downcomer System;


It should be complied with UBBL 1984, relating to Downcomer systems is the 10th.Schedule and relevant standards for Downcomer
systems as above mentioned.
Downcomers are a form of internal hydrant and are only required for buildings where the topmost floor is not higher than 60
meters above the fire appliance access level and should be adopted for low cost flats only.
Downcomer system comprises a high level water storage tank discharging into a 150mm dia. Riser pipe with landing valves at each
floor and to which canvas hose with nozzles can be connected to direct the water jet at the fire.
No pumps are provided and therefore the system pressure is limited to the static pressure head only.
Landing Valves are provided on each floor and should comply with M.S 1210: Part 2.
Those Landing Valves would be located within the fire access lobbies, protected staircases or other protected lobbies at not
more than 0.75 meters from the floor level.
A Semi rigid 40mm diameter hose and nozzles should be provided at every landing valve on each floor.
In addition, two sets of fire hose of the canvas type of not less than 38mm diameter, 30 metres in length complete with 65mm
dia. quick coupling and jet and spray nozzle should be provided at the caretakers unit or property management office.
Fire Hose Reel Pipings > 38mm dia., 30 meters in length, complete with 65mm dia. Quick Coupling and nozzle should be provided
at each landing valve.
A 4 - Way type of Breeching Inlet would be installed at the bottom of the riser and should comply with M.S. 1210: Part 3. The
breeching inlet is enclosed within a box, the enclosure should comply with M.S.1210 Part 5 and labeled Downcomer Inlet and
a typical drain should be provided at the bottom of the riser to drain the system after used.
This Breeching inlet should be located at no more than 18 metres from the fire appliance access and not more than 30 metres
from the nearest external hydrant.
A Check Valve need to be installed between the topmost landing valve and the tank to prevent any backflow of water from the
Downcomer into the tank.
The Downcomer mains are usually located within smoke free lobby or protected areas and that all spaces are to be within 45
metres coverage from a landing valve.
If more than 60 metres, so then need to have more than one riser is required for each floor.
The Riser Pipe size should be 150mm and the material of the Riser Pipe shall be Galvanised Iron to B.S. 1387 (heavy gauge) or
Class C, tested to 21 Bars (305 Psi)
All feeding Pipe-works that runs horizontally need to be sloped to enable proper draining after used and also an Air Release Valve
should be installed at the top of the riser to relief air trapped in the system.
All Downcomer pipes should be coated with primer and finished with red gloss paint or otherwise can be colour coded with red
bands of 100mm width and the elbows and tees painted red.
The riser pipe should be electrically earthed or connected to the building earth to achieve equipotential.
The riser to be hydraulically tested to a pressure of 14 Bars for 2 hours that to be measured at the Breeching inlet and not
forget to check all leakage at the joints and landing valves connections.

Automatic Sprinkler System

Design Standard
BS EN 12845: 2003 Automatic Sprinkler Systems Design, Installation and Maintenance.
NFPA 13
Both above standards need to be followed unless the specific aspect is not covered in the selected standard.

Design Method of Automatic Sprinkler System;


It should be complied with UBBL 1984, the by Laws 226 and 228
An Automatic Sprinkler System is designed for having a response to detect, control and extinguishes a fire, and warned the
occupants of the occurrence of fire.
Basic mechanical installations for the Automatic Sprinkler System are such as like Fire Pumps, Water Storage Tanks, Control
Valve Sets, Sprinkler Heads, Flow Switches, Pressure Switches, Pipe works and valves. This system operates automatically
without human intervention.
The Sprinkler Head usually has a liquid filled glass bulb that breaks due to heat of the fire and releases water that sprays over
the fire.
There are various types of Sprinkler Systems are as follows;
Wet Pipe installation ready filled up with water anddischarge once the sprinkler bulb breaks
Dry Pipe installation always filled up with air under pressure and air is released once the sprinkler bulb
breaks then only the water fills the pipe and is discharged at the sprinkler head.
Pre action installation normally charged with air unde pressure and a valve is opened to fill the system with
water when fire is detected by smoke or heat detectors and also when the sprinkler bulb breaks.
Deluge Installation the sprinkler head has no bulb and water is discharged simultaneously from all heads
when fire is detected and the deluge valve is open

Occupancy Hazards Groups;


Light Hazards : Non Industrial occupancies with low quantity and combustibility contents, e.g. apartments,
schools and hospitals.

Ordinary Hazards : Commercial and Industrial occupancies in which By handling and storing ordinary
combustible materials and group under the followings;
- OH Group I for offices, restaurants and hotels,
- OH Group II for laundries, bakeries and tobacco factory,
- OH Group III for car parks, departmental stores, large retail shops and cinemas, clothing and paint factories and
- OH Group IIIS for match factories, film and television studios.

1st Noted to Mech. Engr.s :


for high rise buildings with multiple type of occupancies,
the hazard class recommended is OH Group III

High Hazards : Commercial and Industrial occupancies in which By handling and storing the abnormal fire
loads covering process hazards, high piled storage hazards, oil and flammable liquid hazards
and group under thefollowings;
- Process Risk, e.g. clothing, rubber, wood wool and paint factories High Piled Storage risks
could be categorised into four (4) categories; Category I Carpets and textile exceeding 4
meters in height, Category II furniture factory piled
- above 3 meters, Category III rubber, wax coated paper piled > 2m and Category IV for
foam, plastics piled > 1.2m.

Sprinkler Pump Requirements;


Normal Standard One (1) unit on Duty, One (1) unit on Standby and One (1) of Jockey Pump
to maintain the system pressure.

The nominal pressure and flow requirements under all types of hazards are as the followings;
- Light Hazard
15 meters: flow - 0.3 m/min and at operating pressure of 1.5 bars
30 meters: flow - 0.34 m/min and at operating pressure of 1.8 bars
45 meters: flow - 0.375 m/min and at operating pressure of 2.3 bars

- Ordinary Hazard Group I


15 meters: flow 0.9 m/min and at operating pressure of 1.2 bars
30 meters: flow 1.15 m/min and at operating pressure of 1.9 bars
45 meters: flow 1.36 m/min and at operating pressure of 2.7 bars

- Ordinary Hazard Group II


15 meters: flow 1.75 m/min and at operating pressure of 1.4 bars
30 meters: flow 2.05 m/min and at operating pressure of 2.0 bars
45 meters: flow 2.35 m/min and at operating pressure of 2.6 bars

- Ordinary Hazard Group III


15 meters: flow 2.25 m/min and at operating pressure of 1.4 bars
30 meters: flow 2.70 m/min and at operating pressure of 2.0 bars
45 meters: flow 3.10 m/min and at operating pressure of 2.5 bars

- Ordinary Hazard Group IIIS


15 meters: flow 2.65 m/min and at operating pressure of 1.9 bars
30 meters: flow 3.05 m/min and at operating pressure of 2.4 bars

2nd. Noted to Mech. Engr.s


for Building exceeds 45m than the multiple stage of sprinkler installations should be implemented. This would be able to
serve the full height of the building with each stage not exceeding 45 meters.

A standby Sprinkler Pump Set should be supplied with power from the emergency generator or else need to use a diesel
engine driven. All Diesel Oil Supply could withstand 4 hours Ordinary Hazards and 6 hours for High Hazard applications.

All Electrical Cabling to supply the power to the Sprinkler Pumps should be a fire rated cable type or MICC. Batteries for
the diesel engine also need to be a maintenance free type
All Sprinkler Pumps that protecting the high rise buildings need to consider the static pressure between the pump and the
lowest sprinkler head by adding up to the above pump pressure requirement.

All Sprinkler Pumps should be under positive head as far as possible, protected from fire and flooded areas. Sump Pump
could be considered if this Sprinkler Pump to be located at the Basement below the the external drainage levels. As usual this
Pump Room that located at the basement need to be naturally / mechanical ventilated
c/w a necessary signage and must also provide a CO2 Portable Extinguisher.

All Sprinkler Pump Starter Panels and Controls should be Compartmented for each duty, standby and jockey pumps c/w
indicator lights as shown in the figure 11.2 (as per the attachments at apprendix - A

As normal practice all Fire Fighting Pump room need to provide with an insect screen to prevent entry of vermin (e.g.
insects, flies, cockroach and etc.) and the location of Pump Starter Panel should be placed at the same room as the fire pumps
it controls.

Usually three pressure switches are provided with the following Suggested pressure settings:

starting the duty pump set : 80% of the system pressure


starting the standby pump set: 60% of the system pressure
starting and stopping the jockey pump set at 90% and 110% of the system pressure respectively.

Electrical interlocks should be provided so that the sprinkler pumps at each installation would not operate in
parallel simultaneously and a buzzer should be sounded and the isolator should be in the off or manual position.

All Sprinkler Pump Sets should be able to start automatically and stop manually.

Sprinkler Fire Tanks

- Light Hazard
15 meters: flow - 9 m (1980 Imp. Gallon)
30 meters: flow - 10 m (2200 Imp. Gallon)
45 meters: flow - 11 m (2420 Imp. Gallon)

Ordinary Hazard Group I


15 meters: flow - 55 m (12,100 Imp. Gallon)
30 meters: flow - 70 m (15,400 Imp. Gallon)
45 meters: flow - 80 m (17,600 Imp. Gallon)

- Ordinary Hazard Group II


15 meters: flow - 105 m (23,100 Imp. Gallon)
30 meters: flow - 125 m (27,500 Imp. Gallon)
45 meters: flow - 140 m (30,800 Imp. Gallon)

- Ordinary Hazard Group III


15 meters: flow - 135 m (29,700 Imp. Gallon)
30 meters: flow - 160 m (35,200 Imp. Gallon)
45 meters: flow - 185 m (40,700 Imp. Gallon)

- Ordinary Hazard Group IIIS


15 meters: flow - 160 m (35,200 Imp. Gallon)
30 meters: flow - 185m (40,700 Imp. Gallon)

- High Hazard
Storage Capacity shall be dependent on the design density of discharge in mm/min

It is noted for all Mechanical Engineers to read and understand all other standard & proceedures that required from the
latest Fire Protection Services (Second Edition 2006) at Chapter 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 till Chapter 20.
Design reference from last and current projects.

Posted by Abg.Leh at 2:51 AM


Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to FacebookShare to Pinterest

23 comments:
1.

chinFebruary 17, 2012 at 6:30 AM

sorry for interrupt but i would like to clarify certain design problem for the wet automatic sprinkler
system,as in the Guide To Fire Protection in Malaysia, how would i determine the static head gain
(in mBar) for the respective design point? would it considered the head gain from the alarm valve till
the design point of sprinklers?? or just the control valve till its design point?

Reply

2.

Abg.LehFebruary 17, 2012 at 8:06 AM

It is okey Mr.Chin you are most welcome into my Blog anyway....Basicallly as referred from
BS5306:Part 2:1990 under Section 4@Column 18.4 - Calculation of Maximum Installation Pressure
demand (fully hydraulicallly calculated installlations).....The Design point supposed to be designed
from the Control Valve.

Tqvm
engr.msy
12.05 a.m
18/2/12

Reply

3.

brinchingMay 14, 2012 at 1:03 AM

1)On the cold water break tank for building above 75 meters is there any hard fast rules that we
should refer to. Is it possible to raise to 100 meters ?

2)Should the wet riser break tank to be filled by the lower wet riser pump by a separate transfer
pump.

3) Is there any sprinkler break tank say for a building of 120 meter high.

Reply

4.

Abg.LehMay 14, 2012 at 9:11 AM

Dear Mr.Brinching,
Reply on Question No.1- Not Prossible to raise up tp 100 meters because it has already stated inside
SYABAS - Design Guideline
Reply on Question No.2 - Yes the wet riser break tank need to be filled with lower wet riser pump by
a separate transfer pump
Reply Question No.3 - Yes, please do provide a Sprinkler Break Tank for a building for every 45m
height...say at 30m + 45m + 45m = 120m

tqvm from,
engr.msy
sen.proj.engr.
jpjbi

Reply

Replies

1.
brinchingMay 14, 2012 at 7:09 PM

Further to question no.3;

1)I presume the sprinkler break tank will be the same size as wet riser break tank
and will be filled in by a separate transfer pump.

2.

UnknownJune 5, 2017 at 6:34 AM

Dear Abg. Leh,


if you refer to MS 1910:2006 Annexe E, pg. 149, figure E1 typical layout for of high
rise system with pump supply.
The layout shows with 1 suction tank can supply up to 90m height with two separate
pump for each stage(max of 2 stages).
1)So does that mean i need to provide break tank at every 90m or 45m?
2) what would be the size of a sprinkler break tank?

Reply
5.

Abg.LehMay 16, 2012 at 5:39 AM

Dear Mr.Brinching,

Sorry for the late reply because too busy at this moment of time with all the Clients...........by the way
if you are presume the sprinkler break tank will be the same size as wet riser, the transfer pump
pump still need to be separated and goes the same with both tanks sir...!

tqvm from,
engr.msy
sen.proj.engr.
jpjbi

Reply

Replies

1.
brinchingMay 17, 2012 at 7:52 AM

Thank you for the reply.Nowdays clients are seeking space savings( actively looking
alternative designs from 'specialist' contactors to compare with the consultants) on
prime floor areas.Still bugging in my mind if Bomba will accept this sprinkler break
tank concept since it is neither mentioned in MS or BS .

Reply

6.

brinchingSeptember 2, 2012 at 7:39 PM

Dear Abg.Leh,
For high rise if we want to avoid roof hose reel tank (say to reduce structural loading) can there be a
necessity for a hose reel break tank? And if any what would be the size of hose reel break tank?

Reply

7.

Dante VeranoDecember 6, 2012 at 8:41 PM

Hi Abg.Leh,

Sorry, I just need your advise with regards to Wet Riser arrangement. As per Guide To Fire Protection
in Malaysia, Figure 9.1 shows the Wet Riser System Typical Drawing which is a pump up system
arrangement.
Let say I have a 4 stages (each stage is 58 meters high). Can I do a pump down arrangement?
Meaning I have a common break tank on the upper stage to serve two stage risers. 1 riser is pump
up and 1 riser is pump down. And each riser stage is provided with pump set. Is the pump down
arrangement acceptable to Bomba?

Thank you

Reply

8.

nur anis KamamOctober 9, 2013 at 8:37 PM

Hai abg leh...which clause mention on cut off sprinkler at staircase?

Reply

9.

Layne AdamsNovember 7, 2013 at 7:42 PM

Hi! nice post. Well what can I say is that these is an interesting and very informative topic. Thanks
for sharing.Cheers!

- The design engineering jobs

Reply

10.

Waki MohamadMarch 25, 2014 at 5:29 PM

abg leh can you give more detail about item on selection of the P.F.E e.g how you come out with
number 0.065, 13A and 27A? thanx

Reply

11.

leo leeJune 18, 2014 at 9:55 AM

abg leh

for multistage sprinkler system with total floor 200m building height, i got 5 stage of sprinkler system.
my question is that can i place all my pump set and tank at ground? or every 135m then only i use
break tanK?

any bomba requirement that the tank and pump only can be located at ground or basement 1?

thanks
Reply

Replies

1.
Firdaus MuhammadApril 27, 2017 at 7:03 AM

did you have this answer already?

i asked bomba regarding this one, the pump must serve to topmost sprinkler at 45m.
so every 45m you will have each sprinkler tank and different pumpset.

But if you did this and done submission to bomba, can you tell me how its actually
implemented?

thank you.

Reply

12.

Alex smithJuly 21, 2014 at 11:20 PM

Hello, This is really a valuable article you have shared. It solves all my queries.
Thanks!!

Household Pressure Pumps

Reply

13.

QxinyinQSeptember 23, 2014 at 9:31 AM

Hi,

My name is Queenie, currently is a mechanical engineering student who doing research for my
degree project. I just read through your blog, and I need some information from this article "Basic
Design Guideline For Mechanical Engineering Systems (link :
http://leonim.blogspot.com/2011/02/basic-design-guideline-for-mechanical.html ). Hope you could
help me on this matter.

I could not find "Guide to Sewerage Systems - Malaysian Water Association (MWA)/(BS5572:1994)"
for the design guideline for Sanitary and Sewerage Pipe Manhole Services as well as "Guide to Water
Supply System JKR/MWA" for the design guideline for water plumbing services. Any idea where to
find these standard for my literature review purpose? Or if you don't mind to send me if you have a
copy of that?

Hope to get good news from you.


Thanks & Regards,
Queenie
QxinyinQ@hotmail.com

Reply

14.

GrimoireweiseeMay 14, 2015 at 8:20 PM

Hi, have you come across from ubbl that prescribed the minimum coverage area of a sprinkler water
radius? Thanks

Reply

Replies

1.
Firdaus MuhammadApril 27, 2017 at 7:05 AM

i ubbl there is does not mention at all how to design the sprinkler system.

you should refer to LPC books and MS sprinkler. its stated in there already where
each hazard have their own maximum area covered by sprinkler.

Reply

15.

nzrl28December 6, 2015 at 8:25 PM

sorry to bother you Abg Leh, anyway can I know where can I get the reference of the article? I would
like to study more of it. It will be an honor if possible you share a link or something that could ease
myself to find the study. thank you

Reply

16.

Durga SpplimitedJune 29, 2016 at 2:11 AM

fire and safety courses in chennai


fire and safety course in chennai
safety courses in chennai
safety course in chennai
construction safety course in chennai
industrial safety course in chennai
electrical safety course in chennai
offshore safety course in chennai
nebosh courses in chennai
safety engineering courses in chennai
Industrial safety engineering courses in chennai
fire and safety engineering courses in chennai
Iosh course in chennai
fire and safety courses in chennai
fire and safety engineering courses in chennai
occupational health and safety courses in chennai
offshore training courses in chennai

Reply

17.

Secured EngineersDecember 15, 2016 at 9:13 PM

We also deal in Security Camera System and Fire Hydrant Pumps Suppliers in Punjab. You can
contact us any time.

Reply

18.

loai mereiFebruary 15, 2017 at 5:47 AM

This comment has been removed by the author.

Reply
Add commentLoad more...

Home

Subscribe to: Post Comments (Atom)


Followers

Blog Archive
2011 (1)
o February (1)
A BASIC DESIGN GUIDELINE FOR MECHANICAL ENGINEERIN...

About Me
Abg.Leh
I'm very simple men and like to make friends.
View my complete profile

Simple theme. Powered by Blogger.