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Geography Key Points

Ch.1 Natural Topography of Pakistan

Introduction
Topography is the study and description of the surface features of
land, which includes both natural and artificial features.

The Northern Mountains


There are three main mountain ranges in the Northern Mountains
namely the Karakoram, the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush.
Mountain Ranges and their highest peaks:
- Karakoram- K2 8610 meters
- Himalayas- Mount Everest 8848 meters
- Hindu Kush- Tirich Mir 7690 meters

Importance of the Northern Mountains:


- Glaciers melt during summer to drain water into River Indus and
its tributaries to irrigate vast plains
- Natural border to China and Central Asian Republics- Karakoram
Highway has been built to carry out trade
- Mountain peaks provide protection against cold winds from
Central Asia- Temperature does not go below freezing point-
tolerable climate
- Historical passes
- A source of valuable minerals e.g. timber and fruits- provide raw
materials to different industries e.g. Furniture, chipboard
- Tourist resorts- economic benefits

People and Economy in the Northern Mountains


- Have been greatly influenced by variations in topography
- Harsh living conditions tend to restrict movement and
communications
- Low economic growth compared to high rate of population
growth
- Lacks infrastructure
- Population dependent on agriculture, cattle breeding- wheat,
rice, barley and maize and other vegetables are grown
- During winter people work in cottage and small scale industries-
embroidery, rugs, carpets etc.
- Major industries include processing of food grains, vegetable oil
and refining sugar.
- Major hydro-electric potential but dams require huge investment,
skilled labor
- Shortage of safe drinking water- unhygienic conditions-
malnutrition
- Difficult terrain and limited transport facilities- trade cannot be
carried out
- Tourism is popular but limited facilities

The Western Mountains


- According to altitudes
- Safed Koh Range
- Waziristan Hills
- Sulaiman Range
- Kirthar Range

Economic activities and lifestyle in the Western


Mountains
- Bare of vegetation- Climate and relief does not support
agriculture
- Rugged landscape and difficult terrain- Doesnt support canal
irrigation
- Few areas are accessible
- Cost of supplying infrastructure is high
- Developmental projects have not been established
- People are deprived of basic necessities of life
- Nomadic lifestyle- sheep and goat rearing
- Abundant mineral resources- difficult to extract or exploit

Earthquakes
- Due to sliding or collapsing of plate tectonics
- Faults leading to landslides- soil contamination and ground water
pollution- Massive causalities- Destruction of settlements- Social
problems- spread of diseases- rural-urban migration- emergency
relief and rescue measures- increased debts and loans-
rehabilitation expenditures- Adverse impact on Economy

Baluchistan Plateau
Mountain Ranges:
- Ras Koh Range
- Hala Range
- Central Brahui Range
- Toba Kakar Range
- Makran Coast Range
- Siahan Range
Coastal Areas of Baluchistan
- Makran coast and Lasbela Plain
- Important rivers: Hab, Porali, Hingol and Dasht which flow into
Arabian Sea

Conditions
- Has remained neglected despite vast untapped resources
- Lowest population density
- No major source of water- people rely on Karez, small water
schemes or flood diversion channels
- Absence of link roads- Railway lines covers a small area

Potwar Plateau and the Salt Range


- Potwar Plateau
- Between river Indus and Jhelum
- A large part is dissected and eroded by action of running water
- Rich in minerals like salt, gypsum, limestone, coal and oil
- Salt Range
- Between river Indus and Jhelum
- Sakesar Peak- highest point
- Attractions- Kallar Kahar- Khewra Mines
- Rich in minerals- Rock salt, gypsum and limestone

Economic Activity and lifestyle


- Provide raw material to cement, ceramics and chemical
industries
- A number of oil and gas fields are located
- Farming depends on rainfall- Barani farms- Canal irrigation not
possible due to rugged landscape- wheat, maize, barley and
gram are grown
- Productive and accessible region by road, rail and air
- Urban settlements- Jhelum, Chakwal and Rawalpindi/ Islamabad
- Encourages high population density

Indus Plain
- River Indus and its tributaries drain the Indus plain- located
throughout Punjab and central part of Sindh
- Upper Indus plain- Lower Indus plain
- At Panjnad all five main tributaries of Indus join
- The river itself is called Panjnad which flows for a further 72
kilometres and joins Indus near Mithankot

Active Flood Plain


- Active flood plain- the narrow strip of land on both sides of a
river is called the active flood plain or Khaddar
- Found along all rivers except southern half of River Ravi- due to
low volume of water
- Meander, oxbow lakes and levees are important features

Old Flood Plain


- Meanders and cover flood plain cover the area between active
flood plain and alluvial terraces
- They are only flooded during the rainy season
- Old alluvium is deposited here

Alluvial terraces
- Alluvial terraces or bars are areas of higher ground between
rivers formed by erosion of old alluvium- Formed in Upper Indus
plain in Chaj, Rechna and Bari Doabs
- Sandal Bar on Rechna Doab, Ganji Bar on Bari Doab, Nili Bar on
Bari Doab and Kirana Bar on Chaj Doab are prominent alluvial
terraces
- Surface is flat and has southwest slope
- Ideal for agriculture with irrigation faculties

Piedmont Plains
- Are plains found on the foothills of mountain ranges-
- Most dominant features are alluvial fans or cones
- Good for agriculture purpose as alluvium carried by rivers is
deposited here

Tidal Delta
- South of Thatta
- Triangular or fan shaped
- Point where river Indus divided to form distributaries
- Swampy land

Cuestas
- Prominent features in the lower Indus plain
- Ridges which in Sindh are made up of limestone
- Steep slope on one side and a gentle slope on the other

Economic Activities in the Indus Plain


- Most productive region of Pakistan
- Relief and drainage encourages the growth of settlements
- The doabs of Upper Indus plain and Lower Indus Plain are
excellent areas for farming
- Crops are grown whole year round on fertile flat land e.g. Wheat,
cotton, rice, sugarcane
- Extensive system of canal irrigation has been developed
- Indus plain is the most developed region of Pakistan
- Infrastructure facilities are easier to provide
- Transport network of road, rail and air
- Electricity is supplied to all urban centers
- Number of industries which consume local raw material e.g.
cotton textile, sugar mills and chemical industry
- Industrial goods have a large domestic and foreign market
- Population density is high- 400 person per sq km

Differences between the Upper Indus plain and the Lower


Indus Plain
Upper Indus Plain Lower Indus Plain
Located in northern part of Indus Located in southern part of Indus
plain plain
River Indus and its main River Indus flows alone
tributaries flow here
Nearly flat undulating sloping Nearly flat undulating sloping
towards south-west towards south
River Indus in its middle course River Indus in its lower course
Both erosion and deposition takes Deposition is the main feature
place
Alluvial terraces between No alluvial terraces as Indus flows
tributaries of Indus alone
Piedmont plains to the north and Piedmont plains to the west
west

Deserts
Q1. Describe the distribution of desert areas in Pakistan.
- Thal Desert- Between River Indus and River Jhelum
- Thar Desert- Cholistan, Nara and Tharparkar- located towards south-
eastern Pakistan.
- Kharan Desert- South western Pakistan

Q2. What are sand dunes? How are they formed?


- Most dominant feature of desert areas
- Mound or ridge of sand
- Formed when an obstacle occurs in the path of moving sand
- Some of the sand is deposited behind the obstacle

Q3. Explain how the desert landscape influences the lifestyle of the people.
- Lack of water- no water for drinking, irrigation and other use.
Agriculture is not possible to carry out
- Constant erosion by strong winds does not allow farming to be
practiced.

Q4. What are the main features of desert areas?


- Rolling sand dunes
- Weathering of rocks
- Lack of vegetation
- Bare rocks

Ch.2 Climate of Pakistan


A. Climate:
Q1. Differentiate between climate and weather.

- Weather-atmospheric conditions e.g. temperature, humidity,


pressure, winds- for a short period- localized
- Climate- generalization- day to day weather condition- usually for
thirty years.

Q2.Describe the climatic zones of Pakistan? Mention the areas included. Why
are not the climatic conditions exactly the same in the same climatic zone?

- Highland Zone- North, north-western, western mountains- high


altitude- 2000-8000 metres for north, north western- 1000-4000
metres for western mountains- Rainfall- relief, monsoon, western
depression mainly- temperature- cool-cold in winter- warm- mild in
summer.
- Lowland Zone- All of Indus plain except coastal part of Sindh- arid
and extreme summers- cold-mild winters- rainfall differs from north
to south mainly through monsoon, western depressions
- Coastal Zone- areas near the Arabian Sea-both in Sindh and
Baluchistan- maritime influence- low and high pressure- sea breezes
in summer and land breezes in winter- summer hot-warm-winter
mild-warm-Humid climate- rainfall through monsoon, tropical
cyclones.
- Arid Zone- desert areas e.g. Kharan, Thar Desert- Dry very hot
summers mild winters-dusty winds-scanty rainfall.
- Conditions arent same- variation in altitude-latitude-longitude-
rainfall- humidity.

Q3. Describe the characteristics of the winter climate of the Northern


Mountains. How does the winter climate there make it a difficult area in
which to live?
- Winter is very cold-cold-harsh-snowfall-land becomes inaccessible-
roads are blocked- life becomes difficult for inhabitants

Q4. Describe the characteristics of the summer climate of the Thar Desert.
How the summer climate there affects the way that the area is used.

- Very hot summer-extreme-No or little rainfall-Acute shortage of


water- agriculture not possible under extreme conditions- difficulty
in irrigation- No productive human activity- Land rendered useless.

B. Temperature:
Q1. How can latitude, altitude and cloud cover affect temperature of
Pakistan?
- Latitudinal effect-areas closer to equator receive direct rays of sun-
high temperature- Southern Pakistan is closer to Northern Pakistan.
- Altitude- air is densest at sea level and least dense at high altitude-
less solar radiation is absorbed at high level- drop in temperature
because of cool air.
- Cloud cover-in day reduces the amount of incoming solar radiation
by reflecting it back-drop in temperature-at night cloud cover traps
the outgoing heat-temperature raises.

Q2. Describe the seasonal and regional variations in Temperature in


climatic zones of Pakistan.

Q3. How do coastal areas experience a moderate climate throughout


the year?
- Maritime influence- in summer land absorbs heat quickly-ocean
remains comparatively cool-a low pressure is created on low and
high pressure at sea- winds blows from sea to land lowering the
daily temperature- in winter land becomes cool while ocean remains
comparatively warm- a low pressure is created at ocean so winds
blows from land to sea. Land temperature remains warm.

Q4. Which is the driest season in Pakistan? Give reason.


-Post-monsoon season- little or no rainfall- no active system of winds- aridity
prevails

Q5. Explain the reason for variation in temperature experienced in


Pakistan
- Variation in temperature-Large spread of latitude 24 to 37 north-
diversity of relief- ranging from high mountains in north to coastal
areas in South.
Q6. Which is the hottest city in Pakistan? Why?
- Jacobabad-known as thermal pole- near the equator-direct rays of
sunlight-temperature is extreme in summer.
-
Q7. What is temperature inversion layer? Which areas are affected by
it?

- In southern part of Pakistan- Does not allow rainfall to take place


despite high temperature- land heats up-warm air rises-reaches a
height of 1600m- at the same time there is a crises-cross system of
warm winds-doesnt allow condensation to take place- warm air is
forced to come down-no rainfall occurs.

C. Rainfall
Q1. Describe the Sources of Rainfall in Pakistan. Explain the how they
originate, enter Pakistan and areas affected by them.
- Monsoon winds-originate in Bay of Bengal-Passes from Bangladesh
and India-then enter Northern Pakistan- Northern, Plain areas
receive heavy rainfall.
- Western Depression- originate in Mediterranean Sea-Passes from
Iran and Afghanistan then enter North-West and Western part of
Pakistan- Western cities of Pakistan like Quetta, Kharan, Peshawar
and Loralai receive rainfall through Western Depressions.
- Convectional Currents- Originate when hot air rises up due to
heating of sun in Plain areas- Hot air reaches a height of about
1600m- condensation-rainfall occurs- Northern and North-western
Mountains of Pakistan receive rainfall through convectional
currents.
- Relief Rainfall- Originate in North and North Western Areas in
Pakistan- only in high altitude areas- clouds strike the mountains in
the way- Areas- Murree, Kakul.
- Tropical Cyclones-Originate in Arabian Sea-enter coastal areas of
Pakistan- Once in 4 years- cause destructive rainfall in coastal areas
e.g. Karachi, Thatta.

Q2. What are the advantages of Monsoon rainfall?


- Most of the Northern Areas, Punjab and some parts of Sindh receive highest
rainfall in Monsoon season-has many advantages
- Dams get a steady supply of water-can be used for generating electricity
- Water can be stored in barrages or reservoirs- that water can be released
during the peak season or in drought conditions
- It lowers the temperature to a great extent- weather becomes pleasant.

Q3. Why is Monsoon rainfall ineffective in Pakistan especially for


agriculture?
- Monsoon rainfall-not suitable for agriculture in Pakistan
- Heavy showers- time for growing of crops
- Floods are caused- Destruction of crops
- Variable in time and distribution- a particular area may not receive
the proper amount of rainfall at the proper time.

Q4. Why is winter rainfall more effective for farmers than the summer
rainfall?
- More effective for farmers
- Light showers-lasts for several days
- Land receives an adequate amount of rain

Effectiveness of Rainfall
- Rainfall in Pakistan is mainly from Monsoon winds and Western
Depressions
- Monsoon rainfall is variable in amount, timings and distribution
because of which crop planning is difficult
- High temperature conditions from June to September leads to a
great degree of evapo-transpiration hence rain water evaporates
- Sometimes land does not absorb water and it is drained away
causing floods in low lying areas
- Winter Rainfall is more effective for farmers because it come in light
showers that lasts for several days
- Amount of rainfall is not sufficient
- Only western and northern region can rely on winter rainfall
- Generally rainfall in Pakistan is neither dependable nor enough in
quantity

Effects of Climate on life and economic activities of


people in different regions

Highland Zone
- Severely cold winters and mild to warm summers
- Temperature falls below freezing point
- Growth of trees is retarded, grass is buried in snow and at some
places rivers and torrents also freeze
- Farming is not possible- People are involved in indoor activities e.g.
Carpet weaving, embroidery
- Transhumance is also practiced
- Barren hills are sparsely populated
- Tribes are nomadic- move their animals
- Many areas in the extreme north are not accessible due to
landslides and heavy snowfall hampering transport links
- Job opportunities are limited- economic activities are difficult to
carry out
- Temperature increases when moving southwards
- Barren mountains and highlands of Baluchistan are also sparsely
populated due to harsh physical conditions
- Annual rainfall is low
- Lack of water supply discourages human settlements
- Farming is difficult in these areas. However, apples, mangoes,
apricots and grapes are grown in the valleys of high altitude areas.

Lowland Zone
- Continental and extreme type of climate due to northerly position of
Punjab Plain
- In the daytimes summers are hot- winters are cool to mild
- Punjab Plain is the most productive agricultural region of Pakistan
- Well-developed irrigation system to raise crops like wheat, cotton,
millet and sugarcane.
- Most densely populated province because of alluvial terraces
- Moderate rainfall and tolerable summer and winter temperatures

Arid Zone
- Zone occurs in two parts: the south eastern and the Kharan desert
in Baluchistan
- Kharan Desert- not ideal for habitation or cultivation
- Majority of people are nomadic
- Karez system of irrigation is practiced because of scanty rainfall and
excessive evapo-transpiration
- Highland areas of Baluchistan with cold are dry climate ad winter
rains are suitable for growing of fruits and crops like millet, wheat
and barley
- South eastern deserts- Southern Punjab and almost whole of Sindh
- Annual rainfall is very low
- Very hot to hot summers but in the night it becomes cold
- Crop cultivation is very difficult
- Large areas have been reclaimed for farming through construction
of perennial canals
- In these areas rice, wheat, oil seeds and cotton are cultivated
- Remaining area is still barren desert
- Lifestyle of people is greatly affected by the climate. People wear
thick rough clothes to protect themselves from hot winds and wear
turbans. Move place to place in search of water and food

Coastal Zone
- Long coastline- important centers like, Karachi, Gwadar, Ormara
and Pasni
- Karachi has a mild climate with a low average precipitation which
occurs during the Monsoon Season
- Winters are mild and summers are hot
- Maritime influence maintains the temperature- Humidity prevails
- Winter months are the best times to visit Karachi- many tourists
visit it in these months
- Climate of Makran Coast is dry and hot
- Oceanic influence lowers the temperature than the inland areas-
Humidity prevails
- Due to the mild climate of the Sindh coast, economic activities can
be carried out throughout the year
- Farming is possible through use of irrigation channels
- Seaports are opened all year round to carry out trade
- Road and rail transports are never closed for business and economic
activities
- All type of industries found- from cottage and small scale to large
manufacturing operational in all seasons
- Tropical cyclones result in flooding in low lying coastal areas
damaging infrastructure, homes and farming land.
- Fishing not possible during this season- fishing communities suffer
economic losses

Q5. What is a flood? What are the factors leading to an increased risk of
floods?
- When the water level in the rivers rises too much, water overflows.
The water flows on the land. This is called flood.
- Deforestation increases surface run off
- Dam failure to store extra water
- Lack of embankments
- Melting of glaciers increasing the amount of water flowing in the
river
- High Water level due to too much rainfall

Q6. What damages do floods cause?


- Local people-Shortage of food-Spread of diseases- poor hygienic
conditions-Destruction of settlements- Financial Loss
- Farmers-Crops are destroyed-Livestock die-Land unusable for a long
time-Settlements are destroyed-Running out of food supplies
- Communication-Roads are destroyed-Communication lines are cut
off- Railway lines are cut off
- Factories-Crops are destroyed-Shortage of raw material-Rise in the
prices of crops-Factory owner face losses-Importing of crops-
Country faces an overall economic loss.

Q7. What are some benefits of floods?


- Spreading layer of alluvium increases soil fertility
- Recharged ground water supplies
- High level of fish productions in the Arabian Sea
Q8. What measures can be taken to reduce the damage caused by floods?
- Planting trees
- Building embankments
- Construction of reservoirs
- Enlarging river channel
- Prevent building in areas exposed to risk of floods
- Publicizing flood warnings
- Rescue measures and rehabilitation schemes as quick as possible

Q9.Why, when and where do storms occur?


- High temperature in summers and low atmospheric pressure
- Tropical Cyclones
- During post monsoon season
- Northern and North Western Mountains
- Also in coastal areas due to tropical cyclones

Q10. What damages do storm cause?


- destruction of standing crops
- Roofs of mud houses are destroyed
- Electricity and communication lines are cut off

Q11. How can the damages caused by storms be reduced?


- Monitoring cells
- Warning systems
- Relief teams- rescue measure

Drought
- Drought is the severe shortage of water.
- It can be a big threat to lives.
- Drought brings famine, disease and death on a massive scale.

Types of drought
- Permanent drought exists when crop cultivation is not possible.
Areas like Thal, Cholistan, Chagai
- Seasonal drought occurs in areas with defined rainy season and dry
seasons e.g. Potwar Plateau, southern Punjab
- Invisible drought is the result of a water deficiency that reduces
crop yields but is not severe enough to destroy them
- Unpredictable drought is the result of abnormally low rainfall and
occurs in areas which have humid climates

Causes of drought in Pakistan


- Unreliability of monsoon winds may lead to drought in Sindh and
Punjab
- High rate of evapo-transpiration during summers
- Global warming because of natural factors
- Deforestation on the foothills of mountain increases soil erosion and
reduces rainfall
- Mismanagement of water resources e.g. seepage of unlined canals
- Disputed and unfair distribution of water among provinces may lead
to a drought in a province which is deprived of its fair share of water
- Overgrazing of land leading to soil erosion
- Global warming because of human activities
Effects of drought
- Desertification ( turning of land into a desert)
- Drying up of lakes, rivers and streams
- Drop in water table

- Widespread famine leading to starvation

- Migration of people from drought affected areas

- Loss of lives

- Crop failure, death of livestock

- Shortage of raw materials to industries

- Reduced exports, increased imports

- Devastation of the economy

Drought management
- Water storage schemes e.g. building of reservoirs, traditional water
tanks- this will store extra water during rainy season- water can be used
in dry season or drought conditions
- Use of new technology e.g. Desalination ( removal of salt from
water)- Conversion of waste water into clean water through
filtration and chemical treatment- Use of varieties of seeds for
crop cultivation which are drought resistant and consume less
water
- Lining of canals to prevent seepage of water into ground- will
also prevent waterlogging and salinity

- Allocation of proper amount of water for domestic, agricultural


and industrial use

Q. Which places are prone to droughts?

Ans. Baluchistan and Sindh


Ch.3 Development of Water Resources
Q1. What are Resources?
- Means of meeting a need, particularly and economic or social need
of the people.
- E.g. Fossil fuels, labor

Q2. What are human resources?


- Created by man himself
- For benefit
- E.g. labor, machinery
Q3. What are natural resources?
- Resources that are largely unchanged materials of the land that are
valuable to people and used in a variety of ways
- E.g. Fossil fuels, water
- Of two types- renewable and non-renewable

Q4. What are renewable resources?


- Renewable resources are those that can be recycled or reused.
- If they are managed with care, they will never run out
- E.g. Water, vegetation

Q5. What are non-renewable sources?


- Nonrenewable resources are those that occur in limited quantity
- If their use continues they will run out
- E.g. Fossil fuels, minerals

Q6. Explain the water cycle.


- Evaporation- It is the process by which water changes into water
vapor.
- Condensation- It is the process in which water vapor cool and turn
into liquid water
- Precipitation- Water falls from the clouds in the form of rain, snow or
hail
- Infiltration- Water seeps into the ground
- Surface run-off- Water runs down the Earths surface in to the sea,
oceans
- Transpiration- Water is lost from aerial parts of plants, trees in the
form of water vapor due to heat of Sun
- The cycle repeats.

Rivers
Q1. Why are rivers important in Pakistan?
- Increase soil fertility by carrying alluvium- organic matter
- Used for generating hydroelectricity
- Add to the scenic beauty of an area- good picnic resorts
- Water from rivers is used for irrigation
- Water is used for domestic and industrial purpose
- Fishing is practiced
- Provide water to even those areas where there is less rainfall

River System in Pakistan


Q1. Describe the drainage pattern of River Indus.
- Starts from Karakoram and Hindu Kush Ranges
- Enters plains of Punjab and Sindh via Kalabagh
- Has four main tributaries- Sutlej, Ravi, Chenab, Jhelum
- Falls into the Arabian Sea
- Has the greatest amount of water during late summer- melting of
glaciers- heavy rainfall during monsoon season

Q2. Describe the drainage pattern of Rivers of Baluchistan


- Quetta, being a high altitude region has the central position
- Rivers like Zhob, Khandar and the Kalachi Sibi Plain drain into River
Indus- flow eastwards
- Rivers like Loralai, Chakar, Bolan and Mula are absorbed into the
Kacchi Sibi Plain.
- Rivers like Hab, Porali, Hingol and Mashkel drain into the Arabian
Sea.
- Many small rivers flow westward and drain into shallow depressions
called Hamuns

Q3. Why does the volume of water, in all rivers, start to rise in summer?
- In summer glaciers melt- water level increases in rivers
- Heavy Rainfall through monsoon winds- water level increases in
rivers

Q4. Why do all rivers have less water in winter?


- Instead of melting, glaciers are formed
- Less rainfall- no major source- only in western parts

Q5. Why the River Indus has the largest volume of water?
Ans.

Q6. How is the discharge of a river measured?


Ans. By River Gauge

Q7. Why do some areas have sweet and some have saline water reserves?
Ans. Water reserves are sweet near the sources of recharge i.e. river and
major canals. It gradually become saline as the distance from recharge
sources increases.

Uses of Water
Q1. What is ground water?
- Water beneath the grounds surface

Q2. What is water table?


- Water table is the level of water under the Earths surface

Q3. How is water used for domestic purpose?


- drinking-cooking- washing- sanitation

Q4. How is water used in industries?


- Pharmaceutical industries e.g. injections, syrups
- Mineral Water Industry e.g. water
- Hydroelectricity e.g. water drives the turbines
- Chemical industries e.g. chemicals, acids, solutions
- Food processing industry e.g. Juices, syrups, beverages
- Tanning e.g. washing, dyeing
- Textile industry e.g. washing, bleaching, bluing, printing
- Iron and Steel Industry e.g. to cool down the furnace for making
steel etc.
- Thermal Power stations e.g. To produce steam that make the
turbines move

Q5. Why is ground water not fit for human consumption in industrial cities?
- e.g. Karachi
- Sewage water makes it way to ground water- water pollution
- Industrial waste is drained into rivers which then form part of
ground water- water becomes contaminated

Irrigation
Q1. How is water used in agriculture?
- For irrigation

Q2. Why is there a need for irrigation in Pakistan?


- Very low annual rainfall
- Spells of high temperature increase the rate of evapo-transpiration
- Number of rainy days is less
- Rainfall is extremely variable in timing and distribution
- Heavy rainfall is useless- the land either absorbs too much water or
it drains away too quickly
- Long frequent dry spells
- Aridity increasing from north to south.

Conventional Irrigation Systems

Shaduf
- water is drawn from a well, river or canal by a bucket
- bucket is attached to a pole on one side and weight on the other
side
- the bucket is submerged and pulled out of the river using the
weight
- small area can be irrigated as less amount of water is drawn up
- cheap to construct
- can be constructed easily anywhere on a canal or river

Persian Wheel
- a wheel is powered by a blindfolded bullock
- it turns a horizontal wooden wheel geared to a vertical wheel at the
distant end of the shaft
- this carries the vertical metal wheel in the left foreground
- a chain of earthenware pots in attached
- pots raise water from the wells and throw it into channels
- Animal power is required
- Irrigates comparatively larger area
- Continuous water supply
- Non polluting
- Time consuming
- Requires animal power/man power

Karez
- An underground horizontal canal is dug in foothills
- Brings underground water to the surface
- Dug by a group of people who then share the water for their crops
- Vertical shafts are dug to check the canal and repair any blockade
- Can be used in areas where water is scarce- provide water for
irrigation in dry areas- underground evaporation losses are
minimized
- Expensive to build, difficult to use and maintain
- Time consuming

Inundation Canals
- Long canals are taken off from large rivers
- Receive water only when water in rivers is high or when it is in flood
- Not reliable- water is not available throughout the year- only flow
during rainy season or when glaciers melt
Tank irrigation
- Mud banks are constructed across small streams to make a small
reservoirs
- Collect excess water during the rainy season
- Not reliable- water is not available throughout the year

Modern Irrigation Systems

Perennial Canals
- canals linked to dams and barrages
- provide water throughout the year
- Irrigate a vast area
- Help in flood control
- Cost to build is high
- Difficult to maintain

Tubewells
- Diesel or electrically operated pumps raise water from underground
- Irrigate a vast area
- Lower the water table
- Protect the land from waterlogging and salinity
- Electricity or fuel is consumed- expensive

Sprinkler or Spray Irrigation


- Connected to public water supply pipes
- Placed in centre of fields
- Used mainly in orchards or market gardens
- Less water wastage- used efficiently
- Prevent waterlogging and salinity
- Expensive for the farmer- difficult to maintain

Tankers
- Collect water from ponds and lakes and provide it to households
and fields
- Provide water in case of emergency
- Rarely used- Expensive- Water has to carried over a long distance

Indus Water Treaty


- Rivers flowing in Punjab province of Pakistan originate in India
- In 1948 India threatened to stop the water supply of the tributaries
of River Indus
- Water dispute was resolved through the mediation of the world
bank
- In September 1960, the Indus Water Treaty was signed
- Pakistan got the exclusive rights of western rivers namely Indus,
Jhelum and Chenab
- India got the rights of eastern rivers namely Ravi, Sutlej and Beas
- During the transitional period till 1973, India agreed to supply water
to Pakistan
- During this period, Pakistan had to build two storage dams, five
barrages, one gated siphon and eight link canals
- Construction cost was to be met by Australia, Canada, UK, USA,
West Germany and New Zealand.
- India was also to pay some cost while the rest was to be paid by
Pakistan
- WAPDA was to supervise the projects.

Small Dams
Advantages:
- Store water for irrigation
- Supply water for industrial and domestic use
- Silting problem is easier to solve
- Requires comparatively low initial investment, more suitable to
Pakistans economy
- Maintenance cost is low
- Construction time is less and yields quick results
- Very few people are evacuated in order to construct the dam
- Small dams have little impact on rivers, watersheds and aquatic
ecosystems

Disadvantages:
- Irrigates local areas only
- Supply little or no electricity
- Less important for flood control

Large Dams
Advantages:
- Store water for irrigation
- Irrigates a vast area
- Supply water for industrial and domestic use
- Major supplies of Hydroelectricity
- More important for flood control

Disadvantages:
- Silting problem is difficult to solve
- Initial investment cost is very high
- Maintenance cost is high
- Construction time is more and does not yield quick results
- Large-scale evacuation is required
- Large dams generally have a range of extensive impacts on rivers,
watersheds and aquatic ecosystems that are more negative and
have led to irreversible loss of species and ecosystems

Barrages
- Regulate the flow of water
- Construction cost for barrages is less than that for dams
- Are built in plain areas
- Do not involve the generation of electricity
- Encourage human settlements and commercial and industrial
activities

Siltation
- When rivers leave the foothills of mountains, they carry a large
quantity of silt
- When water passes through dams and barrages, this silt
accumulates by filling the reservoir. This condition is called Siltation

Causes:
- Abundance of silt eroded from mountains
- Deforestation which means increased surface run-off
- Rivers flow through narrow and deep valleys- Most of the eroded
material is washed down into the plains and piles up in reservoirs of
the dams

Effects:
- Blockage of canals because silt accumulates
- Weakens the foundation of dams
- Choking of irrigation canals
- Reduced capacity of reservoir i.e. less water for HEP, less water for
irrigation
- Floodwater is hampered which may cause heavy damage to the
dam because mounds of silt which block the flow of water

Waterlogging
- the rise of water table to the surface level is waterlogging
- Due to perennial canals, water is available throughout the year
resulting in the rise of the water-table
- Deforestation has led to increased surface run-off- water flows into
the plain areas- stands on the ground
- Because of heavy rainfall in plain areas, water stands on the ground
Salinity
- When the water table rises, the salt in the soil moves along the
water and reaches to the top of the surface
- When this water evaporates, salty patches are left behind. This
state is called salinity
- Salt poisons the soil- plants die

Measures:
- Large-scale afforestation
- Installation of silt trap before water flows to the dams
- Raising the height of dam to store more water
- Lining of canals with cement
- Canal closure on temporary basis so that water only passes through
when needed for irrigation purpose
- Installing tube wells to lower the water table
- Tube wells can provide extra water to flush out salt from soil
- Planting trees like eucalyptus which absorb a large amount of water
thereby lowering the water table
- Surface drain to diver surface water to nearby river or lake
Surface Water Pollution
- Dumping of industrial and agricultural water
- Inadequate sewage disposal system
- Waste water flow into streams, river and then the sea
- Untreated sewage
- Oil seepage from ships
- Increasing use of chemical fertilizers- fertilizers are washed into
rivers

Ways to conserve and sustain the scarce Water


Resources
- Fair distribution of water resources among provinces
- Sites for small dams should be developed to star surplus water
during monsoon season- small dams should be preferred as
construction cost and time consumption is less
- Lining canals with cement
- Solid and liquid waste should not be dumped into lakes and rivers
- Controlling seepage of toxic waste into the ground
- Desalination of water to overcome water shortages
- A public awareness should be there in order to make people aware
of the consequences of water shortage- people should try to
conserve water
- Media, NGOs and educational institutions should take part in this
program
Ch.9 Secondary and Tertiary Industries

Industry is production of an economic good or service within an economy.

Primary Industry
- Concerned with the collecting or making available of material
provided by nature
- E.g. agriculture, mining, fishing, quarrying

Secondary Industry
- Concerned with transforming materials provided by the primary
industries into products more directly useful to people.
- System with inputs, processes and outputs
- Capital- the finance to establish and manage the industry
- Enterprise- business skills needed to develop idea for products and
to manufacture and market them in a successful way.
- Land- the actual place where the industry is located
- Raw material- the basic commodity that is transformed by industrial
processes
- Power- every industry uses power. Some have high power
consumption while others have low.
- Labor- number, skills and other characteristics of the workforce

Types of Secondary Industries

- Small scale cottage/craft industry traditional or craft- normally


does not use technology and is often organized on a family basis
- Small and medium scale factory- uses modern technology and is
organized into firms or companies which operate plants, factories or
workshops
- Large-scale factory- converts raw materials into manufactured
goods- greater automation and standardized mass production-
higher output per worker- varies greatly in terms of size and
complexity- ranges from small scale industry to a multinational
company that operates in many different countries and has many
different products e.g. McDonalds, Toyota.
- Tertiary and Service Industries- provide services such as banking,
insurance, transport and hotels.

Large Scale Industries

Cotton Textile Industry


- Largest industry of Pakistan
- Provides employment to 50% of industrial labor force.
- Developed at various centers- Hyderabad, Karachi, Faisalabad
- Raw cotton, cotton yarn, cotton cloth readymade garments are all
exported to many counties as well as being consumed domestically
- Located at Karachi Sufficient labor- imported machinery is saved
from additional transport charges- no extra transport charges for
export of cotton goods- large domestic market- worn in hot and
humid climate of Karachi- availability of power supplied by Korangi,
Bin Qasim Thermal Power Stations and Nuclear Power Plant of
Karachi- linked to rest of country by an efficient transport system-
availability of capital and experience entrepreneurs
- Faisalabad- located close to the cotton belt of Punjab- labor force
available from adjoining areas- large local market in thickly
populated province of Punjab- favorable government policies e.g.
for infrastructure
- Hyderabad-located in cotton producing areas of lower Sindh- large
local market in Sindh- not far from port of Karachi for importing
machinery and exporting products
- Other centers- enjoy domestic market- enjoy favorable government
policies like tax holidays and other incentives

Importance
- employment to 50% industrial workforce
- Possesses great export potential and textile products from nearly
60% of total exports
- Uses countrys natural resources- reduces burden of imports
- Contributes 7% of GDP

Problems
- shortage of raw material due to the leaf curl virus in the last years
- Recessions in international market
- Strong competition from South Korea, Egypt, Hong Kong and
Thailand
- Lack of intuitional finance for modernization
- Lack of government interest for improvisation

Sugar Industry
- One of the vital industries
- Sugar is mainly made from sugar-cane
- Sugar mills are located in Punjab, NWFP and Sindh

Problems
- have to be located near sugar cane fields- sugar cane starts losing
its content as soon as it is harvested
- Sugar cane is bulky and therefore expensive to transport
- Power shortage in the country

Importance
- Sugar, brown sugar, gur
- Bagasse- fuel in sugar mills- chipboard- paper and animal feed
- Molasses- manufacturing of acids for chemical industry

Fertilizer Industry
- Raw materials- sulphur, phosphate, gypsum, natural gas
- Faisalabad, Daud khel, Multan in Punjab- Haripur in NWFP and
Dharki in Upper Sindh are main locations

Favorable factors
- Availability of raw material limestone and gypsum
- Good domestic market main requirement of construction industry
- Natural gas is used as a cheap fuel

Importance
- Provides employment
- Increases soil fertility
- Countries uses its own resources
- Reduction of imports
- More money can be spent on education, health etc.

Problems
- Shortage of natural gas in the country
- Price of cement has increased due to rise in demand and impact of
fiscal policies of the government

Steel Industry
- Milestone on the road to industrialisation
- Pakistan steel Mill at Karachi
- Heavy mechanical complex at Taxila

Importance
- Provides raw materials to the engineering and construction
industries
- Products- coke, pig iron, rolled and cast billets, galvanized products
and raw steel
- HMC is manufacturing equipment for hydro-electric power plants,
thermal power, oil and gas processing plants boilers, cranes,
construction machinery, railway equipment
- Products conform to international standards- made in accordance
with customer requirements
Why is Pakistan Steel Mill located at Karachi?
- Site- flat, cheap, unused land
- Natural routes natural harbor that facilitates imports and exports
- Capital- USSR provided economic assistance in the form of
technology and capital
- Raw Materials- iron ore, manganese and most of the coking coal are
imported through Port Qasim- limestone from Murli Hills near
Thatta- Water from Haleji Lake.
- Energy- Pipri and Korangi thermal power station- Karachi Nuclear
Power plant
- Labor- skilled and unskilled labor available from Karachi
- Markets- many industries located in Karachi- half of steel used in
Punjab
- Transport- connected to the main Karachi-Kotri railway- metaled
roads also connect the area to the main road system

Advantages of setting up a Large scale industry


- Employment opportunities for thousands of people
- Contributes more to GDP
- Reduces imports; increases exports
- Will improve balance of payment; loans can be paid off
- Dependence on countries is reduced- country become independent

Disadvantages of setting up a Large scale industry


- Air pollution exhaust fumes- factories
- Water pollution untreated industrial waste is dumped into sea or
rivers
- Roads may get damaged- heavy trucks
- Land deformation clearing of land for industries deforestation-
soil erosion- waterlogging and salinity
- If industries are excessive set up in urban areas rural urban
migration

Advantages of setting up a cottage/small scale industry


- Provide employment to poor people
- Helps decrease region disparity as income from cottage industries is
distributed among a lot of people
- Few setup requirements
- Labor intensive- large number of illiterate people can be employed
- Significant amount of consumer goods can be produced
- Reduction in imports; increase in exports
- Reduces rural-urban migration
Problems faced by the Cottage/Small Scale industries
- Less capital for investment; income used by workers
- Goods do not meet specific requirements- no quality control
- Unskilled workers; no machinery slow process

Government Policies

Industrial Estates
- Specific areas reserved for industry only
- Established to help and encourage entrepreneurs
- Government provides infrastructure facilities like metaled roads,
electricity, water, gas, hospitals and sanitation facilities
- Numerous have been established all over the country
- Exemptions from custom duty on imported machinery
- Cheap loans are provided to investors

Advantages
- Overall cost of laying down infrastructure is reduced- industries
located at one place
- Exemptions from custom duty on imported machinery
- Cheap loans are provided to investors
- Provides employment to more people
- Regional disparity is reduced
- Separate areas for industries- do not overlap with residential areas
Export Processing Zones
- Places where goods are produced only for exports.
- No trade barriers
- There is no tax on imports and exports
- High quality of goods are maintained

Advantages
- Exports increase
- Technology is brought to the country
- Local workforce is trained
- Employment genereated
- Working conditions are better

Sectors of Industry

Formal
- Employees of the government
- Fixed working hours
- Regular pays
- Business is legally registered and contributes to GDP
- Good of specific quality are produced by skill workers who operate
machines
- Quality of goods is monitored and maintained
- A proper work area
- Services like pension, health, insurance may also be available

Informal
- Self-employed workers
- Income is variable
- No fixed working hours
- Business is not registered with tax departments
- Good are not consistent in terms of quality
- Workers are usually unskilled
- Can work on streets and homes as well

Tertiary Industry
Tertiary industry is concerned with providing a service

Tourism
Tourism means the whole business of providing accommodation and
recreation facilities for those people who are travelling ad visiting or staying
at a place for a relative limited period of time.

Problems with the tourism industry

- All places are not accessible due to inadequate transport facilities


- Security issues especially after 9/11 terrorism
- Funds allocated for the tourist industry are inadequate- less is spent
on development of infrastructure facilities
- Lack of infrastructure facilities demotivates the less adventurous
tourists
- Mismanagement of tourists attractions has made places
unattractive for domestic and foreign tourists
- Marketing, advertising, publicity
- Remote areas remain unexplored- roads are not properly
maintained
- Government interest in the developed of tourist sector

Advantages of tourism for Pakistan


- Income from tourism is greater than income from export of raw
materials- correction in balance of payment
- Creates domestic employment- labor intensive
- Encourages local cottage craft industries and production of
souvenirs
- Production of food is increased due to creation of a local market
- Profit earned by tourism can be used to improve local housing
schools, hospitals, electricity and water supplies
- Helps reduce migration
- Sustainable industry- tourist attractions will continue to exist

Disadvantages of tourism for Pakistan


- Internal and external political and economic situations determine
the number of tourists- decline can negative affect the industry
- Tourism only generates seasonal employment
- Money required for tourist industry can be spent on other basic
sectors of economy
- Clearing up of land for hotels- people lose their homes and
livelihood- become dependent on serving wealthy tourists
- Domestic tourists may not be able to afford tourist facilities
- During tourist seasons prices of basic necessities rise beyond the
affordability of local people
- Natural environment deteriorates- deforestation