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Chapter 2


This chapter shows the material used, such as international and local literatures, articles and
studies. Reviewed and read by the researchers to obtain knowledge and background related to the conduct
of the study.
Foreign Literature
According to Jones, Reichard and Mokhtari(20003) Learning styles are subject area sensitive, that
a majority of the students perceive different discipline require different learning strategies and that they are
able to adapt or style-flex to meet the requirements of the learning task. Many students may have some
intuition regarding how they learn, many may simply not be consciously aware of their learning preferences
in general, let alone learning in different disciplines. Increasing student awareness of their own learning
styles may be quite helpful in increasing control of their learning habits and strategies, which should, in
turn, influence their Academic performance.
In this journal, it shows that many students have different learning styles in acquiring different
learning task that was given by their teachers. There are also students who are not aware how they learn or
many students do not know what is their learning preference in common. Let them explore and know
his/her learning styles because it helps the students to perform well or get highest scores in exams or
quizzes. Understanding the different learning styles of students can also help the teachers not only the
students because they can implement better strategies in teaching and for the students they can used better
strategies in studying.
Gabe Keri (2002) stated that female students and male students learn differently. In general, the
studies on males and females learning differences have concluded that more females are relational learners,
whereas more males are independent learners. Using Canfields Learning Style Inventory (1988) more
males indicated a preference for applied learning styles (i.e., using every-day-life experiences as a basis of
learning), whereas females preferred abstract (i.e., where copious reading assignments are required,
learning materials are organized, and instructors demonstrate knowledge).
This journal shows how the male and female students differ from each other when it comes to
learning or studying. The male students prefer an hand-on experience or assignments that applied to day to
day activities. They tend to explore or draw on their personal everyday life circumstances to inform their
learning. While the female students are conceptual learners where they prefer to organize their materials
for school before they start studying and it is also required to have a reviewer.
Every student has their own studying preference and priorities; some prefer to study alone while
others prefer in group study. According to an article from Thomas Edison State College (2014) there are
things to consider when deciding between studying alone or with a group of peers. When studying alone it
minimizes distraction, it allows you to pace yourself and it improves focus. While in group study, it
increases retention, it expands access to information and it boosts motivation.
In this article, it shows that students have their own set of learning style preference and these
preference is known as an effective method which are studying alone and joining a study within a group.
Students can choose which type of study preference that they think will help them in their studies and they
should think the factors to consider in choosing them prefer style. Because one option isnt necessarily
better than the other. But one might be better for them. Maybe they prefer to study alone but retain more
information if they are part of a study group. Or maybe they enjoy the group dynamic but learn better in a
quiet setting. No matter what they choose or prefer, students must think the best that will fit for them.

According to Derek Thompson (2013) shown that females prefer to work in teams while males
prefer to work alone. And also, females demonstrated less confidence about their own abilities while males
demonstrated more over confidence in their own abilities.
In this article, it shows that females prefer to work or study in a group rather than studying alone
because of less confidence about themselves. While males prefer to work or study alone rather than
studying in a group because they are too confident about their capability.