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GLOSSARY

Achal Nagar – Eternal abode of residence that remains constantly permanent in one place, without shifting, like the Pole Star.

Adi – First, original.

Ajapa-jap – Breath-by-breath meditation, Svas-svas meditation.

Akal – Timeless.

Akal Purukh – The timeless being. God. Also Akal Purakh.

Akali – Literally, a worshipper of the Eternal God. Presently the term denotes a member of the Shiromani Akali Dal, the major Sikh political party whose headquarters are in Amritsar.

Akash – Ether.

Akhand – Absolute, whole.

Akhand Path – A continuous recitation that takes 48 hours of the entire Guru Granth Sahib.

Amar – Immortal, Eternal, Forever.

Amrit – Literally, the elixir of life. Nectar of immortality.

Amrit Sarowar – The reservoir around the Harmandir Sahib.

Anand – Bliss, joy.

Angad – Anay : limb, ad : First, First 'men' created out of limb, Guru Angadji.

Ardas – Prayer.

Arti – Worship using oil lamps.

Asa di war – A section of the Adi Granth.

Asan – Posture, mode of sitting.

Asha – Desire, hope, yearning.

Avatar – Incarnation, manifestation of God-Head.

Baba – A learned person; term also used for the aged and in respect, savant.

Baisakhi – The harvest season, observed on April 13 each year. It is also the day on which Guru Gobind Singh batised the Sikhs as the Khalsa.

Bani – The original scriptural; Satguru's Anahad Roop.

Bedi – The clan to which Guru Nanak belonged.

Ber – Fruit of the jujube tree.

Bhai – Brother; in popular wage it also applies to those who perform religious services.

– A Sikh of Baba Bir Singh (Norangabad), real name Nihal

Bhai Maharaj Singh Singh.

Bhai Maha Singh – Father of Thakur Singh.

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Brahm – The Cosmos.

Bunga – Rest house, a place of dwelling.

Chakra – A circular steel weapon; one of the symbols of Sikhism.

Charan – Feet.

Dal Khalsa – Army of the Sikhs.

Darbar Sahib – Used as a synonym for the Golden Temple.

Daswandh – Voluntary donation of one-tenth of one's income.

Deg – A large pot, usually the Langar, daily bread.

Deg-teg-fateh – A slogan used fo positive-attitube of life meaning : a well-nourished body can hold and use the mighty sword to destroy evil and bring victory.

Desh – Nation, country.

Dev – God, demi-god, Devte.

Dharam – Faith.

Dharam-sala – Temple, Church, place of worship.

Diwan – Sikh religious assembly.

Fateh – Victory.

Gaddi – Throne or seat of the Gurus.

Granth – A complation of the sacred scriptures.

Granthi – Priest.

Gurbani – The scriptures compiled by the Gurus.

Gurdwara – A Sikh Temple, abode of the Guru.

Gurmata – The intension, resolution or will of the Guru expressed in a formal decision.

Gurmukhi – Alphabets come out of Gurus Mukh (mouth). Sikh Aplhabets.

Gurpurb – A Sikh festival connected with any one of the Gurus.

Guru – Literally a teacher; O spiritual teacher and guide made by a representative assembly of Sikhs.

Guru Granth – The sacred scriptures of the Sikhs, originally compiled and edited by Guru Arjan Dev in 1604 AD.

Harimandier – Literally, 'the house of God'; the central Sikh shrine in Amritsar.

Hazra Hazur – Alway present, Omni-present.

Hukam – Order, will.

Hukamname – An edict of the Guru.

Janamsakhi – A traditional biography, especially of Guru Nanak.

Jathedar – Leader of a jatha.

Jhoot – Lies, falsehood.

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Kacch – Short breeches; one of the five K's.

Kanga – Comb, one of the five K's.

Kara – A loose steel wristband; one of the five K's.

Karah-Prasad – A sacramental food offered to God, then distributed to all present at Sikh religious gatherings.

Karam – Karma, actions, deeds, our daily doings.

Kar-sewa – The voluntary operation of cleansing and desilting the holy pool at the Golden Temple.

Kesh – Unshorn hairs, one of the five K's.

Khalsa – Baptised Sikh. Khal-Shah, originally cloned out of the Khalsa.

Khalsa Panth – The Sikh community.

Khanda – A double edged straight sword.

Kirpan – Sword. Sword worn by the Khalsa as one of the five K's.

Kirtan – Singing of holy hymns, songs of Bani.

Krodh – Anger, wrath.

Kudrat – Entire created manifestation.

Lalach – Greed, desries and longings.

Langar – Community Kitchen.

Mahal – House, abode of residence.

Maharaja – Literally, "the great king" or 'Supreme sovereign".

Manji – Ecclesiastical district; 22 manjis were established by Guru Amar Das.

Manji Sahib – The low seat, somewhat similar to a cot, on which the Guru Granth Sahib is placed in a gurdwara.

Marg – Path.

Maryada – Constitution, Rehatnama.

Mata – Mother.

Maya – Illusion, materialism.

Meeri – Temporal authority in the Sikh religion.

Mela – A fair or festival.

Misl – Misl A Sikh confederacy in the eighteenth century.

Modikhana – Store, a general shop.

Moh-mamta – Material attachment.

Nam – Name, The True World, Simran-Meditation the Name (Mantra).

Nath – Ascetic, a sect of yogis.

Nigara – A large drum.

Nihang – Historically, a soldier-devotee and protector of gurdwara.

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Nirankar – Formless. God.

Nirgun – Formless, a description of God.

Nishan – Emblem.

Nishan Sahib – Flag. The National Flag of Khalsa.

Nit-nem – Daily at a set and fixed time.

Palki – A palangquin derived from the 'path' taken by the followers of the faith.

Pandit – Priest.

Panja – Palm.

Panjab – Land of five rivers (in North India) : Vitsata (Jhelum), Chandra-bhaga (Chenab), Airravti (Ravi), Vipas (Beas) and Satdraya (Sutlej) also called Sat- ludar : from Sevan Peaks.

Panth – Literally, Path, today widely used to describe the Sikh community.

Parkarma – A circumambulatory walkway around a holy shrine.

Parsad – Grace, divine regenerating and inspiring influence. Also on offering.

Patshah – King.

Patshahi – Reign, kingdom, realm.

Peeri – Spiritual authority in the Sikh religion.

Puja – Worship.

Pyas – Thirst

Quila – Fort.

Rabab – Rebeck.

Ragi – A musician who sings the ragas.

Rahras – The evening prayer of the Sikhs

Ram Rauni – Originally, a mud fortress near Amritsar, later strengthened and renamed Ramgarh after the fourth guru Ram Das.

Rehatnama – Constitution, Khalsa code of conduct.

Sach – Truth.

Sacha Pathshah – The True king.

Sacha-sauda – A true bargain.

Sachkhand – Abode of Truth.

Sadh – Sadhu, a holy person.

Sadh Sangat – Congregation of the holy persons.

Sahaj – In spontaneous way, spontaneity. Simple and natural way.

Sahibzada – Prince, son.

Samadhi – Transcendental sleep, trance.

Samvat – Indian era, started 57 B.C.

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Sangat – Congregation.

Sant – Saint.

Sanyasi – Ascetic, renouncer of everything.

Sarbat Khalsa – Widely attened gathering of the Sikhs, which accord collective sanesion to all major initiatives.

Sardar – A chieftain or headman, presently used as a title for all Sikh men.

Sargun – The temporal realm of huma existence.

Sarowar – A pool or lake.

Sarvans-dani – Sacrificer of family lineage.

Sat – Truth.

Sat Sri Akal – Truth Conquers Always, the Universal way of Divine Order.

Satguru – The True Guru.

Sati – Self-immolation of Hindu widows on their husband's funeral pyres.

Satnam – The True Name (Nam)

Sewa – Service (also spelled 'seva').

Sewadar – Caretaker.

Shabad – The word.

Shabad Kirtan – The vocal and musical renidtions from the sacred verses of the Adi Granth.

Shaheed – Martyr.

Shastars – Weapons, arms.

Shastras – Holy books, scriptures.

Shiromani – The supreme committee for the admin. of the gurdwaras in Punjab.

Shish Mahal – A palace or building studded with mirrors or glass-work.

Sidhas – Ascetics, yogis.

Sikh – Desciple, one who follows the teachings of the Guru. Guru Nanak's disciples.

Simran – Meditation.

Singh – Lion. Babbar – Lion. Baptised Sikh.

Singh Sabha – A movement comperising several Sikh societies dedicated to religious, social and educational reforms within the Sikh community.

Singhason – Thrown of the Shah Singh, Throne.

Sipahi – Soldier, warriors.

Sri Sahib – The sword.

Sudi – Bright side of the moon, crescendo.

Takhat – The Throne of Authority.

Teg – Sword.

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Tilak – Saffron mark put on the forehead. Udassi – Odyssey. Upasana – Congregation. Vairagi – Ascetic, renouncer of everything. Vace – The Lord's message. Waheguru – Wonderful Lord, God. Waqf – Religious properties. Yug – Yuga, age, era, period. Yajna – Oblation. Zamburah – A small gun. Zamindar – A land lord.

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