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SHM CHALLENGES

IN LATIN AMERICA
MONITORING
EXAMPLES
Rubn L. Boroschek, Ph. D.

University of Chile
Rose School, Italy
Profesor Honorario
Universidad San Antonio
Abad del Cusco, Peru
RBA-Global
www.Boroschek.com
@boroschek
Map: Business Insider
ACKNOWLEDGMENT

David Muria-Vila
Francisco Carrion
Carlos Zavala
Rafael Aguilar
Juan Carlos Botero
Alejandro Cruz
Johannio Marulanda
Peter Thomson

2
http://databank.worldbank.org/
APROX
CHILE A HISTORY DATE
1570 Feb.8
MAGNITUDE
8 - 8 1/2
LOCATION
Concepcin

OF LARGE EQ
1575 Dec. 16 8 1/2 Valdivia
1604 Nov.24 8 1/2 North de Arica
1647 May. 13 8 1/2 Valparaiso
1657 Mar. 15 8 Concepcion
1730 Jul. 8 8.8 Valparaiso
1737 Dec. 24 7 1/2 - 8 Valdivia
1751 May. 25 8 1/2 Concepcion
1796 Mar. 30 7 1/2 - 8 Copiapo
1819 Apr. 3-11 8.3 Copiap (3 EQ)
1822 Nov. 19 8 1/2 Valparaiso
1835 Feb.20 8 - 8 1/2 Concepcion
1837 Nov.7 8 Valdivia
1868 Aug.13 8 1/2 Arica
1877 May.9 8 lquique
1880 Aug. 15 7 1/2 - 8 Illapel
1906 Aug.16 7.9 Valparaiso
1922 Nov.10 8.4 Vallenar
1928 Dec. 1 8.4 Talca
1939 Jan.24 8 - 8.3 Chillan
1943 Abr. 6 8.3 Illapel
1950 Dec. 9 8 Calama
1960 May. 22 9.5 Sur de Chile
1966 Dec. 28 8.1 Taltal
1985 Mar. 3 7.8 Zona Central
1995 Jul. 30 8 Antofagasta
2001 Jun.23 8.4 South Peru
2005 Jun.13 7.8 Tarapaca
2010 Feb.27 8.8 Center-South
2014 Apr. 1 8.2 Iquique
2015 Sep. 16 8.3 Canela Baja
Modified from Comte
rborosch@ing.uchile.cl Univ Chile
Looking at magnitude 8+ earthquakes in the
last 100 years IN THE WORLD we found,
according to the USGS, 92 events, of which
22 (24%) occurred in LAC (16 affected the
Chile-Peru area)

Foto: C. Chon
Ruben Boroschekwww.boroschek.com
HIGH SEISMICITY

~70 Clearly perceptible events per year

rborosch@ing.uchile.cl Univ Chile


2016-NUMBER OF
STRONG MOTION INSTRUMENTS FREE FIELD
Country Approximate Source

Number of
Instruments
(Public Data)
Argentina 113 A. Giuliano

Chile 430 R. Boroschek

Colombia 111 H. Garca

Costa Rica 120 V. Schmidt

Ecuador 82 JC Singaucho

El Salvador 66 Torres

Guatemala 12 ** Climent et al
2007

Mexico 400 L. Alcantara

Nicaragua 25 Ineter Web

Panama 61 E. Camacho

Map: Business Insider Peru 198 H. Tavera F.


Lazares

Venezuela 128 H. Rendon

Ruben Boroschekwww.boroschek.com
CHILE 2010 M=8.8
Strongly Shaken Area: 600 x 200 km
Large Permanent Ground Displacements
Large Energy Release Areas / Asperities

8.000.000 People affected.

Infraestructura Stock
10.000 Buildings 3 story or more
12.000 Bridges, overpass and footbridges
(most of them in affected area)
150 Hospitals
41 Ports

Schools
Water
Energy
..
230.000 Destroyed Houses

Ruben Boroschekwww.boroschek.com
EXTENSIVE DAMAGE
3.000 Engineers

4 Month for
preliminary review of
damage infrastructure

More then 90
relevant aftershocks

Ruben Boroschekwww.boroschek.com
Buildings in Dubai have been evacuated
after tremors were felt from an earthquake
originating in Iran.

The quake measured 5.1 on the Richter


scale and its epicentre was in southern
Iran, according to the European
Mediterranean Seismological Centre.

It struck at 9.44am Dubai time about


158 kilometres north of Dubai,

Workers in Dubai have reported feeling


tremors, with dozens of buildings
evacuated.

Tuesday, 27 May 2014


FORCED EVACUATION AFTER STRONG SHAKING
SEPTEMBER 2015

Hospitals
II Regin de Antofagasta: 2
III Regin de Atacama: 2
IV Regin de Coquimbo: 2
V Regin de Valparaso: 7
VI Regin de OHiggins: 1

2,200 km
VII Regin del Maule: 2
VIII Regin del BoBo: 8
Regin de la Araucana: 1
Regin de los Ros: 1
Regin de los Lagos: 6

30 minutes
TOTAL: 32 HEALTH FACILITIES to evacuate

Ruben Boroschekwww.boroschek.com
WHY WE DONT HAVE SENSORS IN OUR
INFRASTRUCTURE?

1884-1885 Home Insurance Chicago


1879 Benz -www.daimler.com Fiat 500 http://www.american-historama.org

Ruben Boroschekwww.boroschek.com
Santiago Chile .
Cost:
Titanium (52 stories) US$170 million
Tower 2 (62 stories): US$ 1.000 million
Titanium Park: US$ 100 million each
Fiat 500 Cost ~ US$ 14.000

Ruben Boroschekwww.boroschek.com
STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING

NOT ONLY MONITORING

Need for:
Realtime or near Realtime
Automatic Basic Analysis for Action
Automatic or Semiautomatic Detail
Analysis

After Ventura

Structural
Health
Monitoring Earthquake
Monitoring
of Structures
H. Speckmann, R. Henrich

Ruben Boroschekwww.boroschek.com
SHM FOR ACTION

Hospitals Buildings

Bridges Dams Industry

Sensing and
Communicating System
Software
Ruben Boroschekwww.boroschek.com
SHM
Can we Answer the
Basic Questions
1. Is there a Change of State or Damage?
(DETECTION). YES
1. What has Change/Where is located?
(LOCALIZATION). ~ YES
1. Effect/Size of the Change/Damage ?
(QUANTIFICATION). TYPICALLY NO
2. Remaining Life? (PROGNOSIS) NO

Ruben Boroschekwww.boroschek.com
L. Jimnez
COLOMBIA: BUILDING 350 A. Cruz
J. Marulanda
P. Thomson

U del Valle

Since 2012

Triaxial station, at
the base of
the building, and
three uniaxial
accelerometers
on the second slab
Range: 4 g
Fs: 100 Hz

Ruben Boroschekwww.boroschek.com
PERU: NATIONAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY

Roof level
20 gal

EDIFICIO DE LA FACULTAD DE ING. CIVIL - UNI

Basement level
6 gal

Dr. Ing. Carlos Zavala


CISMID FIC UNI
Ruben Boroschekwww.boroschek.com czavala@uni.edu.pe
PERU NATIONAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY

FACULTAD DE INGENIERA CIVIL (FIC-UNI)

UNI PABELLN CENTRAL (PC-UNI)

Roof Sensor Ground Level Sensor


HOSPITAL E. REBAGLIATI MARTINS (HERM)

Dr. Ing. Carlos Zavala


CISMID FIC UNI
czavala@uni.edu.pe
Ruben Boroschekwww.boroschek.com
PERU NATIONAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY

Ruben Boroschekwww.boroschek.com
PERU
ST. PETER APOSTLE CHURCH OF ANDAHUAYLILLAS
Masterpiece of the Andean Baroque
Route
Dates from late 16th or early 17th
century
Is at the core of the social program for
local community by the Society of
Jesus

Ruben Boroschekwww.boroschek.com
HISTORICAL ADOBE CHURCHES IN THE CUSCO AREA
Par y nudillo roofing system with wooden tie-beams
(ineffective truss)
-0.00009
-0.00006
-0.00003
0.00003
0.00006
0.00009

0
1
2401
4801
7201
9601
12001
14401
16801
19201
21601
24001
26401
28801
31201
33601
36001
38401
40801
43201
45601
48001
50401
52801
55201
57601
60001
62401
Obsidian CH4

64801
67201
69601
72001
74401
76801
Original data

79201
81601
84001
86401
88801
91201
93601
96001
98401
100801
103201
105601
108001
110401
112801
115201
117601
Automatic Identification Algorithm steps:

Cleaning step

Grouping step

Choosing step
SSI-DATA results

for parameters selection


Mathematical procedure to
find modal parameters and
MEXICO: JAL BUILDING
Constructed: 1981
14 story
Instrumented: 1992
14 triaxial digital accel
11 inside the structure

Muria Vila Rodriguez SII 628 - 2002


Muria Vila Rodriguez SII 628 - 2002
Pre 1985
PC BUILDING
17 Storey
13 uniaxial
accelerometers
CCUT CIUDAD DE MXICO

1960s
22 Story
28 uniaxial acc. +
GPS
SIS ACAPULCO BUILDING

Instruments
2000
17 Stories
21 Unixaxial +
1 triaxial base
Monitoring: Initially 277
points at floor, 184 at
columns and 80 towers and
facades
Since 1994 online 22 wire
gages 10 tilt meters and 6
thermometers
Monitoring and Diagnostic Center for Bridges and Intelligent Structures
Francisco Carrion, PhD

CAPUFE
Instalation 2011
CAPUFE
CAPUFE

CAPUFE

Mezcala Tampico
Quetzalapa
Ro Papaloapan
CAPUFE

Doval
El Carrizo
Jaime

CMDPEI (5.5 M)
Infiernillo II
Baluarte
San Cristbal Chiapas

DGC
Ruben Boroschekwww.boroschek.com
VITACURA AO ANDRS BELLO AO 1995
1996

N =23 +5
(S)
H = 87 m h
=3.15 m
Marco (H)-
Muro (H) N =27 +4(S)
H = 96 m h =3.2 m
d= 1.0 -
Marco (H)- Muro (H)
1.6%/direcci

d= 1.2 -
n 1.9%/direccin
T = 1.5 seg H/T =64
T = 1.1 seg

m/s
H/T =79 m/s
MARISCAL PETAIN
AO 1996
PACFICO AO N =24 +3 (S)
1992 H = 73 m h =2.7 m
Muro (H) d= 2% T
N =27 +4(S) y 1% L
H = 97 m h =3.25 m Tl = 1.0 seg H/T
Marco (H)- Muro (H) =73m/s
d= 0.9 - 1.4%/direccin Tr = 2.50 seg
T = 1.6 seg H/T =61 m/s

INDUSTRIAS
AO 1991
N =33 +3(S)
H = 102 m h
=3.2 m CMARA CHILENA
Marco (H)- Muro 1987
(H)
d= 1.8 -
2.6%/direccin
N =21 +3(S)
T = 1.7 seg H/T
H = 78 m h
=61 m/s
=3.3 m
Marco (H)-
Muro (H)
d= 2.3 -
4.6%/direcci
n
T = 0.95 seg
H/T =82m/s

CHILE: TEMPORARY MONITORING


CHILE: Monitoring Under Construction
Titanium Building Chile

2 studies:
(a) 5 month continuous under construction monitoring
(b) Records every 2 or 3 stories during 5 construction stages 37
FE Predictive - Adaptative Models.

Mode 1 Mode 2
MACEC 3.0
Source:

f1 = 0.187 [Hz] f2 = 0.256 [Hz] f3 = 0.297 [Hz]


f4 = 0.713 [Hz] f5 = 0.864 [Hz]
Source: ETABS

f1 = 0.187 [Hz] f2 = 0.250 [Hz] f3 = 0.288 [Hz] f4 = 0.700 [Hz] f5 = 0.811 [Hz]
CHILE: TORRE CENTRAL BUILDING CHILE

Reinforced concrete shear and gravity


walls.
9 stories above ground (30.2 m height).
2 underground levels (30x19 plan area).
Typical wall thickness is 35 cm.
Typical slab thickness is 25 cm.

Ruben Boroschekwww.boroschek.com
FREQUENCY VARIATIONS DAILY VARIATIONS
Frequency 1
40
30
1.9 fmax : 1.921
20
fmin: 1.871
10
Var. [%]: 2.6
0
24/Apr 25/Apr 26/Apr 27/Apr 28/Apr 29/Apr 30/Apr
Frequency 2
40

Temperature [C]
Frequency [Hz]

fmax : 2.336
20 fmin: 2.276
Var. [%]: 2.6
0
24/Apr 25/Apr 26/Apr 27/Apr 28/Apr 29/Apr 30/Apr
Frequency 3
40
30 fmax : 2.747
20 fmin: 2.676
2.7 Var. [%]: 2.6
10
0
24/Apr 25/Apr 26/Apr 27/Apr 28/Apr 29/Apr 30/Apr
Time [day/month]

Ruben Boroschek
www.boroschek.com
4. FREQUENCY VARIATIONS
SEASONAL VARIATIONS

Frequency 1
40
1.95 30
fmax : 1.980
20
1.9 fmin: 1.850
10
Var. [%]: 6.8
0
Jul/10 Oct/10 Dec/10 Mar/11 Jun/11
Frequency 2
40

Temperature [C]
2.4
Frequency [Hz]

30 fmax : 2.407
2.3 20 fmin: 2.218
10 Var. [%]: 8.2
0
Jul/10 Oct/10 Dec/10 Mar/11 Jun/11
Frequency 3
40
30 fmax : 2.866
2.8
20 fmin: 2.654

2.7 10 Var. [%]: 7.7


0
Jul/10 Oct/10 Dec/10 Mar/11 Jun/11
Time [month/year] Ruben Boroschekwww.boroschek.com
SELECTED FREQUENCY HISTOGRAMS

Frequency 1
1

Data filtered
0.8 Unfiltered data
mean: 1.906
0.6

in a range of
std: 0.022
0.4 Filtered data
mean: 1.892

20.5-21.5C, 0.2 std: 0.017

and
0
1.82 1.84 1.86 1.88 1.9 1.92 1.94 1.96 1.98 2

removing 1
Frequency 2

rain and
Number of Observations

0.8
Unfiltered data

earthquakes
mean: 2.318
0.6
std: 0.025
0.4 Filtered data

effects 0.2
mean: 2.304
std: 0.022

Clear 0
2.22 2.24 2.26 2.28 2.3 2.32 2.34 2.36 2.38 2.4

decrease in 1
Frequency 3

variance of 0.8 Unfiltered data

frequencies. 0.6
mean: 2.731
std: 0.036
0.4 Filtered data
mean: 2.711
0.2 std: 0.030

0
2.64 2.66 2.68 2.7 2.72 2.74 2.76 2.78 2.8 2.82
Frequency [Hz]
Ruben Boroschekwww.boroschek.com
Edificio Torre Central, Santiago.
Registro ssmico. General

Ruben Boroschekwww.boroschek.com
Torre Central Building, Santiago.
Frequency variation during Earthquake. MIMO Method.

MODE 1

Ruben Boroschekwww.boroschek.com
AUTOMATIC ID 2009/2014
~5 years of data.
2010 earthquake
produced a drop on EQ Mw=8.8 6th Largest in the World
the frequencies.
There is a clear
effect of:
Seismic events
and
Daily ambient
variations
Seasonal
Environmental
factors on the
frequencies
variation.
PERIOD VARIATION WITH SEISMIC INTENSITY AND
DAMAGE

Blue before 2010 EQ Red After EQ


Notice the nonlinear variation of period
with amplitude
Automatic
Monitoring System

www.shmrba.com
2nd TALLEST LATINAMERICAN BASE
ISOLATED BUILDING Torre del Sol
Theoretical and Experimental Hysteresis Loops
50

40

30

20

Force (Tonf)
10

-10

-20

-30

-40

-50
-25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25
Displacement (cm)

Diseo Estructural P Bonelli 48


Diseo Aislacin RBA
TALL BUILDINGS

Ruben Boroschekwww.boroschek.com
CHILE:TWO WARFS: EARTHQUAKE, WAVES, IMPACT

LOS HORNOS

Ruben Boroschekwww.boroschek.com
CHILE: MINES

Ruben Boroschekwww.boroschek.com