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Lp estimation navier stokes

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with Applications to the Navier-Stokes Equations

in Exterior Domains

YOSHIKAZU GICA

Sapporo 060, Japan

AND

HERMANNSOHR

D-4790 Paderborn, Germany

for the Cauchy problem and L4-L estimates for the nonstationary Stokes

equations in exterior domains. This will be applied to obtain various new global in

time estimates for weak solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. f; 1991 Academic

Press, Inc.

nonstationary Stokes system in a domain Sz in UP, n > 2, with smooth

boundary &J (at least of class C2+P, 0 < p < 1):

Here u = (u(x, t), .... u(x, t)) and p = p(x, t) represent the unknown

velocity and pressure, respectively; f =f(x, t) represents a given external

force and a denotes the initial velocity. For the moment we assumea = 0.

When n = 3 and 52is a bounded or an exterior domain (i.e., domain having

a nonempty compact complement), for every JE Ly(sZ x (0, T))n with

72

OO22-1236/91 $3.00

Copyright Y 1991 by Academic Press. Inc

All rights of reproduclmn m any form reserved

L ESTIMATES FOR THE CAUCHY PROBLEM 73

0 < T< cc, 1 <q < co, Solonnikov [42] constructed a unique solution

(u, VP) of (1.1) in Q x [0, T) satisfying the Ly estimate

(1.2)

LY(Q)m = Ly(B) -x . . . x L4(Q) with m = n or n* and V*u = (ai aj~)i, i= 1,2,...,n

is the matrix of themsecond order derivatives of U. When L2 is unbounded,

Solonnikovs estimate (1.2) is not global in time because C( T, Q, q) may

tend to infinity as T-t a. His approach is based on methods in the theory

of potentials.

Our purpose is to strengthen such estimates in two directions. First, our

estimate is global in time, i.e., the above constant C is independent of T.

Second, the integral norms we use may have different exponents q, s in

space and time.

To derive such global Lq - L estimates for (1.1) we use and extend an

abstract perturbation result recently developed by Dore and Venni [ 131.

Such estimates are important in studying regularity and large time

behavior of weak or strong solutions of the nonstationary Navier-Stokes

system in an exterior domain Q:

(1.3)

Here we set (u, V) = x:1=, U ai, di = a/axi. The system (i.3) has been

extensively studied (see, e.g., [4, 5, 18, 25, 28, 31, 32, 39-411). Although a

global weak solution under suitable assumptions on a and f is known to

exist, its regularity is not known unless n = 2. As an application of our

estimates we derive various global a priori estimates for a given weak

solution u and the associated pressure p; for example, when Q is an

exterior domain in R with it 2 3 we prove that

jz IlV*u(t)ll, dt + j

0 0

IIVp(t)ll,

dt < cc (1.4)

simplicity); the pressure p can be chosen so that

s

,I Ildt)ll; dt < 00, (1.5)

where n = n/r + 2/s. We note that this pressure estimate for n = 3,

r = s = 5/3 improves the partial regularity theory of suitable weak solutions

74 GIGA AND SOHR

in [9]. The global result (1.5) is new while 1: Il~(t)il: dt < CC for finite T is

known by [40].

From (1.4) we deduce a global result on U:

Although there are many results on large time behavior of weak solutions

(see, e.g., [3,4]), our result (1.6) is not contained in the literature because

(i) our estimate holds for weak solutions which need not satisfy energy

inequalities and (ii) we estimate the decay as t --) cc by an integral norm

while the algebraic decay over of Ilu(t) as t + co is studied in the

literature (see [4] ).

In order to explain the abstract perturbation result we need some

notations. Let X be a Banach space with norm I(. /Ix = I(. /I and let A be a

closed linear operator with domain D(A)cX and range R(A)cX. P(X)

is the Banach space of all bounded linear operators with D(A) = X,

R(A) - G X, equipped

- with the operator norm which is again denoted by II . II.

By D(A), Z?(A) we denote the closure of D(A), R(A). We say A is

nonnegative if the resolvent set p(A) = (2~ @; (I -A)- E Y(A)} of A

contains all negative real numbers and

r>o

can define the complex power A for all z E C as a densely defined closed

linear operator in the closed subspace X, = D(A) n R(A) in X (see [26]).

Let 8 > 0, K 3 1. We say a closed nonnegative operator A in X belongs

to E!(X) if AiY~~(X,) for all YE R and if the norm in Y(XA) is

estimated as

I(AYlJ <K&- for all y E R. (1.8)

and R(A) are dense in X (i.e., X, = X), if A E Y(X) for all y E R and if

(1.8) holds in Y(X). Here X is always a complex Banach space; a real

space is embedded in its complexification.

Now we consider two nonnegative operators A and B in X. A and B are

called resolvent commuting if

(t+A)-(t+B)-=(t+B)-(t+A)- for all t > 0. (1.9)

We are interested in conditions under which the sum A + B with

D(A + B) = D(A) n D(B) has an inverse in a certain sense. Dore and Venni

Lp ESTIMATES FOR THE CAUCHY PROBLEM 75

BE d,(X) are resolvent commuting with 8 + g < rc, and if both A and B

have an inverse in Y(X). The following Theorem 1.1 extends this result to

the case that A-l, BP1 E Y(X) is not needed. The first proof of this result

has been given by the authors in [24]. For the convenience of the reader

we give an outline of the proof in Appendix B; this proof is basically

parallel to the one in [13]; in [34] Priiss and the second author gave

another proof of essentially the same result in another context.

The concept of c-convexity is stronger than that of uniform convexity or

reflexivity (see [6, 7, 131). For the application above it is important that

X is c-convex if and only if the truncated Hilbert transform

n ITI>C

converges as E --t 0 for almost all t E IF! and there is a constant C = C(s, X)

independent off such that

some 1 < s < co imply c-convexity and c-convexity implies (1.10) and (1.11)

for all 1 < s < a3 [6, 71. By L(.Y; X) where 1 < s < cc and 9 is a real

interval, we denote the usual Banach space of L functions on 9 with

values in X and norm llfll LS(,fl:X,= (i,p I/f(t)11 Iy tit)..

Furthermore, for two operators AEC$(X), BEG> we let 6(A + B)

be the completion of D(A) n D(B) under the norm llAullx + IIBullx. Since

A, B may not have bounded inverses, &A + B) is not a subspace of X in

general. However, if A ~ E P(X) or BP E 2(X) we get @A + B) c X. It is

easy to see that these operators A and B are injective and so 11 Au11x + 1)Bull x

is a norm; indeed, (1.7) implies that t(t + A)- f -+ 0 as t + 00 for

~ER(A)=X and Au=0 yields u=t(t+A)-u and letting t+O implies

24= 0.

The operator A + B: @A + B) + X is now defined by closure, i.e., by

the same way we define A : 6( A + B) -+ X and B: @A + B) + X by Au =

lim, _ m Auj and Bu = lim,, ;u Bu,. Evidently, &A + B) is a Banach space

equipped with the norm

76 GIGA AND SOHR

AE&~(X), BE&~(X) are resolvent commuting with 9, a>O, K> 1,

8 + a < 7~.Then the operator A + B: 8(A + B) + X is bijective and boundedly

invertible; for every f EX there is a unique u E&A + B) such that

Au+ Bu=f and

II4 + IIBull d Cllf II

with a positive constant C= C(0, a, K, X).

Remarks. Let X, A, and B be as in Theorem 1.1. Then we easily

conclude that A + B: D(A) n D(B) + X is an injective operator with dense

range R(A + B) G X and it holds

for all u ED(A + B) = D(A) n D(B) where C= C(O, 0, K, X) > 0. If

in addition A-ET(X) or BP Ed, then D(A+ B)=6(A+ B),

R(A + B) = X, and (A + B)) E Y(X). If both A- and BP are Y(X),

then we obtain the assertion of Theorem 2.1 in [ 131.

For some applications it is interesting to extend Theorem 1.1 to the case

that D(A) or R(A) is not dense in X, i.e., X, # X. In this case we consider

the restriction A, of A on

Proposition 4.12 in [26]. For such operators, it is easy to extend Theorem 1.1

as follows :

are resolvent commuting with 0, a > 0, K> 1, 8 + a < n, and X, =X,. Then

the operator A, + B,: fi(A, + B,) --* X0, defined as above with X replaced by

X,, = X, = X, is bijective and boundedly invertible, and

for all u E @A0 + B,) with C = C(O, a, K, X) > 0.

The application of Theorem 1.1 yields a new result for the abstract

Cauchy problem. Let X be a i-convex Banach space, 1 <s < cc and

Lp ESTIMATES FOR THE CAUCHY PROBLEM 77

0 < T< co. By L(0, T; X) we mean the Banach space of all L functions on

the interval (0, T) with values in X; the norm is (IuII~~(,,~;~) =

(JOTIl4t)llx 41s. For UE L(0, T; X), U E L(0, T; X) means that the

derivative U = du/dt in the distribution sense exists as an element of

L(0, T; X); then u(O)EX is the well defined trace. For A E&$(X), D(A) is

regarded as a Banach space with the graph norm I(u(l,+ llAullx.

The following theorem extends the result by Dore and Venni [ 13,

Theorem 3.21 on abstract Cauchy problems in two directions: (i) the class

of operators A is larger since A PI E 9(X) is not needed and (ii) the

constant C does not depend on T and therefore T= cc is included; this

leads to global in time results.

THEOREM 2.1. Let X be [-convex. Assume that O< T< a, 1 <s< co,

and that A E 8;(X) for some K3 1 and some 0 with 0 d 0 < n/2. Then for

every f E L(0, T; X) there exists a unique solution u of the Cauchy problem

u E L(0, T; X) (2.3)

s 0 0

bounded analytic semigroup e-IA, t > 0 [34]. So one can construct a

strong solution if f is Holder continuous in time with values in X (cf. [ 16,

Lemma 2.141). However, as is pointed out in [ 133, analyticity of eprA is

not enough to deduce the existence of solutions of (2.1) with (2.2)(2.4) for

general f o L(0, T; X) unless X is a Hilbert space (cf. [2, 371). According

to [2, 373, if (2.4) holds for some s (1 <s< co) it holds for all s provided

that -A generates a bounded analytic semigroup in X (cf. [lo] for a

weaker version). We thank Professor Kato for letting us know the results

in [2, 371.

It is not difficult to extend Theorem 2.1 when the initial data u(0) = a is

not zero. For this purpose we introduce

78 GIGA AND SOHR

where 0 < CY < 1. This space agrees with a real interpolation space

(D(A), A), --a,s when eprA is an analytic semigroup; see [S, Sect. 3.51. If

a ED~ rks we seethat u = ePIAu satisfies (2.2), (2.3) and solves u + Au = 0

with $0) = a. If u solves (2.1), then u + u solves (2.6),with (U + u)(O) = a.

This leads from Theorem 2.1 to the next more general result.

every f EL(0, T; X) and aE DflP1ls, there exists a unique solution u of

u + Au = f ,for a.e. t E (0, T), u(0) = a (2.6)

satisfying (2.2), (2.3) and

I,,,u(t),,;dt+J 0

llAu(t)l/;dt<C(jO Ilf(t)ll,dt+ lid;;-,~~) (2.7)

Remark 2.4. In Theorem 2.3 we may replace 02 by the homogeneous

space B:, the completion of D(A) under the norm

The space fi; agrees with (@A), X),Pa,s. Although this is not explicitly

written in [S, Chap. 31, it can be proved in a similar way as in the proof

of 02~ (D(A), X), ~Z,,,. All statements in Theorem 2.3 still hold if we

replace (2.2) by

u EL(0, T; b(A)), (2.2)

Remark 2.5. For c1= 1 - l/s the space .(A+) is continuously

embedded in D:. with E > 0. Indeed,

s

with

C,= sup llAyePrall tY and y = l/S-&,

O<f<X

L ESTIMATES FOR THE CALJCHY PROBLEM 79

Proof That Theorem 1.1 Implies Theorem 2.1. First we study the

operator d/dt in (2.1). Set 8= L(0, T; X) with S, T, and X as in Theorem

2.1 and define B: D(B) + w by

Then B is nonnegative and D(B) and R(B) are both dense in $ B has a

bounded inverse if T is finite, and

IIB~vlIF< C(1 + y2)elvi12 for all y E R, (2.9)

where C= C(s, X). This has been proved essentially by Dore and Venni

[13, Theorem 3.11 if T<o3. However, the constant C in (2.13) of [13]

does not depend on T; therefore (2.9) holds even if T= a3. Indeed, we have

the explicit representation

for each r > 0, f E 2. From this it is clear that B is nonnegative and that

B- E P(g) if T is finite. The density of D(B) is clear and the density of

R(B) follows by a duality argument. Indeed, X is i-convex and therefore

reflexive. Therefore we have 8* = L(0, T; X*) with l/s + l/s = 1 for the

dual spaces 8*, X* of 2, A. Th e a djomt. operator B* on x* is defined by

B*u= -du/dt with D(B*)= {us%*; uE~*, u(T)=O} if T<cc and

D(B*) = {u~f*; u~z*} if T= co. Since B* is injective we see that R(B)

is dense in ,!?.

Next we observe that 8= L(0, T; X) is again i-convex for 1 < s < cc

(see [13, 353). Using (2.9) we see that BE&,(~) for every u> 7r/2 and

some L 2 1. We take 0 so close to n/2 that 8 + (T< rc. We may take K in

Theorem 2.1 so large that Ka L. We define a closed linear operator

A:D(d)-+$ D(A)~f,by(l!if)(t)=Af(t), D(A)={f~f;f(t)~D(A)for

a.e. tE (0, T), sl IIAf(t)(l,dt < co}. Since A E&~(X) we obtain AE&:(~).

Now we apply Theorem 1.1 to $ A, and B and conclude that for every

f~ 2 there is a unique UE 6(A + B) such that (A + B)u= f and IIAu]lm +

IIBull~<Cllfll~ with C=C(s,&K,X)>O. This implies (2.1) and (2.4).

From u~fi(A + B) we easily conclude (2.2), (2.3), and u(O) = 0. This

proves Theorem 2.1.

Now we apply Theorem 2.1 and Theorem 2.2 to the Stokes system (1.1);

this yields new global in time Lq - L estimates.

Let 0 be a domain in R with n>2. We assume that the boundary 812

is (at least) of class C2+P with O</.< 1. Let l<q<cc. By L:(Q) we

denote the closure of CCJSZ) in Lq(Q) where

C~JQ) = {u E CF(i2)n; div u = 0)

80 GIGA AND SOHR

and C,(Q) denotes the space of all smooth functions compactly supported

in 0. If R is either

(Ql) R

(522) a bounded domain

(Q3) a halfspace

(524) an exterior domain in KY (i.e., a domain whose complement in

R is a nonempty compact set) and n > 3

then each vector field f~ Ly(Q) is uniquely decomposed as

f =fo+VP (2.10)

the norm of g in L4(Q)n or Ly(Q); see [17, 3, 311 for the proofs. The

decomposition (2.10) is called the Helmholtz decomposition. By (2.11) the

mapping f++ f. defines a continuous projection P, from Lq(sZ) onto

L:(Q) which we call the Helmholtz projection. P, is independent of q on

C,(Q); therefore we sometimes suppress the subscript q.

We now recall important properties of the Stokes operator A, = -P, A

with dense domain

estimates [l] we know that the Stokes operator A = A, is a densely

defined closed operator in the Banach space X= L:(Q) when one of

(al)-(524) holds. When Q is bounded, we know A has a bounded inverse

(cf. [ll, 271). Since the dual operator AZ = A,. with l/q + l/q= 1 (see

[ 17, 3, 31]), the injectivity of A,, (see [3, 231) implies that R(A,) is dense in

X (cf. Corollary 3.6 in [23] when (Ql) or (524) holds). The nonnegativity

of A is proved by [19, 421 under (522), by [30, 31 under (Q3), and by

[S, 231 under (524). When Q = R, one can express (t + A)) explicitly by

Fourier transforms, so the proof is easy; see, e.g., [23]. Actually these

authors proved the stronger result that -A generates a bounded analytic

semigroup in X which in particular implies the nonnegativity of A. We also

know that

IlAfsll < Cell (2.12)

The estimate (2.12) is first proved by [20] under (522) and by [23] under

L"ESTIMATESFORTHECAUCHY PROBLEM 81

(04). We show in the Appendix that (2.12) holds under (523) using results

in [3]. Again, the proof of (2.12) under (Ql) is easy by estimating the

explicit expression of AiS for R; see [23]. Summarizing these results we see

the Stokes operator A satisfies the assumptions of Theorem 2.2.

LEMMA 2.6. For every e > 0 the Stokes operator A, is in &E,(X) with

some K> 1 and with X= L:(R), 1 <q < n3, provided that Q c R satisfies

one of (521))(524).

If Y is a i-convex Banach space, 9 z R an interval, and 1 <q < co, we

know by [35] (see also [13]) that Ly(4, Y) is again [-convex; from (l.lO),

(1.11) we see that a closed subspace of a i-convex Banach space is again

c-convex. Since R is i-convex ((1.10) (1.11) is valid if X=R), we

conclude that Ly( R) = Ly( IR, R) is [-convex. From Ly( I??) =

L4(R, Ly(R- )I) we see by induction that Ly(R) is [-convex. Since

Ly(Q) may be regarded as a closed subspace of Ly(Rn)n, Ly(Q) is

c-convex. Therefore, L;(Q) is c-convex as a closed subspace of Ly(Q). By

Lemma 2.6 we may apply Theorem 2.3 with X= L:(Q), A = A, and obtain

Ly - L estimates of solutions of the Stokes system (1.1).

THEOREM 2.7. Let 1 < q < co, 1 <s < 00, 0 < Tb co and assumefor

Q c R one of the cases(Ql)-(524). Then, for every f~ L(0, T; L:(Q)) and

a E w 1A,sthere exists a unique solution u of the Stokes equation

u+A,u=f for a.e. tE(0, T), u(O)=a (2.13)

satisfying the properties

u E L(0, T,; D(A,)) for all O< T,< T with T,< 00, (2.14)

u E L(0, T; L;(Q)), (2.15)

holds with T= co. Here D: denotes the space D: defined by (2.5) with

A=A,.

The equations (2.13) can be written in the following form:

au

z-Au+Vp=s, div u=O in Q x (0, T), (2.17)

(see, e.g., [16, 22, 42, 441); p is the associated pressure.

82 GIGA AND SOHR

v2v = tai ajv)t, j= I.2 ,..., n:

This holds with C = C(q, Q) > 0 for 1 < q -K 00 if SzG [w is one of the cases

(521)-(Q3) and for 1 < q<n/2 in the case (524). Indeed, the case (Ql)

follows from [23, Lemma 3.31, the case (Q2) follows from [20, 11, 421, see

also [27], the case (523) is proved in [3], and for the case (524) see [42]

for n = 3 and [IS, 231 for n 2 3.

Applying (2.19) to (2.16) and using Vp = f -u+ Au we obtain the

following variant of Theorem 2.7.

THEOREM 2.8. Assume for Q z Iw one of the cases (Szl )-(Q4), ler

1 < s < co and assume 1 < q < co in the cases (Ql )-(Q3) and 1 < q < n/2 in

the case (524). Then for every f E L(0, T; L:(Q)) and aE Di-L/s,s there

exists a unique solution (u, Vp) of the Stokes system (2.17), (2.18) satisfying

u E L(0, T,; Wz*q(a)n) forall O<T,<T with T,<cQ, (2.20)

au/at, Vp E L(0, T; Ly(Q)), (2.21)

0 0 0

(2.2i)

with C= C(q, s, 0) > 0, where W2~4(Q) is the usual Lq Sobolev space.

Remark 2.9. Solonnikov [42] proved for n = 3 and q =s a weaker

form of (2.22) since his constant C in the right hand side of (2.22) also

depends on T; so T= cc is impossible in [42]. Our estimates (2.16) (2.22)

have two significant features: (i) the norms have different exponents in

space and time direction and (ii) we may take T = cc which leads to decay

estimates for the solution u as t --) co. If n = 3, the estimate for different

exponents q and s also follows from [42] by using [2, 371 or [lo], but

only with C depending on T. The dependence of C on T is an important

question only for unbounded domains.

Remark 2.10. In [42] Solonnikov proved that Di- J agrees with the

completion of D(A,) in the norm of the Sobolev space W2P2/r,s(Q)n when

n = 3, q = s # 312; if q = s = 312, a weighted norm appears (see [42,

p. 4871). For general q, s the norm of D:- WJ seems to be expressed by

certain Besov space norms (see [43, p. 3211).

Remark 2.11. By Remark 2.4 we may replace Di-, in Theorems 2.7

and 2.8 by the homogeneous space a:-,= 61- i/, with A = A,. In this

case, we have to replace (2.14) and (2.20) by

u E L(0, T; &A,))

LPESTIMATESFOR THE CAUCHY PROBLEM 83

and

ueLS(O, T; @'z,y(Q)n),

homogeneous Sobolev space, the completion of Cc(Q) in the norm

IIV24q+ II4lLU(U)where U is a bounded neighborhood of the boundary

&Q. When 52 is bounded, it is easy to see that @2,q(Q)= W2*y(Q). The

space f@*~~(Q) is important when Q is an exterior domain since it is

included in the space of distributions.

the Navier-Stokes system

and derive new global a priori estimates for the velocity u and the pressure

p. Our estimates describe a large time behavior of general weak solutions

which need not satisfy energy inequalities. We say u is a weak solution of

(3.1)-(3.2) if

(3.3)

u=o on asz for a.e. t 3 0,

-jam

(u,$)di-tj:(Vu,VL;)d~+jom (u.Vu,o)dT

= (a,40))+jmCLu>dz

0

for all v E Ch( [0, co); CCJQ)),

(3.4)

where

We now state the following global in time a priori estimates for weak

solutions.

84 GIGA AND SOHR

solution of (3.1)-(3.2) with (3.5). Assume that 1 <q, s< co satisfies n+ 1 =

n/q + 2/s and that f E L w = L(0, co; Ly(Q)) and a E Dip ,.

(i) There is a constant C= C(s, q, 52) such that

(3.6

au

IIII + /Iv2~lIy,.~+ llwq,.s d CM

z 4,s

(3.7

with

where I/f I/q,.7denotes the norm off in Ly,. (A4 is finite by assumptions of J;

u, and a.)

(ii) The pressure p can be chosen so that

Moreover, we have

inequality [33] (see also [S, 231 for exterior domains)

lI~ll.dww~ IIW

with nlr=n/2-9, 0~8~ 1, 1 <r< co to get

(3.10)

n + 1 = n/q + 2/s,

where C is independent of u.

Since P, is bounded, (3.10) yields

Il~llq,,~ aw;i; 114:,22/+ Ilf llq.., for F=f- P(u, V)U. (3.11)

u+A,u=F, u(0) = a.

L ESTIMATES FOR THE CAUCHY PROBLEM 85

u; E L(0, T, L:(Q)) for all 0 < T< co and uk solves

Ilf IIq,sT denotes the norm of f in L(0, T; Ly(Q)). Letting T-+ cc and

k + cc now yields (3.6) since F is estimated by (3.11). We also obtain (3.7)

if we apply (2.22) to uk instead of (2.16). The restriction 1 <q<n/2 under

(Q4) is satisfied since q satisfying (3.10) is smaller than n/(n - 1) and n > 3.

(ii) Since 1 < q < n/(n - 1) by (3.10), the Poicare-Sobolev inequality

yields

II~+k,ll,dCIIWy, 1 + n/r = n/q (3.12)

Q is an exterior domain, this is found in Corollary 2.2 in [23]; see also

[S]. The case where Q is a halfspace can be reduced to the caseQ = R by

symmetric extension of p w.r. to the boundary. The estimates (3.7) and

(3.12) yield (3.8) where p should be replaced by p + k,.

The estimates (3.9a), (3.9b) follow from (3.6) and the interpolation

inequalities stated below. This proves Theorem 3.1.

Assume that

n/q + 2/s = 2 + n/h * + 2/p, n/h*=n/h-1. (3.13)

for all u satisfying u E L(0, T; D(A,)) for all 0 < T< co with u E Ly,,

A,u E Ly., and u(O) = a EDim /*..

Proof: Step 1. We first assumea = 0. In this case u(t) is expressed as

u(t)=jeP~(u+Au)dr. (3.15)

0

Since eprA is a bounded analytic semigroupsin L:(Q) [3, 30, 42, 19, 5, 231

we have

IIAaePA II < C,tr, t > 0, (3.16)

86 GIGA AND SOHR

For 0 <a < 1 the Hardy-Littlewood inequality (see, e.g., [43, p. 1401)

yields

with 1 - CI+ l/p = l/s; this inequality is also valid for p = s and a = 1. By

(3.13) we obtain 2c( + n/h* = n/q.

We now apply an embedding inequality (Corollary 6.7 in [23])

to (3.18) yields

The estimate (3.19) was first proved by [23] for 1 <h < max(n/2,2) and

later extended by [4] to the case 1 < h < n. The estimates (3.17) and (3.20)

yield (3.14); the first inequality of (3.14) follows from the Sobolev

inequality since U= 0 on 852. For the Sobolev inequality for exterior

domains, see, e.g., Corollary 2.2 in [23].

We note that we do not need to apply (3.19) if we are only interested in

the estimates for U, not in the derivatives Vu. Indeed, instead of (3.20) we

have

Step 2. For every i E D~ Is, there exists some w E L( - l,O; D(A,))

with w E L( - l,O; X), w(0) 2 a, w( - 1) = 0, and

L ESTIMATES FOR THE CAUCHY PROBLEM 87

- co<t<l,0(t)=lfor06t<coand0<8<1andset

This w satisfies the desired properties. Indeed, we see

Step 3. We now prove (3.14) for general a in Dip. We construct

an extension ii E L( - 1, 00 ; D(A,)) of u by defining ii(t) = u(t) for t b 0 and

ii(t) = w(t) for - 1 6 t < 0 with w in (3.22). Applying Step 1 to ii where the

interval [IO, co) is now replaced by [ - 1, co), we now obtain (3.14) since

w and Aw are controlled by (3.21).

Remark 3.3. As is well known (see [21, 36, 38]), when n =2 our

estimate (3.9a) is enough to conclude everywhere regularity of weak

solutions. When n 3 3 we do not known everywhere regularity. In the case

n = 3 our estimate (3.8) with s = 5/3 and q = 15/14 yields

As is pointed out in [9] the estimate (3.23) for the pressure plays an

important role to improve the partial regularity theory of suitable weak

solutions, i.e., weak solutions satisfying a local version of energy inequality.

In [9], (3.23) is proved when .Q = R3 and conjectured for a general

domain. A weaker estimate

p E L53(sz x (0, T)) (3.24)

domain. Since (3.3) and (3.24) imply that u and p are small for large 1x1,

using the partial regularity theory [9] yields regularity of suitable weak

solutions for large 1x1 for exterior domains (see [39, 281). Our estimates

also yield the regularity of suitable weak solutions for large t apart from

the boundary even when Sz is an exterior domain or a halfspace. Smoothness

for large t without restriction near the boundary is proved in [32] by a

different method. See also [ 18, 281 where also regularity results are proved

for large 1x1.

88 GIGA AND SOHR

Remark 3.4. We now compare our estimates with other known a priori

estimates for weak solutions when n = 3. For a weak solution satisfying an

energy inequality, Foias, Guillope, and Temam [ 151 proved, among other

results,

(3.25)

(3.26)

s, IMt)ll ccdt < ~0.

As a local estimate, this is better than our (3.9a). However, ours are global

in time while T cannot be infinite in (3.25), (3.26). Moreover our estimate

holds for every weak solution while (3.25) and (3.26) only hold for weak

solutions satisfying an energy inequality. Recently, Constantin [ 121

constructed a weak solution satisfying

T

llMt)ll: dt < ~0, (3.27)

s0

the space variables. As a local estimate this is better than (3.7):

s0

scIkW)ll; dt < ~0, q=5/4;

not global in time.

Our Theorem 3.1 describes the large time behavior of weak solutions.

Even when Q is unbounded, many interesting results are now available;

see [4] and references cited there, for example, [ 18, 28, 291. However,

there is a big difference between ours and known results and neither results

imply the others because

(i) there are no global in time estimates for the pressure in the

literature;

(ii) our estimates hold for any weak solutions which may not satisfy

energy inequalities;

L"ESTIMATESFOR THECAUCHY PROBLEM 89

(iv) in the literature the algebraic decay order of Ilu(t)lih* as t + co

is studied while we estimate its decay by an integral norm.

Let us compare our estimate (3.9a) with a result in the literature. For

UE L(Q)n L:(Q) with 1 <r <n/(n - l), r < 2n/(n +2), there is a weak

solution u(x, t) of (3.1t(3.2) (assumingf=O) such that Ilu(t)ll,=~(t-~) as

f -+ 00 with y = (n/r - n/k)/2 for r 5 k < 2; see [4, Theorem C]. If we take

r=n/(n - I), this implies

Ib(t) = 4-q

with n/k + 2/p = n - 1. However, it does not imply (3.9a).

OVER THE HALFSPACE

A$ E -Y(X) and for every F> 0 there is C = C(n, q, E) such that

IIA i /I 6 Ce

holdsfor all s E R.

We first list some properties of fractional powers of general nonnegative

operators.

holds

(i) (aA) = &A for a > 0, s E R

(ii) (6 + A)f-t Af in X as 6 -0 (6 >0) provided that

j-c D(A) n R(A).

Proof of Theorem Al. Our argument is based on a scaling transforma-

tion

(s,S)(x)=f(XlP)7 .fEcp",), P>O

and the estimate (3.12) in [3]:

90 GIGA AND SOHR

since (A4 + Z)zf is analytic in z, -l<Rez<l, forfED(A,)nR(A,).

By the definition of A, we observe that

(1+p*AJ=SJl+ A,)- S,

the estimate (1) yields

JI(p*A, + Z)ll < Cell.

Since

($A,+ z)S=~*(Ay+~~*);.~

u--rm

for all f E D(A,) n R(A,) which completes the proof of Theorem Al since

D(A,) n R(A,) is dense in X= Lz(Iw: ).

Proof of Lemma A2. We recall the definition of Af for

fED(A)nR(A):

(2)

the definition is independent of the choice of m. We replace A by aA in (2)

LPESTIMATESFORTHECAUCHYPROBLEM 91

D(A) n R(A). By a density argument we obtain (i) as operators.

It remains to prove (ii). We replace A by A + 6 in (2) and observe that

the norms of all integrals are dominated by integrable functions independent

of 6. Since we have

(6+A)-f+A-f, (A+d+A)pf-+(i+A)pf in X

Step 1. Using the notations in Theorem 1.1, we first observe a density

property. The set

arguments: (t+A))XcX is dense for t>O, t(t+A)-o-,0, and

A (t + A ) ~ u -+ u as t --) 0 for all u EX, the corresponding facts hold with A

replaced by B.

Step 2. Using Komatsus representation for A and B ([26]; see

also [23]) it easily follows that AZBWu= BAzu for all u ED,, and for all z,

we@ with -l<RezQl, -l<Rew<l.

Step 3. We use the same integrals as in [13],

A - iy B ~ 1 + i,

u dy,

sin rciy

A ~ 1+ iJBi

@,;,u=f j u d! (YER)

l,l.,sin~(l+iy)

with E>O, UED,. The convergence of these integrals follows from the

assumptions which lead to the estimate

where 8 + 0 < 7~.The argument on the Hilbert transform in [13] shows

that the limits

lim @o,Eu, s-0lim @,,cv,

E-O

lim BQo,, u, lim A@,,,u

s-0 c-0

92 GIGA AND SOHR

iye0 B@O,EVll

G Cll4l, II60lim A@,,,LJIId Cll4l (1)

Step 4. An elementary calculation as in [13] shows that

(~i,mo@o,,v)+~B~lu=(lim @,,,~)+fA~o (3)

c- 0

for all UED,. The same relation also holds for all u = Ah or u = Bh with

h E Do. The expression in (3) will be denoted by So in these cases.

Step 5. We use the closedness of A and B and Step 2 to obtain

i:- 0 EO s-0

c-0 c+ 0 1.- 0

for all UE Do. So we conclude that SUE D(A) n D(B) and BSv = SBu,

ASu = SAu for all u E Do. From (1) it follows that

for all u E Do, where C = C(0, (T, K, X) > 0.

Step 6. Let u E Do. Then by (2), (3), and Step 5 we obtain

SAv+SBv=ASv+BSv

= (;Fo A@,,,v) + iv + (,li_mo

B@,,,u) + ;u

= ;u + fu = u

follows

IlBuIl=llBSvIl ~C~IY~~=CII(A+B)S~I~=C~~(A+B)~~~.

USEDo,j= 1, 2, .... such that lim,, a, ui = f in the norm of X. Setting ui = Su,

we see by Step 5 that uj E D(A) n D(B) and by Step 6 that

Lp ESTIMATES FOR THE CAUCHY PROBLEM 93

and there is some u E D(A + B) such that Au + Bu =f and IlAull + IIBull <

2Cllfll. The theorem is proved.

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