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The Hong Kong Polytechnic University


Department of Building Services Engineering

Programme : MSc/PgD in Building Services Engineering (04001)

Full-time PhD (88011)

Level : 5

Subject : Electrical Installations in Buildings (BSE515)

Session : 2006/2007 Semester 1

Date : 13 December 2006

Time : 6:30 pm 9:30 pm

Time Allowed : 3 hours

This question paper has 10 pages.

Instructions to Candidates:

1. Answer any 4 questions out of 6.

2. All questions carry equal marks.
3. This is an open book examination.

Available from Invigilator:

1. Graph paper.

Recommended List of Materials Allowed to be taken into the examination venue:

1. Electronic calculators, printed books, articles and class notes.


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1. There are two 100 kVA electric heating coils in a centralized heating plant, which
are supplied by a feeder circuit from a main LV switchboard rated 2500kA. The
circuit is protected by MCCB (DPX 160), and made using 1/c XLPE-insulated
non-armoured cables installed in steel trunking of 300mm x 150mm x 1.6mm
(Width x Depth Gauge) with another similar circuit. The plant room is 40 m away
from the switchboard, and is mechanically ventilated so that the ambient
temperature will not exceed 40 C.

The earth fault loop impedance external to the installation at the LV switchboard
is 0.12. Information of MCCB is given in Appendix Q1.

(a) Selecting appropriate rating and setting of the electromagnetic release in

MCCB and cable size so that the thermal, electrical and energy efficient
requirements are fulfilled.
(12 marks)

(b) Determine, with necessary steps, whether or not the requirements of protection
against overcurrent and earth fault are fulfilled.
(8 marks)

(c) Propose, with your justification, the recommendations if these requirements in

(b) cannot be fulfilled.
(5 marks)

You may make any reasonable assumption necessary.

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2. (a) A capacitor bank was installed at a main LV switchboard for the improvement
of power factor. An engineer measured the current into the capacitor bank
with a harmonic analyzer and found the harmonic current distortion was very
high (especially the 7th order harmonic). Do capacitors generate harmonic
distortion? With the aid of appropriate diagrams and formulas, explain why
the harmonic distortion was so high.
(8 marks)

(b) A 100m-long 35mm2 4/c PVC/SWA/PVC cable was installed on tray with
another similar cable (touching) to deliver power to the balanced loads in a
computer centre. The cable is protected by 100A fuses to BS88 Part 2/6, and is
fed from a main switchboard on the ground. The ambient temperature in the
duct is 40oC.

It is noted from a previous survey that the harmonic current was very rich.
Fig.Q2 shows the harmonic content of the current in one phase with the
fundamental current 80A and the displacement power factor 0.9.

(i) Estimate both phase and neutral currents, and harmonic distortion of the
phase current.
(ii) Illustrate, with justification, whether or not the cable is subject to an
overheating problem.
(iii) Explain whether the 100A fuse switch is capable of providing protection
against cable overheating.

(17 marks)

You may make any reasonable assumption necessary.

100% 100%
Harmonic Distortion (%)


50% 45%
25% 20%

1 3 5 7
Harmonic Order (h)

Fig. Q2

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3. (a) Wherever there is a reduction in cross section area of conductors, devices for
overcurrent protection are required to be installed on the circuit. State under
what circumstances this installation requirement can be waived according to
the relevant regulations in Hong Kong.
(7 marks)

(b) One main LV switchboard with a maximum demand of 1500A is fed from a
utility distribution transformer rated 11kV/380V and 1050kVA. Solid-state
IDMTL relays (current rating of 5A) together with current transformers
(1600/5 CTs) are employed to control a 1600A main incoming circuit breaker
(MICB) for O/C and E/F protection. You may need the information given in
Appendix Q3.

Given by the earth-fault current at the switchboard:

IE/F = 500A
and the time-current characteristics of IDMT relays:
t= TM Standard Inverse
PSM 0.02 1
t= TM Very Inverse
t= TM Extremely Inverse
PSM 2 1
Plug setting (PS): 10% 200% with a step size of 5%
Time multiplier : 0.1 1.0 with a step size of 0.1

(i) Select the type of relays for OC protection, and determine settings of
relays so that the discrimination set by the local power company is
(ii) Select the type of relays for EF protection, and determine settings of
relays so that the protection against indirect contact is achieved.
(18 marks)

State all your assumptions clearly.

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4. A 500kVA diesel-engine generating set was installed on the roof of a building for
essential loads rated 200kVA. The generating set is connected to an automatic
transfer switch in a main LV switch board on the ground, via a main circuit.
Additional information is given below as well as in Appendix Q4.

Engine: BMEP=15x102 (kPa)

Alternator: 500kVA at 380V, 1500rpm
Main circuit: a 120m-long 4/c 400mm2 XLPE/SWA/PVC cable on tray

(a) Illustrate, with the aid of diagrams, why the total loading of electrical loads
should be limited to some level when they are applied to the generating set
together. What are the limits of loadings when the loads are applied to the
generating set?

State, with your illustration, whether or not all essential loads can be applied
to the generating set simultaneously.
(19 marks)

(b) Determine the limit of voltage drop for the main circuit connected to a
generating set, and illustrate whether or not the voltage drop on this main
circuit exceed the limit.
(6 marks)

State all your assumptions clearly.

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5. (a) To protect a power transformer against its internal earth fault, a unit protection
scheme using a high-impedance differential relay is often applied. Given by
the secondary winding diagram in Figure Q5(a),
(i) Draw the wiring diagram of CTs and the relay for detecting the internal
earth fault within the secondary winding only.
(ii) Describe the procedure to determine the voltage setting, current setting and
resistance of the stabilizing resistor.
(10 marks)

Tx. Secondary windings


Fig. Q5(a)

(b) A high-impedance differential protection scheme using IDMT relays (current

rating = 5A) is proposed for 11kV busbar protection. It is known that that the
wire resistance is equal to 0.03 ohm, and the current setting of IDMT relays
ranges from 0.5A, 1A, 1.5A and 2A. The fault level is 18.4kA, and the relay
burden is 1VA. CT resistance and magnetizing curves are given in Appendix

(i) Illustrate, with the aid of a diagram, the operating principle of this
protection scheme.
(ii) Determine both voltage and current settings of this protection scheme, and
the minimum fault current the relay can detect.
(15 marks)

300/ 5 300/ 5 300/ 5

11kV switch gears

Fig. Q5(b)

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6. (a) (i) Describe the types of earthing in buildings, and

(ii) Design, with aid of diagrams, the configuration of earthing systems in a
typical commercial building, and indicate the name of each conductor in
the drawing. You need to include but not limit to the following items:
Standby generator
Lift machine room
Telecom. equipment
Main LV switchboard
Lightning protection system
(14 marks)

(b) Describe, with the aid of diagrams, how to classify metal work in a building
for the purpose of earthing and bonding.
(6 marks)

(c) Describe, with aid of examples, under what situations supplemental bonding
of metalwork in a building is needed.
(5 marks)

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Appendix Q1 Information MCCB (DPX 160 with electromagnetic releases or

trip units of 63A, 100A and 160A)

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Appendix Q3 Maximum Allowable Time-Current Curves

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Appendix Q4 Additional Information about the Generating Set

(a) Voltage dip curves

(b) Guide values for max. possible sudden power increases as a function of brake
mean effective pressure (BMEP) at declared power

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Appendix Q5 Resistances and Characteristics of Protective CTs