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Part I

A Report of
Rhodeliza D.L. Tiotangco
MASEd- Biology
Isa subfield of ecology that deals with the
study of relationships between organism
and their environment at large spatial
scales to characterize and explain
statistical patterns and abundance,
distribution and diversity.
Approaches the idea of studying
ecosystem using a top down approach.
What is a Macro-ecosystem?
Itis described as a single
biological community of
interacting living things and their
physical environment that
expands automatically into a set
of communities.
Key factors of Macro-
Geographic Range Size
- is often conceptualized as a
fixed attribute of a species and
treated as such for the purposes of
quantification of extinction risk;
species occupying smaller
geographic ranges are assumed to
have a higher risk of extinction, all
else being equal.
Abundance of resources
is an ecological concept
referring to the relative representation of
a species in a particular ecosystem. It is
usually measured as the number of
individuals found per sample. How
species abundances are distributed
within an ecosystem is referred to
as relative species abundances. Both
indicators are relevant for computing
means the variability among
living organisms from all sources
including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine
and other aquatic ecosystems and
the ecological complexes of which
they are a part; this includes diversity
within species, between species and
of ecosystems.
Macro evolutionary trends
encompasses the grandest trends
and transformations in evolution, such as
the origin of mammals and the radiation of
flowering plants. Macro-evolutionary
patterns are generally what we see when
we look at the large-scale history of life.
It is not necessarily easy to "see" macro-
evolutionary history; there are no firsthand
accounts to be read. Instead, we
reconstruct the history of life using all
available evidence: geology, fossils, and
living organisms.
Threats to the
Part II
Human Population and
A growing world population might
seem like an obvious threat to the
environment that goes far beyond the
debatable theory of global warming.
The bigger threat is far more complex
and directly linked not to the
controversial idea of a carbon
footprint, but to the unique system of
supply and demand.
When a region loses its biodiversity, it
becomes more vulnerable to other
environmental elements. Deforestation
disrupts the natural balance of ecological
systems in the area where the trees have
been harvested and far beyond. Food
production can be impacted due to
drought and erosion directly linked to the
loss of forests.
Acid Rain
Acid rain is created by excessive sulfuric and nitric
acid being pumped into the atmosphere, rivers,
oceans, and land. While some acid rain is the
byproduct of the natural processes of decaying
vegetation and volcanic activity, the current crisis
comes directly from the burning of fossil fuels.
Water becomes toxic when acid rain imbues the
oceans or lakes with an absorption quality that
cause the water to absorb soil-based aluminum
and poisons the aquatic plant and marine life.
Dead Zone in the Ocean
Another harmful source of excessive
nitrogen being dumped into the oceans
can be traced back to agricultural
practices of over-fertilization of crops,
lawns and gardens. The end result has
been the creation of over 160 dead zones
throughout the world's oceans.
Earth Changes
Theresult is a rise in temperatures and the
melting of glaciers and even the polar ice
cap. Many highly-respected scientists
disagree that global warming is the result
of human-caused pollution any more
than it can cause powerful hurricanes,
tsunamis, earthquakes, floods, and even
solar flares.
Ozone Deterioration
Chemicals and chlorofluorocarbons pollutants
are created by industry and agriculture. They
have a negative impact the ozone layer. The
lack of strict enforcement of laws to prevent
the use of such pollutants compounds the
situation. World governments that continue to
allow various pollutants into the environment
impede the recovery of the ozone layer.
Other threats affecting the
threats to humans: health, food and water,
shelter, recreation, hindrance, social
cohesion, wealth.
threats to atmosphere and water cycle:
climate change, sea level rise, atmospheric
threats to land and soil: water, exploitation,
soil erosion, species diversity,
threats to the sea: exploitation, soil erosion,
habitat loss, nutrient discharge,