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A. Labor Relations vs. Labor Standards

B. Interpretation and application of labor laws

PNCC Skyway Traffic Management and Security Division Workers Organization v.
PNCC Skyway Corp., G.R. No. 171231, February 17, 2010

C. Social Justice
PLDT v. NLRC, G.R. No. 80609, August 23, 1988, En Banc

D. Police Power
Philippine Association of Service Exporters, Inc. v. Drilon, G.R. No. 81958, June 30,
1988, En Banc

E. Employer Employee Relationship

1. Definition
2. Determination of the existence of the relationship

F. Universal Declaration of Human Rights

1. Art. 2
2. Art. 23

G. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

1. Art. 8


A. Constitutional Provisions
1. State Policies Article II, Secs. 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 18, 20
2. Bill of Rights Article III, Secs. 1, 4, 8
3. Social Justice and Human Rights Art. XIII, Secs. 1, 2, 3, 14

B. Civil Code Provisions

1. Articles 10, 1700, 1701, 1702

C. Labor Code Provisions

1. LC Article 3 Basic Policy
2. LC Article 211 Labor Relations State Policies
a) Right to self-organization
b) Preferred modes of settling disputes
c) Social justice
d) Industrial peace
e) Workers enlightenment
f) Workers participation in decision-making process

D. Definition of Terms
1. LC Art. 212


Composition / Jurisdiction / Functions

DOLE Department of Labor and Employment

NLRC National Labor Relations Commission
BLR Bureau of Labor Relations
NCMB National Conciliation and Mediation Board


A. Right to Self-Organization
1. Constitutional Guarantee
a) Art. III, Sec. 8
b) Art. XIII, Sec. 3

2. Purpose of Self-Organization
a) Art. 245
Samahan ng Manggagawa sa Hanjin Shipyards v. BLR, et. al., G.R. No. 211145,
October 14, 2015

3. Employee Coverage
a) LC Art. 243 to 245
b) LC Art. 277 (c)
c) Executive Order No. 180
d.1) All Employees
FEU-Dr. Reyes Medical Foundation Inc. vs. Trajano, G.R. No. 76273, July 31, 1987
NUWHRAIN Manila Pavilion Chapter vs. Sec. of Labor, G.R. No. 181531, July 31, 2009
d.2) Supervisors
(i) LC Art. 212 (m)
(ii) LC Art. 245
Franklin Baker Co. vs. Trajano, G.R. No. 75039, January 28, 1988
d.3) Aliens
(i) LC Art. 269
(ii) Requisites
(iii) LC Art. 270
(iv) Trade Union Activities
d.4) Security Guards
Meralco vs. Sec. of Labor, G.R. No. 91902, May 20, 1991
e.1) Managerial & Confidential Employees
Metrolab Industries vs Confessor, G.R. No. 108855, February 28, 1996
Penaranda vs Baganga Plywood Corp., G.R. No. 159577, May 3, 2006
United Pepsi-Cola Supervisory Union (UPSU) v. Laguesma, G.R. No. 122226, March
25, 1998
Tagaytay Highlands International Golf Club vs. Tagaytay Highlands Employees
Union-PGTWO, G.R. No. 142000, January 22, 2003
Coca-Cola Bottlers Philippines, Inc., v. Ilocos Professional and Technical Employees
Union (IPTEU), G.R. No. 193798, September 9, 2015
e.2) Cooperative Members
Benguet Electric Cooperatives Inc. vs. Calleja, G.R. No. 79025, December 29, 1989
Central Negros vs. Sec. of Labor, G.R. No. 94045, September 13, 1991
e.3) Non-Employees
f.1) Ambulant, Intermittent and Itinerant Workers
(i) LC Art. 243
f.2) Government Employees
(i) Executive Order No. 180
(ii) LC Art. 244
(iii) LC Art. 277

4. Scope of the Right to Self Organization

a) LC Art. 243 to 246
b) LC Art. 277 (c)
Reyes vs. Trajano, G.R. No. 84433, June 2, 1992
Pan American World Airways Inc. vs. Pan American EU, G.R. No. L-25094, April 29,
1969, En Banc
UST Faculty Union vs. Bitonio, G.R. No. 131235, November 16, 1999

B. Labor Organizations *** [ LIM, ANTON ]

1. Definition
- Labor Organization
- Union
- Legitimate Labor Organization
- Workers Association
- Legitimate Workers Association
- Federation / National Union / Industry Union
- Trade Union Center
- Independent Union
San Miguel Corporation Employees Union (PTGWO) vs. San Miguel Packaging
Products Employees Union (PDMP), G.R. No. 171153, September 12, 2007
2. Registration
a) Purpose of registration
b) Constitutionality
PAFLU vs. Sec. of Labor, G.R. No. L-22228, February 27, 1969, En Banc
c) Requirements and Procedure
1) DOLE Dept. Order No. 40-03 (Series of 2003) Rule III
d) Modes of Registration
Coastal Subic Bay Terminal vs. DOLE, G.R. No. 157117, November 20, 2006
San Miguel Corporation (Mandaue Packaging) vs. Mandaue Packing Products Plants
(SMAMRFU), G.R. No. 152356, August 16, 2005
e) Effects of registration
f) Certificate of Registration
g) Denial of Registration

3. Cancellation of Registration
a) LC Art. 239
b) DOLE Dept. Order No. 40-03 (Series of 2003) Rule XIV and XV
Tagaytay Highlands International Golf Club vs. Tagaytay Highlands Employees
Union-PGTWO, G.R. No. 142000, January 22, 2003
The Heritage Manila Hotel vs. PIGLAS-Heritage, G.R. No. 177024, October 30, 2009

C. Rights and Conditions of Membership

1. Fees and Collection
Del Pilar Academy vs. Del Pilar Academy Employees Union, G.R. No. 170112, April
30, 2008

2. Financial Reporting
3. Election Officers and Qualifications
a) Qualifications
b) Disqualifications

4. Method of Election
5. Intra-Union Disputes
6. Admission of Members & Retention of Membership
7. Disbursement of Union Funds
8. Compensation of Officers
9. Reporting
10. Assessments and Check-Offs
ABS-CBN Supervisors Employee Union vs. ABS-CBN, G.R. No. 106518, March 11,

D. Rights of Legitimate Labor Organizations

1. Representation
2. Bargaining Agent
3. Financial Statements
4. Property Rights
5. Personality to Sue and be Sued
6. Tax Exemptions
7. Other Activities
E. Appropriate Bargaining Unit *** [PAGOROGON, JESUS ]
1. LC Art. 255

2. Definition
a) Bargaining Unit
b) Exclusive Bargaining Agent or Exclusive Bargaining Representative (Doctrine of
Union Monopoly)
3. Test to determine the constituency of an appropriate bargaining unit
a) Globe Doctrine / The Express Will or Desire of the Employees Test
International School Alliance of Educators (ISAE) vs. Quisumbing, G.R. No. 128845,
June 1, 2000
b) Substantial Mutual Interest Principle / Community or Mutuality of Interest Test
National Association Of Free Trade Unions vs. Mainit Lumber Development
Company Workers Union, G.R. No. 79526, December 21, 1990
San Miguel Corporation vs. Laguesma, G.R. No. 100485, September 21, 1994
San Miguel Foods Incorporated vs. San Miguel Corporation Supervisors and Exempt
Union, G.R. No. 146206, August 1, 2011
c) Collective Bargaining History Principle / Prior Collective Bargaining History Test
d) Employment Status Principle / Employment Status Test
4. Participation in the policy and decision-making process
PAL vs. NLRC, G.R. 85985, August 13, 1993

5. Labor-Management Committees or Council

F. Representation Issue in Organized Establishments

1. LC Arts. 256 to 259

2. Methods of Establishing Majority Status

a) Certification Election
(i) Purpose
Port Workers Union of the Phils. vs Laguesma
Reyes vs. Trajano, G.R. No. 84433, June 2, 1992
b) Voluntary Recognition
c) Consent Election
d) Run-Off Elections
NUWHRAIN Manila Pavilion vs. Sec. of Labor, G.R. No. 181531, July 31, 2009
e) Employer Certification
(i) DOLE Dept. Order No. 40-03 (Series of 2003) Rule VII
f) No Direct Certification
Central Negros vs. Sec. of Labor, G.R. No. 94045, September 13, 1991
Samahang Manggagawa sa Premex vs. Sec. of Labor, G.R. No. 107792, March 2, 1998
g) Effect of Withdrawal of Employee Participation
Tagaytay Highlands International Golf Club vs. Tagaytay Highlands Employees
Union-PGTWO, G.R. No. 142000, January 22, 2003

3. Petition for Certification Election

a) DOLE Dept. Order No. 40-03 (Series of 2003) Rule VIII
b) Union as the Petitioner
1) Organized Establishment
(i) LC Art. 256
2) Unorganized Establishment
(i) Definition Unorganized Establishment
(ii) LC Art. 257
Sugbuanon Rural Bank vs. Laguesma, G.R. No. 116194, February 3, 2000
c) Employer as the Petitioner
1) LC Art. 258
Notre Dame of Greater Manila vs. Laguesma, G.R. No. 149833, June 29, 2004

4. Election Rules and Procedure (LC Arts. 256 to 258)

a) Posting of Notice
b) Voting List and Voters
c) Valid Votes Cast
d) Protest
e) Appeal
1) LC Art. 259
f) Annulment
1) Grounds
g) Suspension of Certification Election
j) Effect of Pending Petition vis--vis Cancellation of Trade Union
1) LC Art. 238-A
Progressive Development Corporation vs. Laguesma, G.R. No. 96425, February 4,

5. Bars to Certification Election

a) One Year Bar Rule
b) Deadlock Bar Rule
c) Contract Bar Rule
d) Freedom Period

6. Affiliation and disaffiliation of the local union from the mother union
a) Substitutionary doctrine
Alliance of Nationalist And Genuine Labor Organization vs. SAMANA BAY, G.R. No.
118562, July 5, 1996
Benguet Consolidated vs. BCI Employees and Workers Union, G.R. No. L-24711, April
30, 1968, En Banc

G. Collective Bargaining
1. Definition
University of the Immaculate Conception vs. Sec. of Labor, G.R. No. 146291, January
23, 2002

2. Essential Requisites

3. Procedure LC Arts. 250, 251, 233

a) Notice
b) Settlement of Differences
c) Conciliation
d) Prohibited Activities
e) DOLE Assistance LC Art. 267 Assistance by the Department of Labor
4. Duty to Bargain
a) LC Arts. 252, 253
b) Nature
Collegio de San Juan De Letran vs Association of Employees and Faculty of Letran,
G.R. No. 141471, September 18, 2000
Kiok Loy vs. NLRC, G.R. No. L-54334, January 22, 1986
c) Substitutionary Doctrine
d) Absorption Doctrine
5. Kinds of Bargaining
a) Single Enterprise
b) Multi-Employer

H. Collective Bargaining Agreement *** [ DUMAYAS, EMMANUEL ]

1. Interpretation and Nature
PNCC Skyway Traffic Management and Security Division Workers Organization v.
PNCC Skyway Corp., G.R. No. 171231, February 17, 2010
RFM Corporation vs. KAMPI-NAFLU-KMU, G.R. No. 162324, February 4, 2009
Halaguena vs. PAL, G.R. No. 172013, October 2, 2009
2. Duration of Agreement (Art. 253(a) Labor Code)
a) Effect of Expiry
New Pacific Timber Supply Co. vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 124224, march 17, 2000
Manila Electric Coop. vs, Quisumbing, G.R. No. 127598, February 22, 2000
Faculty Association of Mapua Institute of Technology vs. CA. G.R. No. 164060, June
15, 2007
3. Mandatory Requirements of Publication, Ratification and Registration
4. Contract Beneficiaries
New Pacific Timber Supply Co. vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 124224, March 17, 2000
Manlimos vs. NLRC. G.R. No. 113337, March 2, 1995
5. Union Security Arrangements
a) LC Art. 248(e) Unfair Labor Practices of Employers
Inguillo vs. First Philippine Scales Inc., G.R. No. 165407, June 5, 2009
Tanduay Distillery Labor Union vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 75037, April 30, 1987

I. Grievance Machinery
1. Definition
a) Grievance
b) Grievance Machinery
c) Grievance Procedure
2. Nature of Grievance
3. Grievance Procedure in CBA (LC Art. 260 Grievance Machinery &
Voluntary Arbitration; 212(n) Definitions)
Juanito Tabigue vs. International Copra Export Corp., G.R. No. 183335, December 23,
4. Grievance Issues
Caltex Refinery Employees Association vs. Brillantes, G.R. No.123782, September 16,
5. Arbitration
a) Voluntary
b) Compulsory
6. Voluntary Arbitration
Santuyo vs. Remerco Garments Manufacturing, Inc., G.R. No. 174420, March 22,
7. Types of Labor Disputes that May be Submitted to Voluntary Arbitration
a) Rights Disputes
b) Interest Disputes
8. Voluntary Arbitrators
9. Selection of Arbitrators
a) General Considerations
b) Attributes a Voluntary Arbitrator Should Possess
c) Minimum Criteria for Accreditation
d) Indicators of Acceptability
10. Two Kinds Permanent / Ad Hoc
11. Jurisdiction of Voluntary Arbitrators Art. 261 Jurisdiction of Voluntary
Arbitrators or Panel of Arbitrators
12. Barangay Conciliation and Arbitration
13. Arbitration Decisions and Awards

J. Unfair Labor Practices (ULP)

1. Concept of ULP
2. ULP of Employers
a) Test of interference with, restraint or coercion of employees in the exercise of
right to self-organization
1) Totality of Conduct Doctrine
Insular Life Assurance Co., Ltd., Employees Association vs. Insular Life Assurance,
G.R. No. L-25291, January 30, 1970
Hacienda Fatima vs. Natl. Federation of Sugarcane Workers, G.R. No. 149440,
January 28, 2003
Standard Chartered Bank Employees Union vs. Confessor, G.R. No. 114974, June 16,
b) Yellow Dog Contract Art. 248 (b)
c) Company Union
Philippine American Cigar and Cigarette Factory Workers Independent Union vs.
Philippine American Cigar and Cigarette Manufacturing, Co., G.R. No. L-18364,
February 28, 1963
d) Art. 248 (e)
1) Discrimination
2) Union Security Clause
(i) Close Shop Agreement
(ii) Union Shop Agreement
Victoriano vs. Elizalde Rope Workers Union, G.R. No. L-25246, September 12, 1974
3) Agency Fee
4) Duty to bargain collectively
5) Runaway Shop
Criminal Liability
3. ULP of Labor Organizations
a) Restraint or coercion of employees in the exercise of right to self-organization
b) Featherbedding
4. Unfair Labor Practice in collective bargaining
a) Bargaining in bad faith
b) Refusal to bargain
c) Blue sky bargaining
d) Surface bargaining

K. Economic Weapons / Right to peaceful concerted activities [ LUCMAN,

1. Strikes
2. Lockouts
3. Pickets
4. Industrial or labor dispute
5. Mandatory Procedural Requisites
6. Valid Grounds for Strike or Lockout
a) ULP
b) Collective Bargaining Deadlock
7. Notice of Strike
a) When to file
b) Who may file
8. Strike or Lockout Vote
9. Union Busting
10. Cooling Off Period
a) Purpose
11. Seven-day Waiting Period (Strike or Lockout Ban)
a) Mandatory nature
CCBPI Postmix Workers Union vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 114521, November 27, 1998 and
Coca-Cola Bottlers Phil., Inc. vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 123491, November 27, 1998
12. Assumption of jurisdiction by the Secretary of Labor or certification of the labor
dispute to the NLRC for compulsory arbitration
13. National Interest Case
Philtread Workers Union (PTWU) vs. Confessor, G.R. No. 117169, March 12, 1997
Phimco Industries, Inc., vs. Brillantes, G.R. No. 120751, March 17 1999
14. Return to Work Order
15. Injunction in strike or lockout or picketing cases
16. Illegal strike
a) Liability of officers of the unions
b) Liability of ordinary workers
17. Rule on entitlement to backwages in case of a strike?
18. Guidelines issued by the DOLE and NAPOLCOM Guidelines for the Conduct of
PNP Personnel, Private Security Guards and Company Guard Forces During Strikes,
Lockouts and Disputes in General
L. Management Prerogative

1. Discipline
a) Prescribing rules and regulations
b) Proportionality rule
Sagales vs. Rustans Commercial Corporation, G.R. No. 166554, November 27, 2008
Solvic Inductrial Corp. vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 125548, September 25, 1998
2. Transfer of employees
Mendoza vs. Rural Bank of Lucban, G.R. No. 155421, July 7, 2004
PT&T vs. Lapalana, G.R. No. 76645, July 23, 1991
Allied Banking Corporation vs. CA, G.R. No. 144412, November 18, 2003
Genuino Ice Company, Inc. vs. Magpantay, G.R. No. 147790, June 27, 2006
3. Grant of bonus
Philippine Duplicators v. NLRC, G.R. No. 110068, February 15, 1995, En Banc
Eastern Telecomunications Phil. Inc. v. Eastern Telecoms Union, G.R. No. 185665,
February 8, 2012
4. Change of working hours
Manila Jockey Club Employees Labor Union, G.R. No. 167760, March 7, 2007
5. Marital discrimination
Duncan Association of Detailman-PTGWO and Pedro Tecson v. Glaxo Wellcome
Philippines, Inc., G.R. No. 162994, September 17, 2004
Philippine Telegraph and Telephone Company v. NLRC, G.R. No. 118978, May 23,
Star Paper Corporation vs. Simbol, G.R. No, 164774, April 12, 2006
6. Post-employment ban
Ferrazzinni vs. Gsell, G.R. No. L-10712, August 10, 1916, En Banc
Del Castillo vs. Richmond, G.R. No. L-21127, February 9, 1924, En Banc
Rivera vs. Solidbank Corporation, G.R. No. 163269, April 19, 2006
7. Suspension
8. Preventive Suspension
Gatbonton v. NLRC, G.R. No. 146779, January 23, 2006
9. Limitations in its exercise
10. Concept of Security of Tenure
11. Promotion vs. Demotion

M. Termination of Employment *** [DEL ROSARIO, WILLIAM JR]

1. Employer-employee relationship
a) Four-fold test
b) Probationary employment
1) How to Reckon Six Months
CALS Poultry Supply Corporation vs. Roco, G.R. No. 150660, July 30, 2002
Alcira vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 149859, June 9, 2004
Mitsubishi Motors Philippines Corporation vs. Chrysler Philippines Labor Union, G.
R. No. 148738, June 29, 2004
2) Reasonable standards made known by the employer to the employee at the time
of engagement
Alcira vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 149859, June 9, 2004
Aberdeen Court, Inc. v. Agustin, Jr., G.R. No. 149371, April 13, 2005
3) Security of Tenure
Dela Cruz vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 145417, December 11, 2003
Alcira vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 149859, June 9, 2004
Cathay Pacific Airways, Limited vs. Marin, G.R. No. 148931, September 12, 2006
3) Grounds for Termination
i) Failure to meet standards for regularization
ii) Just Causes
iii) Authorized Causes
4) When to End the Probationary Period
Espina, et. al., vs. CA, G.R. No. 164582, March 28, 2007
5) Extension of the Probationary Period
Servidad vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 128682, March 18, 1999
c) Kinds of employment
Bernardo, et. al., vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 122917, July 12, 1999
1) Regular employment
i) Ways of attaining regular employment
(a) By nature of work (Reasonable connection rule)
(b) By period of service
Paguio vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 147816, May 9, 2003
Conti vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 119253, April 10, 1997
(c) By probationary employment
2) Casual employment
Conti vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 119253, April 10, 1997
Fabela, et. al. vs. San Miguel Corporation, G.R. 150658, February 9, 2007
3) Seasonal employment
i) Requisites to attain regular employment
Hacienda Fatima vs. Nacional Federation of Sugarcane Workers Food and General
Trade, G.R. No. 149440, January 20, 2003
4) Project employment
i) Indicators of project employment
Cocomangas Hotel Beach Resort vs. Visca, G.R. No. 167045, August 29, 2008
Equipment Technical Services vs. CA, G.R. No. 157680, October 8, 2008
Caseres vs. Universal Robina Sugar Milling Corporation, G.R.No. 159343, September
28, 2007
ii) Work Pool
Philippine National Construction Corporation vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 85323, June 20,
Fernandez vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 106090, February 28, 1994
Maraguinot, et. al. vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 120969, January 22, 1998
iii) Can project employees be regular employees?
Magcalas, et. al. vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 100333, March 13, 1997
5) Fixed term employment
i) Requisites for validity
Brent School, Inc., vs. Zamora, G.R. No. 48494, February 5, 1990, En Banc
Philippine National Oil Company-Energy Development Corporate vs. NLRC, G.R. No.
97747, March 31, 1994
ii) Termination *** [ GATUS, JEROME ]
Blancaflor vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 101013, February 2, 1993
iii) Successive renewal / Employment on as the need arises basis
Philips Semiconductors, Inc., vs. Fadriquela, G.R. No. 141717, April 14, 2004
iv) Validity of a Pre-termination Clause
Price vs. Innodata Phils., Inc., G.R. No. 178505, September 30, 2008
Loralei Halili v. Justice for Children International, et. al., G.R. No. 194906, September
9, 2015
6) Part time employment
d) Job contracting and labor-only contracting
1) When is there job contracting?
2) When is there labor-only contracting?
2. Termination of employment
a) Two aspects characterizing Due Process
b) Substantive due process
1) Just causes
i) Serious misconduct or willful disobedience
(a) Requisites
Dimabayao vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 122178, February 25, 1999
Bascon vs. CA, G.R. No. 144899, February 5, 2004
Nagkakaisang Lakas ng Manggagawa sa Keihin (NLMK-OLALIA-KMU) vs. Keihin
Philippines Corporation, G.R. No. 171115, August 09, 2010
Fujitsu Computer Products Corporation of the Philippines vs. CA, G.R. No. 158232,
March 31, 2005
(b) Sexual Harassment
Digitel Telecommunications Philippines, Inc., v. Soriano, G.R. No. 166039, June 26,
Philippine Aeolus Automotive United Corporation. v. NLRC, G.R. No. 124617, April
28, 2000
Aquino v. Acosta, A.M. No. CTA-01-1, April 2, 2002, En Banc
Domingo v. Rayala, G.R. No. 155831, February 18, 2008
CSC v. Belagan, G. R. No. 132164, October 19, 2004, En Banc
ii) Gross and habitual neglect of duties
(a) Requisites
(b) Can gross negligence, although not habitual, still be a ground for termination?
School of the Holy Spirit of Quezon City vs. Taguiam, G.R. No. 165565, July 14, 2008
PAL vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 82471, February 18, 1991
Fuentes vs. NLRC, G.R. No. L-75955, October 28, 1988
(c) Excessive Absences
Procter and Gamble Philippines vs. Bondesto, G.R. No. 139847, March 5, 2004
Del Monte Phils., Inc., vs. Velasco, G.R. No. 153477, March 6, 2007
Worldwide Papermills vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 113081, May 12, 1995
Quiambao vs. manila Electric Company, G.R. No. 171023, December 18, 2009
Labudahon vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 112206, December 11, 1995
Brew Master Internacional vs. National Federation of Labor Unions, G.R. No.
119243, April 17, 1997
(d) Abandonment of duties
Tan Brothers of Basilan City v. Escudero, G.R. No. 188711, July 3, 2013
Aliten vs. U-Need Lumber and Hardware, G.R. No. 168931, September 12, 2006
Hodieng Concrete Products vs. Emilia, G.R. No. 149180, G.R. No. February 14, 2005
iii) Fraud or willful breach of trust (loss of trust and confidence)
(a) Requisites
Farrol vs. CA, G.R. No. 133259, February 10, 2000
P.J. Lhuillier Inc., vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 158758, April 29, 2005
(b) Position of trust and confidence
Philippine Pizza, Inc., vs. Bungabong, G. R. No. 154315, May 9, 2005
University of the Immaculate Conception v. Office of the Secretary of Labor and
Employment, et. al., G.R. No. 178085-178086, September 14, 2015
iv) Commission of a crime
v) Termination of employment pursuant to a union security clause
Inguillo vs. First Philippine Scales Inc., G.R. No. 165407, June 5, 2009
Tanduay Distillery Labor Union vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 75037, April 30, 1987
vi) Totality of infractions doctrine
Valiao vs. CA, G.R. No. 146621, July 30, 2004
Alvarez vs. Golden Tri Bloc, Inc., G.R. No. 202158, September 25, 2013
vii) Analogous causes
Yrasuegui vs. PAL, G.R. No. 168081, October 17, 2008
John Hancock Life Insurance Corporation vs. Davis, G.R. No. 169549, September 3,
2) Authorized causes
i) Installation of Labor-Saving Devices
Magnolia Dairy Products Corporation vs. NLRC, G.R. NO. 114952, January 29, 1996
ii) Redundancy
(a) Definition
(b) Requisites of a valid redundancy program
Asian Alcohol Corporation vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 131108, March 25, 1999
Wiltshire File Co., Inc., vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 82249 February 7, 1991
Smart Communications, Inc., vs. Astorga, G.R. No. January 28, 2008
iii) Retrenchment
(a) Definition
(b) Requisites
Flight Attendants and Stewards Association of the Philippines (FASAP) vs. PAL, G.R.
No. 178083, July 22, 2008
(c) Meaning of retrenchment to prevent losses
Revidad vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 111105, June 27, 1995
(d) Best evidence of losses
Saballa vs. NLRC, G.R. Nos. 102472-84, August 22, 1996
(e) Redundancy vs. Retrenchment
Andrada vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 173231, December 28, 2007
iv) Closure or Cessation of Business Operations
(a) Concept
Eastridge Golf Club, Inc., vs. Eastridge Golf Club, Inc., Labor Union-Super, G.R. No.
166760, August 22, 2008
Industrial Timber Corporation vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 107302 and 107306, June 10, 1997
v) Disease or illness
(a) Requisites
Crayons Processing, Inc., vs. Pula, G.R. No. 167727, July 30, 2007 [ MENESES,
(b) Competent Public Health Authority
Cebu Royal Plant vs. Minister of Labor, G.R. No. L-58639, August 12, 1987
c) Procedural due process
1) Procedure to be observed in just causes termination
i) Twin-Notice Rule
Ruffy vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 84193, February 15, 1990
King of Kings Transport, Inc., vs. Mamac, G.R. No. 166208, June 29, 2007
IBM Philippines vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 117221, April 13, 1999
ii) Administrative Hearing
Asia Terminals, Inc., vs. Marbella, G.R. No. 149074, August 10, 2006
Shoppers Gain Supermart vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 110731, July 26, 1996
Caingat vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 154308, March 10, 2005
Wenphil Corporation vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 80587, February 8, 1989
Maneja vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 124013, June 5, 1998
Eastern Overseas Employment Center, Inc. vs. Nagkakaisang Empleyado ng
Wellcome-DFA, G.R. No. 149349, March 11, 2005
2) Development of Doctrines
Wenphil Corporation vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 80587 February 8, 1989, En Banc
Serrano vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 117040, May 4, 2000, En Banc
Agabon vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 158693, November 17, 2004, En Banc
3) Procedure to be observed in authorized causes termination
i) Notice to worker terminated
ii) Notice to the DOLE
d) Reliefs for illegal dismissal
1) Reinstatement aspect
i) Immediately executory
(a) Actual reinstatement
(b) Payroll reinstatement
ii) Reinstatement to previous position or substantially equivalent position
Asian Terminals, Inc., vs. Villanueva, G.R. No. 143219, November 28, 2006
2) Separation pay
i) Separation pay as financial assistance
PLDT vs. NLRC, G.R. No. L-80609, August 23, 1988, En Banc
ii) Separation pay in lieu of reinstatement Strained relation rule
Golden Ace Builders vs. Talde, G.R. No. 187200, May 5, 2010
Leopard Security and Investigation Agency vs. Quitoy, G.R. No. 186344, February 20,
3) Backwages
i) Backwages and Separation Pay, Distinguished
Golden Ace Builders vs. Talde, G.R. No. 187200, May 5, 2010
e) Constructive dismissal
Uniwide Sales Warehouse Club vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 154503, February 29, 2008
Globe Telecom vs. Florendo-Flores, G.R. No. 150092, September 27, 2002
f) Termination of employment by employee (Resignation)
Hechanova Bugay Vilchez Lawyers, et. al., v. Atty. Leny Matorre, G.R. No. 198261,
October 16, 2013
g) Art. 286 When Employment Not Deemed Terminated
3. Retirement Pay Law
a) R.A. 7641
An Act Amending Article 287 of Presidential Decree No. 442, as Amended,
Otherwise Known as the Labor Code of the Philippines, By Providing for Retirement
Pay to Qualified Private Sector Employees IN THE ABSENCE OF ANY RETIREMENT
PLAN in the Establishment
b) RA 4917
An Act Providing that Retirement Benefits of Employees of Private Firms Shall Not
be Subject to Attachment, Levy, Execution, or Any Tax Whatsoever
c) Coverage
d) Exclusions from coverage
e) Components of retirement pay

N. Quasi-Judicial Bodies
1. Procedures, pleadings, practice, burden of proof
2. Labor Arbiter
a) Jurisdiction
b) Effect of self-executing order of reinstatement on back wages
3. National Labor Relations Commission (NLRC)
a) Jurisdictions
b) Effect of NLRC reversal of labor arbiters order of reinstatement
c) Requirements to perfect appeal to court of appeals
a) Money claims
5. DOLE secretary
a) Visitorial and enforcement powers
b) Power to suspend effects of termination

O. Prescription of Actions
1. Money claims
2. Illegal dismissal
3. Unfair labor practice