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DANIEL LENTZ fI .{.....

DAVI D BEHRMAN
JOHN MIZELLE FFLEM ', 1 L !

ALLAN BRYANT '~ l

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ROBERT MORAN NEW MUSIC ENSEMBLE


HAROLD BUDD
PAULINE OLIVEROS MUSICA ELETTRONICA VIVA
PAUL CHIHARA
JON PHETTEPLACE ONCE GROUP HI
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WILL JOHNSON
STEVE REICH SONIC ARTS GROUP
DOUGLAS LEEDY
FREDERIC RZEWSKI } ,\
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Steve Reich

REED PHASE
Photograph by Peter Moore
for any reed instrument
and two channel tape or
Steve Reich was born in New York City in 1936. He received his B.A. degree

THREE REEDS
(philosophy) from Cornell University in 1957. He studied composition

with Hall Overton in 1957 and 1958, attended Juilliard School of Music

(composition) from 1958 to 1961, and received his M.A. degree at Mills

College in 1963, studying there with both Luciano Berio and Darius Milhaud .

In 1964 and 1965 he appeared frequently at the San Francisco Tape Music
Center as both composer and performer; also, during this same period he
composed the soundtracks for two Robert Nelson films, The Plastic Haircut
and Oh, Oem Watermelons . This latter film won an award at the 1965 San
, Francisco film festival and in 1966 won awards at the Ann Arbor, Milwaukee,
j Oberhausen and New York festivals. He has just recently concluded a tour
of universities and colleges throughout the United States. Since 1966 he
has been employed as a tape editor in the recording industry and has
worked as a free lance location sound man on motion picture crews . His
compositions include: Reed Phase (CPE, Davis); Pitch Charts, for any in
struments (1963); Music for Two or more Pianos or Piano and Tape (1964);
Livelihood, tape (1964); It's Conna Rain, tape (1965); Come Out, tape
(1966); Melodica, tape (1966); Piano Phase, for two pianos (1967); My Name
Is, for one or more performers, three or more tape recorders and audience This piece was originally written for Jon Gibson playing
(1967); and Violin Phase, for violin and three channel tape or four violins soprano saxophone, but a clarinet, oboe, accordion, reed
(1967). Come Out was compQsed as part of a civil rights benefit held in
Town Hall in 1966. A recording of this work has just been released by
organ, or any reed instrument that produces the four neces
Columbia Records on their Odyssey label. sary pitches may be played . It is necessary for the performer
to be able to play continuously for at least five minutes .
This can be accomplished by the following method : fill
the mouth with air, allowing the cheeks to "puff-out";
continue playing (using the air supplied by gradually com
pressing the cheeks) while simultaneously inhaling through
the nose to replenish the air supply in the lungs.
.....

REED PHASE
*The performance begins with channel one of the tape and his part is maintained by channel two of the tape . He then
A tape must be prepared by each particular performer, us continues alone for a few seconds. (Generally, an assistant re-enters at #9 and continues to move slowly ahead of both
ing the instrument he will play during performance. The to run the tape machine is necessary.) The performer joins channels of the tape by an eighth-note (#10), a quarter-note
figure, as it appears at #1 in the score, is recorded several the tape, in phase, at #2 and then increases his tempo (#11), a dotted quarter-note (#12), a half-note (#13) and
times on channel one. The tape is rewound, and the figure slightly and begins to move ahead until (in approximately finally, back into phase with channel two (an eighth-not~
is then recorded on channel two an eighth-note ahead of 30 to 45 seconds) he is one eighth-note out of phase, as ahead of channel one) at #14. At this point, he r:nay again
itself as it appears on channel one. A "loop" of this relation shown at #3. The dotted lines indicate this gradual move dry his reed, if necessary, as his part is again maintained by
ship is dubbed onto a tape of at least fifteen minutes dur ment of the performer and the consequent shift of the channel two. After re-entering at #14, channel two is
ation . This becomes the prepared two-channel tape. Channel phase relation between himself and the tape. This process gradually faded out, leaving the performer playing an eighth
two is turned on at #9 and continues until the conclusion note ahead of channel one at #15. Gradually he moves
is continued, the performer gradually moving ahead of
of #14. * ahead and out of phase with channel one by a quarter-note
channel one until he is out of phase with the tape by one
quarter-note (#4), a dotted quarter-note (#5), a half-note
(#16), then a dotted qua rter-note (#17), a half-note (#18)
THREE REEDS and, finally, back into phase at #19. After repeating the
(#6) and, finally, back into phase at #7. He then moves
figure in phase with the tape for a few seconds, both per
The piece may be played without tape on any three reed ahead one eighth-note at #8, holds this relationship for a
former and tape stop together .
instruments of exactly the same kind. Either careful place few seconds, and then is joined by channel two of the tape,
ment of the players or a microphone/ earphone configur which is gradually brought up to a volume equal to the The performer's tendency to move directly from one "ra
ation may be necessary to perform the piece. During the other parts at #9. Assuming the performer has solved the tional" relationship (e.g., all the numbered bars above) into
piece the performers also have the option of exchanging problem of breathing while playing continuously, he may the next should be resisted. He should attempt to move
lines. This could take place, for instance, at the entrance find that the reed becomes saturated and clogged with smoothly and continuously-the slower the better-spend
of Reed III. saliva to the point where it can no longer be played. In ing due time within the dotted lines, or "irrational" relation
this event, he may stop playing and dry his reed at #9, since ships.

J = 132-160 2 3 4

Tape Channel 1 or Reed 1 Immm~THY~J: crorrrEitr;II!T<>J: r::rcfb Ei tr~ll~l~~~Y~J: cEdE! EitI:1


Reed or Reed 2 I~~~~ HHTYJ: c:f orb Ei rr:II~+TYjll: EJ rr Ef orb f~Ul~+jll: erE! Ei trci\1
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Tape Channel 2 or Reed 3

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I

70
tape. He then '
ahead of both
a quarter-note
)te (#13) and
In eighth-not~
he may again
maintained by
lannel two is
ling an eighth
illy he moves
a quarter-note
alf-note (#18)
repeating the
lds, both per

' rom one 1/ ra


rs above) into
~mpt to move
letter-spend
)nal" relation

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71