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describe the development of Islam after leadership of the Four Rightly Guided the death of

6Muhammad under the Caliphs leadership of the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs, accounting for
the emergence of the Sunni and the Shia
the four rightly guided successors of Muhammad have a special resonance in the development of Islam
after the death of Prophet Muhammad
Their time in power extended over a period of time which resulted in the expansion of Islam
Each of the 4 Caliphas had a profound contribution to the overall development of Islam
Abu Bakr 632-634 CE
Early follower of Muhammad
Became the father of in law of Muhammad when his daughter Aisha married him.
Abu Bakr accompanied Muhammad while being ambushed by Makkans they hid in cave
Abu Bakr was a wealthy companion of Muhammad who used his wealth for the service of the Muslim
orthodoxy, the period that followed his leadership was on of extraordinary expansion of Islam and the
Muslim ministry gained confidence.
Through the efforts of Abu Bakr Islam brought order to the social and economic life of great cities
Jerusalem, Damascus and other great cites were attained.
The result was an Islamic commonwealth that extended to the east through Persia and central Asia and
other frontiers like India
The rebellion that arose after the death of Prophet Muhammad, a number tribes refused to pay zakat
(poor due)
Umar 634-644 A.C
Was the elected successor of Abu Bakar when he passed away
The most notable feature of his leadership was such that Islamic empire ruled the vast majority of
Persia, Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Iraq and Armenia.
He gave piratical meaning to the Quranic verses.
These four were all close to Muhammad during his life and they regarded as the leaders who ensured
the maintenance of the Muslim orthodoxy in the period after Muhmmad death for the next 30 years.
Known as caliphs in Arabic to be Rashidun which means rightly guided.
ruled from 632 to 661 CE, this period was extraordinary expansion of Islam and gave the Muslims
great self-confidence. Under the leadership of Abu Bakar Jerusalem, Damascus and other great cites
of the region were captured.
The result was the Islam brought orders to the social and economic life in to these great cities of
Syria Palestine.
The result was an Islamic commonwealth that extended form Persia to central Asia and the frontiers
of India
The Sunni and Shiite were two main groups in Islam who share the same beliefs but differ in the area of
political leadership
the Sunnis believe that the four rightly guided caliphs were the rightful successors of Muhammad
whereas the Shiite believed that Ali was the rightful successor of Muhammad