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1. General Rule: MTC and RTC courts gain jurisdiction over the offense upon the filing
of complaint by a complainant or an information by the prosecuting officer
à Court gains jurisdiction over the person of the accused upon arrest or surrender;
such jurisdiction once gained cannot be lost even if accused escapes (Gimenez
vs. Nazareno)
à Jurisdiction of the court over the offense is determined at the time of the
institution of the action and is retained even if the penalty for the offense is later
lowered or raised (People vs. Lagon)
2. Complaint – sworn written statement charging a person with an offense, subscribed
by the offended party, any peace officer or other public official charged
with the enforcement of the law violated
Information – accusation in writing charging a person with an offense, subscribed by
the fiscal and filed with the court
3. Complaint and Information distinguished:
A sworn statement Need not be sworn to
Subscribed by the offended party, any Subscribed to by the fiscal
peace officer or other officer charged with
the enforcement of the law violated
May be filed either with the court or in the Filed with the court
fiscal’s office generally to commence the
preliminary investigation of the charges

4. Cases where civil courts of equal rank are vested with concurrent jurisdiction:
a. Features stated in Art. 2, RPC
à Cognizable by proper court in which charge is first filed
b. Continuing crimes committed in different judicial regions
c. Offenses wherein any of the essential elements were committed in different
territorial jurisdictions
d. Offenses committed aboard a train, vehicle, aircraft or vessel (see R110, §15)
i. Railroad, train, aircraft
(1) Territory or municipality where vehicle passed
(2) Place of departure
(3) Place of arrival
ii. Vessel
(1) First port of entry
(2) Thru which it passed during voyage
e. Libel and written defamation
5. Remedies of offended party when fiscal unreasonably refuses to file an information
or include a person therein as an accused
a. In case of grave abuse of discretion, action for mandamus
b. Lodge a new complaint against the offenders
c. Take up matter with the Secretary of Justice

This is the old Criminal Procedure. As of printing time, the coverage for the Bar Exams has not
been released yet, so we included the old Criminal Procedure. The Memory Aid for the 2000
Rules of Criminal Procedure will be in the Annex.

d. Institute administrative charges against the erring fiscal

e. File criminal charges under Art. 208, RPC (prosecution of offenses)
f. File civil action under Art. 27, NCC for damages (PO refuses or neglects to
perform official duty)
g. Secure appointment of another fiscal
h. Institute another criminal action if no double jeopardy is involved
6. Writs of injunction or prohibition to restrain a criminal prosecution are not available,
a. To afford adequate protection to constitutional rights of accused
b. Necessary for the orderly administration of justice or to avoid oppression or
multiplicity of actions
c. Pre-judicial question which is sub judice
d. Acts of the officer are without or in excess of authority
e. Prosecution is under an invalid law, ordinance or regulation
f. Double jeopardy is clearly apparent
g. Court has no jurisdiction over the case
h. Case of persecution rather than prosecution
i. Charges are manifestly false and motivated by lust for vengeance
j. Clearly no prima facie case against the accused and MTQ on that ground had
been denied
7. Institution of Criminal Actions:
a. In RTC:
à By filing a complaint with the appropriate officer for the purpose of conducting
requisite preliminary investigation therein.
b. In Municipal Trial Courts and Municipal Circuit Trial Courts:
à By filing the complaint or information directly with said courts, or a complaint
with the fiscal’s office
c. In Metropolitan Trial Courts
à By filing the complaint ONLY with the office of the fiscal
à In all 3 above cases, such institution shall interrupt the period of prescription
of the offense charged (Rule 110, §1)
d. Offenses subject to summary procedure
[i.e. (1) violation of traffic laws; (2) violation of rental laws; (3) violation of
municipal or city ordinances; and (4) criminal cases where the penalty does not
exceed 6 months or fine of P1000 or both, irrespective of other imposable
penalties and civil liabilities]
à The complaint or information shall be filed directly in court without need of a
prior preliminary examination or preliminary investigation.
à Zaldivia vs. Reyes – since a criminal case covered by the Rules of Summary
Procedure shall be deemed commenced only when it is filed in court, then the
running of the prescriptive period shall be halted on the date the case is
actually filed in court and not on any date before that.
à Reodica vs. CA – [clarifies Zaldivia above] Under Art. 91 of the RPC, the
period of prescription shall be interrupted by the filing of the complaint or
information. It does not distinguish whether the complaint is filed for
preliminary examination or investigation only, or for an action on the merits.
Thus, the filing of the complaint even with the fiscal’s office should suspend
the running of the Statute of Limitations. The ruling in Zaldivia is not
applicable to all cases subject to the Rules on Summary Procedure, since
that particular case involved a violation of an ordinance. Therefore, the
applicable law therein was not Art. 91 of the RPC, but Act No. 3326 (“An Act

to Establish Periods of Prescription for Violations Penalized by Special Acts

and Municipal Ordinances and to Provide when Prescription Shall Begin to
Run”), §2 of which provides that period of prescription is suspended only
when judicial proceedings are instituted against the guilty party.
8. Contents of information
a. Name of the accused
à Information may be amended as to the name of the accused, but such
amendment cannot be questioned for the first time on appeal (People vs.
à Error of name of the offended party: if material to the case, it necessarily
affects the identification of the act charged. Conviction for robbery cannot be
sustained if there is a variance between the allegation and the proof as to the
ownership of the property stolen.
b. Designation of offense by statute (or of section/subsection of statute violated)
à Only one offense charged, EXCEPT where law prescribes a single
punishment for various offenses.
à If facts do not completely allege all the elements of the crime charged, the
info may be quashed; however, the prosecution is allowed to amend the info
to include the necessary facts (People vs. Purisima)
c. Acts or omissions complained of constituting the offense
à Information need only allege facts, not include all the evidence which may be
used to prove such facts (Balitaan vs. CFI)
d. Name of offended party
e. Approximate time of commission
à Approximation of time is sufficient; amendment as to time is only a formal
amendment; no need to dismiss case (People vs. Molero)
à A significant discrepancy in the time alleged cannot be sustained since such
would allow the prosecution to prove an offense distantly removed from the
alleged date, thus substantially impairing the rights of the accused to be
informed of the charges against him (People vs. Reyes)
f. Place of commission
à Conviction may be had even if it appears that the crime was committed not at
the place alleged, provided that the place of actual commission was within
the court’s jurisdiction and accused was not surprised by the variance
between the proof and the information
à Qualifying and inherent aggravating circumstances need to be alleged as
they are integral parts of the crime. If proved, but not alleged, become only
generic aggravating circumstances.
9. Amendment of information and Substitution of information, distinguished
Involves either formal or substantial Necessarily involves a substantial change
Without leave of court if before plea Needs leave of court as original
information has to be dismissed
Where only as to form, there is no need for Another preliminary investigation is
another preliminary investigation and entailed and accused has to plead anew
retaking of plea of accused
Refers to the same offense charged or Requires or presupposes that new info
which necessarily includes or is involves a different offense which does not
necessarily included in original charges, include or is not included in the original
hence, substantial amendments to info charge, hence, accused cannot claim
after plea taken cannot be made over double jeopardy

objections of accused for if original info is

withdrawn, accused could invoke double

10. After plea, amendment only as to matters of form, provided

a. Leave of court is obtained; and
b. Amendment is not prejudicial to rights of accused
11. When amendment is only as to form
a. Neither affects or alters nature of offense charged
b. Charge does not deprive accused of a fair opportunity to present his defense
c. Does not involve a change in basic theory of prosecution
12. Exceptions to rule on venue
a. Felonies in Art. 2, RPC (cognizable by proper court in which charge is first filed)
b. Continuing offenses
c. Piracy which is triable anywhere
d. Libel (residence; or where first published)
e. In exceptional cases, to ensure fair trial and impartial inquiry
13. Special cases (who may prosecute)
a. Adultery and concubinage
à Only offended spouse can be complainant
à Both guilty parties must be included in complaint
b. Crimes against chastity
à With consent of the offended party, offended spouse, grandparents, guardian,
or state as parens patriae, in that order
à Offended party, even if minor, has right to initiate the prosecution of the case
independently of parents, grandparents or guardian, unless she is
incompetent/incapable on grounds other than minority.
à If offended party who is a minor fails to file the complaint, her parents,
grandparents or guardian may do so.
à In crimes against chastity, the consent of the victim is a jurisdictional
requirement--retraction renders the information void (People vs. Ocapan)
à If complexed with a public crime, the provincial fiscal may sign the complaint
on his own
c. Defamation (consisting of imputation of offenses in [a] or [b])
à Complainant must be offended party
à The offended party may intervene in the prosecution of the criminal case
because of her interest in it (Banal vs. Tadeo)
14. Procedure
a. Complaint filed in MTC or info filed in RTC where an essential ingredient of
the crime took place (territorial jurisdiction)
b. Amendment as a matter of right before plea
c. Amendment upon discretion of the court after plea
à Inclusion of other accused is only a formal amendment which would not
be prejudicial to the accused and should be allowed (People vs. CA)
d. After plea and before judgment, if it appears there was a mistake in charging
proper offense, court shall dismiss original info upon the filing of a corrected
one, provided that the accused will not be placed in double jeopardy
à Fiscal determines direction of prosecution; complainant must ask fiscal if
he wants to dismiss the case; the motion to dismiss must be addressed to

the court which has discretion over the disposition of the case (Republic
vs. Sunga)
à Objection to the amendment of an information or complaint must be
raised at the time the amendment is made; otherwise, deemed to have
consented thereto.
15. Remedies
a. Motion to quash
à May be filed after arraignment but before plea on the grounds provided by the
rules (generally, a flaw in the info)
à If duplicity of offense charged is not raised in trial through a motion to quash
info, the right to question it is waived (People vs. Ocapan)
b. Motion to dismiss
à May be filed after plea but before judgment on most of grounds for motion to
16. Duplicity of Offense (in information or complaint)
à Defined as the joinder of separate and distinct offenses in one and the same
à Remedy: file a motion to quash; failure is equivalent to a waiver
à Exception: when existing laws prescribe a single punishment (complex


1. General Rule: The injured party may file a civil action independent of the criminal
proceeding to recover damages from the offender.
à Article 32 is a valid cause of a civil action for damages against public officers who
impair the Constitutional rights of citizens (Aberca vs. Ver)
à Even if the private prosecutor participates in the prosecution, if he is not given
the chance to prove damages, the offended party is not barred from filing a
separate civil action
2. Civil action for recovery of civil liability impliedly instituted, EXCEPT
a. Waiver
b. Reservation of right to institute separate action
c. Institution of civil action prior to criminal action
à NOTE: Under SC Circular 57-97, all criminal actions for violations of BP Blg. 22
shall be deemed to necessarily include the corresponding civil action, and no
reservation to file such civil action separately shall be allowed or recognized.
à San Ildefonso Lines vs. CA – past pronouncements of the SC that the
requirement in Rule 111 that a reservation be made prior to the institution of an
independent civil action is an “unauthorized amendment” to substantive law is
now no longer controlling. Far from altering substantive rights, the primary
purpose of the reservation requirement is to avoid multiplicity of suits, to prevent
delays, to clear congested dockets, to simplify the work of the trial court, and in
short, the attainment of justice with the least expense and vexation to parties-
3. Civil action suspended when criminal action filed, EXCEPT
a. Independent civil action (Arts. 32, 33, 34 and 2176 of NCC)
b. Prejudicial civil action
c. Civil case consolidated with criminal action
d. Civil action not one intended to enforce civil liability arising from the offense (e.g.,
action for legal separation against a spouse who committed concubinage)

4. Prejudicial question arises when

a. The civil action involves an issue similar or intimately related to the issue raised
in the criminal action
b. The resolution of such issue will determine whether the criminal action will
proceed or not
à Requisites for a prejudicial question:
i. The civil action involves an issue similar or intimately related to the issue
raised in the criminal action: and
ii. The resolution of such issue determines whether or not the criminal action
may proceed
à Petition for suspension of criminal action is to be filed at any time before
prosecution rests.
5. Remedies
a. Reservation of right to institute separate civil proceedings to recover civil liability
arising from crime
à Must be made before prosecution presents evidence
à Action instituted only after final judgment in criminal action
b. Petition to suspend the criminal action
à May be filed upon existence of a prejudicial question in a pending civil action
à Filed at any time before the prosecution rests
6. Extinction of penal action does not carry with it extinction of the civil unless the
extinction proceeds from a declaration in a final judgment that the fact from which the
civil might arise did not exist.
à Final judgment in civil absolving defendant from civil liability not a bar to
criminal action
7. Filing fees:
a. Actual or compensatory damages – filing fees not required
b. Moral, temperate and exemplary – filing fees required
i. If alleged, fees must be paid by offended party upon filing of complaint or
ii. If not alleged, filing fees considered a first lien on the judgment


1. Preliminary investigation – inquiry or proceeding to determine if there is sufficient
ground to engender a well-founded belief that a crime cognizable by the RTC has
been committed, and that the respondent is probably guilty thereof, and should be
held for trial
à A preliminary investigation is only necessary for an information to be filed with
the RTC; complaints may be filed with the MTC without need of an information,
which is merely recommendatory (Tandoc vs. Resultan)
à Absence of a preliminary investigation is NOT a ground for a motion to quash the
information; an information filed without a preliminary investigation is defective
but not fatal; in its absence, the accused may ask for one; it is the fiscal's refusal
to conduct a preliminary investigation when the accused demands one which is a
violation of the rights of the accused (Doromal vs. Sandiganbayan). Court should
not dismiss the info, but hold the case in abeyance and either: (1) conduct its
own investigation; or (2) require the fiscal to hold a reinvestigation.
2. GENERAL RULE: The fiscal conducts the preliminary investigation before filing an
information with the RTC, EXCEPT where the accused is lawfully arrested without a
warrant and an inquest is conducted.

3. Right to Preliminary Investigation

à A personal right and may be waived
à Waived by failure to invoke the right prior to or at least at the time of the plea
4. Who conducts Preliminary Investigation
a. Provincial or city fiscals and their assistants
b. Judges of MTC and MCTC
c. National and regional state prosecutors
d. Such other officers as may be authorized by law
i. Duly authorized legal officers of COMELEC
ii. The Ombudsman
iii. The PCGG, in cases of ill-gotten wealth
5. Procedure
a. If conducted prior to arrest
i. Complainant files complaint with
(a) Provincial or city fiscal
(b) Regional or state prosecutor
(c) MTC or MCTC judge, excluding MTC judge of Metro Manila or chartered
(d) Other offices authorized by law
ii. Investigating officer either dismisses complaint or asks by subpoena
complainant and respondent to submit affidavits and counter-affidavits
iii. If the investigating officer finds prima facie evidence, he prepares an
information and a resolution
à i.e., if fiscal finds reasonable ground to believe that a crime has been
committed and accused is probably guilty thereof
à Prima facie evidence is that evidence which, standing alone, unexplained
and uncontradicted, would be enough to merit a conviction of the accused
iv. Otherwise, he recommends the dismissal of the complaint
à If the investigating officer is an MTC judge, and he finds that probable
cause exists and that there is a need to place the accused under custody,
then he may issue a warrant of arrest
à Flores vs. Sumaling – What differentiates the present rule from the
previous one is that while before, it was mandatory for the investigating
judge to issue a warrant for the arrest of the accused if he found probable
cause, the rule now is that the investigating judge’s power to order the
arrest of the accused is limited to instances in which there is a necessity
for placing him in custody “in order not to frustrate the ends of justice.” It
is therefore error for the investigating judge to order the issuance of a
warrant of arrest solely on his finding of probable cause, without making
any finding of a necessity to place the accused in immediate custody to
prevent a frustration of justice.
v. Investigating officer forwards records to the city fiscal or chief state
vi. City fiscal or state prosecutor either dismisses the complaint or files the
information in court
à Decision prevails over decision of the MTC judge
vii. Records will not form records of the case proper
à Court on its own or on motion may order production of record

b. If conducted after warrantless arrest

i. If accused waives Art. 125, RPC and asks for a preliminary investigation, with
the assistance of counsel, then the procedure for one prior to arrest is
ii. Inquest conducted as follows
(a) Fiscal determines the validity of the arrest
(b) Fiscal determines existence of prima facie evidence based on the
statements of the complainant, arresting officer and witnesses
(c) Fiscal either dismisses the complaint and orders the immediate release of
the accused, OR prepares and files an information
à While fiscal has quasi-judicial discretion whether or not to file an information,
once it is filed with the court, the court acquires jurisdiction giving it discretion
over the disposition of the case and the Sec. of Justice should refrain from
entertaining petitions for review or appeals from the decision of fiscal (Crespo
vs. Mogul; Velasquez vs. Undersecretary of Justice)
NOTE: Information may be filed by offended party, peace officer or fiscal without
preliminary investigation.
6. Remedies
a. Motion for preliminary investigation
à Filed when accused is arrested without warrant
à Must be with assistance of counsel and after waiving Art. 125, RPC
b. Motion for preliminary investigation
à Filed within 5 days after accused learns an information against him has been
filed without a preliminary investigation
c. Motion for re-investigation
d. Appeal to DOJ
à Filed upon denial of his motion for a preliminary investigation, on the ground
that his rights to due process of law were violated, ousting the court of
e. Petition for prohibition
à Filed with appellate court to stop the criminal proceedings
à Ordinarily, injunction will not lie but may be granted in certain cases
à When prohibition proper to restrain criminal proceedings:
i. When strong-arm tactics are used for vindictive purposes (Salonga vs.
ii. When the accused is deprived of his rights
iii. When the statute on which the charge is based is null and void
iv. When it will aid the administration of justice (Tatad vs. Sandiganbayan)
v. When multiplicity of suits will be avoided (Guingona vs. City Fiscal)


1. Arrest – taking a person into custody in order that he may be bound to answer for
the commission of some offense, made by an actual restraint of the person
or by his submission to custody
2. General Rule: No person may be arrested without a warrant.
à Not all persons detained are arrested; only those detained to answer for an
à "Invitations" are not arrests and are usually not unconstitutional, but in some
cases may be taken as commands (Babst vs. NBI); however, the practice of
issuing an "invitation" to a person who is investigated in connection with an

offense he is suspected to have committed is considered as placing him under

“custodial investigation.” (RA 7438)
à Warrants of arrest remain valid until arrest is effected, or the warrant is lifted
à Arrest may be made at any time of the day or night
3. Warrantless arrests by a peace officer or a private person
a. When person to be arrested is committing, attempting or has committed an
b. When an offense has just been committed and the person making the arrest has
personal knowledge that the person to be arrested committed it
à Warrantless arrest anytime for a continuing offense like rebellion, subversion
(Umil vs. Ramos)
à The continuing crime, not the crime finally charged, needs only be the cause
of the arrest (Umil vs. Ramos)
c. When person to be arrested is an escaped detainee (either serving sentence or
with case pending)
c. When a person lawfully arrested escapes
d. Bondsman, for purpose of surrendering the accused
e. Accused attempts to leave country without court permission
4. Procedure
i. Complainant files application with affidavits attached
ii. Judge conducts ex parte preliminary examination to determine probable
à In determining probable cause, judge must:
(1) Personally examine witness
(2) Witness must be under oath
(3) Examination must be reduced to writing (Luna vs. Plaza)
à In determining probable cause, the judge may rely on findings by
responsible officer (Lim vs. Felix)
iii. Judge issues warrant of arrest
à If without preliminary examination, considered irregular (Bagcal vs.
iv. If peace officer is unable to serve warrant 10 days after issuance, he must file
a report and explanation with judge within 10 days
v. If warrant served
(1) Person informed that he is being arrested
(2) Informed of cause of his arrest
(3) Officer may break door or window if admission to building is refused
(4) Person physically restrained
à For private citizens making an arrest
à May not do so except to do some service to humanity or justice
(5) No violence or unnecessary force may be used
(6) Officer may summon assistance
(7) Person who escapes after arrest may be immediately pursued
vi. Person arrested is brought to nearest police station or jail

i. Person is arrested
ii. Person arrested may waive right to Art. 125, RPC and ask for preliminary
investigation or inquest
à Fiscal is not judicial authority contemplated under Art. 125 (Sayo vs. Chief
of Police)
iii. Fiscal files info
5. Requisites for a warrant of arrest:
a. Probable cause
b. Signed by judge
c. Specifically naming or particularly and sufficiently describing person to be
à John Doe warrants are void for being general warrants (Pangandaman vs.
6. Remedies
a. Petition for writ of habeas corpus
à Filed with any court, to effect immediate release of the person detained
à Filed when a person is being illegally detained (without judicial process), or
was illegally arrested (void warrant or unlawful warrantless arrest, or
warrantless arrest beyond period with no information filed)
à Habeas corpus is not allowed when:
i. The person is in custody of an officer under process of law, and
ii. The court had jurisdiction to issue the process (Luna vs. Plaza)
à If an arrest is improper, the remedy is a motion for quashal of the warrant of
arrest and/or a motion to quash the information, not habeas corpus (Ilagan
vs. Enrile)
à Habeas corpus is no longer available after an information has been filed, the
information being the judicial process required by law (Ilagan vs. Enrile)
à Habeas corpus is proper when a person is being restrained illegally, e.g.,
imprisoned past maximum penalty allowed by law (Gumabon vs. Director of
b. Quashal of warrant of arrest
à Filed with court which issued the warrant of arrest when the warrant of arrest
is fatally flawed
c. Motion to quash information
à Filed with court when information against the person arrested has been filed
à Must be made in a "special appearance" before the court questioning only its
lack of jurisdiction over the person of the accused
à Otherwise, the voluntary appearance of the person arrested by filing a motion
before the court would be deemed a submission to the authority of the court,
thus granting it whatever jurisdiction it lacked over the person
à Any irregularity in the arrest is cured when the petitioner submits himself to
the jurisdiction of the court, e.g., by filing for bail (Bagcal vs. Villaraza)
7. V.V. Mendoza, "Rights to Counsel in Custodial Investigation"
à Evolution of rights of the accused under custodial investigation
a. All involuntary confession were inadmissible; accused had to prove
b. Involuntary confessions were inadmissible only if they were false
c. Revert to exclusionary rule: any involuntary confession is inadmissible

d. Miranda rule: the accused must be informed of his rights

i. To remain silent
ii. Against self-incrimination
iii. To counsel
e. Definition of custodial investigation questioned
f. It begins only after arrest
g. Police investigations prior to arrest are not covered
h. The rights may be waived, but the rights to be informed of these rights, i.e., to
warning, may not be waived
i. Warning must not only be said, officer must make sure the person arrested
understands them specifically
j. Present rules
i. Voluntary confessions are admissible
ii. Test of voluntariness determined on a case-to-case basis
iii. Waiver of rights must not only be with counsel but must be in writing
à Confessions made without assistance of counsel are inadmissible as
evidence to incriminate the accused, but they may be used to impeach
the credibility of the accused, or they may be treated as verbal admission
of the accused through the testimony of the witnesses (People vs. Molas)


1. Bail – security given for the release of a person in custody of law, furnished by him
or a bondsman, conditioned upon his appearance before any court as required
under the following conditions:
a. Undertaking effective upon approval and remains in force at all stages until
promulgation of judgment, unless sooner cancelled
b. Accused shall appear before court when required
c. Failure to appear despite notice to him or the bondsman will waive his right to be
present and trial shall proceed in absentia
d. Bondsman shall surrender accused for execution of judgment
à Bail applies to all persons detained, not just to those charged with the offense
(Herras vs. Teehankee)
à Court has power to prohibit person out on bail from leaving the country
(Manotoc, Jr. vs. CA)
à Bail implies delivery of the accused to the sureties who, though not holding
him prisoner, may seize him and imprison him until they can deliver him to
court (US vs. Bonoan)
2. General Rule: All persons are entitled to bail as a matter of right, except those
charged with capital offenses.
à Right to bail traditionally unavailable to military personnel facing court martial,
who are not in the same class as civilians (Comendador vs. de Villa)
à Bail should be available regardless of other circumstances or the merits of the
case, if the health or the life of the detainee is in danger (Dela Rama vs. People's
à Excessive bail is tantamount to denial of bail, which is unconstitutional (Dela
Camara vs. Enage)
3. When bail is a matter of right
à Before or after conviction by MTC, MCTC, MJC
à Before conviction by the RTC of an offense not punishable by death, reclusion
perpetua or life imprisonment

4. When bail is discretionary (application filed with court where case is pending)
a. Upon conviction by RTC of an offense not punishable by death, reclusion
perpetua or life imprisonment
b. Provisional liberty under same circs. but during period to appeal subject to
consent of bondsman
c. In case he has applied for probation after final judgment, he may be allowed
temporary liberty under his bail or recognizance
5. Procedure
a. Offense charged is not capital:
i. Accused applies for bail
(1) Where information against him was filed or where case is pending
(2) Absent (1), in another branch of the same court within the province or city
where he is held
(3) If arrested in another province, city or municipality, file with the RTC
(4) Absent (3), with the MTC
ii. Judge sets bail
iii. Accused may move to reduce bail, and hearing will be set
iv. Accused posts bail and deposits the same with the Municipal/City/Provincial
Treasurer or, if cash, with the Collector of Internal Revenue
v. Accused is released
b. Offense charged is capital:
i. Accused petitions for bail
ii. Judge sets hearing to determine whether evidence of guilt is strong
à Ex-parte hearing on bail is arbitrary and unacceptable (Herras vs.
iii. Prosecution presents evidence
iv. Court may not force fiscal to produce evidence (Herras vs. Teehankee)
v. If evidence is strong, bail is denied
vi. Otherwise, judge sets bail and procedure for non-capital offense is followed
à In capital crimes, judge's discretion is limited to determining strength of
evidence and does not cover determining whether bail should be allowed
(Herras vs. Teehankee)
à Evidence must be strong that the accused is guilty of the capital offense
charged, not just of any offense (Bernardez vs. Valera)
6. Bail bond – an obligation under seal given by accused with one or more sureties and
made payable to proper officer with the condition to be void upon
performance by the accused of such acts as he may legally be required
to perform
7. Recognizance
a. Obligation of record entered into before some court of magistrate duly authorized
to take it, with the condition to do some particular act, the most usual condition in
criminal cases being the appearance of the accused for trial
b. Does not require signature of accused for trial
c. Does not require signature of accused to be valid
8. Prosecution witnesses may be required to post bail to ensure their appearance at the
trial, except:
a. Substitution of info (see R110, §14)
b. Court believes that material witness may not appear at the trial

9. When bail required under RA 6036 (violation of ordinance, light felony, criminal
offense – not higher that 6 month imprisonment and/or P2000 fine, or both)
a. Caught in flagrante
b. Confessed to commission of offense unless repudiated (force and intimidation)
c. Previously escaped, evaded sentence or jumped bail
d. Violation of Sec. 2 (fails to report to clerk of court periodically under his
e. Recidivist, habitual delinquent previously convicted for an offense to which the
law or ordinance attaches an equal or greater penalty or for 2 or more offenses to
which it attaches a lighter penalty
f. Committed offense while on parole or under conditional pardon
g. Previously pardoned by municipal or city mayor for violation of ordinance for at
least 2 times
10. Instances when accused may be released on recognizance:
a. Offense charged is a violation of an ordinance, a light felony or criminal offense
the imposable penalty to which does not exceed 6 months and or P2000 fine
b. Person has been in custody for a period equal to or more than the minimum of
the imposable principal penalty, without application of the Indeterminate
Sentence Law or any modifying circumstance
c. Accused has applied for probation and before the same has been resolved, but
NO BAIL was filed or accused is incapable of filing one
d. Youthful offender held for physical and mental examination, trial or appeal, if
unable to furnish bail
11. Cancellation of bail
a. Upon application with the court and due notice to the fiscal
i. Accused surrenders back to custody
ii. Accused dies
b. Automatic cancellation
i. Case is dismissed
ii. Accused is acquitted
iii. Accused is convicted and surrenders for execution of judgment
12. When bail cancelled or denied: after RTC imposes imprisonment exceeding 6 years,
but not more than 20 years, and:
a. Accused is a recidivist, quasi-recidivist, habitual delinquent or guilty of the
aggravating circumstance of reiteration;
b. Provisionally escaped, evaded sentence, violated provisions of bail;
c. Committed offense while on probation, parole, or conditional pardon;
d. Probability of flight; or
e. Undue risk that during appeal, he may commit another crime
13. When bail is forfeited
a. Accused fails to appear before court when required
à 30 days for bondsman to show cause why judgment should not be rendered
against him
b. Bondsman fails to produce him within 30 days
c. Bondsman fails to satisfactorily explain to the court why accused did not appear
when first required to do so
à Sureties guarantee only appearance of the accused, not his conduct (US vs.

à Sureties exonerated if appearance made impossible by an act of God, the

obligee or the law (US vs. Bonoan)
14. Provisional forfeiture
a. Within 30 days, produce the body or give reason for non-production AND
b. Explain satisfactorily the absence of the accused when first required to appear
15. Remedies
a. Application for bail, when bail can be availed of as a matter of right
b. Petition for bail, when the offense charged is a capital offense
à For judge to set hearing for the determination of strength of evidence of guilt
16. Circumstances to be considered in fixing amount of bail:
a. Financial ability of accused to give bail;
b. Nature and circumstances of offense;
c. Penalty of offense charged;
d. Character and reputation of accused;
e. Age and health of accused
f. Weight of evidence against accused
g. Probability of accused appearing for trial;
h. Forfeiture of other bonds;
i. Fact that accused was a fugitive from justice when arrested; and
j. Pendency of other cases in which the accused is under bond
17. Notes:
a. Posting bail waives the right to question any irregularity attending the arrest of a
person (Callanta vs. Villanueva). However, this does not result in waiver of the
inadmissibility of the articles seized incidentally to such illegal arrest.
b. Accused waived the right to question any irregularity in the conduct of the
preliminary investigation when he failed to do so before entering his plea (People
vs. Dela Cerna)
c. Accused out on bail may be re-arrested if he attempts to depart from the
Philippines without prior court permission (warrantless arrest allowed).


1. Right of the accused under the Rules
a. To be presumed innocent until proven guilty beyond reasonable doubt
à In an appeal from a conviction, the accused shall again be presumed
innocent until and unless his conviction is affirmed (Castillo vs. Felix)
b. To be informed of the nature and cause of charges
à The right must be substantially complied with; arraignment and later
proceedings must be in a language the accused understands (People vs.
c. To be present at every stage of proceedings, subject to waiver by bail
à If an accused escapes, he waives this right and merits a trial in absentia; the
accused forfeits his rights to be notified of proceedings in the future and to
adduce evidence in his behalf (People vs. Salas)
d. To testify as witness on his own behalf, subject to cross-examination on matters
covered by direct examination; not to be prejudiced by his silence
e. Not to be compelled to be a witness against himself
f. To confront and examine the witnesses against him, including the right to use in
evidence testimony of a witness
i. Who is deceased, out of or cannot with due diligence be found in the RP

ii. Given in another proceeding

iii. With the same parties
iv. Same subject matter
v. Opportunity to cross-examine
à Prosecution has no privilege to withhold the identity of informers when
such informer was crucial in the operation itself; failure to present the
informer is a denial of the right to confront the witness which merits the
reversal of the conviction (People vs. Bagano)
g. To have compulsory process to secure witnesses and evidence in his behalf
h. To have a speedy, impartial and public trial
à Unreasonable postponements of trial amounts to a denial of the right to a
speedy trial, entitling the accused to mandamus to compel dismissal of the
case, or to habeas corpus if he is detained
i. To have the right of appeal
2. Rights of the accused under the Constitution
a. To due process
b. Against self-incrimination
à Right is limited to testimonies; ocular inspection of the body may be allowed
(Villaflor vs. Summers)
à Being informed of rights means a meaningful transmission of information,
without which confession made by the accused is inadmissible (People vs.
à Confessions obtained through coercion are inadmissible (People vs. Opida)
à Right against self-incrimination and to counsel do not apply during custodial
investigation (People vs. Ayson)
à During trial, the right against self-incrimination takes the following form:
i. Accused may refuse to testify
ii. If he testifies, he may refuse to answer those questions which may
incriminate him in ANOTHER offense
c. Against double jeopardy
d. To be heard by himself and counsel
3. Double jeopardy
a. First jeopardy must have attached prior to the first
b. First jeopardy attached and terminated
i. Valid complaint or information
ii. Competent court with jurisdiction
iii. Accused had pleaded
iv. Action ended in conviction, acquittal or termination without the consent of the
c. Offense charged in later case is:
i. Same as that in previous case
ii. Necessarily includes or is included in the previous case
iii. An attempt or frustration of the offense in previous case
iv. An offense lesser than that charged to which the accused pleaded guilty with
the consent of the fiscal and the offended party
4. Exceptions to double jeopardy
a. The offense was made graver by supervening events

b. The facts constituting the graver offense were only discovered after the filing of
the earlier information
à No double jeopardy if the new fact which justified the new charge arose only
after arraignment and conviction (People vs. City Court)
à No double jeopardy where the trial was a sham since there was no
competent court (Galman vs. Sandiganbayan)
à No double jeopardy if first case was dismissed with consent of the accused
(Caes vs. IAC)
à There is double jeopardy if a person is charged twice under different penal
statutes for the same acts (People vs. Relova)
c. Plea of guilty to a lesser offense without the consent of the fiscal and the
offended party
5. Remedies
a. Motion to quash
b. Motion to dismiss
à Both filed on the ground of violation of accused's rights, thereby ousting the
court of jurisdiction
à Constitution, Art. III, Sec. 1
No person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law, nor
shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws.
à Constitution, Art. III, Sec. 14
a. No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense without due process of
b. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall be presumed innocent until the
contrary is proved, and shall enjoy the right to be informed of the nature and
cause of the accusations against him, to have a speedy, impartial and public trial,
to meet the witnesses face to face, and to have compulsory process to secure
the attendance of witnesses and the production of evidence in his behalf.
However, after arraignment, trial may proceed notwithstanding the absence of
the accused provided that he has been duly notified and that his failure to appear
is unjustifiable.
à Constitution, Art. III, Sec. 16
All persons shall have the right to a speedy disposition of their cases before all
judicial, quasi-judicial, or administrative bodies.
à Constitution, Art. III, Sec. 17
No person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself.
à Constitution, Art. III, Sec. 21
No person shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment for the same offense.
If an act is punished by a law or ordinance, conviction or acquittal under either shall
constitute a bar to another prosecution for the same act.


1. Procedure
a. Court informs accused of his right to counsel and asks him if he wants one
b. Court appoints counsel de oficio if accused has none
à If no such member of the available, any person who is a resident of the
province, of good repute for probity and ability to defend accused
c. Court gives counsel time to confer with accused at least an hour before

à Period allowed for counsel de oficio to confer with accused must be

substantially complied with; if not, case may be remanded for re-arraignment
(People vs. Gonzaga)
d. Accused given a copy of the information, which is read to him in a language he
e. Accused is asked whether he pleads guilty or not guilty
f. Accused files a motion to quash or makes plea
g. Accused personally makes his plea
h. Plea is entered into record
i. If accused makes plea of not guilty, counsel has at least 2 days to prepare for
à People vs. Agbayani – the right for 2 days to prepare must be expressly
demanded. Only when so demanded does denial thereof constitute
reversible error and ground for new trial. Further, such right may be waived,
expressly or impliedly.
à NOTE, HOWEVER, under SC Circular 38-98 (implementing “Speedy Trial Act
of 1997”), accused must be given at least 15 days to prepare for trial, which
shall commence within 30 days from receipt of Pre-Trial Order.
j. Case proceeds to pre-trial, trial or hearing, depending on the plea
à Statement in the judgment that the accused was arraigned and pleaded is
sufficient; the manner of statement of such fact is immaterial (People vs.
2. Kinds of plea
a. No plea – a plea of not guilty shall be entered
b. Conditional plea of guilt – a plea of not guilty shall be entered
c. Not guilty – case proceeds to trial or pre-trial
d. Guilty to a lesser offense – if fiscal and offended party consents, conviction under
offense charged for purposes of double jeopardy
i. Info may be amended
ii. Case goes to trial
iii. Even if info is not amended, and even if lesser offense is not included in
offense charged, court may still find the accused guilty of that lesser offense
e. Guilty to a capital offense
à Court conducts searching inquiry to determine if accused was aware of the
charges, of his plea, and its consequences
à Court requires prosecution to present evidence to prove guilt of accused and
determine his degree of culpability, and accused may still establish presence
of mitigating circumstances in his favor
f. Guilty to a non-capital offense
à Court receives evidence from the parties to determine penalty to impose
à Plea of guilty not necessarily followed by conviction. Upon receipt of exculpatory
evidence (if accused pleaded guilty), trial court should consider the plea
withdrawn and in its place, order the plea of not guilty
à Plea of guilty waives only defects which may be taken advantage of by motion to
quash or by plea in abatement; cannot cure jurisdictional defects.
3. Effects
a. Entry of plea will waive
i. Right to question illegality of the arrest
ii. Right to question any irregularity in the preliminary investigation
iii. Right to file a motion to quash

b. Improvident plea of guilty may be changed to not guilty any time before judgment
is rendered
c. A plea of not guilty may not be changed to guilty, as doing so would only spare
the prosecution of presenting evidence and still result in the conviction of the
4. Remedies
a. Motion for specification
à May be filed any time before plea, even after a MTQ
à Filed when the information is insufficient in form or is generally worded, that a
Bill of Particulars is necessary to clarify the acts for which the accused is
being charged
b. Motion to quash
à May be filed at anytime before plea is entered
à Based on grounds provided by the rules
c. Motion to suspend arraignment
à Filed when the accused seems mentally unsound or if there is a prejudicial
question in a pending civil case
d. Motion to withdraw an improvident plea of guilt
à May be filed at any time before judgment of conviction becomes final, when it
can be shown that the accused was not aware of the significance of pleading
guilty to the charges


1. Motion to quash – a hypothetical admission that even if all the facts alleged were
true, the accused still cannot be convicted due to other reasons
2. When to file Motion to Quash
General Rule: Before entering plea; all grounds not raised deemed waived
Exception: The following grounds may be used in MTQ even after plea
a. No offense charged
b. Lack of jurisdiction over the offense charged
c. Extinction of the offense or of the penalty
d. Double jeopardy
3. Grounds
a. Information does not conform to prescribed form
à For the info to charge a complex crime, it is not necessary that it be defined
by law, only that it alleges that one offense was necessary to commit the
other (People vs. Alagao)
b. Court has no jurisdiction
i. No territorial jurisdiction
ii. No jurisdiction over offense charged may be raised at any time; no
waiver considered even upon failure to move to quash on such ground
iii. No jurisdiction over person of the accused
à The court gained jurisdiction over the person of the accused when he
voluntarily appeared for the pre-suspension hearing (Layosa vs.
c. Accused would be put in double jeopardy
à Bars another prosecution
à No waiver

à No double jeopardy if first case was dismissed with the consent of the
accused (Que vs. Cosico), unless ground for dismissal is: (a) denial of right to
speedy trial; or (b) insufficiency of evidence.
à If the first case was dismissed due to a deficient information, then there was
no valid information and there could be no double jeopardy (Caniza vs.
à Cudia vs CA – it should be the Provincial Prosecutor of Pampanga, not the
City Prosecutor, who should prepare informations for offenses committed
within Pampanga but outside Angeles City. An information must be prepared
and presented by the prosecuting attorney or someone authorized by law. If
not, the court does not acquire jurisdiction. Although failure to file a motion to
quash the information is a waiver of all objections to it insofar as formal
objections to pleadings are concerned, questions relating to want of
jurisdiction may be raised at any stage of the proceedings. Moreover, since
the complaint or information was insufficient because it was so defective in
form or substance that conviction upon it could not have been sustained, its
dismissal without the consent of the accused cannot be pleaded as prior
jeopardy, and will not be a bar to a second prosecution.
d. More than one offense was charged, EXCEPT where law prescribes single
punishment for various offenses
e. Facts alleged do not constitute an offense
à May be raised at any time
à No waiver
à For charge to be complete, it is necessary to state that it was exempted from
any amnesty existing at the time
f. Criminal action or liability has been extinguished
g. Information contains allegations which, if true, would be a legal excuse or
h. Officer who filed the information had no authority
à Presentation of evidence cannot cure an invalid information (People vs.
NOTE: Court will consider no other grounds other than those raised, EXCEPT lack
of jurisdiction over offense charged.
4. Requisites of Double jeopardy
a. Valid information or complaint, sufficient in form and substance
b. Before court of competent jurisdiction
à Doctrine of “Jurisdiction by Estoppel”: depends upon whether the lower court
actually had jurisdiction or not. If it had no jurisdiction, but the case was tried
and decided upon the theory that it had jurisdiction, the parties are not barred
on appeal, from assailing such jurisdiction, for the same 'must exist as a
matter of law, and may not be conferred by consent of the parties or by
estoppel'. However, if the lower court had jurisdiction, and the case was
heard and decided upon a given theory, such, for instance, as that the court
had no jurisdiction, the party who induced it to adopt such theory will not be
permitted, on appeal, to assume an inconsistent position — that the lower
court had jurisdiction. Here, the principle of estoppel applies. The rule that
jurisdiction is conferred by law, and does not depend upon the will of the
parties, has no bearing thereon.
c. Accused had pleaded
d. Conviction, acquittal, or dismissal or termination of case without consent of
e. Bar to offense charged, attempt to commit the same or necessarily includes or is
necessarily included

à Conviction for physical injuries through reckless imprudence constitutes

double jeopardy to the charge of damage to property through reckless
5. Procedure
a. MTQ filed
b. If based on defect in info which can be cured, court shall order its amendment
c. Quashing the info shall NOT be a bar to subsequent prosecution (accused has
not pleaded yet), EXCEPT when the ground is:
i. Double jeopardy OR
ii. Extinction of criminal liability
6. Remedies
a. Motion to dismiss – if certain grounds were not raised or denied in a MTQ
b. Trial
à If there was really no basis for the info, then such could be proved in the trial
à Upon denial of a MTQ, the proper remedy is to go on trial and later to appeal,
if necessary; mandamus or certiorari will only be granted if there is not other
plain, simple and adequate remedy
7. Failure to move to quash or to allege any ground therefor deemed a waiver of such
grounds, except:
a. Failure to charge an offense
b. Lack of jurisdiction over the offense charged
c. Extinction of the offense or of the penalty
d. Double jeopardy


1. Plea bargaining – process whereby the accused and the prosecution in a criminal
case work out a mutually satisfactory disposition of the case
subject to court approval. It usually involves the defendant's
pleading guilty to a lesser offense or to only some of the counts of
a multi-count indictment in return for a lighter sentence than that
for the greater charge.
à Under “Speedy Trial Act of 1997”, in all criminal cases cognizable by the MTC,
MCTC, MeTC, RTC and Sandiganbayan, pretrial is mandatory.
à Under SC Circular 38-98, implementing the “Speedy Trial Act of 1997”, an
accused may plea guilty to a lesser offense only if said offense is necessarily
included in the offense charged.
2. Stipulation of facts
à Facts which both parties and respective counsels agree on as evidenced by their
signatures; these facts need not be proved by evidence in trial
à Stipulation is inadmissible if unsigned by either accused or counsel; a later memo
of confirmation, signed only by counsel, cannot cure defect (Fule vs. CA)
3. Pre-trial order – binds the parties, limits the trial to matters not yet disposed of, and
controls the course of action during the trial
4. Procedure
a. Judge must calendar pre-trial
b. Either party may waive the pre-trial
c. If court appoints counsel de oficio, counsel has at least 2 days to prepare
d. In the pre-trial conference
i. Plea bargaining
ii. Stipulation of facts

iii. Marking of evidence (does not imply conceding to its admissibility or

iv. Waiver of objections to admissibility of evidence
v. Other matters which will promote a fair and expeditious trial
e. Judge issues pre-trial order


1. In trial, the defense tries
a. To assail the admissibility of evidence which prove the elements of the offense
b. To assail the credibility of such evidence
c. To prove another version, possibly admitting certain evidence of the prosecution
and adding other evidence to cast reasonable doubt
à Even in summary procedure, the judge cannot base his decision simply on
affidavits; he must give the defendant the chance to cross-examine (Combate
vs. San Jose)
2. Procedure
a. Parties notified of date of trial 2 days before trial date (R119, §1)
à HOWEVER, under SC Circular 38-98, accused must be given at least 15
days to prepare for trial, which shall commence within 30 days from receipt of
Pre-Trial Order.
b. Accused may move that his witnesses be examined
c. Defense witnesses examined by any judge or lawyer
d. Prosecution witnesses, if they would be unable to attend trial, may be examined
by the judge handling the case
e. Trial continues from day to day, unless postponed for a just cause
f. Prosecution presents evidence
à Presentation
à Testimonies: direct examination
à Cross-examination
à Re-cross
à Offer
g. Accused may move for discharge
h. Prosecution rests
i. Defense may, with or without leave of court, file a demurrer to evidence
j. Defense presents evidence
k. Defense rests
l. Prosecution presents rebuttal evidence
m. Defense presents rebuttal evidence
n. Trial is closed; case is submitted for judgment
3. When mistake made in charging proper offense
a. If Accused cannot be convicted of offense charged or offense necessarily
included therein
b. Accused detained, not discharged
c. Original case dismissed upon filing of proper information
à Example: Charged with theft. At trial, appears that offense is estafa. The
prosecution can ask for the dismissal of the info in order to file a new one for
estafa. No Double Jeopardy because no valid info in the first case.

4. Application for examination of witnesses for accused before trial

a. Sick or infirm; unable to attend trial
b. Resides more than 100 km. from means of trial; no means to attend
5. Application (prosecution)
a. Sick or infirm
b. Has to leave the RP with indefinite date of returning
6. Requisites for postponement due to absence of a witness
a. Witness is really material and appears to the court to be so
b. Party who applies for postponement has not been guilty of neglect
c. Witness can be had at the time to which the trial has been deferred
d. No similar evidence could be obtained
7. Requisites to discharge of an accused as State Witness
a. Testimony of accused absolutely needed
b. No other direct evidence available EXCEPT his testimony
c. Testimony can be corroborated on material points
d. Accused does not appear to be most guilty
e. Accused has never been convicted of offense involving moral turpitude
à Discharge of accused, when not all the requisites were met, cannot be
revoked as long as he testified according to what was expected of him
(People vs. Aninon)
8. Remedies
a. Motion for separate trials
à Filed by the fiscal to try several accused separately
à Granted at the court's discretion
à May also be ordered by the court motu proprio
b. Motion to consolidate
à Upon the court's discretion, separate charges may be tried in one single case
if the offenses charged arise form the same facts or form part of a series of
similar offenses
à Court allowed consolidation of rape cases substantially committed in the
same manner (People vs. David)
c. Motion for continuance – filed to postpone trial for just cause
d. Motion to exclude public
à Excluding parties, counsels and court personnel
à May also be ordered by court motu proprio
e. Motion for discharge
à Filed before the prosecution rests
à Hearing to determine existence of requisites for discharge
à Prosecution will present evidence and the sworn statement of the proposed
state witness
à Evidence adduced in this said hearing automatically form part of trial;
however, if court denies motion for discharge, his sworn statement shall be
inadmissible in evidence.
à Discharge of the accused has the effect of acquittal, unless accused fails or
refuses to testify against his co-accused in accordance with his statement
(which formed the basis for his discharge)
f. Demurrer to evidence
à May be made after the prosecution rests its case

à If the court finds the prosecution's evidence insufficient, the case will be
à Otherwise, if demurrer denied
i. If the demurrer was made with leave of court, defense gets to present
ii. If the demurrer was made without leave of court, defense is deemed to
have waived the right to present evidence and the case is submitted for
à Case may also be dismissed motu proprio
g. Motion to reopen
à Filed after the case is submitted for judgment but before judgment is actually
à To allow either side to present additional evidence, if such could not be found
à Granted on discretion of the judge
à The accused cannot move to reopen the case to allow him to adduce
evidence in his behalf when his failure to adduce them during the trial was his
own fault (People vs. Cruz)


1. Judgment – adjudication by the court that the accused is guilty or not guilty of the
offense charged, and the imposition of the proper penalty and civil
liability provided by law on the accused
2. General Rule: If the accused is found not guilty, he will be acquitted and the
acquittal immediately becomes final and executory. If the accused is found guilty,
penalty and civil liability will be imposed on him.
3. Accused may be convicted of
a. The offense charged
b. A lesser offense necessarily included in the offense charged
à Accused cannot be convicted for an offense graver than that charged (People
vs. Guevarra)
4. Contents
a. Written in official language
b. Personally prepared and signed by the judge
c. Contains facts proved
d. Contains law upon which judgment is based
à In case of conviction, judgment must state:
i. Legal qualification of offense and aggravating and mitigating circumstances
ii. Level of participation
iii. Penalty imposed
iv. Civil liability for damages, unless right to separate civil action has been
à In case of acquittal, judgment must state:
i. Civil liability for damages, unless acts alleged clearly did not exist
ii. Basis of liability
5. Procedure
a. Judge reads judgment in presence of accused
b. If judgment is of acquittal
i. It becomes final and executory

ii. It bars subsequent prosecution for the same offense

c. If judgment is of conviction, remedy is to file:
i. Motion for reconsideration
ii. Motion for new trial
iii. Notice of appeal
à Or else, judgment becomes final and is entered in the book of Judgments
6. When judgment in a criminal case becomes final:
a. After lapse of period for perfecting an appeal; or
b. When sentence partially or totally satisfied or served; or
c. Accused has expressly waived in writing his right to appeal, EXCEPT in cases of
automatic review where death penalty is imposed
d. Accused has applied for probation
7. Only a judgment in conviction can be modified or set aside
a. Before judgment had been final (otherwise double jeopardy);
b. Before appeal had been perfected; or
c. To correct clerical errors in the judgment
8. Remedies
a. Appeal
à Filed within 15 days of promulgation of judgment
à Period is interrupted by filing of a motion for new trial or reconsideration
à On motion of accused or at its own instance with consent of the accused
b. Motion for reconsideration
à Filed when there are errors of law or fact in the judgment
à Shall require no further proceedings
à Notice should be given to the fiscal
c. Motion for new trial
à Notice should be given to the fiscal
à Filed on the following grounds:
i. Error of law or irregularities have been made during trial which are
prejudicial to the substantial rights of the accused
ii. New evidence has been found which could not have been found before
and which could change the judgment
9. Procedure for new trial
a. Hearing shall be set and held
b. All evidence not alleged to be in error shall stand
c. New evidence will be introduced
d. Old judgment may be set aside and a new one rendered
10. Notes:
à Suspension of sentence for youthful offenders – after conviction, minor is
committed to custody and care of DSWD or any training institution until reaches
21 years of age, or a shorter period
à Probation – disposition under which a defendant after conviction and sentences,
is released subject to conditions imposed by the court and to the
supervision of a probation officer
à Parole – the conditional release of an offender from a penal or correctional
institution after he has served the minimum period of his prison
sentence under the continued custody of the state and under conditions
that permit his reincarceration if he violated the conditions of his release


1. Reopening of the case
a. Made by the court before judgment is rendered in the exercise of sound
b. Does not require consent of accused
c. May be made at the instance of either party who can thereafter present additional
2. Motion for new trial
a. Filed after judgment is rendered but before the finality thereof
b. At the instance or with the consent of the accused
c. The prosecution can move only for the reconsideration of the judgment but
cannot present additional evidence
3. Motion for New Trial is denied if:
a. Only impeaching evidence is sought to be introduced as the court had already
passed upon issue of credibility
b. Only corroborative evidence is offered
c. Prisoner admits commission of crime with which accused is charged (facility with
which such confession can be obtained and fabricated)
d. Alleged new evidence is inherently improbable and could easily be concocted
e. Alleged new evidence consists of recantations of prosecution witness, due to
unreliability of such recantations, EXCEPT if no other evidence to sustain
conviction aside from recanted testimony
4. New Trial vs. Reconsideration
à Motion for recon is based on the grounds of errors of law in the judgment is court
is not asked to reopen the case for further proceedings, but to reconsider its
findings or conclusions of law and make them conformable to the law applicable
to the case on the judgment the court has to render anew.
5. New Trial vs. Modification of Judgment
à In New Trial, irregularities are expunged from the record and/or new evidence is
introduced. In modification of judgment, no new hearings or proceedings of any
kind or change in the record or evidence. A simple modification is made on the
basis of what is on the record.
6. New Trial vs. Reopening of the Case
à New trial presupposes that existence of a judgment to be set aside upon the
granting of a new trial
à In reopening, no judgment has yet been rendered, although the hearing may
have already been closed
7. Motion for Reconsideration
à Grounds are errors of law or fact in judgment, which require no further
8. Effects of Granting Motion for New Trial or Reconsideration
a. Based on error of law or irregularities during trial:
à Proceedings and evidence not affected by irregularities stand, and those
affected are set aside. Court may allow introduction of new evidence
b. Based on newly discovered evidence:
à Evidence already taken shall stand; new evidence taken with the old


1. Procedure
a. Filed with RTC, if original case was with MTC
à Notice served to lower court and to adverse party
b. Filed with the CA or SC, if original case was with RTC
i. With CA: notice of appeal with court, and with copy on adverse party
à If CA is of opinion that penalty should be reclusion perpetua or higher, it
shall render judgment imposing said penalty, but refrain from entering
judgment and then certify the case and the entire record thereof to the SC
for review (R124, §13)
à CA may reverse, affirm, or modify judgment of RTC, or remand case for
new trial or re-trial, or dismiss the case
à If RTC decided case in appellate jurisdiction: Petition for Review
ii. With SC: notice of appeal where penalty imposed is life imprisonment, or
lesser penalty involving offenses committed on the same occasion, or arising
out of same occurrence where graver penalty of death is available but life
imprisonment is imposed; all other cases, by petition for review on certiorari
à If death penalty, automatic review
iii. Withdrawal of appeal
à May be made at any time before judgment on the appeal is rendered
à Lower court judgment becomes final
à Case remanded for execution of judgment
à Once notice of appeal is filed, cannot be validly withdrawn to give way for a
Motion for Recon or a Motion for New Trial, since the filing of the notice perfected
the appeal, and the trial court loses its power to modify or set aside the judgment.
The only valid withdrawal of an appeal is where the accused decides to serve his
2. Effect of appeal by any of several accused
a. Shall not affect those who did not appeal, EXCEPT if favorable and applicable to
b. Civil appeal by offended party shall not affect criminal aspect of judgment
c. Execution of judgment on appellant will be stayed upon perfection of appeal
3. When appeal by prosecution from order of dismissal of criminal case will not result in
double jeopardy
a. Dismissal made upon motion or with express consent of the accused
b. Dismissal is not an acquittal nor based upon consideration of the evidence or
merits of the case
c. Question to be passed upon by the appellate court is purely legal so that if the
dismissal is found incorrect, the case has to be remanded to the court of origin to
determine the guilt or innocence of the accused
4. When serving sentence, remedy is to petition for habeas corpus
a. Filed when the law under which the accused was convicted is repealed or
declared unconstitutional
b. When a later judgment is rendered acquitting others for similar circumstances
à Otherwise, equal protection is violated
c. When penalty is lowered and convict has already served more than the
maximum period of the new penalty
à Habeas corpus is available when a person is imprisoned beyond the
maximum penalty imposed by law (Gumabon vs. Dir. of Prisons)

NOTE: When dismissal is capricious, certiorari lies and no double jeopardy since
validity and not correctness of dismissal is being challenged.


1. Search warrant – an order in writing issued in the name of the People of the
Philippines, signed by a judge and directed to a peace officer,
commanding him to search for personal property described
therein and bring it before the court
à Cannot be issued to look for evidence (Uy Khetin vs. Villareal)
à Seizing objects to be used as evidence is equivalent to forcing one to be a
witness against himself (Uy Khetin vs. Villareal)
à For a warrant to be valid, it must meet the requirements set by law (Burgos vs.
Chief of Staff)
à Tapping conversations is equivalent to a search and seizure (US vs. Katz)
2. General Rule: No search or seizure can be conducted unless it is authorized by a
search warrant. Evidence gathered from an illegal search and seizure is
à Warrantless searches are illegal, unreasonable and unconstitutional (Alvarez vs.
à It is not the police action which is impermissible, but the procedure and
unreasonable character by which it is exercised (Guazon vs. de Villa)
à Court gains jurisdiction over items seized by a valid search warrant and returned
to it, and such is not an unconstitutional deprivation of property (Villanueva vs.
à Evidence from an illegal search may be used as evidence, if no objection is
raised (Stonehill vs. Diokno)
à Right against unreasonable search and seizure may be waived, but for the
waiver to be effective:
a. The right must exist
b. Person must be aware of the right
c. Person clearly shows the intent to relinquish such right
à No waiver against unreasonable search and seizure when one
compromises the criminal proceedings (Alvarez vs. CFI)
à There is no waiver of right when evidence of coercion is present (Roan
vs. Gonzales)
3. Requisites of a valid search warrant
a. Issued upon probable cause
à Probable cause – such facts and circumstances which would lead a
reasonably prudent man to believe that a crime has
been committed and the thing to be searched for and
seized is in the place to be searched
b. Probable cause is personally determined by the issuing judge
à Hence, signed by him
à By any RTC, to be served anywhere in the country, for an offense which
occurred anywhere in the country (Malaloan vs. CA)
c. Issuing judge personally examined, in the form of searching questions, the
appellant and his witness and took down their written depositions
d. Search warrant particularly describes or identifies the property to be seized
à Property which men may lawfully possess may not be the object of a search
warrant (Uy Khetin vs. Villareal)

à Nature of goods may allow description to be general or not too technical

(Alvarez vs. CFI)
e. Particularly describes the place to be searched
f. It shall issue only for one specific offense
à Otherwise, cannot be said to have issued upon probable cause (Asian Surety
vs. Herrera)
à Absence of specific offense makes impossible determination of probable
cause (Stonehill vs. Diokno)
g. Was not issued for more than 10 days prior to a search made pursuant thereto
(search warrant becomes void after 10 days)
h. Indicates time, if to be served at night
4. When a search warrant may be said to particularly describe the thing to be seized
a. Description is as specific as circumstances allow
b. Expresses a conclusion of fact by which the warrant officer may be guided
c. Things described are limited to those which bear a direct relation to the offense
for which the warrant is issued
5. Procedure
a. Complainant files application, attaches affidavits
à Oath requires that the person taking it personally knows the facts of the case
(People vs. Sy Juco)
à Affidavits submitted must state that the premises is occupied by the person
against whom the warrant is issued, that the objects to be seized are fruits or
means of committing a crime, and that they belong to the same person, thus,
not affecting third persons (People vs. Sy Juco)
à When complainant's knowledge is hearsay, affidavits of witnesses are
necessary (Alvarez vs. CFI)
b. Judge conducts ex parte preliminary examination of complainant and witnesses
under oath to determine probable cause
à Judge must ask probing questions, not just repeat facts in the affidavit (Roan
vs. Gonzales)
c. Judge issues search warrant good for 10 days
d. Peace officer in presence of occupant, members of the family OR 2 witnesses of
sufficient age and discretion residing in the same locality
à Search may last for more than a day as long as it is part of the same search
for the same purpose and of the same place (Uy Khetin vs. Villareal)
e. Peace officer leaves receipt with occupant at place searched
f. Peace officer files return of search warrant and inventory, and surrenders items
seized to receiving court (not necessarily court which issued the warrant)
à Items seized illegally must remain in custodia legis pending resolution of the
case (Roan vs. Gonzales)
6. Remedies from an unlawful search
a. MTQ the warrant
b. Motion to suppress as evidence the objects illegally taken
c. Return of property illegally seized
7. When a search may be validly conducted without a warrant
a. Without consent of person searched
b. When the search is incident to a lawful arrest
i. Personal knowledge of the arresting person (Posadas vs. CA)
ii. Limited to:

(1) Immediate time of arrest

(2) Immediate vicinity of the arrest
(3) Weapons and things which may be used as proof of offense charged
(Nolasco vs. Pano)
iii. Subject in an offense which is mala prohibita cannot be summarily seized
(Roan vs. Gonzales)
iv. May extend beyond arrestee to include premises and surrounding under his
immediate control
c. Border searches (customs, mail and airport)
d. Vessels and aircrafts for violation of Tariff and Customs Code, EXCEPT dwelling
e. Plain view
f. Moving vehicle
g. Hot pursuit
h. Stop-and-frisk, reasonable check-points
i. Private searches with no state action (People vs. Marti)
j. Inspection of building and premises for enforcement of fire, sanitary and building
8. Person making the arrest may take from the arrestee
a. Properties used in the commission of the crime
b. Fruits or proceeds thereof
c. Property which may furnish the arrestee with a weapon against the arresting
d. Property which may be used as evidence at the trial
à Constitution, Art. III, Sec. 2
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, papers, houses and
effects against unreasonable searches and seizures of whatever nature and for
any purpose shall be inviolable, and no search warrant or warrant of arrest shall
issue except upon probable cause to be determined personally by the judge after
examination under oath or affirmation of the complainant and the witnesses he
may produce, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the
persons or things to be seized.
à Constitution, Art. III, Sec. 3
a. The privacy of communication and correspondence shall be inviolable except
upon lawful order of the court, or when public safety or order requires
otherwise as prescribed by law.
b. Any evidence obtained in violation of this or the preceding section shall be
inadmissible for any purpose in the proceeding.


1. Attachment as provisional remedy in criminal cases
a. Accused is about to abscond from RP
b. Criminal action is based on a claim for money or property embezzled or
fraudulently misapplied or converted to the use of the accused who is a public
officer, or any officer of a corporation, or an attorney, factor, broker, agent or
clerk in a fiduciary capacity, in willful violation of duty
c. Accused has concealed, removed or disposed of his property, or is about to do
d. Accused resides outside the RP