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Document Number: EDS 06-0013

Version: 3.0
Date: 05/05/2015

THIS IS AN UNCONTROLLED DOCUMENT, THE READER SHALL CONFIRM ITS VALIDITY BEFORE USE
ENGINEERING DESIGN STANDARD

EDS 06-0013

GRID AND PRIMARY SUBSTATION EARTHING DESIGN

Network(s): EPN, LPN, SPN

Summary: This standard details the earthing design requirements for grid and primary
substations and 132kV and 33kV connections.

Owner: Allan Boardman Date: 05/05/2015

Approved By: Steve Mockford Approved Date: 22/05/2015

This document forms part of the Companys Integrated Business System and its requirements are mandatory throughout UK
Power Networks. Departure from these requirements may only be taken with the written approval of the Director of Asset
Management. If you have any queries about this document please contact the author or owner of the current issue.

Circulation
UK Power Networks External
All UK Power Networks G81 Website

Asset Management Contractors

Capital Programme ICPs/IDNOs

Connections Meter Operators

HSS&TT

Network Operations
UK Power Networks Services

Other
Grid and Primary Substation Earthing Design Document Number: EDS 06-0013
Version: 3.0
Date: 05/05/2015

Revision Record

Version 3.0 Review Date 05/05/2017


Date 05/05/2015 Author Stephen Tucker
Why has the document been updated: Periodic document review. Minor revision to include
generation connections and ensure consistency with the earthing construction standard ECS 06-0022
while the review of national standards ENA TS 41-24 and ENA ER S34 is being carried out.
What has changed:
Reference to generating station exclusion removed (Section 1 and Appendix C).
Scope expanded to specifically include 132kV and 33kV connections including solar and wind
farm generation (Section 2).
Guidance on fault level for electrode sizing added and conductor sizes revised (Section 5.14 and
Appendix F).
Lightning protection reference updated (Section 5.16 and 6.2).
Mobile phone base stations on towers reference added (Section 5.22).
Bonding requirements for ancillary metalwork, metal trench covers, cable tunnel metalwork and
basement cable support systems revised (Section 5.30).
Version 2.0 Review Date 31/03/2015
Date 11/03/2013 Author Stephen Tucker
Review date extended to tie in with the review of national standards ENA TS 41-24 and ENA ER S34

Version 1.3 Review Date 31/03/2013


Date 22/08/2012 Author Stephen Tucker
Reviewed for publishing on G81 website

Version 1.2 Review Date 31/03/2013


Date 03/08/2011 Author Stephen Tucker
Reclassification and reformatting of document from Earthing Design Manual Section 3. References to
standard earthing arrangements updated
Version 1.1 Review Date 31/03/2013
Date 17/03/2011 Author Peter Rix
Document rebranded

Version 1.0 Review Date 31/03/2013


Date 31/03/2008 Author Neil Fitzgerald
Original

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Grid and Primary Substation Earthing Design Document Number: EDS 06-0013
Version: 3.0
Date: 05/05/2015

Contents

1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 7
2 Scope ....................................................................................................................... 7
3 Abbreviations .......................................................................................................... 7
4 Overview .................................................................................................................. 8
4.1 Data Requirements.................................................................................................... 8
4.2 Earth Potential Rise (EPR) Estimation ....................................................................... 8
4.3 Standard Design........................................................................................................ 9
4.4 Detailed Design ....................................................................................................... 10
4.5 Review of Existing Substations ................................................................................ 10
5 Detailed Design Procedure ................................................................................... 11
5.1 Determination of Soil Resistivity .............................................................................. 11
5.2 Preliminary Site Assessment ................................................................................... 11
5.3 Initial Design of the Earth Grid - Standard Earthing Arrangement ............................ 12
5.4 Initial Design of Earth Grid - Non-Standard Earthing Arrangement .......................... 14
5.5 Calculation of the Earth Grid Resistance ................................................................. 14
5.5.1 First Approximation.................................................................................................. 14
5.5.2 Computer Modelling ................................................................................................ 14
5.6 Calculation of the Grid or Overall Earth Impedance (taking into account parallel
paths) ...................................................................................................................... 14
5.6.1 The Earth Grid ......................................................................................................... 15
5.6.2 Bonded Foundation Structure Steel Reinforcement Bars ......................................... 15
5.6.3 Steel Tower Lines .................................................................................................... 16
5.6.4 Cable Networks ....................................................................................................... 16
5.6.5 Fortuitous Earth Paths ............................................................................................. 18
5.7 Data Required from the Power System Fault Study ................................................. 19
5.8 Earth Fault Current Returning via Earthwire/Cable Sheaths Due to Induction.......... 20
5.8.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 20
5.8.2 Overhead line with Earth Conductor ........................................................................ 21
5.8.3 Cables ..................................................................................................................... 21
5.9 Calculation of the Earth Potential Rise (EPR) .......................................................... 21
5.9.1 Primary Substations ................................................................................................ 21
5.9.2 Grid Substations (including 132 kV and 33kV Connections) .................................... 22
5.10 Calculation of External Potential Contours or Zones of Influence (e.g. HOT Zone) .. 23
5.10.1 Accurate Representation ......................................................................................... 23
5.10.2 Approximate Calculation .......................................................................................... 23

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Grid and Primary Substation Earthing Design Document Number: EDS 06-0013
Version: 3.0
Date: 05/05/2015

5.11 Implications of a Substation being HOT ................................................................... 24


5.11.1 Reducing the Area Covered by the HOT Zone ........................................................ 24
5.11.2 Reduce the Earth Fault Current ............................................................................... 25
5.11.3 Reducing the Electrode Resistance ......................................................................... 25
5.11.4 Reduce the Impedance of Parallel Paths ................................................................. 26
5.12 Calculation of Touch and Step Potentials ................................................................ 26
5.12.1 Accurate Calculation................................................................................................ 26
5.12.2 Approximate Method ............................................................................................... 26
5.13 Requirements of the Final Design............................................................................ 27
5.14 Conductor Size and use of Metallic Structures ........................................................ 28
5.15 Earthing Arrangements Applicable to 400/275/132kV Sites of Different Companies 30
5.16 Earthing Arrangements Applicable to Sites with Generation .................................... 30
5.17 Earthing Arrangements at Railway Supply Substations ........................................... 31
5.18 Earthing Arrangements at GIS Substations ............................................................. 32
5.19 Earthing Arrangements for Surge Arresters and Capacitor VTs ............................... 34
5.20 Positioning of Metal Supports for Security Lighting etc Near Fences ....................... 34
5.21 Communication Towers within or adjacent to Substations ....................................... 35
5.22 Communication Masts Fitted to Towers ................................................................... 36
5.23 LV Supplies to Third Party Equipment at Substations .............................................. 36
5.24 Reactors and AC to DC Converters ......................................................................... 37
5.25 Use of Earth Plates (cast iron pipes etc) .................................................................. 37
5.26 Earthing of Instrument Transformer Windings.......................................................... 38
5.27 Earthing of Cables ................................................................................................... 38
5.27.1 Power Cables .......................................................................................................... 38
5.27.2 Protection and Control Cables ................................................................................. 38
5.28 General Guidance for Achieving Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) ................... 38
5.29 Earthing of Fences .................................................................................................. 39
5.29.1 Adjacent Metal Structures........................................................................................ 40
5.29.2 Palisade Gates and Removable Fence Panels ........................................................ 41
5.29.3 Metal Anti-climbing Guards...................................................................................... 41
5.29.4 Temporary, Site-Perimeter and Adjacent Landowners' Fencing .............................. 41
5.29.5 Safety Advantages of a Separately Earthed Fence.................................................. 42
5.30 Metalwork Bonding Requirements ........................................................................... 44
5.30.1 Ancillary Metalwork.................................................................................................. 44
5.30.2 Metal Trench Covers ............................................................................................... 44
5.30.3 Cable Tunnel Metalwork .......................................................................................... 44
5.30.4 Basement Cable Support Systems .......................................................................... 44

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Grid and Primary Substation Earthing Design Document Number: EDS 06-0013
Version: 3.0
Date: 05/05/2015

6 References ............................................................................................................. 45
6.1 UK Power Networks Standards............................................................................... 45
6.2 National and International Standards ....................................................................... 45
Appendix A Standard Substation Earthing Arrangements ......................................... 46
Appendix B Calculation of Fault Current returning via the Ground ........................... 47
B.1 Calculation of Fault Current Returning via the Ground ............................................. 47
B.2 Example of Cable Information Necessary where Network Reduction is Required to
Estimate Earth Contribution from Cable Network ..................................................... 48
B.3 Examples of Fault Current Information Required for Fault Current Reduction .......... 49
Appendix C Special Conditions Applicable to Generating Stations within or
Adjacent to a Substation....................................................................................... 51
Appendix D Maximum Resistance Values for Electrodes at Pole-mounted Plant ..... 51
Appendix E Standard Substation Earthing Arrangements Resistance Values,
Surface, Touch and Step Potential Contours ...................................................... 52
E.1 132/33kV Substation Arrangements (EDS 07-0105-1001/EDS 07-0105-1002)........ 52
E.2 33/11kV Substation Arrangement Option 1 (EDS 07-0105-2001) ......................... 54
E.3 33/11kV Substation Arrangement Option 2 (EDS 07-0105-2002) ......................... 56
Appendix F Minimum Conductor Sizes ........................................................................ 58

Tables

Table 5-1 Calculation of Ground Current for Cable Faults ................................................ 21


Table 5-2 Earthing and Bonding Electrode/Conductor Sizes ............................................ 28
Table 5-3 Tape and Stranded Conductor Specifications .................................................. 29
Table 5-4 Maximum Current Rating of Earthing Rods ...................................................... 38

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Grid and Primary Substation Earthing Design Document Number: EDS 06-0013
Version: 3.0
Date: 05/05/2015

Figures

Figure 4-1 Making a First Estimate of the Substation EPR ................................................. 9


Figure 5-1 Earthing System Components......................................................................... 15
Figure 5-2 Estimating the Proportion of Fault Current Returning Through the Soil ........... 20
Figure 5-3 Scale Plan of Substation Showing Site Boundary Surface Potential Contours 23
Figure 5-4 Use of Separately Earthed and Bonded Fencing Arrangements at the Same
Substation ......................................................................................................... 40
Figure 5-5 Separately Earthed Fence 2m away from Earth Grid ...................................... 42
Figure 5-6 Separately Earthed Fence 500mm away from Earth Grid ............................... 42
Figure 5-7 Earth Grid Bonded incorrectly to Fence, which is 2m away from Earth Grid .... 43
Figure 5-8 Earth Grid Bonded incorrectly to Fence, which is 500mm away from Earth
Grid ................................................................................................................... 43
Figure 5-9 Fence 2m away from Earth Grid, Fence and Earth Grid Bonded with
Potential Grading 1m away ................................................................................ 43
Figure 6-1 Calculation of Fault Current Returning via the Ground in a 132kV Network ..... 47
Figure 6-2 Calculation of Fault Current Returning via the Ground in a 66kV or 33kV
Network ............................................................................................................. 48
Figure 6-3 Example of Cable Network Information Required ............................................ 48
Figure 6-4 Example showing 132kV Phase Currents for Transformer-feeder
Arrangement ...................................................................................................... 49
Figure 6-5 Example showing 132kV Phase Currents for a Parallel-feeder Arrangement .. 50
Figure 6-6 132/33kV Substation Electrode System Surface Potential Contours
Expressed as a % of the EPR ............................................................................ 52
Figure 6-7 132/33kV Substation Electrode System Touch Potential Contours
Expressed as a % of the EPR ............................................................................ 53
Figure 6-8 132/33kV Substation Electrode System Step Potential Contours Expressed
as a % of the EPR ............................................................................................. 53
Figure 6-9 33/11kV (Option 1) Substation Electrode System Surface Potential
Contours Expressed as a % of the EPR ............................................................ 54
Figure 6-10 33/11kV (Option 1) Substation Electrode System Touch Potential
Contours Expressed as a % of the EPR ............................................................ 55
Figure 6-11 33/11kV (Option 1) Substation Electrode System Step Potential Contours
Expressed as a % of the EPR ............................................................................ 55
Figure 6-12 33/11kV (Option 2) Substation Electrode System Surface Potential
Contours Expressed as a % of the EPR ............................................................ 56
Figure 6-13 33/11kV (Option 2) Substation Electrode System Touch Potential
Contours Expressed as a % of the EPR ............................................................ 57
Figure 6-14 33/11kV (Option 2) Substation Electrode System Step Potential Contours
Expressed as a % of the EPR ............................................................................ 57

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Grid and Primary Substation Earthing Design Document Number: EDS 06-0013
Version: 3.0
Date: 05/05/2015

1 Introduction
This standard (previously Section 3 of the Earthing Design Manual) details the earthing
design requirements for grid and primary substations and associated connections at 132kV
and 33kV.

Definitions for the terms used and a catalogue of reference documents associated with
earthing practice and the design criteria are detailed in EDS 06-0012. ECS 06-0022 provides
construction guidance for grid and primary substations.

There will be some situations where advice from an earthing specialist is required refer to
EDS 06-0001 for further details.

2 Scope
This standard applies to earthing design at:

All new grid and primary substations.


Existing grid and primary substations where a material alteration (including a significant
increase in fault level) is to take place.
All new connections at 132kV and 33kV (including solar and wind farm generation).
Note: A new document (EDS 06-0019) has been prepared to provide additional
guidance on all aspects of EHV and HV customer earthing.

This document is intended for internal and external use.

3 Abbreviations

Term Definition

DigSILENT PowerFactory The power system analysis software used by UK Power Networks
EHV Extra High Voltage. Refers to voltages at 132 kV, 66kV and 33kV
HV High Voltage. Refers to voltages at 20kV, 11kV and 6.6kV
LV Low Voltage. Refers to voltages up to 1000V, typically 400V 3-phase
and 240V single-phase
EPR Earth potential rise
ROEP Rise of earth potential

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Grid and Primary Substation Earthing Design Document Number: EDS 06-0013
Version: 3.0
Date: 05/05/2015

4 Overview
4.1 Data Requirements

Before starting the following basic data is required:

Substation layout drawing and an earthing drawing for existing substations.


Plan of surrounding area (100m radius) with buildings and other utility services shown.
Supply circuit type to source (cable or overhead line).
Source earth fault current (see Section 5.7).
Outgoing circuit type.
Geographic plan showing existing bare metal sheathed or bare wire armoured cables
and proposed cable routes within a 500m radius of substation.
Outgoing earth fault current (max see Section 5.7).
Thermal rating in kA required for earthing system.
If in a rural location, estimate of soil resistivity.

4.2 Earth Potential Rise (EPR) Estimation

This process is necessary as a first indication as to whether earthing is likely to be a


significant issue at the site. If it is, then a more detailed design procedure can be followed
from the outset. If not, then a standard arrangement with little or no further calculation should
suffice.

The main factors to consider are the incoming supply circuit type, whether the location is in
ground that is detrimental to earthing (within infill material or on rocky ground), the outgoing
circuit type and the fault level. The decision that can be reached by consideration of these
factors is set out below.

Using the flowchart in Figure 4-1 make a first estimate of the EPR. If the EPR is less than
430V follow the standard design procedure outlined in Section 4.3. If the EPR is greater than
430V follow the detailed design procedure outlined in Section 4.4.

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Grid and Primary Substation Earthing Design Document Number: EDS 06-0013
Version: 3.0
Date: 05/05/2015

START

Supply and
outgoing circuits via Yes
cables?

No

Supply
Gross earth fault
circuits via towers and outgoing Yes
current less than 3kA?
circuits cables?

No

Carry out first estimates of fault


No current distribution
(Section 5.2)

From approx soil data and grid


dimensions, estimate the approx grid Gross earth fault current
No
resistance (see Section 5.5) and less than 500A?
multiply by approx earth fault current

Yes

EPR significantly
Yes
less than 430V?

No
Yes

EPR 300-430V
and sensitive installations
No
nearby e.g. petrol storage
(Section 5.12)?

Yes

Use detailed design procedure Use standard design


(Section 4.4) (Section 4.3)

Figure 4-1 Making a First Estimate of the Substation EPR

4.3 Standard Design

The standard design procedure can be used if the EPR is less than 430V and is outlined
below.

1. Design earthing system as per standard design layout or approach (see Sections 5.3
and 5.4).

2. Lay earthwire with outgoing cable routes for 150m.

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Grid and Primary Substation Earthing Design Document Number: EDS 06-0013
Version: 3.0
Date: 05/05/2015

4.4 Detailed Design

A more detailed design procedure is required if the EPR is greater than 430V and is outlined
below.

1. Obtain soil resistivity data or structure (see Section 5.1).

3. Design earthing system to optimise resistance in relation to soil structure or to avoid third
party equipment (see Section 5.3 and 5.4).

4. Calculate earth grid resistance (see Section 5.5).

5. Calculate effect of parallel earth paths (Hessian cables, earthed tower lines, bare
earthwire laid direct in ground with cables) (see Section 5.6).

6. Calculate overall earth impedance (see Section 5.6).

7. Obtain site specific earth fault current data and analyse how current splits to determine
ground component (see Section 5.7 and 5.8).

8. Make more accurate calculation of EPR (see Section 5.9 and 5.9.2). If EPR <430V revert
to standard design procedure (see Section 4.3).

9. Calculate touch and step potentials and compare to limits. Modify design to achieve
compliance (see Section 5.12).

10. Estimate external voltage contours and effect on third parties. Liaise with third parties if
necessary (see Section 5.10).

11. If significant mitigation costs likely, modify design to reduce impact if possible (see
Section 5.11.1).

12. If EPR exceeds threshold values, list additional design requirements and actions
necessary. Produce HOT zone plot for third parties (see Section 5.11).

13. Augment design to cater for site specific equipment and arrangement (see Sections
5.13). For example, structure earths (5.14), surge arresters (5.19), security lighting (5.20)
etc.

14. Select tape and joint sizes to match thermal and corrosion requirements (see Section
5.14).

15. Produce construction drawing.

4.5 Review of Existing Substations

The assessment of existing substations for compliance with ENA ER S36 or this standard is
covered in ECS 06-0025. Examples of the circumstances where this may be required are as
follows:

On receipt of a specific enquiry from a third party.


Following a system incident.
When modification work is being considered.
Following changes to system fault levels.

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Grid and Primary Substation Earthing Design Document Number: EDS 06-0013
Version: 3.0
Date: 05/05/2015

5 Detailed Design Procedure


5.1 Determination of Soil Resistivity

An initial estimation of the soil resistivity can often be obtained from the EPR database or
from published geological survey information.

If the more pessimistic values of soil resistivity produce an acceptable EPR result then this
may be used, otherwise soil resistivity measurements should be carried out according to
Section 9.

5.2 Preliminary Site Assessment

Before carrying out work at a green field site, the civil engineer will normally require a geo-
technical survey. Wherever practicable, the same company should be required to carry out
the soil resistivity and pH testing at the site. If boreholes are to be drilled, it may be possible
for their positions to be selected such that they are suitable for earthing, whilst also providing
the necessary data for the civil engineer (for example located just beyond the corners of the
proposed building). On completion, 25mm x 4mm copper tape or stranded 70mm2 conductor
can be installed in each borehole prior to backfilling. The conductor should extend by about
500mm above the hole and this part is to be buried just below the surface of the soil to allow
for later connection to the earth grid. The hole is to be backfilled with local soil or material
that is non-corrosive to copper and electrically conductive. Concrete, soil, Bentonite or
Marconite are all suitable for this purpose. The design engineer should avail himself of the
Geo-technical Engineers report plus any other published geological information relating to
the site. The chemical analysis should include an assessment of the rate of corrosion to
copper, lead and steel (normally the above average presence of chemicals such as
chlorides, acids or sulphates increase the corrosion rate) and testing the pH value

At an existing site, the buried electrode should be revealed at a number of locations and
inspected to determine the conductor size, type and condition especially to see if there is
any evidence of corrosion. If corrosion is evident, the new electrode size shall be increased
and the copper tape surrounded by a minimum of 150mm radius of correct value pH soil.
This may need to be imported if sufficient quantity is not available from other parts of the
site. Stranded copper conductor should not be used, but if essential for small parts of the site
the conductor shall have a small number of large cross sectional area strands. Monitoring
checks (e.g. testing with clip on meters) shall also be included in the maintenance regime,
together with a plan to alleviate any damage caused by corrosion to the existing conductor.

Ash, cokebreeze or any other type of imported material which is corrosive to copper shall not
be used as backfill. As an alternative to replacing the soil, the electrode may be surrounded
by low sulphur content concrete, preferably with graded carbonaceous aggregate in place of
the conventional sand or aggregate for a radius of 50mm. Marconite is suitable for this, but is
more expensive.

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Grid and Primary Substation Earthing Design Document Number: EDS 06-0013
Version: 3.0
Date: 05/05/2015

5.3 Initial Design of the Earth Grid - Standard Earthing Arrangement

The standard is to make the substation safe and then to render the site COLD where
practicable at reasonable cost. If it appears that extensive, costly modifications would be
required to make the site COLD, an assessment shall be made of the costs involved in
declaring the site HOT and this compared to the cost of extending the earthing. In most
cases a compromise will provide the best solution, i.e. some additional earthing work will be
needed to reduce the EPR, but to a level where the site is still HOT.
It is preferable to use one of the standard designs given Appendix A but if these are not
applicable, follow the general guidelines below to carry out the initial design of the earth grid.
Ideally all services (such as water) should have standard insulated arrangements, to avoid
possible transfer potentials. Metallic services should preferably be replaced with plastic type
from 2m beyond the substation perimeter fence. If there is some uncertainty as to whether
the site is HOT or not, it is sensible to introduce some of the less costly precautions at the
construction stage. For example, insist on a plastic piped water supply and arrange for
isolation units on any BT circuits.
On the scale plan of the site, showing the plant arrangement, plot an earth grid to the
following specification:
1. An outer (perimeter) loop of standard copper electrode should be installed, inside the
fence line and ideally a minimum of 2m away (inside) from any metal fencing, at 600mm
depth (installed in plastic duct where cable routes cross the earth tape). In addition, the
electrode conductor should ideally be 1 metre outside any exposed metalwork of plant
within the substation. This means in practice, that the gap between any item of plant and
the metal fencing should ideally be 3m. The outer ring should encapsulate an area as
large as possible. It is possible in many cases to allow the loop conductor to extend
closer to the perimeter fence, so long as the resulting fence touch voltages are within
safe limits. At least 2m separation between the fence and internal earthed equipment
shall be maintained in all cases.
2. Convert the outer loop to a mesh by positioning standard conductor across the site, in
two directions (at 90 to one-other), each conductor being parallel to one of the outer
conductors, where practicable. The cross - members should form rectangles, should be
spaced a nominal 10m maximum apart on the outer edges of the grid or 12m maximum
apart in the central areas and installed to a depth of 600mm. They will be joined to the
outer ring and at each crossing point. The conductor routes should be selected to
coincide with planned excavations (such as adjacent to transformer bund walls) and run
close to equipment/structures that require connection.
3. Care shall be taken when planning the grid layout to ensure that critical components
such as transformer neutral connection points, switchgear earth bars etc., are provided
with direct and duplicated routes through to the perimeter loop electrode.
4. At or near to the connection point of each cross member to the perimeter loop electrode,
and at its corners, install one 3.6m x 16mm copper clad earth rod. Longer rods may be
necessary in some soils or to reduce the grid resistance. Where rods of more than 5m
length are used, at least two connections to permit testing are to be used. They should
be on opposite edges of the site and will permit rapid testing and electrode location.
5. Provision may be necessary in the design of the grid layout to provide connection points
for temporary neutral earth resistors or arc-suppression coils (ASC) to replace the
normal unit during maintenance, particularly if the unit is shared between two or more
transformers.

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Grid and Primary Substation Earthing Design Document Number: EDS 06-0013
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6. Use shall be made of sheet piles and reinforcing bars in concrete piles wherever
practicable. This will improve the resistance value and reduce installation costs. If
vertical piles are to be plastic lined, then some copper tape should be installed on the
outer edge of the piles to provide a low cost vertical electrode. An earth loop conductor
shall be installed around the outside of the foundation any new switchroom and be
incorporated into the design (this will have been installed as a standard feature at the
civil stage). Methods of connecting rebar, piles and sheet steel are covered in Section 4.
Horizontal foundation slabs of transformers and switch rooms are to have two rebar
connectors fitted, one at either end of the foundation. Switch room rebar for new GIS
equipment requires special attention and this will be addressed by the manufacturer or
installer. Where the vertical piles have more than 5m of metal reinforcement in them,
20% of them are to be bonded direct to the earthing system. These will be selected at
corner locations, on the outer edges of the structure or at locations that will assist with
high frequency impulse attenuation. At Network Rail traction supply points the main
reason for not bonding the rebar is the possible presence of DC return currents.

7. The metal fencing shall have its own electrode system. Details of fence earthing
arrangements are covered in Section 5.29. The clearance between the fencing and the
earth grid is to provide electrical separation between the two systems. Fence earth rods
should be close to the fence and not infringe the clearance zone. Any metallic pipes or
cables which run under the fencing at a standard substation should be installed in plastic
duct 2 either side of the fence. Metallic support columns for lighting or security cameras
shall not be installed within the 2m clearance zone. Also see section 5.20.

Note: Electrode buried shallower than 600mm deep cannot be considered in calculating
the resistance value, but can be included in calculations related to touch and step
potentials.

8. Routing of electrode. Avoid laying earth electrode close and parallel to bare metal pipes,
Hessian served power or multi-core cables. This reduces the risk of them being
punctured due to high currents or voltage transients on the electrode. Ideally a
separation of at least 300mm should be maintained. Where this is not practicable, for
short lengths, then PVC tape or a split plastic duct should be applied around the Hessian
sheathed cable or bare metal water pipe. This insulation should be applied for 500mm
either side of a position were the cable or pipe crosses an earth electrode and the length
over which the 300mm separation cannot be maintained. It is particularly important to
ensure that this insulation is applied where a long earth electrode terminates. The end of
the electrode shall be bent away from the cable or pipe, to increase the separation at this
point, in addition to the insulation. For plastic sheathed cables, the separation can be
reduced to 0.15m.

When routing electrode off site, either to reduce the overall earth resistance or to provide
a connection to external equipment such as terminal poles, routes that may be
frequented by people with bare feet or animals are to be avoided. These include routes
near caravan sites, animal drinking troughs or across access gates to stables or milking
parlours. Where electrode crosses land that is to be ploughed, if it cannot be located
near to hedgerows and so shall cross open areas, it is to be installed a minimum of 1m
deep.

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Grid and Primary Substation Earthing Design Document Number: EDS 06-0013
Version: 3.0
Date: 05/05/2015

5.4 Initial Design of Earth Grid - Non-Standard Earthing Arrangement

This design is similar to the standard design with the following exceptions:

Where the electrode is a loop outside the fence, this standard electrode shall be installed 1
metre deep and between 700mm to 2m outside any metallic fencing. Where the grid is being
extended either to make the substation COLD or to limit the EPR, the outer conductor may
be spaced more than 1 metre away from the fence-line at a distance indicated in the design
study. Depending upon wayleaves and practical issues, the outer electrode spacing from the
fence may not be symmetrical. For example, it may be 1 metre away on one side of the site
and 15m away on the other. An additional electrode 1m outside the fence may also be
needed in the latter case, if the EPR is high, to reduce fence touch voltages

The internal electrode design will follow the same procedure as in Section 5.3, except that
the cross members will pass under the fence and be bonded to it (see Section 4). Equipment
bonded to the grid can be close to the fence, as there will be no touch voltage issue.

When these guidelines have been translated into an actual design, the arrangement will be
similar to those shown in Appendix A.

5.5 Calculation of the Earth Grid Resistance

5.5.1 First Approximation

The soil resistivity value is first required. The procedure for carrying out the resistance
calculation is detailed in ENA ER S34. Table 1 of S34 contains a series of formulae to
calculate the resistance of various forms of buried electrode. This method always has a
margin of error, which can be significant if the soil is not uniform, especially when the soil
has high resistivity layers underneath (e.g. rock). Where the soil is not uniform or the earth
grid is complex, specialist advice shall be sought.

5.5.2 Computer Modelling

The electrode arrangement can be modelled by computer if required to provide a more


accurate value. Specialist advice should be sought.

5.6 Calculation of the Grid or Overall Earth Impedance (taking into account
parallel paths)

When a fault having an earth fault current occurs, the current that returns to the source(s)
through the ground will pass through the earth grid together with any connected parallel
paths. Before calculating the EPR it is necessary to estimate how much of the fault current
flows in this way and how much returns via metallic routes (such as cable sheaths), to avoid
over-estimating the EPR.

In an urban located substation, the impedance of the parallel paths will often be an order of
magnitude lower than the resistance of the substation grid, so it is vital that their contribution
is accounted for. This will prevent unnecessarily declaring a substation as HOT, or over-
designing the grid earth.

To be considered, the parallel paths shall be reliable and capable of carrying their proportion
of anticipated maximum fault current, without duress.

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The overall impedance to earth is made up of the following components, shown also in
Figure 5-1, connected in parallel:

The earth grid.


Bonded foundation sheet steel or reinforcement bars.
Steel tower lines.
Cable networks.
Fortuitous earths, e.g. to/via other services and LV system.

There are other parallel paths influencing the measured value. These include the electrode
system of customers or adjacent substations, but these are not included in the design
calculation unless they have been formally incorporated within an overall earthing design.

EARTHING SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Outgoing Earth Grid Incoming Electrical


Sources

Earth grid I
f
Cable (XLPE)

Cable (Pb)
Cable (Pb)
Steel reinforcing

Cable (XLPE)

KEY
PVC serving on copper, aluminium or lead sheath.
Hessian (conductive) serving on lead sheath.

Figure 5-1 Earthing System Components

5.6.1 The Earth Grid

As described in Section 5.5, the earth grid resistance can be obtained by calculation, by
computer modelling, or by graphical or interpolation methods.

5.6.2 Bonded Foundation Structure Steel Reinforcement Bars

If these have been bonded to the earth grid, initially their effect can be ignored unless they
increase the horizontal area encompassed by the earth grid or enter low resistivity soil
underneath (such as long steel reinforced piles). If the total area is increased, the new total
area should be used to recalculate the grid resistance.

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5.6.3 Steel Tower Lines

Each tower has a natural resistance to earth of typically 5 to 20, due to the concrete-clad
steel legs installed in the soil and the terminal tower at any substation shall be securely
connected to the substation earth grid. The total combined resistance to earth of each tower,
connected in series/parallel via the overhead earth conductor, is called the chain impedance.
The calculated chain impedance value relies on the aerial earth conductor being bonded to
the tower steelwork at each tower position and the actual value will be significantly higher if
this has not been carried out. (Many older lines were originally constructed without bonds
between the earthwire and tower) On site checks may thus be required to confirm
satisfactory connection. Only towers continuously connected by an earthwire to the
substation grid contribute to the chain impedance. For example, the contribution beyond a
section of Trident or Portal type unearthed 132kV construction will not contribute.
The tower line chain impedance has a reactive component due to the overhead earth
conductor. On a new circuit, the individual tower footing resistance can be measured (before
the earthwire is connected) and this is the preferred method. Alternatively the resistance can
be calculated using the foundation depth, radius, spacing and soil resistivity. Computer
modelling is the most accurate calculation method, for which specialist advice may be
required. Once the tower footing resistance is known, a graph is provided (ENA ER S34,
Figure 5) from which the chain impedance can be read. The graph assumes that there are at
least 20 towers in a line, in similar soil conditions.
In the absence of detailed information, a conservative estimate for a 132kV tower line with a
minimum of 20 towers would be a chain impedance of 2 ohms at 34 degrees (lag), shown
2 34. This assumes the tower line is not on rocky ground.
If a tower line is shorter than 20 towers, or installed in rocky ground, then individual
calculation is necessary and specialist advice may be necessary.
The tower at a line cable interface should be fitted with potential grading and cable surge
arresters. These are connected to earth directly via copper tape or stranded conductor and
are also indirectly connected to earth via the tower.
The rational behind this is that good earthing is necessary at the termination tower for
insulation coordination and to prevent voltage doubling. The tower needs to be bonded to
the substation earth at two points. This does not modify the substation earth resistance by
very much.
The difference the presence of the tower and earth wires make, is that a relatively low earth
impedance will already exist. The high frequency impedance of a tower is much higher than
at power frequency, so much so, that the impedance of the tower can have a second order
effect. So a copper connection from the surge arresters is necessary with a few rods at the
base. No measurements are necessary. Further details for high frequency earthing of surge
arresters and capacitor voltage transformers (CVT) can be found in Section 5.19.

5.6.4 Cable Networks


Where these exist, they are likely to be the most important factor governing the need, or
otherwise, to extend the earthing system.
Most existing 11kV cables have either a Hessian covered steel-wire (or tape) armouring,
with a lead sheath; or are PVC served with an aluminium sheath. For Hessian covered
cables, the outer lead sheath is in continuous contact with the soil throughout its length
(except where installed in plastic ducts) and will provide a path for earth fault current to flow
into the soil.

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Polymeric type cables are now increasingly being used and have a stranded copper sheath
and a medium density polyethylene outer serving (MDPE). It is important that the sheath
cross sectional area is sufficiently large to carry the anticipated fault current and not
to have too high a longitudinal impedance. The sheath cross sectional area will also
affect the proportion of fault current returning through the soil for an earth fault at the remote
end of the cable and so will influence the EPR. This is often overlooked when cables are
selected on a cost basis related to the load carrying capability only.

A bare copper stranded earth electrode of 70mm2 cross-sectional area is to be laid with each
out-going group of insulated sheath cables for a typical distance of 150m from the substation
(unless deemed not required by the Design Engineer) up to an overall maximum length as
follows:

In the absence of more specific design guidance, the total length of bare electrode installed
in this way at a ground-mounted substation is to be 3.2 times the soil resistivity value,
metres. The conductor required should ideally be shared equally amongst three or four
routes running out in separate directions. If there are few routes and/or the distance to the
first distribution substation is short (less than 200m), then it is advisable to run the electrode
along it. If possible, the remote end of the electrode should be terminated at the electrode
system of a distribution substation or to the sheath of a HV cable joint. This will provide a
higher degree of reliability.

Knowing the soil resistivity along the route, Figure 4 in ENA ER S34 provides a series of
curves to enable the electrode resistance provided by the bare electrode or lead sheathed,
Hessian served cables of different length to be estimated. As a first estimate, the resistance
of up to three lengths of Hessian served cables, each following routes which are between 65
and 120 degrees apart, may be calculated using Figure 4 in ENA ER S34. The overall
resistance can be obtained by assuming each of these and the earth grid to be in parallel.
Short lengths of plastic sheathed cables or plastic ducts can normally be ignored. Also, for
calculation purposes, any radial earth electrode installed along the route of a plastic
sheathed underground cables can be treated the same as a Hessian served cable, provided
it is not running in parallel with a Hessian served cable whose contribution is also to be
included. The above approach will almost certainly provide a resistance value lower than the
actual one. This is due to interaction between the outgoing cables and earth grid not being
taken into account. Cables associated with different voltage systems may be included,
provided their earth sheaths are connected at the substation concerned.

The sheaths of many modern cables are plastic covered (PVC or MDPE) and hence
insulated from earth. However, they are often connected to sections of older Hessian
covered cable and to earthing systems at each 11kV substation. Due to this, a low overall
impedance to earth may still be provided. The contribution from an entirely plastic served
cable circuit may be calculated in a similar manner to that for a tower line, i.e. as a parallel
set of chain impedances. The resistance of the HV electrode at the distribution substation
(as specified in Section 4) is in series with the longitudinal impedance of the cable sheath
(which may be found from ENA ER S34). As the distribution substations are generally
several hundred metres apart, their individual electrode systems will not interact. This means
that the contribution from nearly all the outgoing circuits may be taken as acting in parallel. It
is important to note that the overall earth impedance will be significantly higher than for a
comparative system of lead sheathed cables and will have a much larger inductive
component.

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To enable an approximate calculation to be made for a typical network comprising of


Hessian and plastic served cables, the following information is required:

The area covered by the cable network, if less than 4km2.


The length of the buried cable.
The proportion of Hessian served cable.
Approximate distribution substation resistance if Hessian served cable accounts for less
than 10% of the total.
A value representing the proportion of the area used by the cable network (the active
area).
A factor which takes into account the effect of many Hessian served cables following
similar routes.

The approximate overall cable network impedance can then be found by use of an equation
and/or graphs.

Where a more precise estimate is required, for example when the cable network is relatively
small or has a high amount of plastic sheathed cable, then specialist advice is required to
calculate the overall earth return impedance. To facilitate calculations, the following
information is required:

Cable size and type. Sheath dimensions are particularly important.


Typical installation depths.
Distribution substation earthing value.
Cable overlaying planned, especially where bare metal sheathed or bare wire armoured
cable is to be replaced by PICAS/plastic served cable.
Approximate cable routes, which show where bare metal sheathed or bare wire
armoured cable is laid direct in the ground or in earthenware ducts.

The above information is required for each circuit up to 1.5km from the site or up to the first
section of overhead line. The areas of each circuit containing a high proportion of Hessian
served cable are of particular interest. Where this cable is laid in earthenware ducts it has a
measurable but much less effective earth resistance.

A diagram showing the type and format of information necessary is provided in Appendix B.

The overall earth return impedance may be calculated by considering the above paths to be
in parallel. It is necessary to take proximity into account - for example if there is only one
Hessian served cable and this runs in parallel with a tower line, the chain impedance of the
tower line should be excluded as it will overlap that of the cable. Similarly, if the tower line
passes through an area densely populated by Hessian served cable, its impedance should
be neglected in the overall calculation.

5.6.5 Fortuitous Earth Paths

These are provided by/via the LV system or other services at COLD substations. For
example, at an old substation, there may be connection onto abandoned cable sheaths or
pipes. Fortuitous earths are not included in design calculations, but may provide a further
reduction in the overall resistance at the measurement stage. At a HOT substation, such
fortuitous earths, especially if provided by LV cables, which leave the site boundary, could
be a source of danger and are not permitted. If they exist, they shall be modified or
disconnected.

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5.7 Data Required from the Power System Fault Study

The objective is to determine the amount of earth fault current flowing into a substations
earth impedance (which includes the earth grid plus its parallel paths). This will be used to
calculate the EPR and ensure that the earthing system can deal with the anticipated fault
current.

Note: The substation earth grid and main equipment bonds are sized to deal with the
thermal requirements, i.e. the maximum earth fault current anticipated over a period of 3s (or
1 second at transmission sites). This means that any subsequent physical work on site
should be kept to a minimum for moderate increases in fault current. Refer to Section 8 for
the design issues it is necessary to consider when there is a significant increase in fault
current.

The network should be modelled using fault levels anticipated for five years into the future to
obtain the maximum single phase to earth fault current available due to either an internal or
external fault condition at the substation. The initial symmetrical short circuit current is to be
calculated in accordance with IEC 909-HD 533. The internal fault is for example a high-
voltage bushing or bus bar failure to earth or a fault thrower operation producing the highest
earth fault current in the substation. (The highest voltage level may not necessarily produce
the highest earth fault current). The worst case external fault condition normally involves an
earth fault on a lower voltage outgoing circuit, particularly one supplied by unearthed
overhead line, where the entire earth fault current will return through the ground.

The switchgear earth fault rating should not be used for this calculation, as the rating is
normally much higher than the actual earth fault current values. Switchgear with a high rating
is often purchased due to high X/R ratios, not high earth fault current conditions. Use of
these values would lead to un-necessary expenditure for internal earthing and external third
party mitigation.

Internal fault conditions within the substation at lower voltages do not normally require
investigation, as most of the current should return via the installed electrode system back to
the star point. This will not create a significant rise of earth potential, unless the earth grid
has been incorrectly designed or is large (say at a power station). In this case, significant
potential differences may occur across the substation. If the installed electrode system is not
fully integrated, then specialist advice should be sought to determine whether a detailed
analysis is required.

A more detailed analysis is required for 132kV networks compared to those at 66kV and
33kV. These lower voltage networks are generally earthed at one point, whereas 132kV
networks are multiple earthed i.e. at sending and receiving ends. This means that a portion
of the fault current will return to source via phase conductors. To estimate the current
returning in this way, the individual phase currents in each transformer winding during the
fault are required and these need to be summated vectorially to find the residual current.
This is subtracted from the gross earth fault current when calculating the EPR. Examples of
the information required and how it is analysed for transformer feeder or parallel infeed
arrangements are shown in Appendix B.

For 66kV and 33kV overhead line networks supported on unearthed poles, because it is
normal practice to provide a connection with earth at the source of supply only, all of the
earth fault current returns to the source via the ground.

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It is important to include an estimate of the total earth return impedance (i.e. the series sum
of the fault resistance, source resistance and circuit impedance) and fault position in the fault
current analysis. Where the earth return impedance is significant, for example at rural
locations supplied by 33kV lines, the prospective earth fault current will be significantly
reduced. The above analysis, based on sequence modelling, will give approximate results
where the earth fault current does not follow the same route back to source as the phase
current. For example, when there are multiple cable sheath routes for the earth fault return
current and only one route for the phase fault current. It is possible, to model the system
more accurately by including independent phase and earth circuits. This can be carried out
for specific cases, if required and specialist advice is necessary.

5.8 Earth Fault Current Returning via Earthwire/Cable Sheaths Due to Induction

5.8.1 Introduction

When a conductor lies parallel to another and an alternating current flows in one of them,
then provided a complete circuit is available on the other, a current will be induced in it. This
effect is experienced in tower lines and underground cables. The earthwire on a metal tower
line forms a complete circuit as it is earthed at each end (and at intermediate towers), so
current will be induced in it when earth fault current flows in a phase conductor. Similarly, if
the metal sheath of a single core cable is earthed at each end, current will be induced in this
when earth fault current flows in the cable core.

The current induced into the cable sheath or aerial earth wire returns to source(s) without
flowing through the ground locally. It will not pass through the earth grid and will therefore
not contribute to any rise in potential.

To arrive at an accurate estimate of the rise of earth potential under fault conditions, the fault
current returning via metallic routes needs to be subtracted from the total fault current to give
the current returning via the soil.

Aerial earth
If

If Fault

Substation A Substation B
earth grid earth grid

Igr (the current returned through the soil) for a cable fault is reduced by the value If, which
would be the current returning through the cable sheath.
If = Maximum earth fault current from fault study
If = Current induced into earth loop, opposite to If

Igr = If If

Figure 5-2 Estimating the Proportion of Fault Current Returning Through the Soil

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5.8.2 Overhead line with Earth Conductor

To determine the value of ground current, refer to Table 2 in ENA ER S34. However, note
that the earthwire shall be continuous back to source. If a section of unearthed construction
(e.g. Trident) is installed, then the table cannot be used and any induced return current will
need to be individually calculated. Again, specialist advice should be sought to assist in this
task.

5.8.3 Cables

To determine the proportion of ground current, ENA ER S34 has a series of nomographs.
These are summarised in Table 5-1. The nomographs are only suitable for relatively straight
forward cases and are not available for polymeric cables. For these and more complex
arrangements, for example where there are several sources or intermediate substations
between the source and the substation of interest, specialist advice should be sought.

Table 5-1 Calculation of Ground Current for Cable Faults

ENA ER S34 Fault on Cable Section

Figure No Voltage (kV) Size Type Supply Source

8 33 Standard PILC All cable


2
14 132 630mm PILC or PICAS All cable
*
13 33 Standard PILC Via overhead line
2
16 132 630mm 3 x 1 PILC Via overhead line
2
17 132 630mm 3 x 1 PICAS Via overhead line
10 33 Standard* PILC Cable
2
15 132 630mm PILC or PICAS Cable
2 2 2
* Standard includes 185mm , 240 mm and 300mm .

To use the nomographs, it is necessary to know the length of cable, the cable type, the earth
impedance at each end, the fault position and method of earth connection at each cable end.
Normally the sum of the two cable end resistances are divided by the cable length (in
kilometres). The factor obtained is then used with the nomographs, to provide the
percentage and phase angle of fault current returning through the ground, for each particular
type of cable.

5.9 Calculation of the Earth Potential Rise (EPR)

5.9.1 Primary Substations

From Section 5.6, the overall earth impedance value will have been obtained. From Section
5.7 the maximum earth fault current will have been obtained. As a first estimate, the two
should be multiplied together to obtain the EPR value. If this means a COLD substation, then
no further calculation is generally necessary. If, the calculation indicates that the substation
may be HOT, then the effects of current returning to the network by induction, as explained
in Section 5.8 now have to be taken into account. See Appendix B. The EPR is then
recalculated as the net (remaining) current through the overall earth impedance multiplied by
that impedance.

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5.9.2 Grid Substations (including 132 kV and 33kV Connections)

The overall earth impedance value will have been obtained as explained in Section 5.6. The
current returning to the substation, and passing through the overall earth impedance will
have been obtained as part of the earth fault study Section 5.7.

Due to high fault current, there is no virtue in carrying out a rough estimate and it is
necessary to first account for the effects of currents returning to the network via induction, as
explained in Section 5.8. If this produces a COLD site, no further calculation is necessary. In
most cases it will also be necessary to account for the current returning via phase
conductors (see Section 5.7 and Appendix B) to more accurately calculate the EPR. See
Appendix B.

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5.10 Calculation of External Potential Contours or Zones of Influence (e.g. HOT


Zone)

5.10.1 Accurate Representation

When the substation earthing system has been analysed by computer modelling, the
appropriate potential contours (including the 650V or 430V HOT zone and BT 1150 contour)
may be readily obtained and figures should be provided in the appropriate report.

5.10.2 Approximate Calculation

Appendix C of ENA ER S34 gives a formula for calculating the voltage profile from the edge
of the substation grid under potential rise conditions. Nomographs are also provided to
simplify the approach. Figures 24 and 25 in ENA ER S34 are the appropriate ones to use.
Note: The formula and nomographs assume uniform soil.

The appropriate potential contours shall be drawn on a suitably scaled plan (1:2500) of the
substation and its surrounding area, in a similar way to that shown in Figure 5-3, for use by
third parties such as BT.

4
3
2
1

Level 1 - 430V Contour


Level 2 - 650V Contour
Level 3 - 1150V Contour
Level 4 - 1700V Contour

Figure 5-3 Scale Plan of Substation Showing Site Boundary Surface Potential Contours

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5.11 Implications of a Substation being HOT

The immediate practical requirements are:

An isolation transformer is required on the termination of the telecommunication cable in


the substation/control room.
All metallic services to the site and building require attention to ensure they do not
introduce a transfer potential risk. This can be prevented by introduction of insulated
inserts (normally one inside the substation and another 2m beyond the perimeter fence).
Alternatively, say the water supply could be provided by a plastic pipe from 2m outside
the perimeter of the substation. Any exposed metal of services within the substation shall
be bonded to the substation earth grid if there is any possibility of simultaneous contact.
There are operational problems associated with work on pilot cables, telecommunication
and power circuits. For example, when required to carry out jointing work on a cable
between two substations, one of which is HOT. Appropriate operational procedures shall
be used to reduce risk.
The HV and LV electrode systems at the first distribution substation out on each cable
fed circuit, or at any distribution substations situated within the HOT zone, shall be
earthed separately from one another.

Where the final arrangements mean that a substation will have a HOT zone (zone of
influence) that extends outside the substation fence, there are a number of steps to be
initiated. In general:

BT or other telecommunication companies, that use metallic cables, need to be advised


and will require the geographic map showing the surface potential contours, as shown in
Figure 5-3. Telecommunication cables within the substation shall be terminated via an
isolation transformer and mitigation work on cables passing through the HOT zone may
be necessary. Reference should be made to ENA ER S36/1 to determine who is
responsible for costs of telecommunication remedial work.
Other bodies (gas, water, the petro-chemical industry, etc), having buried metallic
pipework within the HOT zone or zone of influence, should be advised so that
appropriate operational precautions can be taken by their staff whilst working on any
metalwork within the zone and mitigation measures considered.
There are operational implications when working on telecommunication circuits
associated with the substation or within the HOT zone.
It is necessary to ensure that touch and step potentials are below the appropriate limits.

Where there is equipment belonging to other authorities within the zone of influence, then a
number of methods may be adopted to reduce risk. This includes physical diversion, addition
of further insulation, adoption of new protection schemes (e.g. to increase limit from 430V to
650V or install telecommunication protection devices) and operational procedures.

5.11.1 Reducing the Area Covered by the HOT Zone

It is desirable that a substation should be COLD, but if this is not possible, then it should
have a limited HOT zone area, preferably one that encompasses a minimum or no third
party equipment. Since the EPR is a product of maximum earth fault current and earth return
network impedance there are several methods to reduce the EPR and hence the HOT zone
area.

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These are to:

Reduce the overall earth fault current;


Reduce the impedance of the earth electrode or its parallel paths; or
Divert more of the fault current away from the earth electrode through parallel paths or
metallic routes.

It may also be possible to design the earth electrode to create a potential contour (or HOT
zone) that avoids sensitive/costly third party equipment. This will almost always require a site
specific computer aided design.

5.11.2 Reduce the Earth Fault Current

In some cases, and in discussion with Asset Management, it may be practicable to alter the
system running arrangement or the method of system neutral earthing in order to reduce the
overall rise of earth potential. Caution shall be exercised to ensure that correct protection
operation is maintained and customer supply quality is not compromised.

5.11.3 Reducing the Electrode Resistance

The only effective methods of achieving this are to either significantly increase the length of
the earth rods (where there is low resistivity soil at deeper levels) or increase the area
enclosed by the grid and its electrodes. For example, it may be possible to extend the earth
grid out from the fence on one or more sides of the site. This is most economically achieved
by bare stranded electrode in each new route used by plastic served cables up to an
appropriate distance as shown in S34 Figure 4.

Alternatives, such as using greater cross section conductor or more earth rods of the same
length, will only provide a marginal improvement and are rarely economically justified.

Special back-fill materials can sometimes be useful. The most common are Bentonite and
Marconite. Bentonite is a clay which, when mixed with water swells to many times its original
volume. It absorbs moisture from the soil and can retain it for some time. Marconite is a
conductive carbonaceous aggregate which, when mixed with conventional cement, has the
effect of increasing the surface area of the earth electrode, thus helping to slightly lower its
resistance. These back-fill materials normally only provide a marginal improvement but may
be specified for other reasons; for instance to help to maintain the resistance value at a more
constant level throughout the year, to provide protection against 3rd party damage, or to
protect the electrode from corrosion. They are also useful for surrounding electrodes
installed in rock. Where a decision is taken to use Bentonite, Marconite or any other special
back-fill material, the design engineer should ensure that this information is passed to the
construction staff. These materials can be quite costly, so the construction methods should
attempt to limit the amount used. Examples are mixing bentonite with local clay, reducing the
hole diameter drilled (for vertical electrodes) and minimising the width and volume of the
horizontal trench section into which the electrode will be installed.

Increasing the size of the grid may introduce practical problems (such as maintaining the
integrity of long spurs against theft or damage) and difficulty in obtaining the necessary
wayleaves.

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5.11.4 Reduce the Impedance of Parallel Paths

There are a number of possible alternatives:

Lay electrode in outgoing mains cable trenches (only useful where the cables have PVC
outer sheaths). If calculations show that this will make the substation COLD, it the most
economical solution. However, if the substation remains HOT, the electrode may extend
the HOT zone some distance from the substation. Where the electrodes are critical to
reduce the EPR and are long, steps shall be taken to maintain their security against
damage or corrosion. An ideal arrangement is to route the electrode such that its end
may be incorporated into a cable joint or the electrode system of a distribution
substation. This means that there are two connections to the electrode, which also helps
reduce the longitudinal impedance. If connection of each end is impractical, a test point
shall be included in the substation so that the resistance of the spur electrode may be
monitored by measurement.
Make use of abandoned, Hessian served underground cable. Often reinforcement
schemes involve replacement of cables. The phase conductors and sheaths may be
joined together and connected to the electrode system. Because of the risk of damage, it
is essential that multiple connections be provided to such cables. The start ends should
ideally be connected via test points, to permit resistance measurements.
Ensure that maximum benefit will be gained from the impedance of tower footings by
ensuring that aerial earth conductors are bonded to the tower steelwork at each tower
position. In some cases additional earth electrode (e.g. a loop 1m distance around the
tower base or a counterpoise earthwire run along the tower route) can be beneficial.
It might be possible to take advantage of any deep excavation or piling, to either install
some additional earth electrode or incorporate the piles as part of the formal substation
earth grid.
Ensure that effective earthing systems are installed at adjacent substations, where these
are directly connected to the site by short cable sections.

5.12 Calculation of Touch and Step Potentials

5.12.1 Accurate Calculation


Where the substation earthing system has been analysed using computer modelling, the
report will provide figures that show the touch and step potentials across the site, expressed
as a percentage of the EPR value. By applying these percentages to the calculated EPR,
then the maximum touch and step values can be identified.

5.12.2 Approximate Method


ENA TS 41-24, Section 9, provides formulae for calculating touch and step potentials both
within the grid area and at fencing:

For substations with separately earthed fence, i.e. Standard design; and
For substations with an integrally earthed fence, i.e. non-standard design.

Approximate values can be obtained by using the earth grid dimensions, soil resistivity and
grid current in the ENA TS 41-24 formulae. The values obtained shall be compared with the
maximum acceptable values as given in Section 2. Note: If the control/switchroom is remote
from the formal earth grid and has not had potential grading electrodes specified, the
approximate touch potential there can be calculated in the following way. The potential on
the surface of the soil around the control /switchroom is calculated and then subtracted from
the EPR value to give the touch voltage.

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If the touch potential of any exposed metalwork within the grid area exceeds the acceptable
value, the solution is normally to reduce the spacing between cross-members of the grid in
that area. The value of 10m chosen for the initial design guidance should ensure that there is
seldom a problem of excessive touch potential, especially if the site is covered with crushed
rock/gravel as specified.

If the touch potential on any metallic fencing exceeds the acceptable value, there are a
number of options:

Provide potential grading protection by laying an electrode 1 metre beyond and parallel
to the fence, buried 0.5 to 1 metre deep, and connected to it. If the fence is
independently earthed, this electrode shall be kept segregated by at least 2m, from the
earth grid, otherwise it will be bonded to the earth grid and fence or

Arrange for the affected short section of fence to be insulated and 'earth free', by
insetting an insulated fence section with insulated bushes at support positions and at any
point where the fence is connected to an earthed section of fence (refer to Section 4) or

Provide a non-metallic barrier at this point, such as a brick wall.

It is essential that precautions are in place to ensure that third party fences are not
connected to the metal substation fence, especially if the substation fence is bonded to the
earth grid. Connection of a third party fence will introduce a transfer potential. Any method
used needs to be obvious to avoid future maintenance compromising the separation.
Therefore physical barriers like brickwork are ideal.

5.13 Requirements of the Final Design

The final design will provide the following:

The earth grid resistance and overall earth return impedance values.
The EPR, for a maximum value of earth fault current.
Specify whether the substation is HOT or COLD.
Show the limits of the HOT zone and appropriate zones of influence - if applicable.
Confirm that the internal maximum touch and step potentials at all points are below the
safe acceptable value.
Confirm that, the maximum touch potentials at the fence are below the safe, acceptable
value.
Confirm that the maximum external step potentials are below the safe acceptable value.
Ensure that there is an earth electrode reasonably close to each item of plant, which
requires connection to it.

Guidance is provided in Section 4 on how to install the electrode and make the necessary
connections/joints.

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5.14 Conductor Size and use of Metallic Structures

The earth electrode and bonding conductor standard sizes are given in Table 5-2. These are
based on the minimum conductor sizes in Appendix F.

The thermal loading i.e. the rating of the earthing electrode, conductors and equipment
connections shall be based on the worst case steady state symmetrical RMS earth fault level
(or the three-phase fault level if it is not available). This shall be the corresponding maximum
earth fault level at the source grid or primary substation.

The EPR and safety voltage calculations shall be based on the calculated foreseeable worst
case earth fault level. This shall be the corresponding maximum earth fault level at the
substation or point of connection (including any generation contribution) plus 10%.

An example of the PowerFactory fault level format is shown below. The RMS break value
(Ib) should be used for earthing calculations.

PowerFactory Studies
Name Ik" A (kA) Ik' A (kA) Ib A (kA) ip A (kA) ib (kA)
Sub-transient Transient RMS Break Peak Make Peak Break
Busbar 1.539 1.535 1.536 2.221 2.172
Poc 1.390 1.384 1.385 2.007 1.959

At sites shared with National Grid the electrode embedded within their area shall comply with
the National Grid requirements (typically 400kV - 63kA for 1 second, 275kV - 40kA for 1
second, 132kV - 31.5kA for 3s - in some special cases 40kA). Parts of the site peripheral to
National Gird may not need to be sized for this rating.

Table 5-2 Earthing and Bonding Electrode/Conductor Sizes


2
Function Connection Conductor Minimum Standard Size (mm or mm )
(Table 5-3)
12kA/3s 26kA/3s 31.5kA/3s 40kA/3s

Earth grid Duplicate or Copper tape 25 x 4 40 x 4 50 x 6 50 x 8


loop brazed
or welded
Primary Single (spur) Copper tape 25 x 4 40 x 6 50 x 6 50 x 8
equipment brazed or 2 2 2 2
connections welded Copper stranded 120mm 300mm 300mm 400mm

Single (spur) Copper tape 40 x 3 50 x 6 50 x 6 50 x 8


double 2 2 2 2
bolted Copper stranded 120mm 300mm 400mm 400mm

Duplicate or Copper tape 25 x 3 40 x 4 40 x 4 40 x 5


loop brazed 2 2 2 2
or welded Copper stranded 70mm 185mm 185mm 240mm

Duplicate or Copper tape 25 x 3 40 x 4 38 x 5 40 x 6


loop double 2 2 2 2
bolted Copper stranded 70mm 185mm 240mm 240mm

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2
Function Connection Conductor Minimum Standard Size (mm or mm )
(Table 5-3)
12kA/3s 26kA/3s 31.5kA/3s 40kA/3s

Secondary Single (spur) Copper tape 25mm x 4mm


equipment bolted 2
connections Copper stranded 70mm

Above ground Single (spur) Aluminium tape 40 x 6 n/a n/a n/a


equipment bolted
connections or
internal earth Double or 40 x 4 40 x 6 50 x 6 n/a
bars loop bolted
2 2 2 2
Equipment Single leg Galvanised steel 380mm 870mm 970mm 1230mm
connections via
structure legs 2 2 2 2
Duplicate 225mm 522mm 582mm 738mm
legs
2
Fence bond Single (spur) Copper tape or 25 x 3 or 70mm
bolted stranded
2
Gate post bond Single (spur) Copper tape or 25 x 3 or 70mm
bolted stranded
2
Gate bond Single (spur) Copper stranded 16mm
bolted or braid
2
Lighting and Single (spur) Copper tape or 25 x 3 or 70mm
security bolted stranded
equipment
connections
2
Other bonding Single (spur) Copper stranded 16mm
e.g. staircases, bolted
cable supports
etc.

Table 5-3 Tape and Stranded Conductor Specifications

Material Specification

Copper Tape* High conductivity copper tape to BS EN 13601


Copper Conductor Hard drawn stranded copper to BS 7884 with a minimum strand radius of
3mm
Copper Braid High conductivity copper wire to BS 4109-C101
Aluminium Tape* Hard drawn to BS 2898-1350 or aluminium alloy to BS 3242
*Tape should be embossed with Property of UK Power Networks

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5.15 Earthing Arrangements Applicable to 400/275/132kV Sites of Different


Companies

The entire earth conductor at connected sites does not necessarily need to be sized to cope
with the highest fault current. The fault studies carried out should account for the fault
current flows through the earthing system and will enable the high fault current routes to be
identified. Conductors there will need to be fully rated, but elsewhere the conductor can be
sized to account for through current and also for faults that occur there at different voltage
levels. This means that smaller electrode should be acceptable elsewhere, for example in
the 33kV area of a site that shares a 132kV zone.

5.16 Earthing Arrangements Applicable to Sites with Generation

Conceptual and practical guidance on earthing of generating plant is covered in


ENA ER G59 and ENA ER G75, which should be referred to. They do not cover design of
the electrode systems, whilst ENA TS 41-24 does not presently apply to generating stations.

The guidance below is provided to deal with design of the electrode systems until such time
that the subject is addressed by updated versions of the ENA Standards.

Where generation plant is to be situated adjacent to or within a substation, it is essential that


the earthing system is designed to a similar specification to that of the substation and
incorporates any requirements of the external connected network. The same general design
rules, as set out previously in this document will apply, especially the touch and step voltage
limits. Where appropriate, declared LV earth loop impedance values should be maintained.

However, additional studies will be required at the design stage to ensure that the
impedance of the earthing system interconnecting the generator earthing to that of the rest
of the site is sufficiently low as to prevent undesirable potential differences. The routing and
longitudinal impedances of these inter-connectors can have a detrimental effect on the
overall earth impedance, if not designed correctly.

Appendix C of this document includes relevant guidance from American and other
standards, which may assist designers.

Earthing of wind farm collection substations should be in accordance with the appropriate
part of this earthing document and comply with ENA TS 41-24. Where wind company
substations or plant is situated adjacent or within a substation, this shall be to a similar
specification.

Earthing of wind farm generators themselves and the overall wind farm is a specialist subject
and beyond the scope of this document. Normally an earth loop and rod array is required at
each generator to provide lightning protection in accordance with BS EN 62305 and potential
grading is normally also necessary. Each turbine group cluster is normally interconnected via
bare electrode and the sheaths of the power cables. Because of the size of the electrode
system, calculations taking into account longitudinal impedance are normally required and
the as installed earth impedance should be measured on commissioning.

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5.17 Earthing Arrangements at Railway Supply Substations

This is a highly specialised topic, for any installations, reference shall be made to the
relevant standards. The subsequent information is provided as an introduction to the topic.

Generally, railway substations are supplied via 132/25kV single-phase transformers. The
arrangements should comply with ENA ER P24. It should be noted that, at these locations,
there are very large earth return currents. This is exacerbated by use of single-phase cables
where the earthed sheath, in parallel with the soil, acts as the return route. Ideally, the
transformers should be situated close to the supply point and share the same electrode
system. This will enable earth return currents to flow via metallic routes, rather than through
the soil. This, in turn will reduce the EPR on the electrode system which occurs when the
railway system is drawing current. The main issues are therefore negative phase sequence
voltages and transferred voltages. Where the supply point is some distance away, the
standing voltage on the transformer earthing system can be significant.

Touch and step voltages which are lower than the ENA TS 41-24 limits apply on railway
systems, mainly due to the regular exposure of the travelling public to the structures and
facilities on which an EPR may occur. The design shall therefore ensure that the
BS EN 50122 limits are complied with in areas to which railway staff or the public have
access. Irrespective of the fault clearance protection time, it is preferred to limit the EPR to
less than 430V, to avoid damage to signalling cables, etc.

Difficulties also concern LV supplies to line side equipment and stations on 25kV AC
electrified lines. It is unusual for PME to be applied, because the possibility of excessive
neutral voltages on exposed metalwork is undesirable. A PME supply is not permitted if a
voltage exceeding 25V, due to faults, starting or normal operation, can arise on the traction
return rail or similar, if this is bonded to the main earth terminal and hence the supply cable
neutral/earth. The LV supply would thus normally be via a TNS supply, an isolation or
interposing transformer (with an earth supplied on the railway side) or via a dedicated
transformer with supply via a circuit with separate neutral and earth (TNS) conductors. For
supplies to Signalling Supply Points (SSP), if PME, the neutral cannot be used outside the
SSP building. Supplies beyond this are normally treated as TT type, requiring their own
electrode system and RCD. If the electrode systems are segregated (i.e. a TT supply),
consideration of the possible voltage rise on each electrode is necessary to ensure that a
sufficient segregation distance is maintained. Some special arrangements for the earthing of
the SSP and outlying Trackside Location Cabinets have been discussed between Network
Rail contractors and ENA. A TT type supply is generally a lower risk arrangement which
requires little technical attention. If PME is to be provided, a detailed consideration of the
signalling and traction supply system arrangements will be necessary. Further guidance may
be found in ENA ER G12.

Another cause of concern is earthing of DC traction systems, which use earth return, as this
can cause accelerated corrosion to cable sheaths and earth electrodes. In most cases,
supplies need to be of an isolated type, unless transferred voltages are of an acceptable
level. Further guidance can be obtained from ENA ER P24 and EDS 06-0017.

As mentioned, the main reference document is ENA ER P24 and this will apply to the railway
supply substation. There are other standards to which reference is necessary and the main
ones are:

ENA ER 41-15, Standard Circuit Diagrams for Equipment in 132kV Substations. Part 9 AC
traction supplies to British Rail.

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BS EN 50122-1, Railway Applications-Fixed Installations. Part 1. Protective provisions


relating to electrical safety and earthing, June 1997. This is the main reference and contains
the touch and accessible voltage limits. Tables of touch voltage limits for short duration faults
(less than 0.5s) are provided. There are also tables of accessible voltage limits; these being
for temporary and steady state conditions (i.e. not fault situations). No tables for step voltage
are included. The limit tables are based on the traditional one hand to both feet touch
voltage scenario. When a hand to hand situation can arise, new limits based on the same
criteria as used in the tables will be necessary.
EN 50162 contains guidance on limiting stray currents by correct earthing and bonding on
electric tram type systems.
Network Rail Standards
RT/E/S/21085, Design of Earthing and Bonding for 25kV AC Electrified Lines, October 1998.
This is quite a high level standard that was originally produced to accompany procurement
specifications. As such, some fine detail is missing. It describes the railway high voltage
network, service conditions and performance requirements. Sections 8.9 to 8.20 cover
treatment of metalwork, fences and services close to the railway. The philosophy is similar to
that used in substations i.e. bond metalwork to the traction return rail or earthwire, but
avoid third party structures being used to pass traction return current. Section 8.17 is
particularly relevant as it concerns non-traction electricity supplies. The earths of buildings
on the railway system shall be bonded to the traction earth, but it is recognised that
separation of this and the incoming supply earth may be necessary in some circumstances.
Auxiliary and pilot cables between Electricity Company and Network Rail facilities shall be
single point earthed.
Network Rail Southern Territory Power Upgrade Project, Procurement Specification Number
15, Earthing and Bonding Systems for DC traction substations and similar. This has been
extensively updated to over-ride the RT standards and ensure that earthing systems comply
with the European standard and modern practice. Has only been issued in draft form and
does not have national application.
RT/E/S /21032, Earthing Systems for DC traction substations, track paralleling huts and
similar equipment locations (Issue 1, December 1996). The earthing designs described are
to old standards and would not comply with modern practice or European Standards. Awaits
updating, but the new procurement specification (15) ensures that new sites in the southern
area have modern earthing designs.
GM/RT 1010, Electrified Lines Traction and Bonding, 1998. This creates a formal link to the
EN50122-1 limits for touch and accessible voltages and requirements for connecting parts of
the system to the general mass of earth.

5.18 Earthing Arrangements at GIS Substations


Earthing of gas insulated switchgear (GIS) and associated plant and equipment is complex
and the designer should consult with the manufacturer at an early stage. Typically the issues
to be considered are:

High fault current.


Residual AC current. Occasionally GIS equipment uses earthed metal screens around
individual phase conductors. If single phase or when unbalanced currents flow in a three
phase enclosure, then current is induced in these screens and a residual AC current is
likely to flow continuously via the earthing system. There is presently concern that these
AC currents may cause accelerated corrosion, particularly in steel electrodes.

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High frequency currents. The nature of the equipment means that switching transients
can occur whilst electrical current is being interrupted. These transients include
components at very high frequencies. Some flow within the confines of the local earth
grid, whilst others flow into the ground. The electrode system to deal with high frequency
current flow into the ground is different to that for 50Hz operation. The most often quoted
solution is to increase the density of the earth electrodes in the immediate vicinity and to
use vertical rods. However this needs to be accompanied by specific screen terminating
arrangements and secondary control wiring needs to be routed to minimise inductive
interference. The design seeks to ensure that high frequencies are confined to the inside
of screened enclosures, but the presence of interfaces (such as at air terminations,
insulated CT flanges and transformer bushings) allow some opportunity for these to
escape.

It is also important to ensure that the earthing design does not permit circulating currents to
flow between plant and connections, which would cause interference. It is normal to provide
a significant number of vertical earth rods close to the GIS enclosure, indeed some rods may
pass through the floor into underlying soil such that an earth is provided as close as possible
to the equipment. It is also common to have a copper or steel mesh electrode embedded in
the concrete floor of the building and earth bars either within or buried immediately outside
the building walls. All equipment is connected to this via short spur connections.
Connections between plant items are run close to and parallel with earth mesh conductors.
GIS equipment is generally earthed via vertical connections, which are connected to the
internal mesh near the following equipment locations, to disperse externally referenced
currents:

Close to circuit breakers.


Close to cable sealing end.
Close to the SF6/air bushing.
Near to instrument transformers.
At each end of the busbars, and at intermediate points (for long busbars).

The three enclosures of a single-phase type GIS shall be bonded together before earthing
using bonding conductors rated to carry the nominal current of the bays or busbars. Flange
joints would not normally require a bonding strap if the contact pressure is high, but these
may become a source of interference at high frequency and tests may be required at the
factory acceptance stage.

The plant earth connections to an internal grid which has conductors of relatively small cross
sectional area should be distributed by additional connections forming a cross or star type
arrangement until sufficient grid conductors are bonded to carry the required current. The
connection shall not be to one or a few small conductors.

Metallic sheaths of cables (nominal voltage greater that 1kV) should be connected directly to
the GIS enclosure. If the connection needs to be separated from equipment under metal
enclosures, then voltage surge protection devices are recommended.

Where the soil conditions are suitable for quite long vertical rods, these can be so positioned
to cater for high frequency (lightning protection and GIS) and low frequency applications. As
they are critical elements of the design, test facilities are to be provided for such rods.

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5.19 Earthing Arrangements for Surge Arresters and Capacitor VTs


Switching transients from the high voltage system contain high order harmonics, which will
see a CVT as virtually a short circuit to earth and will be dispersed through them with little
attenuation. The connection to the grid and the electrode near its point of connection shall be
designed to cater for this. The current flowing through a surge arrester under fault conditions
needs similar consideration.
The connection from the CVT or surge arrester to earth and the electrode system itself has
an impedance which has an inductive component. The inductive part is small at power
frequency compared to the resistive part, but will increase with length of the down lead and
any bends. It only becomes relevant at increasing frequencies and can dominate the
resistive part at high frequencies. This effect can reduce the efficiency of the surge arrester
operation and the system of insulation co-ordination. In CVTs, where a high frequency
electrode has not been installed, companies have experienced flashover across secondary
wiring glands and between the support frame and other earthed conductors. To counteract
the adverse effects, special earthing arrangements are necessary.
Two connections are required. The first is a standard bond from the support metalwork to the
main earth grid. The second is a high frequency earth connection, which should be as
straight as possible, through to an earth rod, which is as close as possible to the equipment
being protected. A cross connection is made from the down lead or earth rod to the adjacent
grid.
At higher voltages, there is a high frequency earth rod for each phase arrester or CVT. At
11kV, 20kV, 33kV and sometimes 66kV pole-type surge arresters, the ideal arrangement is
to have two down leads and earth rods connected down the H pole legs. The three phase
devices are then bonded together on the top of the pole or structure. Only at 11kV is it
generally acceptable to have one shared earth electrode. For these cases the resistance
values required are given in the Section 5.
Within substations, the surge arresters are generally bonded together and at least two
connections taken down to the earth grid.
When seeking to achieve particular impedance value, the electrode system for high
frequency currents will need to be designed differently to that for normal frequency currents
and will require more vertical electrodes close to the structure and sometimes longer rods.
Where the soil conditions are difficult (say underlying rock), then three or more radial spur
electrodes should be taken out from the downlead/grid connection point for about 2m radius
and an approximately equal angle apart.

5.20 Positioning of Metal Supports for Security Lighting etc Near Fences
Metal supports for security lighting and/or cameras can require special attention to protect
against touch potentials. Ideally these items should be situated within the confines of the
earth grid and their electricity supply referenced to the substation earth. This generally
means positioning the column about 1 metre inside the perimeter electrode of the earth grid,
or at least 3m from a separately earthed fence. Where this distance cannot be achieved,
then a non-metallic support column should be used.

Any metal support within 2m of the fence shall be bonded to it. This may require a different
fence earthing arrangement or a modification to the support supply arrangement. In the latter
case, the LV cable earth shall be terminated in an insulated connector and only the neutral
and phase (or switch) conductor taken up the column. The column and other exposed
metalwork are then earthed via the fence and its independent electrodes.

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Where the substation earth grid extends outside the substation perimeter fence there is no
problem locating metal supports close to the fence inside the substation.
Any metal support shall be bonded to the grid, and the low voltage supply shall come from
the substation supply. Barrier equipment is required in cables or wiring to remote locations to
prevent any potential on the substation earthing system being transferred there, if the
substation is HOT.
5.21 Communication Towers within or adjacent to Substations
Because of the increased lightning risk associated with communication masts and the high
frequencies involved from this and the equipment itself, special earthing arrangements are
necessary. These include earth rods and/or an increased density of electrode in the
immediate vicinity of the structure, where it is necessary to minimise the impedance of the
earthing system. At a microwave dish or large aerial, it is normal to have a number of parallel
earth down leads terminating near the base of the structure, onto earth rods. This
arrangement reduces the inductance of the down leads and the earth impedance seen at the
mast. Electrodes that run out radially, are relatively close together and arranged
symmetrically have traditionally been used in place of rods, where there is underlying rock,
to offer a low earth impedance value.
Where the communication facility shares the same site as a substation, then the two
earthing systems should be well interconnected wherever possible. There shall be rods,
radial electrodes or other means of reducing the earth impedance at the interface of the two
systems. This is to minimise the transfer of high voltage, low energy disturbances from one
system to another. The substation earthing system will be especially important in the event
of a lightning strike to the communication tower, as it will help disperse the energy
associated with this. Good interconnection (at least two standard electrodes) is necessary to
restrict any potential difference across the earthing system whilst the lightning energy is
being dispersed.
Attention is also required to the bonding/termination of pilot and communication cables and
the earthing arrangement for the LV supply.
In dealing with a request for supplies, the following strategy is to be followed:
If the communication tower is to be situated within the substation earth grid, wherever
practicable it should be located away from areas which may be susceptible to high
transient voltages (such as SCADA rooms) or locations of expensive equipment (such as
power transformers). The tower should be reliably connected to the earth grid at three or
four points. Earth rods shall be installed on each of these connections where the mast is
high enough to significantly increase the risk of a lightning strike.
If the communication tower is situated close (within 10m) to, but outside the substation
fence, wherever practicable, the site earthing and fence arrangement should be
extended to include this area, using the same earthing philosophy as within the
substation. This means the same fence earthing arrangements of both the substation
and the cellular facility, in particular at the interface fence sections. Where it is not
possible to maintain this, it is usual to introduce insulated fence panels either side of the
communication tower fencing. The tower fencing would then be of the bonded type with
potential grading electrode outside.
For both of the above arrangements, wherever possible, the LV supply to the
communication tower should be taken from the substation, either from the LV supply
busbar or a dedicated 11kV transformer. Caution is necessary where LV supplies are
derived from a combined auxiliary/earthing transformer. High secondary voltages occur
when remote earth faults occur and have resulted in damage to IT cards and
communication equipment.

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If the existing LV supply does not have sufficient capacity, this should be augmented if
possible.
If the LV supply shall be provided from outside the site, this can only be accomplished
using standard arrangements if the substation is COLD. If it is a HOT site, then an
isolation transformer (minimum 4kV insulation voltage) or similar facility is required and
specialist advice is necessary.
If it is necessary to extend the site area to accommodate the communication tower and
the site is HOT, then the associated earthing should be modified if possible such that it
can provide a COLD site. If this is not possible, specialist advice is necessary as the
extent of the HOT zone and any increased impact on third party equipment will need to
be considered.
Sites a significant distance (typically more than 10m away) away from the substation and
outside the HOT zone, should be supplied on a standalone basis and not connected in
any way to the substation. The LV supply should be provided from the network, not the
substation.
If the tower is of a height and/or location such as to substantially increase the risk of a
lightning strike, additional earth rods are to be installed at the base of the communication
tower, in particular on the sides which interface with the substation equipment.

5.22 Communication Masts Fitted to Towers

These masts can often be fitted to towers in an effective manner and avoid the need for
planning permission. However, there may be problems in providing the base station with an
electricity supply. The three main issues are:

The high voltage, which could occur across the distribution transformer when an earth
fault occurs on a tower, associated with 132kV and higher voltages.
Possible high touch and step voltages around the tower and associated equipment.
Possible extension of the HOT zone.

Because of the complexity of this work, some special arrangements have been developed at
national level and are set out in ENA ER G78. Specialist advice should be sought for
guidance on introducing such installations. In ground earthing designs have been
successfully developed for use on 132kV towers where the earth fault current magnitudes
are moderately low (i.e. below 10kA) and the soil has relatively low resistivity (below
100m). In other cases, insulated base arrangements are available where the LV supply
and base station equipment is located on a steel platform that is insulated from earth.

Refer to EDS 08-0030 for further details on providing supplies to mobile phone base stations
on towers.

5.23 LV Supplies to Third Party Equipment at Substations

To make optimal use of sites, there are more cases of third parties locating their equipment
within or adjacent to substations.

Wherever possible, these installations should be installed within the area enclosed by the
main earthing system and be provided with an electricity supply derived from within the
substation, such as the house/auxiliary supply. If the equipment is located just outside the
main earthing system (say within 2m to 5m), if possible the fence and earthing should be
extended using the same earthing philosophy as in the main substation, i.e. the earth grid
extended and the method of fence earthing continued in the new part, wherever practicable.

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There may be a specific type of earth electrode design for the installation and the customer
is responsible for designing and installing this part of the earthing system. This shall be
bonded to the main substation earth grid, in a manner, which provides the required potential
grading, or physical separation against adverse touch voltages.

If the site is HOT, then the electrode and fencing arrangement of the extended area should
be designed to minimise any detrimental effect on the HOT zone. Particular care is required
not to extend the HOT zone into areas where third party mitigation will become an issue.

5.24 Reactors and AC to DC Converters

Normally there are high electric and magnetic fields associated with such devices. These
can, in turn, induce high currents in any nearby metal structures or earth conductors.
Additional precautions are required to prevent induced circulating currents. One method is to
ensure that such equipment is only earthed at one point. Another solution is to use non-
metallic fencing or supports where these are in close proximity to these devices. Where
thyristors are used, again high frequency harmonic currents may be present and the earth
electrode may need to be positioned close to their source to prevent significant potential
differences arising.

Any individual spur parts of the main earth grid (except the reactor earth connection) shall be
at least 0.6 x the reactor diameter away and any earth grid loops at least 1.2 x the reactor
diameter away. Care shall be taken that a metal tool of 300mm length cannot cause these
distances to be infringed to create a closed loop.

Interconnecting leads to other equipment should be run close to earth grid conductors.

5.25 Use of Earth Plates (cast iron pipes etc)

Many of the older earthing installations made use of earth plates or pipes, mainly because of
the much higher current they are capable of dissipating, compared to a rod (in the order of
thirty times). The reality is that they are not required to carry large currents because these
are diverted through other earth components that have a lower resistance. An example of
this is shown in ENA TS 41-24 (example 14.1).

Where an existing substation is being refurbished, the plates/pipes, if in good condition,


would normally be retained and connected to the new earthing system, provided they do not
introduce a touch voltage hazard. If they are corroded or in an inconvenient location then
they can usually be designed out by the new electrode system. If they are situated close to
transformers, surge arresters or CVTs, they should be replaced by several rods (two or
three) placed close together, say 500mm apart. These are cheaper to install and help
equalise potentials on the soil surface as they are used over a greater area.

The ideal locations for a plate are at the corner position of the perimeter electrode and near
the neutral point of transformers. They would only be required if a detailed design study
showed that the current there exceeded the rating of a vertical rod. Maximum current ratings
for rods are shown in Table 5-4.

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Table 5-4 Maximum Current Rating of Earthing Rods

Resistivity Copper Clad Steel (30%) 16mm Solid Copper 16mm Diameter
Diameter
Protection 1s 2s 3s 1s 2s 3s
Clearance Time
30m 40.8kA 28.8kA 23.4kA 69.7kA 49.2kA 40.2kA
50m 31.6kA 22.3kA 18.2kA 54.0kA 38.1kA 31.2kA
100m 22.3kA 15.7kA 12.9kA 38.2kA 27.0kA 22.0kA
150m 18.2kA 12.8kA 10.6kA 31.2kA 22.0kA 18.0kA
200m 15.8kA 11.1kA 9.1kA 27.0kA 19.0kA 15.6kA

5.26 Earthing of Instrument Transformer Windings


ENA TS 50-18 and ENA ER S15 require that instrument transformer windings be wired out
to a terminal board in an accessible place, outside the metal enclosure. The appropriate
connections are to be bonded to earth at this terminal board and the link identified so that it
cannot be removed by mistake.

5.27 Earthing of Cables

5.27.1 Power Cables


The earthing of power cables is outside of the scope of this standard. Further guidance can
be found in the Jointing Manual and ENA ER C55/4 (1989), Insulated sheath power cable
systems.

5.27.2 Protection and Control Cables


Provided there is continuous earth bonding between plant and equipment located within the
same substation site, protection and control cables shall be earthed at both ends. The only
exception is at the RTU where only the end remote from the RTU shall be earthed. Where
protection and control cables are run out to remote sites or third party sites then single end
earthing shall be adopted. Any necessary precautions against transferred potential shall also
be observed.

5.28 General Guidance for Achieving Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)


The sources of electromagnetic radiation are:

Low Frequency
Short circuits or earth faults.
Fields generated by equipment.

High Frequency
Switching on the power system.
Lightning.
Gapped surge arrester operation.
High frequency radio transmitters.
Electrostatic discharges.

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Grid and Primary Substation Earthing Design Document Number: EDS 06-0013
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The guidance provided elsewhere in this document helps ensure practices, which should
minimise electromagnetic radiation. Further information is provided here as background.

Practices which reduce low frequency interference are:

Separating control cable routes from those of power cables.


Installing cables in trefoil rather than flat.
Avoiding cable runs in parallel with busbars or power cables.
Control cables to avoid single-phase transformers and inductances.
Avoid cable earth loops.
All wires of the same circuit in one cable or one route.
Auxiliary cable routes to have radial rather than ring configuration.
Use of twisted pair cables.

Practices which reduce high frequency interference are:

Suitable instrument transformers with adequate inter-winding shielding.


Suitable shielding of secondary circuit cables.
Group circuits associated with the same function, wherever possible.
Equipment should be selected and grouped according to its working environment and
filters and voltage limiting devices used where necessary.

5.29 Earthing of Fences

The ideal and preferred arrangement is for all external fences to be separately earthed, and
for internal fences (i.e. those crossing or subdividing the site) to be bonded to the earth grid.
(Section 5.29.5 and Figure 5-5 to Figure 5-9 below illustrate in terms of touch-voltage that a
separately-earthed fence is the safer option.)

However at some sites it may be necessary to treat separate sections of external fencing
differently; or if more practicable, to apply a common earthing method to all compound
fencing.

When fencing is separately earthed, adequate separation (minimum 2m) shall be maintained
throughout between the fencing and any bonded plant (although at sites with low EPR it may
be permissible to reduce the distance from the fence to the buried earth-electrode, only,
down to 500mm).

Any bare metal, armoured or sheathed, cable bonded to the substation main earth and
running under the separately earthed fence shall be in an insulated duct for 2m either side
and perpendicular to the separately earthed fence. This also applies to conductive pipes and
any other conductive materials buried below the separately earthed fence.

When fencing is bonded, a detailed calculation is necessary to ensure touch-voltages are


safe - unless it is possible to install around the outside either a potential grading electrode or
the perimeter electrode itself - typically running 1m outside the fence and buried 1m deep.

Wherever fence-lines with different earthing methods meet, an insulating section of minimum
2m length is required to separate them. This may comprise a brick building, a short section
of brick wall, or an insulated fence panel.

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An example illustrating these principles and the use of an insulated panel is shown in Figure
5-4. The panel may either be non-conductive (e.g. fibreglass), or a conventional steel panel
supported on small stand-off insulators. For the latter it is important that suitable insulators
are specified, having a voltage withstand of 3kV for 3s and adequate mechanical durability. If
the EPR of the substation is likely to exceed 3kV, then more robust insulators will be
required.

2m

33kV Switch
House

2m

Auxiliary Plant
Building
11kV Switch 11kV Switch
Control Room
House House

Key
Buried Earth Building Insulated
Fence Bond
Electrode Wall Fence Panel

Figure 5-4 Use of Separately Earthed and Bonded Fencing Arrangements at the Same
Substation

5.29.1 Adjacent Metal Structures

Where there are earthed metal structures within 2m of the fence (such as a terminal tower),
then the preferred fence earthing arrangement may not be achievable. It may be necessary
to bond the fence run adjacent to the structure, install a perimeter grading electrode outside,
and fit insulated fence panels to separate this part of the fence from the rest. Whether this
option is followed or the whole fencing arrangement bonded depends upon the site layout
and dimensions, and a decision needs to be taken at the design stage.

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5.29.2 Palisade Gates and Removable Fence Panels

Gate openings in a fence-line shall be bonded across between posts, to prevent potential
differences arising, using 70mm2 stranded conductor (minimum). Posts supporting
removable metal fence panels shall also be bonded across. Gate hinges should also be
bonded across, using 35mm2 flexible braided conductor.

Where gates associated with a separately earthed fence open inwards, it is important that
they cannot inadvertently bond this to the grid, or allow personnel to touch the gate and
bonded metalwork at the same time. For example, the gate retaining fittings shall not be
bonded to the grid, and shall be at least 2m away from other earthed metalwork.

In cases where the EPR is high (above 1kV) it may also be necessary to design the earth
mat such that the open gate does not pass over or close to it. A small inset may be formed in
the nearby electrode, such that the 2m separation is maintained whilst the gate is open, or
else the infringing part of the electrode may be installed in PVC ducts. At existing sites
where the earth mat has not been modified, it may be necessary to show by calculation that
touch voltages are within the safe limit.

5.29.3 Metal Anti-climbing Guards

Where anti-climbing razor wire or similar is fitted to the top of palisade fencing, it shall be
earthed by connection to the metallic fence upon which it is situated. Where there is a
change in the fence earthing method, there shall be electrical breaks in the anti-climbing wire
(e.g. 100mm gaps at either side) co-incident with those of the fencing, or, the anti-climbing
wire shall be in a situation where it is not realistically possible for someone to touch it and
the panel below (the wire shall be supported on insulated mountings as it passes over this
section.

Where wire or guard is fitted along a short insulating section of brick wall, this may be left
isolated (as for a steel panel on insulators) provided that a 100mm gap is maintained at both
ends of the wall. In other situations, wire or guard fitted on a brick type wall shall be earthed
either to the adjacent fence or to the earth grid - whichever is the most appropriate, and does
not introduce a touch voltage risk.

5.29.4 Temporary, Site-Perimeter and Adjacent Landowners' Fencing

Temporary fences inside the substation installed for construction and other purposes are to
be earthed in the same manner as permanent fences, i.e. bonded to the main grid within the
site, with insulated panels used if necessary to abut them to the external fence when this is
separately earthed.

Where galvanised or plastic coated mesh fencing is used, a separate 70mm2 earth
conductor shall be installed along the fence (or buried). This should be connected to the
fence at 10m intervals, and to independent earth rods or the earth grid (as appropriate) at a
minimum of 50m intervals.

Site outer perimeter fencing, and any other metal fencing belonging to adjacent landowners,
presents a transferred potential hazard if connected to the substation fence. Such fences
shall be kept electrically isolated from the substation palisade fencing by means of 2m gaps,
insulating 'spur' panels, or brick wall sections as appropriate.

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5.29.5 Safety Advantages of a Separately Earthed Fence

Figure 5-5 to Figure 5-9 below illustrate why a separately earthed fence is the safer option to
use. They show the difference that connecting the fence to the electrode system and then
adding a potential grading conductor, makes to the touch potential on the fence.

Figure 5-5 shows that placing the separately earthed fence 2m from the main electrode
produces a fence touch voltage of only 3.4% of the EPR. If the fence separation from the
grid is reduced to 500mm, the touch voltage only increases to 7.6% (Figure 5-6).

Bonding the fence to the grid increases the touch voltages to 44.6% and 37.3% of the EPR,
respectively (see Figure 5-7 and Figure 5-8), which would normally be too high. Adding an
external potential grading electrode reduces this back to a maximum of 15.4% of the EPR
when the fence is bonded (Figure 5-9).

A detailed calculation to ensure touch voltages are safe is necessary if it is not possible to
install either a potential grading electrode or the perimeter electrode outside a bonded fence.

Earth grid dimension 50m x 40m, with 10m


mesh spacing, 600mm deep

M ETRES Uniform soil resistivity 100m

EPR = 1000V

Maximum touch voltage on fence = 34V

M ETRES

Figure 5-5 Separately Earthed Fence 2m away from Earth Grid

Earth grid dimension 50m x 40m, with 10m


mesh spacing, 600mm deep

M ETRES
Uniform soil resistivity 100m

EPR = 1000V

Maximum touch voltage on fence = 76V

M ETRES

Figure 5-6 Separately Earthed Fence 500mm away from Earth Grid

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Earth grid dimension 50m x 40m, with 10m


mesh spacing, 600mm deep

M ETRES
Uniform soil resistivity 100m

EPR = 1000V

Maximum touch voltage on fence = 446V

M ETRES

Figure 5-7 Earth Grid Bonded incorrectly to Fence, which is 2m away from Earth Grid

Earth grid dimension 50m x 40m, with 10m


mesh spacing, 600mm deep

M ETRES
Uniform soil resistivity 100m

EPR = 1000V

Maximum touch voltage on fence = 373V

M ETRES

Figure 5-8 Earth Grid Bonded incorrectly to Fence, which is 500mm away from Earth Grid

Earth grid dimension 50m x 40m, with 10m


mesh spacing, 600mm deep

Uniform soil resistivity 100m


M ETRES

EPR = 1000V

Maximum touch voltage on fence = 154V

M ETRES

Figure 5-9 Fence 2m away from Earth Grid, Fence and Earth Grid Bonded with Potential Grading
1m away

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5.30 Metalwork Bonding Requirements

5.30.1 Ancillary Metalwork

All exposed and normally un-energised metalwork inside the substation perimeter, including
doors, staircases, ventilation ducts, cable supports etc., shall be bonded to the main earth
grid to avoid any potential differences between different items of metalwork.

The appropriate bonding conductor shall be selected from Table 5-2.

5.30.2 Metal Trench Covers

Metal trench covers within substation buildings which are not sitting on an earthed metal
frame shall be indirectly earthed as follows:

Install a copper tape strip (25mm x 3mm) along one edge of the trench top edge so that
trench covers are in contact with it when in position.
Connect the copper tape to the switchgear earth bar or internal building earthing system.

5.30.3 Cable Tunnel Metalwork

Metal trays are used within cable tunnels to support power, pilot and communication cables.
Where the power cables are of the single core type, the risk is that during normal or fault
conditions voltages or currents may be induced into the tray metalwork causing damage,
cable de-rating or a risk of shock.

To prevent excessive induced or transfer voltages on the tunnel metalwork:

Cable supports and cable trays in tunnels shall not be connected to the substation
earthing system.
Cable trays in tunnels shall be broken into sections with a 50mm gap approximately
every 50 metres.
Cable trays in tunnels shall be separated by 2 metres from any metalwork connected to
the substation earthing system.

5.30.4 Basement Cable Support Systems

Cable support structures and cable trays in basements shall normally be bonded to the
substation earthing system using a suitable bonding conductor from Table 5-2.

Individual dispersed cable supports do not need to be bonded to the substation earthing
system provided they are separated from other earthed metalwork by a minimum of 2
metres.

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6 References
6.1 UK Power Networks Standards

EDS 06-0001 Earthing Standard


EDS 06-0002 HOT Site Requirements (internal document only)
EDS 06-0012 Design Criteria
EDS 06-0014 Secondary Substation Earthing Design
EDS 06-0015 Pole-mounted Equipment Earthing Design
EDS 06-0016 LV Network Earthing Design
EDS 06-0017 Customer LV Installation Earthing Design
EDS 06-0018 NetMap Earthing Information System (internal document only)
EDS 06-0019 Customer EHV and HV Connections (including Generation)
Earthing Design and Construction
ECS 06-0022 Grid and Primary Substation Earthing Construction
ECS 06-0024 Earthing Testing and Measurements
EDS 07-0105 Grid and Primary Civil Design Standards
EDS 08-0030 LV supplies to Mobile Phone Base Stations Mounted on 132,
275 and 400kV Towers (internal document only)

6.2 National and International Standards

ENA TS 41-24 Guidelines for the Design, Installation, Testing and


Maintenance of Main Earthing Systems in Substations
ENA ER S34 A Guide for Assessing the Rise of Earth Potential at Substation
Sites
ENA ER S36 Procedure to Identify and Record HOT Substations
BS EN 62305 Protection Against Lightning
BS 7430:2012 Code of Practice for Protective Earthing of Electrical
Installations
IEEE Standard 80 (2000) Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding
IEEE Standard 655 (1987) Guide for Generating Station Grounding

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Grid and Primary Substation Earthing Design Document Number: EDS 06-0013
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Appendix A Standard Substation Earthing Arrangements

The following substation earthing drawings are available:

EDS 07-0105-1001 132/33kV Substation General Earthing Arrangement Option 1


EDS 07-0105-1002 132/33kV Substation General Earthing Arrangement Option 2
EDS 07-0105-2001 33/11kV Substation General Earthing Arrangement Option 1
EDS 07-0105-2002 33/11kV Substation General Earthing Arrangement Option 2
EDS 07-0105-2003 33/11kV Substation General Earthing Arrangement Option 3

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Appendix B Calculation of Fault Current returning via the Ground

B.1 Calculation of Fault Current Returning via the Ground

Total Fault Current

Current returning to
Current returned to site transformer neutral(s)
the source via earth
wires and cable sheaths
by induction

Ground Current

Grid Current
Parallel Paths
Current
Sum of parallel paths
Tower footings, Cables
Earth
Grid

Transformer
Neutral
At source

Figure 6-1 Calculation of Fault Current Returning via the Ground in a 132kV Network

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Current returned to
the source via earth Total Fault Current
wires and cable sheaths
by induction

Ground Current

Grid Current
Parallel Paths
Current
Sum of parallel paths
Tower footings, Cables
Earth
Grid

Neutral
Transformer

At source

Figure 6-2 Calculation of Fault Current Returning via the Ground in a 66kV or 33kV Network

B.2 Example of Cable Information Necessary where Network Reduction is


Required to Estimate Earth Contribution from Cable Network

Local
Substation
Local 300mm2 PICAS
185MM2PICAS 0.15//2PILCSWA
0.15//2PILCSWA Substation
185MM2PICAS

300 mm2 PICAS


2
300 mm PICAS
300 mm2 PICAS

Local
Substation

95mm2XLPE
Figure 6-3 Example
//2
0.2//2PILCSWA 0.2//2PILCSWA of Cable Network
0.2 PILCSWA
0.2 PILCSWA //2 Information Required
95mm XLPE 2

0.15//2PILCSWA 0.2//2PILCSWA 0.15//2PILCSWA

185mm2PICAS

Primary Local
185mm2PICAS Substation
185mm2PICAS Substation
Local
Substation

95mm2 XLPE
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2
95mm XLPE
Grid and Primary Substation Earthing Design Document Number: EDS 06-0013
Version: 3.0
Date: 05/05/2015

B.3 Examples of Fault Current Information Required for Fault Current Reduction

a
R

an T 0 OHM
bn 1
cn
b Y B
c Faulted
0 substation
O R

an T 0 OHM
bn 2
cn
b Y B
c

Figure 6-4 Example showing 132kV Phase Currents for Transformer-feeder Arrangement

Individual transformer and line phase currents are required in phasor format, indicating
convention of current direction and the fault current at the point of fault. Calculations are to
be in accordance with IEC 909 and Engineering Recommendation G74.

132kV Transformer and Line Currents Transformer Neutral Currents

a 4964 -111.61 an 832.3 -133.47


b 394.2 61.26 bn 394.3 -118.74
c 542.3 51.13 cn 542.3 -128.87
a 246.4 -125.17 an 246.4 54.83
b 120.3 83.59 bn 120.3 -96.41
c 255.7 50.08 cn 255.7 -129.92
Vector sum 3940.8 -108.7 Vector sum 1871.9 -127.4
If = Ir + In
If = 5744.9 -114.7

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Other information required includes the tower type (e.g. L4), tower footing resistance or
foundation dimensions (average depth and separation). If underground cable, the cable size,
type, length and sheath earthing arrangement are necessary. In some cases, the earth
impedance of the source(s) and intermediate substations are also required.

A B C
a
b
c an

F
au
a cn
b
c an

If = 5326.3
-100.9
bn

cn

Ir = 3360 -94.6 In = 2020.3 -114.4

Figure 6-5 Example showing 132kV Phase Currents for a Parallel-feeder Arrangement

Line Currents Transformer Neutral Currents

a 2060.1 -99.73 an 315.9 -113.91


b 202.9 37.66 bn 308.2 -103.2
c 52.0 86.2 cn 390.6 -115.76
a 2653.1 -98.7 an 315.8 -113.94
b 476.4 92.44 bn 308.0 -103.13
c 733.7 62.71 cn 391.0 -115.79
Vector sum 3360 -94.6 Vector sum 2020.3 -114.4
If = Ir + In
If = 5326.3 -100.9

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Appendix C Special Conditions Applicable to Generating Stations within or


Adjacent to a Substation

Refer to EDS 06-0019 for additional guidance on all aspects of 132kV and 33kV customer
earthing.

Appendix D Maximum Resistance Values for Electrodes at Pole-mounted


Plant

Refer to EDS 06-0015.

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Appendix E Standard Substation Earthing Arrangements Resistance


Values, Surface, Touch and Step Potential Contours

E.1 132/33kV Substation Arrangements (EDS 07-0105-1001/EDS 07-0105-1002)

Soil Type Typical Soil Resistivity (m) Resistance of Substation Earthing ()

Loam 25 or less 0.27


Chalk 50 or less 0.55
Clay 100 or less 1.10
Sand/Gravel/Clay Mix 150 or less 1.65
200 or less 2.20
300 or less 3.29
Slate/Shale/Rock 500 or less 5.49

SINGLE-ELECTRODE/SCALAR POTENTIALS [ID:EDF_132_100ohm_soil]


LEGEND

MAXIMUM VALUE : 95.40723


MINIMUM VALUE : 6.497124

1 Level 8 ( 80.0000 )
150
Level 7 ( 70.0000 )

2
Level 6 ( 60.0000 )
3
50 56
4
Y AXIS (METERS)

87 8 Level 5 ( 50.0000 )
8

Level 4 ( 40.0000 )

-50 Level 3 ( 30.0000 )

Level 2 ( 20.0000 )

Level 1 ( 10.0000 )
-150
-150 -50 50 150
X AXIS (METERS)

Potential Profile (% reference GPR)


Figure 6-6 132/33kV Substation Electrode System Surface Potential Contours Expressed as a %
of the EPR

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SINGLE-ELECTRODE/TOUCH VOLTAGES/WORST SPHERICAL [ID:EDF_132_100ohm_soil]


LEGEND
Maximum User Limit: 40.000
Minimum Value : 3.399
60
40.00

35.00

40 30.00
Y AXIS (METERS)

25.00

20.00
20
15.00

10.00

0 40.00

-20
-20 0 20 40 60
X AXIS (METERS)
Touch Voltage (% Ref. GPR) [Wors]
Figure 6-7 132/33kV Substation Electrode System Touch Potential Contours Expressed as a % of
the EPR

SINGLE-ELECTRODE/STEP VOLTAGES (SPHERICAL)/WORST SPHERICAL [ID:EDF_132_100ohm_soil]


LEGEND

Maximum Value : 23.569


Minimum Value : 0.172
60
25.00

20.00
40 15.00
Y AXIS (METERS)

10.00

5.00
20

-20
-20 0 20 40 60
X AXIS (METERS)
Step Voltage-Worst (% Ref. GPR)
Figure 6-8 132/33kV Substation Electrode System Step Potential Contours Expressed as a % of
the EPR

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E.2 33/11kV Substation Arrangement Option 1 (EDS 07-0105-2001)

Standard Design Rural/Overhead


Line Fed Design

Soil Type Typical Soil Resistivity (m) Resistance of Resistance of


Substation Substation
Earthing () Earthing ()

Loam 25 or less 0.44 0.43


Chalk 50 or less 0.88 0.86
Clay 100 or less 1.77 1.71
Sand/Gravel/Clay Mix 150 or less 2.65 2.57
200 or less 3.54 3.42
300 or less 5.31 5.13
Slate/Shale/Rock 500 or less 8.84 8.55

LEGEND
SINGLE-ELECTRODE/SCALAR POTENTIALS [ID:EDF_33_Option_1]
MAXIMUM VALUE : 90.82988
150 MINIMUM VALUE : 5.527915

Level 8 ( 80.0000 )

1
100
Level 7 ( 70.0000 )

2 Level 6 ( 60.0000 )
50 3
4
Y AXIS (METERS)

65
878 Level 5 ( 50.0000 )
8
8

0 Level 4 ( 40.0000 )

Level 3 ( 30.0000 )

-50
Level 2 ( 20.0000 )

Level 1 ( 10.0000 )
-100
-100 -50 0 50 100 150

X AXIS (METERS)

Potential Profile (% reference GPR)


Figure 6-9 33/11kV (Option 1) Substation Electrode System Surface Potential Contours
Expressed as a % of the EPR

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SINGLE-ELECTRODE/TOUCH VOLTAGES/WORST SPHERICAL [ID:EDF_33_Option_1]


LEGEND
Maximum User Limit: 40.000
Minimum Value : 5.939

40 40.00

35.00

30.00
25
25.00
Y AXIS (METERS)

20.00

10 15.00

10.00

40.00
-5

-20
-20 -5 10 25 40
X AXIS (METERS)
Touch Voltage (% Ref. GPR) [Wors]
Figure 6-10 33/11kV (Option 1) Substation Electrode System Touch Potential Contours
Expressed as a % of the EPR

SINGLE-ELECTRODE/STEP VOLTAGES (SPHERICAL)/WORST SPHERICAL [ID:EDF_33_Option_1]


LEGEND

Maximum Value : 20.990


Minimum Value : 0.365

40 25.00

20.00

15.00
25
10.00
Y AXIS (METERS)

5.00
10

-5

-20
-20 -5 10 25 40
X AXIS (METERS)
Step Voltage-Worst (% Ref. GPR)
Figure 6-11 33/11kV (Option 1) Substation Electrode System Step Potential Contours Expressed
as a % of the EPR

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E.3 33/11kV Substation Arrangement Option 2 (EDS 07-0105-2002)

Standard Design Rural/Overhead


Line Fed Design

Soil Type Typical Soil Resistivity (m) Resistance of Resistance of


Substation Substation
Earthing () Earthing ()

Loam 25 or less 0.42 0.41


Chalk 50 or less 0.85 0.82
Clay 100 or less 1.69 1.65
Sand/Gravel/Clay Mix 150 or less 2.54 2.47
200 or less 3.38 3.29
300 or less 5.08 4.94
Slate/Shale/Rock 500 or less 8.46 8.24

LEGEND
SINGLE-ELECTRODE/SCALAR POTENTIALS [ID:EDF_33_Option_2]
MAXIMUM VALUE : 90.10321
150 MINIMUM VALUE : 5.740559

Level 8 ( 80.0000 )
1
100
Level 7 ( 70.0000 )

2
Level 6 ( 60.0000 )
50 3
4
57
6
Y AXIS (METERS)

8 8
8 Level 5 ( 50.0000 )
8

0 Level 4 ( 40.0000 )

Level 3 ( 30.0000 )

-50
Level 2 ( 20.0000 )

Level 1 ( 10.0000 )
-100
-100 -50 0 50 100 150

X AXIS (METERS)

Potential Profile (% reference GPR)


Figure 6-12 33/11kV (Option 2) Substation Electrode System Surface Potential Contours
Expressed as a % of the EPR

UK Power Networks 2015 All rights reserved 56 of 59


Grid and Primary Substation Earthing Design Document Number: EDS 06-0013
Version: 3.0
Date: 05/05/2015

SINGLE-ELECTRODE/TOUCH VOLTAGES/WORST SPHERICAL [ID:EDF_33_Option_2]


LEGEND
Maximum User Limit: 45.000
Minimum Value : 7.989

40 45.00

40.00

35.00
25
30.00
Y AXIS (METERS)

25.00

10 20.00

15.00

10.00
-5
45.00

-20
-20 -5 10 25 40
X AXIS (METERS)
Touch Voltage (% Ref. GPR) [Wors]
Figure 6-13 33/11kV (Option 2) Substation Electrode System Touch Potential Contours
Expressed as a % of the EPR

SINGLE-ELECTRODE/STEP VOLTAGES (SPHERICAL)/WORST SPHERICAL [ID:EDF_33_Option_2]


LEGEND

Maximum Value : 19.579


Minimum Value : 0.359

40 25.00

20.00

15.00
25
10.00
Y AXIS (METERS)

5.00
10

-5

-20
-20 -5 10 25 40
X AXIS (METERS)
Step Voltage-Worst (% Ref. GPR)
Figure 6-14 33/11kV (Option 2) Substation Electrode System Step Potential Contours Expressed
as a % of the EPR

UK Power Networks 2015 All rights reserved 57 of 59


Grid and Primary Substation Earthing Design Document Number: EDS 06-0013
Version: 3.0
Date: 05/05/2015

Appendix F Minimum Conductor Sizes

Fault Material Connection Temperature Calculated Minimum Minimum


o
Level Type ( C) Conductor Tape Size Stranded
2
Size (mm ) (mm) Conductor
2
Size (mm )

12kA/3s Copper Single (spur) 250 119 40 x 3 120


bolted
Single (spur) 405 98 25 x 4 120
brazed or
welded
Duplicate or 250 71 25 x 3 70
loop bolted
Duplicate or 405 59 25 x 3 70
loop brazed or
welded
Aluminium Single (spur) 250 179 40 x 6 213
bolted
Single (spur) 325 161 40 x 6 213
brazed or
welded
Duplicate or 250 108 25 x 6 158
loop bolted
Duplicate or 325 97 25 x 6 158
loop brazed or
welded
26kA/3s Copper Single (spur) 250 257 50 x 6 300
bolted
Single (spur) 405 213 38 x 6 300
brazed or
welded
Duplicate or 250 154 40 x 4 185
loop bolted
Duplicate or 405 128 50 x 3 185
loop brazed or
welded
Aluminium Single (spur) 250 388 n/a 415
bolted
Single (spur) 325 349 n/a 415
brazed or
welded
Duplicate or 250 233 40 x 6 266
loop bolted
Duplicate or 325 210 40 x 6 266
loop brazed or
welded

UK Power Networks 2015 All rights reserved 58 of 59


Grid and Primary Substation Earthing Design Document Number: EDS 06-0013
Version: 3.0
Date: 05/05/2015

Fault Material Connection Temperature Calculated Minimum Minimum


o
Level Type ( C) Conductor Tape Size Stranded
2
Size (mm ) (mm) Conductor
2
Size (mm )

31.5kA/3s Copper Single (spur) 250 311 50 x 6 400


bolted
Single (spur) 405 257 50 x 6 300
brazed or
welded
Duplicate or 250 187 38 x 5 240
loop bolted
Duplicate or 405 155 40 x 4 185
loop brazed or
welded
Aluminium Single (spur) 250 470 n/a n/a
bolted
Single (spur) 325 423 n/a n/a
brazed or
welded
Duplicate or 250 282 50 x 6 323
loop bolted
Duplicate or 325 259 50 x 6 323
loop brazed or
welded
40kA/3s Copper Single (spur) 250 395 50 x 8 400
bolted
Single (spur) 405 327 50 x 8 400
brazed or
welded
Duplicate or 250 237 40 x 6 240
loop bolted
Duplicate or 405 196 40 x 5 or 240
loop brazed or 50 x 4
welded
Aluminium Single (spur) 250 597 n/a n/a
bolted
Single (spur) 325 537 n/a n/a
brazed or
welded
Duplicate or 250 378 n/a 415
loop bolted
Duplicate or 325 322 n/a 323
loop brazed or
welded

UK Power Networks 2015 All rights reserved 59 of 59